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Words, just like traffic lights, are nothing but symbols that need to be understood if the people want to use them effectively. Our culture tells us that red means ‘stop’ and green means ‘go.’ However, without universal understanding of the meaning of red and green, there will be traffic jams. The same thing is true with language. A standard language is necessary to make communication more effective and the people more productive. Thus, there is a need for you to learn grammar. Grammar is the study of the relationship of words in a sentence. Studying grammar allows you to decode a language that is globally accepted. This book gives you basic knowledge on which sentence is acceptable and which is not, so you could avoid the latter. It also guides you on what appropriate part of speech you should use in order to express your thoughts effectively as you make the subject and the action word agree with each other. Realizing that the choice of words is important, this book also includes some commonly used idioms and a list of some frequently misused words. You ought to use and understand idioms if you want to communicate with native English speakers. Aside from correct word choices, this book also makes you conscious of the punctuation marks that make writing more dynamic. This book hopes to give you a strong foundation on basic grammar so you could confidently conquer the world by using ENGLISH to your advantage. Remember that a good command of English language can get you a job, and make you more credible. IT’S ABOUT TIME FOR YOU TO REVIVE THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LITERACY THAT FILIPINOS WERE ONCE WELL-KNOWN FOR. -- Virginia B. Bautista 13 PART 2: PARTS OF SPEECH ------------------------19 Nouns ------------------------19 Pronouns ------------------------30 Verbs ------------------------36 Simple Tenses ------------------------44 Perfect Tenses ------------------------49 Progressive Tenses ------------------------52 Adjectives ------------------------59 Adverb ------------------------65 Preposition ------------------------68 Conjunction ------------------------71
PART 1: 1
Subject and Predicate Simple and Complete
2 Clauses 4 Sentence Fragment 11 Run-on Sentence
------------------------77 87 97 105
PART 3: SUBJECT & VERB AGREEMENT---------PART 4: IDIOMS -------------------------
PART 5: A GUIDE TO PUNCTUATION---------------PART 6: FREQUENTLY MISUSED WORDS----------
1. The woman wearing pink 1. The woman wearing dress pink dress is reading a newspaper. 2. The man who won 2. He won. the lottery 3. watching TV 3. The children are watching Dora the Explorer. The entries in column A are NOT sentences because they don’t convey complete thoughts. On the other hand, all entries in column B are examples of a sentence. Each of them has a subject and a predicate which make them have a complete thought.
What is a subject? o Word or words about which something is said. o It is either a noun or pronoun. What is a predicate? It tells something about the subject IMPORTANT!
A SENTENCE is a word or a group of words that has a complete thought. Compare the two sets of examples below: A B
A subject and a predicate are called SIMPLE if they have only one word. The predicate is usually a verb. If they contain modifiers, then they are called COMPLETE. Example: 1. The man standing near the cafeteria is a Korean
simple subject simple predicate
national studying in this pretigious university. The man standing near the cafeteria is a Korean
Pancake House every Saturday. 4. New York is also called “The Big Apple.”
complete subject complete predicate
national studying in this pretigious university.
Gina’s aunt works in Canada as a nanny.
complete subject complete predicate
Examples showing simple subjects and simple predicates: 1. 2. 3. 4. I frequently work read at home. books every day.
simple subject simple predicate
The children She
simple subject simple predicate
likes him very much.
All the citizens
go out to vote.
5. The senior class studies Physics.
simple subject simple predicate
Directions: I. Underline the SIMPLE SUBJECT once and the SIMPLE PREDICATE twice. 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. II. Growing children need to drink milk. Your fee includes laboratory expenses. Burnham Park looks stunning even at night. Vivien loves to bake chocolate chip cookies. The principal says that closed books never open one’s mind. Underline COMPLETE SUBJECT once and the COMPLETE PREDICATE twice. Riza tells her son not to text while he is driving. I don’t like the hip-hop music that you always play. Her term paper was rejected by the professor. Dani always watches The Tyra Banks show.
Examples showing complete subjects and complete predicates: 1. The director of the school gives lectures on how to
complete subject complete predicate
survive in college. 2. Listening to music is one of Vanessa’s hobbies.
complete subject complete predicate
3. breakfast at
Josie and Ana eat their favorite
6. 7. 8. 9.
Oprah Winfrey is the highest-paid talk show host in the US.
What is a
A CLAUSE is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb.
Clauses are the building blocks of sentences. This means that a single sentence can be made up of a single clause or of several clauses.
Compare the two versions of the essay titled CELL PHONES ON THE ROAD:
Which of the two versions of CELL PHONES ON THE ROAD is clearer?
Any task a driver performs. While driving is a potential distraction. It is best to use your cellular phone. When you are stopped. But if you must use your phone. While driving it is important to check traffic conditions. Before placing a phone call. Or performing any task. And if necessary. Wait until conditions improve to make your call. Learn how your cellular phone operates. While parked. If possible, dial while the car is not in motion. Program frequently used numbers into your phone. If a number is not programmed into memory. Dial in short segments. Check the traffic. And dial another segment. Never allow your conversation to distract you from driving. Keep calls brief. Keep your eyes on the road. And
Any task a driver performs while driving is a potential distraction. It is best to use your cellular phone when you are stopped, but if you must use your phone while driving it is important to check traffic conditions before placing a phone call or performing any task, and if necessary, wait until conditions improve to make your call. Learn how your cellular phone operates while parked. If possible, dial while the car is not in motion. Program frequently used numbers into your phone. If a number is not programmed into memory, dial in short segments, check the traffic, and dial another segment. Never allow your conversation to distract you from driving. Keep calls brief. Keep your eyes on the road, and frequently check the side and rear view mirrors (http://www.safeny.com/phonndx.htm).
Version 2 is much clearer because it uses independent and dependent clauses to show the relationship among the clauses. An INDEPENDENT CLAUSE is a clause that can stand alone as a sentence. A DEPENDENT CLAUSE is a clause that cannot stand alone because it lacks complete thought. Dependent clauses don’t make any sense. They should be combined with independent clauses in order to form complete thought. Here’s VERSION 2 again with all the dependent clauses highlighted. Any task a driver performs while driving is a potential distraction. It is best to use your cellular phone when you are stopped, but if you must use your phone while driving it is important to check traffic conditions before placing a phone call or performing any task, and if necessary, wait until conditions improve to make your call. Learn how your cellular phone operates while parked. If possible, dial while the car is not in motion. Program frequently used numbers into
frequently check the side and rear view mirrors.
your phone. If a number is not programmed into memory, dial in short segments, check the traffic, and dial another segment. Never allow your conversation to distract you from driving. Keep calls brief. Keep your eyes on the road, and frequently check the side and rear view mirrors.
Noun clause as object of preposition:
• • • B.
THREE BASIC KINDS OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES:
A. A NOUN CLAUSE can be any of the following: 1. 2. 3. Examples: Noun clause as subject: • • • What you don’t know won’t hurt you. Thinking about bad memories makes her feel frustrated. Knowing what is right is everybody’s responsibility. Noun clause as subject Noun clause as object Noun clause as object of preposition
I’m writing a book about how to teach English through newspapers. The president’s speech focused on what he accomplished in his first 100 days in office. I am interested in learning how to bake his favorite cake.
An ADJECTIVE CLAUSE describes the subject in the sentence. Examples: • • The girl, who was accidentally killed by her father through gun fire, was Matilda Crabtree. The Internet, which allows people to connect to every person around the globe, is considered the most important innovation in information technology. The song, which was popularized by Black Eyed Peas, was very popular both in the US and in the Philippines.
Noun clause as object: • • • I didn’t tell him how he should react to the incident. The mayor finally admitted what he did with the money The customer returned what he purchased yesterday.
An ADVERB CLAUSE answers the following questions: a) When?; b) Where?; c) Why?; d) Under what conditions?
Examples: • I never saw him again after he won millions in the lottery. (TIME) • He cried because his best friend betrayed him.(CAUSE) • Melford didn’t review for his exam so he failed. (EFFECT) • I want to hang out in a place where nobody stays.(PLACE) • If the President Gloria Arroyo would give absolute pardon to the former president, he would probably accept it because of his desire to be with her 102year-old mother. (CONDITION).
