Media in Social Change

Sociology

MEDIA IN SOCIAL CHANGE SOCIAL CHANGE
Social change refers to any significant change over time in behavior patterns and cultural values and norms. Here by “significant” change, sociologists mean changes having profound social consequences. Examples of significant social changes having long-term effects include the industrial revolution, the abolition of slavery, and the feminist movement. Today's sociologists readily acknowledge the vital role that social movements play in inspiring dissatisfied members of a society to bring about social change. In order to understand the nature of long-term social change, including looking for patterns and causes, has led sociologists to propose the evolutionary, functionalist, and conflict theories of change. All theories of social change also admit the likelihood of resistance to change, especially when people with fixed interests feel unsettled and threatened by potential changes. The change is discussed by many theorists, sociologists, novelists in their own terms and has given their own theories. Here some of the views about social change will also be discussed.

THE “CHANGE” DEBATE
All cultures change through time. No culture is static. However, most cultures are basically conservative in that they tend to resist change. Some resist more than others by enacting laws for the preservation and protection of traditional cultural patterns while putting up barriers to alien ideas and things. For example, the French government has forbidden the commercial use of English words for which there are French equivalencies. This is a reaction particularly to the widespread use and popularity of terms such as "sandwich" and "computer" among young people. More recently, Starbucks has found it very difficult to become established in France despite the fact that it is becoming successful elsewhere in Europe. In contrast, some cultures are extremely open to some kinds of change. Over the last two decades, the Peoples Republic of China

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has been rapidly adopting western technology and culture in everyday life. This can be seen in their wide acceptance of everything from cell phones to American television shows and fast food. McDonald's has already established 560 of their restaurants in China and soon will be adding 100 more. KFC fried chicken franchises have been even more popular. There are 1000 KFC outlets throughout the country with more than 100 in Beijing alone. Taco Bell, A & W, and Pizza Hut are not far behind. In 2003, the Chinese government made the decision to require all children in their country, beginning with the 3rd grade of elementary school, to learn English. This will very likely accelerate westernization. China is far from being unique in experiencing a revolutionary rate of change. It is now abundantly clear that we are in an accelerating culture change period all around the world regardless of whether we try to resist it or not. It is driven by the expansion of international commerce and especially mass media. Ultimately, what is driving it is our massive human population explosion. The number of people in the world now doubles in less than half a century. When analyzing the transformation of a culture, it is clear that different understandings are gained depending on the focus. Anthropology began its study of this phenomenon, during the late 19th century, largely from the perspective of trying to understand how manufactured things, such as tools, are invented and modified in design over time. It became apparent that there rarely are entirely new inventions. Most often, only the function, form, or principle is new, but not all three. For instance, our modern jack, used for lifting up the side of a car, is usually based on the principles of the lever and/or the screw. Those principles were well known to the ancient Greeks more than 2,000 years ago. By the 1940's, anthropologists began to realize that ideas, tools, and other artifacts generally are not invented or changed in isolation. They are the product of particular cultural settings. Cultures are organic wholes consisting of interdependent components. Inventions often occur in response to other cultural changes. Similarly, the introduction of new, effective birth control measures, mostly beginning in the early 1960's, allowed people to easily limit the number of children they had and to space their births. This affected the relationships of children with their parents and siblings. When there are fewer children, parents can give more attention to each one. Likewise, more money per 2

Media in Social Change child is available for clothes, entertainment, gifts, and education.

Sociology Potentially, there is

also more money and leisure time for parents when there are fewer children in their family. Human economies change as necessity forces us to alter our relationship with the environment. As our economies change, the rest of culture changes in response. We are now facing potential major global cultural changes over the next century as a result of the greenhouse effect that is presumably being caused or aggravated by the accelerated burning of fossil fuels and forest products. The result likely will be progressive global warming, shifting climates, and flooded coastal regions. Entire island nations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans may disappear below the sea. Actually, this process of people changing the global climate may have begun much earlier than the beginning of the Industrial Revolution as it has been commonly thought. William Ruddiman of the University of Virginia has evidence indicating that the rise of global temperatures began about 8,000 years ago with the early spread of agriculture. He suggests that the massive clearance of forests in Europe and Asia for farming beginning at that time released huge amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. In his estimation, this was enough warming to put off an impending ice age. (What Actually Changes When Cultures Change? By Dennis O'Neil)

THEORIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE
Evolutionary Theories assume that there is a constant direction of social change carrying all the societies through a same sequence of stages from simple to complex. August Comte(1798-1857) known as the founder of sociology has discussed three stages of social change i.e. (1) theological stage, guided by supernatural wisdom (2) metaphysical stage, in which supernatural wisdom are replaced by principles and logics (3)legal rational, in which society is guided by scientific principles and logics. Hebert Spencer (1820-1903) was an English writer who explained Darwin’s theory he saw a parallel social evolution, with societies moving through a series of stages fro homogenous and simple tribal groups to more modern societies. He applied Darwin’s “survival of fittest” to human societies and said those human will survive who are the fittest and active members of the society similarly those societies will survive who have 3

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the ability to dominate and have values and norms that are the most logical and followed by the members. Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) was American sociologists who proposed a series of seven stages through which societies passed from savagery to civilization. Karl Marx (1813-1883) was a German philosopher who spent much of his life in England, while he is classed as a conflict theorist, his theory of change is clearly evolutionary, and he saw a series of successive changes of increasing technological complexity, from primitive hunting o modern industrialization. Each stage has own “mode of production” while all other elements of the culture were brought into harmony with it. Cyclical Theorists also a series of stages through which societies must pass. But, instead of ending in a final stage of perfection they see a return to the starting point for another round. There are many names