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
They are searching for the young man who stole the money. I will answer the question if you promise to keep it confidential. Working abroad has many consequences. The lovely princess, who was sincerely loved by the beast, is Beauty. What I’m thinking right now has nothing to do with your projects. The fact that he left you doesn’t mean it’s the end of the world. He decided to tell the truth when he knew he would lose the case. I am not sure of my answer so I remained silent. I talked to the manager about how he should train his employees. The victim couldn’t imagine how the thief got her necklace.
Directions: Read the following sentences containing dependent clauses which are highlighted. Classify them according to the following: 1 2 3 4 5 Noun clause as subject Noun clause as object Noun clause as object of preposition Adjective clause Adverb clause
IMPORTANT! Your knowledge on clauses is important in order for you to avoid sentence fragments which are common errors in writing What is a SENTENCE FRAGMENT?
difficult to pass 3. The game that he loves he
is the subject that is difficult to pass.
11 3. Virgilio has original CDs of the game that loves.
A sentence fragment is a group of words which does not convey complete thought. It is not a sentence, but just a piece of the sentence. A sentence fragment lacks some details that will make the message complete. Here are some examples of sentence fragments and how they may be improved to become complete sentences: FRAGMENTS 1. The professors who organized a committee committee to review the academic academic policies honorarium. 2. The subject that is SENTENCES 1. The professors who organized to review a the
How do you think can the following fragments taken from famous songs be made into complete sentences? 1. If I saw you in heaven ________________________________________ 2. Doing that thing you do ________________________________________ 3. If I didn’t love you ________________________________________ 4. Like a candle in my life ________________________________________ 5. Here in my heart ________________________________________ 6. Before I fall in love ________________________________________ 7. When she cries ________________________________________ 8. What a girl wants ________________________________________ 9. Last thing on my mind ________________________________________ 10. Against all odds
policies were given significant 2. Calculus, for me,
________________________________________ IMPORTANT! These run-on sentences don’t communicate clear thoughts. Effective writing requires clear flow of thoughts. This is why 13 run-on sentences are not acceptable in Standard English writing. Fortunately, correcting run-on sentences is NOT HARD. Here are some ways to correct run-on sentences: Aside from sentence fragments, you also have to avoid RUN-ON SENTENCES. A RUN-ON sentence contains two or more independent clauses which are incorrectly joined. What’s wrong with run-on sentences? Having two or more independent clauses can confuse the readers. Take a look at the following run-on sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Singing is my favorite hobby dancing is his interest. Watching TV makes me forget about doing my assignments I avoid watching when I have class the following day. His cell phone was ringing he didn’t mind a bit. It’s been raining hard last night classes were suspended this morning. I was taking a shower she arrived. 1. Separate the two independent clauses. Use a period. Example: Singing is my favorite hobby. Dancing is his interest. 2. Use a comma, followed by a coordinating conjunction (AND, BUT, FOR, NOT, YET or SO). Example: Watching TV makes me forget about doing my assignments, so I avoid watching when I have class the following day. 3. Use a semi-colon. Don’t capitalize the first letter of the succeeding word. Example:
You have to avoid sentence fragments if you are to follow standard English writing.
His cell phone was ringing; he didn’t mind a bit.
4. Use a semi-colon followed by an appropriate transitional device like HOWEVER, MOREOVER, THEREFORE, AS A RESULT, CONSEQUENTLY. Example: It’s been raining hard last night; as a result, classes were suspended.
Directions: Select the best way to correct the following run-on sentences. 1. The play begins at 6:30 in the evening please come at least thirty minutes before it starts.
5. Use appropriate subordinating conjunction e.g. ALTHOUGH, UNTIL, IF, WHILE, AS, AFTER, UNLESS. Example: I was taking a shower when she arrived.
____ a. evening; please ____ b. evening. Please ____ c. evening, please 2. The three-year-old girl has been missing for three days the parents were not alarmed. ____ a. days; the ____ b. days, but ____ c. days. The
IMPORTANT! Sometimes, correcting run-on sentences means rearranging the words in the sentence.
3. Janice tried her best to solve the problem she still failed. ____ a. problem, she
____ b. problem; however ____ c. problem; but 4. The leader of the band promised not to sign the contract he didn’t keep his promise. ____ a. contract, he ____ b. contract; although ____ c. contract, but 5. Today’s his birthday I will bake his favorite chocolate brownies. ____ a. birthday. I ____ b. birthday, I ____ c. birthday; so 6. are I don’t want to go shopping on Sundays the malls crowded. ____ a. Sundays, for ____ b. Sundays; for ____ c. Sundays. The 7. The road is slippery Daniel drives carefully. ____ a. slippery, so ____ b. slippery; so ____ c. slippery. So
8. We watched the concert the tickets were very expensive. ____ a. concert but the ____ b. concert although the ____ c. concert; the 9. Diana returns the shirt to the store it doesn’t fit well. ____ a. store, for ____ b. store; for ____ c. store. For
10. I have to go my dad is calling me. ____ a. go, but ____ b. go. My ____ c. go until
ALL ABOUT NOUNS: COMMON versus PROPER
name persons, places, objects, feelings or events.
PERSONS PLACES OBJECTS
students Annie Vendors Mrs. Crabtree FEELINGS happiness anxiety sympathy excitement
Quezon City school auditorium SM Mall of Asia EVENTS birthday Family Day concert
computer cell phone balloon Mongol
Try looking at your living room. What do you see? TV set, flower vase, picture frames, sofa, cell phone, figurines -- all these are common nouns. Now, look closer at the items you see in your living room. What brands do you see? Perhaps you have Sony, C&L Craftworks, Nokia, or Samsung – these brand names are examples of
A COMMON noun names general items while a PROPER noun refers to specific names of persons, places, objects, or events.
Look at this table and notice the big difference between COMMON and PROPER: COMMON NOUNS restaurant university senator shoes watch movie mall country Multi-player online game B. PROPER NOUNS Max’s University of the Philippines Jamby Madrigal Nike Rolex Spider-man 3 Mall of Asia England World of Warcraft
Other examples of count nouns: • All the words that you can see, hear, bird two birds taste, touch or smell are called client thirty clients five • CONCRETE nouns:cookie taxi, cloud, cookies letter and three letters smoke, statue, parents, mouse school four schools brain • All the words that you can understand although you cannot perceive with any of your senses are called ABSTRACT nouns: help, education, promise, love, and beauty. Entities that you cannot count are called MASS nouns or nonC. COUNT, MASS and COLLECTIVE nouns nouns. Examples of countable MASS nouns are oxygen, gravel, money, sunshine, music and furniture.
Can you give me any item that you can
CONCRETE versus ABSTRACT
Which among the words listed below can you see, hear, taste, touch or smell? a. b. c. d. e. f. taxi help education promise cloud smoke g. love h. statue i. parents j. mouse k. beauty l. brain
cars, apples, COLLECTIVE nouns, on the other hand, are a dollars, tables, word used to name a group of objects. Examples of COLLECTIVE bananas,are the following: class, nouns chairs, pillows, bouquet, band, flock, bunch, empire, squadron books… and troop.
We call those words COUNT
5. 6. 7. Part I. Directions: 8. Write each noun from each of the given sentences and label it concrete or abstract and common or proper. While watching TV about the justice system in the Philippines, Harley usually eats Pringles and drinks Pepsi. 9. 10.
Juliet loves the ginseng coffee that her sister bought in Korea. The beggar who begs due to poverty smiles to every man that gives him coins. Joyce’s parents are hopeful that she will win in Pinoy Pop Superstar . Johnny Depp is among the most versatile actors in Hollywood who are admired by many teenagers. China’s One-child Policy is being blamed by critics as one factor that gives way to human rights abuse like forced abortion. The senatorial candidates promised to give free education to poor children.
ANSWERS: TV – concrete, common justice system – abstract, common Harley – concrete, proper Pringles – concrete, proper Pepsi – concrete, proper 1. 2. 3. 4. The president agrees to sign on Memorandum Order number 17 ordering all drivers of public utility vehicles to renew their registration forms every year. All applicants must have excellent communication skills, according to the director of the Human Resources Center. Only the popular celebrities get featured in People magazine. Everyone in the US knows the significance of the Statue of Liberty.
Part II. Directions: From the list given below, underline the count nouns, encircle the mass nouns and box the collective nouns. swarm light equipment sugar advice tribe ceiling notebook colony applause examination water corps weather herd computer milk parcel
Part III. Directions: Complete the following sentences by using appropriate count, mass or collective nouns found in the list from the previous activity. 1. 2. The ____________ of deer looks astonishing as they walk side by side. The _____________ today is unpredictable. I thought it was going to rain so I brought an umbrella on my way to the office. The manager orders Ben to put the pieces of _______________in place. I need three tablespoons of _____________ in baking her favorite delicacy. In the movie Beresford and the Baboons, Beresford was found by a _______________ of baboons and he was raised as one of them. An ________________ is a universal way of acknowledging an achievement. Jeremy asks for a _____________ of water from the waiter. You don’t have to take his pieces of _______________ if you think it won’t be good for you.
Seeing a parcel of ________________ capering on the ice is fun. A _______________ of bees often frightens people.
FORMING PLURAL NOUNS:
There are five (5) different ways of doing this: Add –s for most nouns. Example: bell bells ribbon
3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8.
ribbons Other examples: hat pig computer umbrella bee hats pigs computers umbrellas bees
crown horse bed 2.
crowns horses beds
Other examples: leaf knife life 4. leaves knives lives self wolf wife selves wolves wives
Add –es if a noun ends with s, ch, sh, x, or z. Examples: brush
Add -s if a noun ends with a vowel and a y. Examples: boy boys
brushes fox foxes Other examples: birch bench tax box 3. birches benches taxes boxes lash bus scratch church lashes buses scratches churches 5.
Other examples: toy bay key
toys bays keys
Add -ies if a noun ends with a consonant and a y, after dropping the y.
Examples: Add -es if a noun ends with f or fe after changing the f to a v. (Note that there are exceptions to this rule.) Example: penny Other examples: nanny lily butterfly cry nannies lilies butterflies cries pennies
Remember that some nouns are IRREGULAR. These nouns either change their spelling or don’t change at all in order to form plural. Examples: mouse mice
NOUNS from verbs: failure, refusal, coverage, preparation, invention, invitation, announcement, robbery, removal, disconnection. NOUNS from adjectives: generosity, warmth, honesty, violence, wisdom, happiness, practicality, uncertainty. NOUNS from other nouns: brotherhood, capitalism, stardom, kingdom, artist.
Other examples: crisis datum memorandum bacterium cactus alumna crises data memoranda bacteria cacti alumnae sheep moose alga datum cactis alumnus sheep moose algae data cacti alumni
PR ON OU NS
take the place of
nouns. Read what the boy is thinking about: My sentence doesn’t sound good: Charles watches TV to learn while Bea prefers reading books over watching TV. Both Charles and Bea are learning although Charles and Bea use different media.
Now, let’s see how nouns are formed… Nouns are formed from verbs, adjectives, or other nouns. They are formed by connecting either with prefixes Examples: or suffixes, or with both.
What do you think should be done to make the boy’s sentence sound good?
Examples: You’re right! The boy needs to use appropriate PRONOUNS to make his sentence sound better. Pronouns make our sentences less repetitive and less cumbersome. So how do we improve the boy’s sentence with pronouns? 2. Charles watches TV to learn while Bea prefers reading books over watching TV. Both of them are learning although they use different media. See? No need to say the same thing over and over. Thanks to pronouns! Learn more about pronouns in the next discussions. Demonstrative Pronouns point to and identify a noun or a pronoun. Subjective personal pronouns: "I," "you," "she," "he," "it," "we," "you," "they." Objective personal pronouns: "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us," "you," and "them." Possessive personal pronouns: "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs."
Example: "This" (singular) and "these" (plural) refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time; "That" (singular) and "those" (plural) refer to things that are farther away in space or time. Look at the sample sentences and observe how the demonstrative pronouns are used in context: THAT is an
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PRONOUNS:
1. Personal Pronouns refer to a specific person or thing. If the personal pronoun acts as a subject, it is called subjective personal pronoun. If it acts as an object, then it is called objective personal pronoun. Some personal pronouns act as a marker of possession and define who own a particular object or person. These pronouns are called possessive personal pronouns.
Relative pronouns link one phrase or clause to another phrase of clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." Sample sentences: o The candidate who spent the most amount during campaign period does not necessarily wins. o The place which makes Lea says she’ll never forget is Japan. o The person whom she trusted betrayed her.
THIS is the picture I saved on your computer.
Interrogative pronouns ask questions. The following are the interrogative pronouns: "who," "whom," "which," "what" refer to refers to persons persons and things refers to things and animals
Indefinite pronouns refer to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. Among the widely-used indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone."
Sample sentences: Everyone is invited in Carla and Carlo’s wedding. Carla thought some of the visitors will leave early. Someone unfamiliar to Carlo greeted him with delight. Many of the guests are excited to taste the expensive weddding cake. o Dane, one of the guests, said she loves everything about the wedding especially the wedding ring. o o o o
Sample questions: o o o o What can you say about my new haircut? To whom should we ask permission Who owns Mall of Asia? Which book would you read first?
9. “Don’t follow me,” he said to ____ dog. home.” 10.
The children think _____ are smart enough to know everything.
Directions: Write the appropriate pronouns in the following statements. 1. Alex wants to work abroad but _____ wife disagrees with _____. 2. ______ the student are required to pin _____ IDs while inside the university premises. 3. such 4. why 5. 6. This house is too expensive for ___ . We can't pay a high rent. An atheist once asked, “If God can heal the blind, can’t ____ heal blindness? You can’t change what ______ do not acknowledge. ______ usually believe in superstitions? 3. 7. I’m giving all ________ fruits on the table right there to my sick nephew. 8. Mr. Jardeleza is a director ______ never fails to remind ______ actors to maintain professionalism in the job.
are action words. They tell you what a noun or a pronoun does. This is perhaps the most important part of speech because it shows what the subject in a sentence does. Look at the pictures below. What actions are demonstrated on the pictures? 1. 2.
6. What should you remember about VERBS? 1.
Verbs have four (4) basic forms. These are shown on the table below. Base form I can give. I give. I can lift. I lift. I can train. I train. I can find out. I find out. Past form I gave. I lifted. I trained. I found out. Present Participle Past Participle
Name of verb to give 9. 10. to lift to train to find out
I am I have giving. given. I am lifting. I have lifted. I am I have training. trained. I am I have finding out. found out.
2. The most commonly used verb in the English language is the VERB TO BE. The verb TO BE is a linking verb which connects the subject to another word in the sentence.
Here are some examples of action words: eat, jump, play, think, analyze, chew, examine, mimic, twist, scan, print, stand, believe, etc. Can you give your own examples of verbs?
A REGULAR verb forms its past and past participle form by simply adding –d or –ed on the base form. The eight words for the verb to be are the following: am be are is being was were been An IRREGULAR verb changes its spelling to make it in the past and past participle form. Some IRREGULAR verbs don’t change its forms to form the past and past participle. Sample REGULAR VERBS from A to Z Examples: a. The burglar was caught by the police. b. I am coming at 9 a. m. tomorrow. c. She has been driving around town the whole day. Remember that the main verb is usually preceded by a HELPING VERB. Present admire bounce calculate destroy earn fasten greet hurry interrupt jump kick launch marry nod open polish question rescue Past admired bounced calculated destroyed earned fastened greeted hurried interrupted jumped kicked launched married nodded opened polished questioned rescued Past Participle admired bounced calculated destroyed earned fastened greeted hurried interrupted jumped kicked launched married nodded opened polished questioned rescued
is was were be being been do does did have has had may must might can could will would shall should
Some verbs are IRREGULAR.
Present stamp transport unite vanish wander x-ray yawn zip
Past stamped transported united vanished wandered x-rayed yawned zipped
Past Participle stamped transported united vanished wandered x-rayed yawned zipped
Present buy spin flee bend •
Past bought spun fled bent
Past Participle bought spun fled bent
There are also times that the past and past participle forms of irregular verbs are the same as their base form. Present bid cut bet broadcast read Past bid cut bet broadcast read Past Participle bid cut bet broadcast read
The rule with regular verbs is simple but the IRREGULAR verbs don’t have one specific rule.
Sometimes, the verbs change completely in order to form the past and past participle. Examples: Present lie ride weave • Past lay rode wove Past Participle lain ridden woven
Can you tell the simple present and simple past form of the following irregular verbs written in the past participle? chosen lent struck done proven wept fit slain ridden grown sewn hurt
At times, the past and past participle have the same 41 form.
Direction: ODD MAN OUT. Find the REGULAR verb in each line of verbs on each item. Example: catch find answer lose -- ___________________ Answer: ANSWER Start here: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. burst choose transform bleed : _______________ awake become bite crash : _______________ read play see bet: _______________ put cook bid bring: _______________ face fly flee feel: _______________ hurt kneel lead ask: _______________ forgive overcome blush hang _______________ beg show freeze cut: _______________
lead fetch sting shed: _______________ 10. wake injure write understand: _______________ 11. slit hold draw jam: _______________ 12. forget box grind hear: _______________ 13. irritate plead dive shine: _______________ 14. swim teach tear obey: _______________ 15. let melt say quit: _______________ 43 Verbs have TENSES that indicate the time or duration of the action.
The PRES ENT TE NS E refers to action that is taking place at the present time. Example:
The student listens carefully to the professor’s instructions.
expresses an action being done at present
He/she/it is Present tense is also used to express habitual action. Singular I endorse You endorse He/she/it endorses
They are Plural We endorse You endorse They endorse
Example: Kyla sings at SOP every Sunday. expresses a habit
Habitual actions are usually indicated by any of the following: every day often always • every hour never usually all the time most of the time sometimes every month
The PAS T T EN SE refers to actions that happened at a definite time in the past. Example: Tobey Maguire played the role of Peter Parker in the movie Spider-man 3. •
45 The PAST TENSE is also used for a statement that is true in the past but is no longer true today. For example:
Present tense also expresses a general truth.
Example: Planet Jupiter contains 90% hydrogen and 10% helium. expresses a generally accepted truth Here’s a table showing inflections (endings) in present tense: Singular I am You are Plural We are You are Chelsea used to admire Jennifer Love Hewitt’s acting in If Only. expresses an action that is true in the past and no longer true today. (The sentence implies that Chelsea no longer admires Jennifer Love Hewitt’s acting in If Only). Examples: Singular I was Plural We were
You were He/she/it was Singular I endorsed You endorsed He/she/it endorsed Will Will Shall Shall
You were They were Plural We endorsed You endorsed They Person endorsed Function 1st (I, WE)
Remember that the definite time element also signals future action.
To show willingness and determination
Example: The ship is leaving tomorrow. • The FUTURE TENSE has no inflected form but the words WILL and SHALL help the main verbs.
2 & 3 (YOU, To show futurity SHE, HE, THEY) 1st (I, WE) To show futurity
2nd & 3rd (YOU, To show SHE, HE, THEY) willingness and determination
WILL vs SHALL
Remember when Douglas MacArthur said, “I shall return”? Do you think he was determined to return then? Try to analyze the famous statement with the rules of WILL and SHALL and find out what MacArthur might have meant. Examine the following examples:
A regular verb uses its base form (e.g. endorse) plus the -ed ending (e.g. endorsed); An irregular verb changes its form in some other way.
I shall return. – This sentence shows simple futurity.
(combination of first person and shall indicates function)
The FUTURE TENSE refers to action that will take place in the future.
2. We will pay the bills tomorrow has a combination of first person (We) and will so it indicates determination in the action. 3. Thou shall not kill is almost like an order that must be willingly followed. Observe combination of second person and shall. Aside from the simple present, past and future tenses, 48 the English language also uses a tense that tells you if the act is completed or if it still continues to happen till the present time. •
Forming present perfect tense: Has/have + past participle of the verb
I have studied all night.
Although the action happened in the past, the effect of the action is still felt up to the present time. This is why the tense is considered PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.
Examples: The PRES ENT PE RFE CT TE NSE indicates either that an action was done in the recent past or that an action still happens at present. I have already spent 500 pesos today for my school project. (may still spend more for the rest of the day) I have lived here for eight years. (still living here till now) Clarisse has not finished the cake. (still finishing the cake) The guest has not arrived yet. (still expected to arrive)
The time line below explains this tense clearly.
An action started in the past but still happening (or still has an impact) today
(PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) past present
The PAS T P ERFE CT TE NSE indicates that an action was completed before another action took place. The time line below explains this tense clearly.
specific point in the future
The action took place in the past and is no longer true at present
Forming future perfect tense: will + have + past participle of the verb present
PAST PERFECT TENSE past 1 Forming past perfect tense: Had + past participle Examples: Marian had earned millions of pesos before she gave up her career. My dad had read two novels when we arrived home from the airport. Chelsea had lived in the US until she turned 15 years old. past 2
I will have finished my course by April next year. Shaine will have done his homework by eight o’clock tonight. I will have traveled around the UK by the time I turn 18.
The PRESENT PR OGRESSIVE TENSE expresses action that is currently happening. Forming present progressive tense: Verb “to be” + main verb with –ing Examples: The child is eating his lunch right now. The singers are signing a contract with the recording company. Please turn down your voice. The baby is sleeping.
The FUTURE PERFECT TENSE shows that an action will take place in specific time in the future. The time line below explains this tense clearly.
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
The PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE is also used to express an action happening over a period of time including at present.
Forming past progressive tense: Verb “to be” in the past tense + main verb with -ing Examples:
Examples: • I am worrying about the result of the exam these days. John is studying Speech Communication this semester. The dancers are practicing for quite some time now.
I was reading the book all day yesterday. The kids were making noise in the conference last year. The actors were paying their taxes yesterday at the BIR office.
The PAST PROGRESSIVE tense is also used to indicate that an action was happening when another action took place. I was talking to my dad on the phone when the police knocked on the door.
Sometimes, the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE is used to indicate action that will happen in the future and to express action that is still developing.
Examples: We must be ready. The boss is inspecting offices tomorrow. She’s beginning to appreciate her job at the assembly line. The
The PAST PROGRESSIVE tense is also used to show two actions happening at the same time in the past. While doing the laundry, Danica was listening to music. IMPORTANT!
The PAST PR OGR ES SIVE TENSE expresses an action that was happening at some point in the past.
Use when, while or as long as in forming sentences in the PAST PR OGRESSIVE tense.
The FUTURE PR OGRESSIVE TENSE expresses an action that will be happening in a specific time in the future. Forming future progressive tense: Will + Be + main verb with –ing Examples: • Dianne will be getting her diploma in time. The band will be performing tonight. All the officers will be asking for your assistance.
Direction: Read the following sentences about the movie SPIDER-MAN 3 then identify the tense used in each of the statements.
1. Peter Parker had kept his secret from the neighborhood. 2. Harry Osborn was seeking vengeance for his father’s death. 3. Captain Stacy told Peter and Aunt May that Marko killed Peter’s uncle, Ben Parker. 4. Peter was sleeping when the mysterious black creature bonded with his costume. 5. Marko will have escaped from prison before it’s too late. 6. A small meteorite crashes nearby. 7. The black suit is changing Peter’s personality. 8. Peter’s best friend will be forgetting about his plans to avenge for his dad due to amnesia. 9. The shift in Peter’s personality caused by the black suit had alienated Mary Jane. 10. Peter Parker shall mend his relationship with Mary Jane.
The negative structures using future progressive tense: Dianne won’t be getting her diploma in time. The band won’t be performing tonight. All the officers won’t be asking for your assistance.
6. B. Direction: Choose the best form of verb/verbs to be used 56 in the following sentences. 1. Ainah hurt his head while she ___________ a. was practicing b. practiced c. had practiced Jennifer __________ for the US Air Force since 1985. a. had worked b. has been working c. works The last time I ____________ Korea, I stayed in its capital, Seoul. a. visited b. had visited c. was visiting Before the police arrived, the burglar ____________. a. left b. had already left c. is leaving By the time Jack paid all his debts, he _____________ 65 years old. a. is b. will be c. has been 7.
Yesterday, I _____________ to visit my grandparents. a. went b. have been c. go Ella sometimes ____________do her job well. a. did not b. will not c. does not What time _______________ in the morning? a. do you wake up b. are you waking up c. have you woke up I _______________ six years in elementary school. a. have spent b. spent c. have been spending My mom said I _____________; when I was young, I ________________ help her with the household chores. a. was changing; was to b. changed; used to c. used to change; used to help
2. Adjectives are also found after the verb BE, BECOME, SEEM, STAY Examples: Your books are expensive.
An modifies a noun or pronoun. It may describe, identify or quantify a noun or pronoun.
ADJE CTI VE
Look at the example below:
Verb BE • • • •
Carol is smart.
In this sentence, SMART is an adjective that modifies the proper noun Carol. – In this sentence, the adjective IRRESISTIBLE modifies the pronoun you. Where in a sentence do we usually find the adjectives?
You are simply irresistible.
Plagiarism among students is now rampant. Watching TV all day seems boring. The opposition stays calm despite political pressure during election. Charles becomes disciplined because of his military training in Korea. Order of adjectives placed before a noun:
1. Adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun they modify. Example: Danielle is a charming baby.
Description (Size/Age/ Shape/ Color) red round tiny red
A This Several Those
beautiful soft expensive crispy
Italian Japanese Chinese
bag cake figurines apples professor
3. Adjectives are also found immediately after the word THE
Example: • The rich man shares his money with the poor. 4. An adjective also follows the words feel, taste, smell, sound, and look. Example: • • Chamomile oil smells good. Castor oil tastes bad.
What have you noticed about the adjectives used in the conversation? They appear in different forms, right? Those forms pertain to the DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES. So what are the three DEGREES OF ADJECTIVES? 1. POSITIVE 2. COMPARATIVE 3. SUPERLATIVE happy happiest new dark COMPARATIVE is used when comparing two things or items while SUPERLATIVE is used when comparing more than two things or items. More examples: lucky busy smart thin far luckier busier smarter thinner farther luckiest busiest smartest thinnest farthest happier newer darker newest darkest
Read the conversation below: I think my book is the newest. It was just published this month. It contains more detailed and more updated information on Human Anatomy. I’d be happier to lend the book to you, my best friend!
Hey, guess what! I’ve found a new book in Biology!!
I’d be happy if you lend
Some adjectives need the word MORE to form comparative 62 and the word MOST to form the superlative degrees. Examples: difficult more difficult most difficult honest more honest most honest 1. terrible more terrible most terrible 2.
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. B.
__________ bad incredible brave __________ naughty __________
______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ higher
best worst _____________ 63 _____________ sweetest _____________ _____________
In which sentence is the word in bold type an adjective? Put a check on the box provided beside the sentence. [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ]
Next week is my birthday. I want to receive a soft toy on my birthday. My dad asks me what I want for my birthday. Last year, my dad gave me a basketball for my birthday. [ ] Dr. Jose Rizal is the Philippine’s national hero. [ ] The Philippines has 7,107 islands. [ ] Pres. Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo is from Pampanga. [ ] The Philippines is a democratic country. [ ] India and Bangladesh were flooded for several days. [ ] Cindy has a Bangladeshi friend. [ ] The Indians love watching movies. [ ] Both India and Bangladesh are in South Asia. [ ] “Rain, rain, go away; Come again another day…”
Directions: A. Supply the missing degree of adjective in the following items. POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE free ______________ __________ more prepared nervous ______________
1. 2. 3.
_____________ _____________ _____________
[ ] [ ] [ ] 5. [ ] [ ]
“Doe, a deer, a female deer…” “The sun will come out tomorrow…” “Getting to know you...”
64 65 CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS join two independent
China has a one-child policy. Chinese couples are allowed to have only one child. [ ] Abortion is legal in China. [ ] One-third of the world’s population is Chinese.
clauses with the help of a semi-colon. Examples: 1. It was raining hard; still, the family went shopping. 2. The university has cut budgets; consequently, class sizes have been increased. 3. Alyssa wanted to travel around the world; however, she doesn’t have enough money to spend. AD VE RBS vs ADJECTIVES: Sometimes, it is not easy to differentiate adjectives from adverbs. Example: The tools were [good, well]. Michael said that his work was [good, well] done.
An modifies an adjective, a verb, or another adverb. An adverb indicates MANNER (how?), TIME (When?), PLACE (Where?), or DEGREE (To what extent?). Look at the following examples with highlighted adverbs: 1. 2. The students studied hard for the test. Please listen carefully to the instructions.
Soon, the students professionals.
Explanation: The first sentence needs an adjective to describe the tools so the answer is GOOD. The second statement requires an adverb to describe how the work was done so the answer is WELL. The sentence must be written this way: The tools were good. Michael said that his work was well done.
Adv erbs can also help us organize our paragraphs. We
have CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS like "also," "consequently," "finally," "furthermore," "hence," "however," "incidentally," "indeed," "instead," "likewise," "meanwhile," "nevertheless," "next," "nonetheless," "otherwise," "still," "then," "therefore," and "thus."
More examples: 1. 2. 3. Does this shirt look GOOD on me? (adjective)
The philanthropist generously donated $100,000 dollars to the poor citizens. Japan is believed to have the worst work/life balance in the world. A microwave oven helps me cook food fast. Ivan strangely stares at the strange woman. I get up early every morning.
It is EXTREMELY dangerous to drive when it is raining. (adverb) 8. They serve DELICIOUS food in the restaurant. (adjective) 9. 10.
DIRECTIONS: Identify the adverbs in the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The reporter interviewed Vanessa Hudgens and Zac Efron separately. My grandmother visits us on a weekend. The students are truly appreciative of the lessons they learn from their teachers. The performers on stage are all nervous at first. Medicines in the Philippines are too expensive.
A is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. It links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. It is called a PREposition because it almost always comes before the noun or pronoun. A preposition always goes with a noun or pronoun which is called the object of the preposition. The preposition and the object of the preposition together are called a prepositional phrase.
PRE POSI TIO N
PREPOSITION Object of the Preposition Prepositional Phrase
DAN IS SITTING
to by at under
the market jeepney the library the table
TO THE MARKET BY JEEPNEY AT THE LIBRARY UNDER THE TABLE THE NOTEBOOK IS
/ behind / /in front of/ / near / / beside /
A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. LIST OF THE MOST COMMON PREPOSITIONS: "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without." Preposition of place or position: / on / / by / /beside/ / near / /under/
/ in / / inside / / outside / / beneath/ /on top of/ / behind /
OBSERVE HOW THE PREPOSITIONS ARE USED IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. AT TO FROM IN ON BY BESIDE NEAR AGAINST OVER UNDER BENEATH BEHIND UP DOWN Steffanie is at home. Danielle went to the zoo. James Allen is from England.
The biggest mall in Asia is in the Philippines.
The gift is on the table. The students go to school by bus.
The cup of coffee is beside the study lamp.
THE BALL IS
The child sits near the window. Don’t lean against the glass shelf. Charles jumps over the lazy dog. Juan is always sitting under the tree. The man is standing beneath the stairs. The child is hiding behind the curtain. The kite is flying up in the sky. There is a gas station down the road.
16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.
ACROSS AROUND THROUGH BETWEEN AMONG AFTER BEFORE ABOVE BELOW INSIDE OUTSIDE DURING UNTIL dawn.
The store is found across the street. Don’t go around the bush. The soldier went through all hardships.
You have to choose between good and evil.
The COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. 71 Among the coordinating conjunctions are AND, BUT, FOR, OR, NOR, SO and YET. Examples: 1. 2. 3. Lilac AND purple have almost the same shade of violet. Mica wants to keep a diary, BUT she is too busy with her work. Indie films are interesting, FOR they are closer to reality, as compared with mainstream movies. The director OR the actor has the sole responsibility of making the movie interesting. The viewers NOR the ticket sellers are to be credited for making a movie a box-office hit. The medicine price is too high SO the elderly don’t follow the correct dosage of prescribed drugs. The Philippines is often considered as a poor country, YET it is called the text capital of the world.
Virnielle is the brightest among them all
She makes a comment after watching the film.
Pay your bill before taking the exam.
The city is three thousand feet above sea level.
His IQ is below the average. The books are inside the leather bag. The family had picnic outside the house. I saw him during the summer vacation. We watched the show until
A words, phrases and clauses. Example 1:
CON JUN CT ION
4. 5. 6. 7.
I like to eat
** In the sentence, AND is a conjunction. There are three kinds of conjunctions according to their functions: COORDINATING, SUBORDINATING and CORRELATIVE conjunctions. The SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS introduces a dependent clause. Among the subordinating conjunctions are AFTER, ALTHOUGH, AS, BECAUSE, BEFORE, IF, ONCE, SINCE, THAN, THAT, THOUGH, TILL, UNTIL, WHEN, WHERE, WHETHER, and WHILE.
Examples: 1. BECAUSE of heavy rains, the classes were suspended. 2. Vivien is in the middle of writing a letter WHEN her computer crashed. 3. IF you submit early, the cheque will arrive on your expected date. 4. The singer didn’t cancel the concert ALTHOUGH she just had cough. 5. Books are more reliable THAN Internet sources. The CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS are used to link equivalent sentence elements. These usually come in pairs. Among the most commonly used correlative conjunctions are BOTH…AND, EITHER…OR, NEITHER…NOR, NOT ONLY…BUT ALSO, SO…AS, WHETHER…OR. Examples: 1. 2. BOTH my sister AND my brother love me! My mom said I should take charge of budgeting my school allowance: EITHER I buy expensive snacks OR I keep some amount as savings.
Filipino doctors work abroad as nurses NOT ONLY because of money BUT ALSO because of better working status and conditions. The solution to lack of doctors in the country is NEITHER to ban doctors from leaving the country NOR giving them insignificant incentives.
Direction: Match the statement from the right column that goes with the sentences on the left column.
1. Long before the day of test. 2. I strolled in the park with my friends. 3. I liked to study while listening to music. 4. Fortunately, the flowers were delivered 5. Until the last second 6. As soon as my dad arrived in New York 7. Paula got the job 8. Mei Li wants to study in Canada 9. A dangerous man escaped from mental hospital 10. The car broke down
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. Therefore the police issued warning on the radio After taking the exam We were saying “goodbye” I reviewed for my exam So George went to find help around the city Although she had no experience But she can’t speak English We promised we would call each other often I. Before the wedding ceremony began J. When I lived at the college dorm
Oh no, I forgot how to solve this problem!
Grrr!!! Then, stop nagging me!
Hey! Stop shouting at me!
An is a word added to a sentence to communicate emotion.
INT ER JEC TIO N
ORAL QUIZ: Can you SAY appropriate interjection for the
following emotions? 1. severe pain 4. anger 2. relief 5. confusion 3. surprise
The sentence is usually followed by an exclamation point. Here are some examples:
Now that we already know the parts of speech, are we ready to communicate? Ouch, my wound hurts! Let me see – I guess, we’re not ready yet. We need to REVIEW SUBJECTVERB AGREEMENT!
The storm or the strong wind is the reason for the suspension of classes. The assigned doctor or the nurse-on-duty is attending to the patient at the emergency room.
When the subject of a sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns connected by AND, use a plural verb. Examples: Examples: • • Danica and Daniela are sisters. Subject • VERB •
A compound subject containing both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun joined by OR or NOR, the verb should agree with the nearest subject.
The men or the woman is taking charge of the program. A glass of soft drinks nor four slices of cake are not what Joseph wanted for snacks. .Do not be misled by a phrase that comes between the subject and the verb. The verb agrees with the subject, not with a noun or pronoun in the phrase.
The vendors and the suppliers agree to sign a business contract before the transaction begins. When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected by OR or NOR, use a singular verb. Examples:
One of the cats is pampered by its owners.
None of the interviewees is sure to be hired for the position. The book, which talked about different Filipino traditions, is interesting.
• The words each, each one, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anybody, anyone, nobody, somebody, someone, and no one are singular and require a singular verb. Examples: • • • Neither of the girls is coming with us. Everyone enjoys the party. Everyone in this institution expects a salary increase. Nouns such as civics, mathematics, dollars, measles, and news require singular verbs.
Four hours is not enough for me to stroll in the mall.
In sentences beginning with there is or there are, the subject follows the verb. Since there is not the subject, the verb agrees with what follows. Example: There are many questions about the new planet. Collective nouns are words that imply more than one person but that are considered singular and take a singular verb, such as: group, team, committee, class, and family. Examples:
Mathematics requires critical thinking. The news does not sound good. Time, distance and money require singular form of the verb.
The blue team is always winning. The committee formulates new policies for the department. Sometimes modifiers will get between a subject and its verb, but these modifiers must not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb.
Examples: • • The mayor, who has been working hard to alleviate poverty in his town, deserves an award. The seminar, which aims to strengthen the work ethics of the employees, is scheduled this afternoon. Fractional expressions such as half of, a part of, a percentage of, a majority of are sometimes singular and sometimes plural, depending on the meaning. Examples: • • • A percentage of the population does not vote for her. Half of the students are attending the seminar. A quarter of the cake is left uneaten. The relative pronouns (who, whom, which, and that) are either singular or plural, depending on the words they refer to. Examples: • • A number of participants come from the Central Luzon. The number of participants is unexpected. Adjectives used as nouns always take a plural form of the verb. Examples: • • Jessica is one of the mothers who participate in the activity. The UP contestants are students who perform well academically.
The phrase A NUMBER always takes a plural form of the verb and THE NUMBER requires a singular form of the verb.
Examples: • • When the going gets tough, the tough get going. Only the strong survive. Some subjects with AND may be considered as one. In such case, the verb is singular. Examples: • • Romeo and Juliet is one of favorite plays. The Cats entertains all audience members including the kids. Proper nouns including titles of books movies, plays, films, and operas are generally considered as singular even if they are in plural form.
Examples: • • Bread and butter is my daily food. Bow and arrow was used by the native Filipinos in hunting for food. In subjects with EITHER OR or NEITHER NOR, the verbs should agree with the nearest subject. Examples: • • Either the driver or the passengers are to responsible for the accident. Neither the students nor the teacher knows that the classes are suspended tomorrow.
The word ALL should not create confusion. Just remember that if the noun that ALL modifies is non-countable, then the verb to be used is singular but if ALL modifies a count noun which is in plural form, then the verb must agree with the subject. Examples: • • All of the Filipino doctors go to the US to practice their profession. All of my life is spent only with you. Phrases and clauses that function as a subject usually require a singular form of the verb.
Examples: • • Begging for money is all she knows how to do. Texting while driving is a dangerous thing to do. Don’t forget that the verb agrees with the subject noun, never with the predicate noun.
Examples: • • My problem is the boys. My expensive books are an asset.
Directions: Identify the form of the verb that correctly fills in the blank. Darken the 0 that corresponds toyour answer. 1. The data in your report _________ to be clarified. 0 need 0 needs
2. The news _________ too bad; my grandmother didn’t want to know it. 0 was 0 were 3. The number of graduates this year ________ . 0 declines 0 decline 4. Neither his brother nor his parents ________ mahjong. 0 play 0 plays 5. Two years ______ a long time to spend away from home. 0 is 0 are 6. A quarter of the population _______ against legalization of divorce in the Philippines. 0 is 0 are 7. There ______ only one reason for making it big in show business. 0 is 0 are 8. One of the smartest students who ______ in the seminar ______ Michael. 0 participate; is 0 participates; is 9. The poor ______ poorer and the rich ______ richer. 0 get; get 0 gets; gets 10. The toys, together with the other products of China, _______ recalled due to unsafe paint. 0 were 0 was 11. None of the visitors ________ welcomed by the party host. 0 was 0 were 12. Each of you _____ the potential to succeed in your chosen career. 0 has 0 have
13. 14. 15. 16 17. 18. 19. 20.
One of my worries in college _______ failing in any of my major subjects. 0 is 0 are Not only the governor, but also the mayors, _______ to serve the people well. 0 needs 0 need Arriving in a new country ______ a challenging experience. 0 is 0 are .Everybody in this room ______ to see a monster. 0 hates 0 hate Law and order ______ necessary for a peaceful nation. 0 is 0 are Texting while driving ______ accident. 0 causes 0 cause The choice that the children made _____ their personalities. 0 reflects 0 reflect Beside the big tree ______ the women I long to see. 0 was 0 were
An IDIOMATIC MEANING is never the same from the literal meaning. Idioms ought not be translated literally.
MOST FREQUENTLY USED IDIOMS:
1. ABOUT TO (do something) : to the point of doing something. Example: I was about to sleep when she called.
2. ACCORDING TO (someone or something): as told by; said Example: as the text According to the latest survey, the Philippines is still considered capital of the world.
3. AFTER ALL :considering what happened Example: the Don’t insist on your idea. After all, boss won’t listen to you.
An IDIOM is a phrase or a combination of words that has a meaning which is different from the meanings of the individual terms.
4. AS SOON AS: when; right after something Example: I’ll call you as soon as I get home.
5. AS WELL AS: also; in addition to
The Dean, as well as the faculty, is invited to watch the play
The police will soon find out the motive for the crime.
BREAK UP: to separate; to put an end to something Example: Che and Alex don’t plan to break up even if they have arguments lately.
11. GET RID OF (something): to throw away; to destroy 89 Example: My mother says she wants me to get rid of my smoking habit.
BY THE WAY: incidentally 12. Example: deliver tomorrow. By the way, you are expected to a short speech in the program GO OVER: to review or to examine Example: I’ll go over your documents before I report to work tomorrow. 13. HANG OUT WITH: to spend time with someone Example: I don’t want to hang out with the kind of friends that you have. 14. HAVE SOMETHING TO DO WITH: to be about Example: The seminar has something to do with smart parenting. 15. HOLD ON: wait for a moment Example: Please hold on while I call the marketing officer.
6. COME UP WITH (something): to produce an idea or something Example: The director is coming up with a documentary film to be aired in the local channel.
9. END UP: to do something one did not plan to Example: 10. I ended up doing all the projects, instead of just helping the project team leader.
FIND OUT: to discover or to learn
16. IN CASE: if anything should happen Example: Don’t hesitate to contact me in case you need help.
22. MORE OR LESS: to some extent Example: same Your findings are more or less the with mine.
17. IN FACT: the truth is Example: I’ve I have no idea where he is. In fact, never met him before. 18. LOOK FOR something: to search
23. NOT AT ALL: definitely not Example:
The boss is not at all satisfied with your output. Should you do it again?
24. OF COURSE: as might be expected Example: The investigator was looking for the suspect in the robbery. Example: Of course I’m happy for your achievements!
19. LOOK UP: to search for something in a book or other materials. Example: I don’t understand this word. I better look it up in the dictionary.
25. ONCE AGAIN: anew; again Example: Anna failed in the first performance So she tried once again.
20. MAKE SENSE: to be reasonable and meaningful Example: Your idea doesn’t make sense to me. Please make it clear.
26. POINT OUT: to show somebody something Example: Let me point out why the buyers prefer Nokia over Samsung.
21. MAKE SURE: to ascertain; to establish lack of doubt Example: Make sure you’ll come on time so we won’t miss the play.
27. RIGHT AWAY: immediately; without delay Example: She answered the boss right away.
28. SHOW UP: to be clearly visible; to be present Example: Karla needs to show up in the court to serve as witness in the case.
29. TAKE PLACE: to happen; to occur Example: end The sports festival takes place every of the semester. 30. TAKE ACCOUNT OF: to consider Example: of community in formulating new policies. 1. There is an endless list of idioms in the English language. Are you also familiar with the idioms given below? FLAT BROKE SIT ON THE FENCE 2. DON’T CRY ON SPILLED MILK HIT THE JACKPOT CALL THE SHOT EAT ONE’S HEART OUT POP A QUESTION
OPEN ONE’S HEART TO
The lawmakers should take account the current situation in the Direction: Read the following sentences then decide which among the choices is the possible meaning of the given idioms. You have to be competitive if you want to survive in a dog-eat-dog world. [ ] lunch. [ ] [ ] A world where only the most competent survives. A world where it is legal to eat dogs. A world where dogs eat each other for
It’s raining cats and dogs! I hope it won’t get flooded again in our area. [ ] [ ] [ ] Cats and dogs are falling from the blue sky It’s raining heavily. Cats and dogs are swimming on the flood.
BEAT THE DEADLINE NO SWEAT! 3.
When I feel blue, all I want to do is to look at your picture and remember our beautiful memories.
[ ] feel that my skin changes to blue [ ] feel so sad [ ] feel so bored. I was shocked to know the red tape involved in applying for a business permit. [ ] [ ] [ ] red-colored tape used to seal all documents in one folder. the papers that need to be filled out and processed. every paper has to be bound in colored folders.
[ ] [ ] 8.
don’t get angry don’t speak
My teacher asked me to answer her difficult 95 questions in class this morning. I was really in a hot seat. [ ] [ ] [ ] position of embarrassment or anxiety a chair that everybody wants to use enviable position
The news that he received today was like music to his ears. [ ] [ ] [ ] good news a song that is pleasing to the ears a magical tune
Joseph was jumping for joy when he knew that he was promoted. [ ] [ ] [ ] singing Jump for Joy very happy doing physical exercise
Miriam has an impressive collection of plants in the garden. She definitely has a green thumb. [ ] [ ] [ ] thumb. a thumb that can grow plants an extraordinary ability to grow plants. a kind of plant that is shaped like a
The seminar started with an interactive activity in order to break the ice. [ ] [ ] [ ] make everyone at ease with each other to prepare the ice for the drinks to get drinks for everyone to enjoy
You should keep your cool even if you don’t like what the government officials do. [ ] don’t perspire
It’s time to go! (contraction of It is) ‘80s (instead of 1980s) I’ve never read this novel yet. (contraction of I have) IMPORTANT!
Usually, when the word ends in s, forming the possession means adding ‘ (apostrophe) only instead of ‘s Example: Jesus’ promise Princess’ hair
To show possession.(use ‘s) The child’s doctor advised her to rest for one week. (refers to the doctor of the child) The singer’s career is on its peak this year. (refers to the career of the singer)
To give emphasis He was able to bring he needs except for one thing: his tickets He has only one complaint: it’s too hot in the room.
To show omission What’s the use of your intellect if you will just rely on hearsay? (contraction of What is)
2. To alert the reader that there will be a list to be enumerated.
The kids love a lot of things about Jollibee: the mascot, spaghetti, chicken joy, and choco-fudge sundae.
3. All the key personalities in Pampanga visited our school: Governor Panlilio, Vice-Governor Guiao, Mayor Nepomuceno, and Congressman Lazatin. 3. To express time 4. 6:45 p.m. 10:30 p.m. 5. To end a salutation in a formal letter Dear Mr. Canlas:
To separate a series coordinate adjectives. Coordinate adjectives are adjectives with equal importance. I enjoy listening to a happy, lively music. She ate a sweet, juicy apple. To signal end of quotation followed by attribution “Because he has never forgiven himself any fault, he can forgive no one else’s,” says Linda Berdoll. “Be thankful for what you have; you'll end up having more. If you concentrate on what you don't have, you will never, ever have enough,” Oprah Winfrey said in an interview.
To separate the year from the day of the month December 27, 2006 November 26, 1998 IMPORTANT! Do NOT use comma when the day of the month is not given: July 2007
To separate elements in a series. Anna bought bananas, oranges, apples and grapes. (Take note that no comma is needed before the conjunction AND) Jennifer, Michelle, Mike and Ella are attending the mass tomorrow morning.
To separate thousands, millions, etc. in figures With four or more digits 7, 487 2,007
To separate two clauses with conjunctions or any transitional device. It rained heavily in the afternoon, but we managed to have picnic. I am going home now, and I intend to stay there for good.
To enclose direct quotations. “Biology is the least of what makes someone a mother.” “I feel that luck is preparation meeting opportunity.”
2. To highlight a word that is used in different context, with meaning that is different from the usual meaning. The famous director is claiming to be the “saviour” of Philippine comics. The reporter who was charged with libel said his article just committed an “honest mistake.” 3. To distinguish titles of books, movies, plays, songs, poems, television programs, speeches and works of art in a paragraph. According to reports, one episode of “Desperate Housewives” insulted the Filipino doctors.
To end a declarative sentence, a command or a request. Please make reservation at the hotel tomorrow morning. (request) Oprah Winfrey is the highest paid host in the world. (declarative) Write quickly on a sheet of paper.
5. 4. To separate a short passage taken from any source.
The first first year students who arrived at the party 103 are John Daniel Julia Charles Justine and Kei. ___________________________________________
According to reports, one episode of “Desperate Housewives” insulted the Filipino doctors by casting doubt on the ability of doctors who got their diplomas “from some med schools in the Philippines.”
5. My friend told me You are my best buddy _____________________________________ 6. Cris Mendez friend felt sorry for his death caused by the concern of the fraternity members who recruited him _____________________________________ 7. The doctors certificate will be available tomorrow ___________________________________________
Direction: Insert appropriate punctuation marks on the following statements. 1. You need to get enough sleep Dr Jones told Karen ___________________________________________ 2. I will Karen replied ___________________________________________ 3. Mary Higgins Clarks novel You Belong To Me is my favorite ___________________________________________ 4. Whats the matter he asked ___________________________________________
8. Kate asked Will you be here with me until I die of course I will never leave you Mike sincerely replied ___________________________________________ 9. To date the population in the Philippines reaches 91077287 as of July 2007 ___________________________________________ 10. These are the things that remind me of Christmas lantern Christmas trees gifts and children caroling. ___________________________________________
An injury may be aggravated, not irritated; a person may be irritated, not aggravated. ALTAR, ALTER An altar is an elevated structure where religious ceremonies are conducted. To alter means ‘to change.’
The list below contains words which many writers and English users are confused with. It is important to know the exact meaning of the following words so that you would be able to express your ideas the way you want them to be understood. Remember, there is no substitute for THE RIGHT WORDS FOR THE RIGHT IDEAS.
We can alter an altar, but never altar an alter. BALONEY, BOLOGNA There are dictionaries that consider baloney as a variant for bologna but the former must be used to mean ‘nonsense.’ Bologna, on the other hand, is a ‘seasoned smoke sausage’ which may be eaten with sandwich. BESIDE, BESIDES Besides means ‘in addition to.’ Beside, on the contrary means ‘on the side of.’ The two ought not be interchanged.
ADVICE, ADVISE. Advice is a noun referring to the ‘opinion on what should be done about a problem.’ On the other hand, advise is a verb used to mean ‘to give a piece of advice.’ AGGRAVATE, IRRITATE To aggravate means ‘to make the situation worse,’ and to irritate means to provoke anger. The two words should not be interchanged.
CHILDISH, CHILDLIKE BIANNUAL, BIENNIAL Biannual means ‘happening twice a year,’ and biennial means ‘occurring once in two years.’ BOUILLON, BULLION Bouillon is a clear beef soup and bullion refers to gold, silver or platinum in bars. BREATH, BREATHE The air taken into the lungs and then exhaled for respiration is called breath; Breathe, on the other hand, is the act of inhaling and exhaling air. BROACH, BROOCH CONNOTE, DENOTE Broach is a verb that means ‘to start a discussion,’ and a brooch, on the other hand, is a large ornamental pin used by women.
The word childish means ‘immature’ or ‘not fit for an adult.’ Childlike, on the contrary, is a positive word which means ‘innocent,’ ‘having characteristic of a child,’ or ‘trusting.’
COMPARE WITH, COMPARE TO We use compare to when comparing two things that are of different levels of existence. For example, we may compare a baby to a flower – the baby being a human being, and a flower being an object. However, we use compare with when we compare two things that are the similar. For example, a baby named Danielle may be compared with another baby named Steffanie.
Using the word connote means you are pertaining to the ‘implied’ or ‘suggestive’ meaning. On the other hand, to use denote means to simply state the meaning from the dictionary. Connote is more of a subjective term and denote is objective.
CANVAS, CANVASS Canvas is a referring to a type of cloth; Canvass is a verb which means ‘to go through places to gather opinion.”
CONTINUAL, CONTINUOUS Continual means being repeated often at intervals. Continuous may only be used when referring to something that is uninterrupted. DEPRECIATE, DEPRECATE To depreciate means ‘to lessen the value of.’ To deprecate, on the other hand, means ‘to belittle or to express disapproval of.’ DESSERT, DESERT A dessert is a noun which pertains to the ‘sweet course that is served at the end of a meal.’ To desert means ‘to abandon’ or ‘to forsake.’ A desert, as a noun, on the other hand refers to ‘a dry, extremely hot region.’ DISINTERESTED, UNINTERESTED A judge ought to be disinterested. To be disinterested means to be ‘impartial or unbiased.’ To be uninterested, on the contrary means ‘to manifest lack of interest.’ DRUNK, DRUNKEN The word drunk is an adjective referring to a person who is ‘influenced by alcoholic drinks to the point of losing selfcontrol.’ The word drunken is used to refer to a person who is
‘habitually intoxicated.’ Drunk is usually used in the predicate and drunken is a word that usually modifies a noun in a subject. EMIGRANT, IMMIGRANT An emigrant leaves a country; an immigrant comes into a country. ERASABLE, IRASCIBLE Something that can be rubbed out, like a pencil, is erasable. A person who is ‘easily angered’ is irascible.
EVERY DAY, EVERYDAY We use every day as an adverb which means ‘every single day.’ We use everyday as an adjective. We say “Drink milk every day,” and not “Drink milk everyday.”
EXORCISE, EXERCISE To exorcise means ‘to expel an evil spirit through incantation or prayer. On the other hand, exercise pertains to any physical activity done to promote good health.
HALF BROTHER, STEPBROTHER A man is considered your half brother if you have one parent in common; on the other hand, if a man is related to you through remarriage of your parents, then, he is considered your stepbrother. LAMA, LLAMA A lama is a priest or monk; a llama is a kind of animal from South America. It has a stomach with three chambers.
Any object that can be fixed is repairable. Any non-physical thing that can be fixed is reparable. The two words should not be interchanged. A person’s self-esteem is reparable; a broken vase is repairable. REPUTATION, CHARACTER Your reputation is the way other people regard you. Your character, on the contrary, refers to ‘your attributes, abilities and traits.’ TENANT, TENET A person paying rent to occupy certain place is a tenant; a tenet, on the other hand, is a principle, doctrine or belief.
MEDIA, MEDIUM TITLED, ENTITLED The word media is plural in form, referring to any means of communication that aims to reach a large number of people. Television, newspapers, radio, Internet and magazines are examples of media. The singular form of media is medium but the word medium is not usually used in this context. Instead, the word medium is usually used to refer to ‘any material being used to express oneself in art.’ Entitled means ‘qualified or eligible by law.’ On the other hand, titled is used when mentioning titles of books, movies, etc. Avoid saying, “I read Dan Brown’s book entitled The Da Vinci Code.” VERBAL, ORAL Verbal refers to ‘through the use of words,’ either spoken or written. Oral, on the other hand, pertains only to spoken communication. Oral also means ‘administered through the mouth.’
VIRGINIA B. BAUTISTA is a graduate of BA Mass CommunicationJournalism from the University of the Philippines Baguio. She served as the Program Coordinator for two academic years at the Department of Mass Communication at Angeles University Foundation where she’s currently teaching Newswriting, Electronic Newsroom, Communication Research and Speech & Oral Communication. Aside from teaching Communication subjects, she also teaches English as Second Language (ESL) to Chinese and Korean students. Mrs. Bautista had finished the academic units leading to a Doctorate degree in Public Administration. Aside from teaching, studying and writing, Mrs. Bautista is also a full-time mother of three lovely kids: Steffi, Charles and Dani.
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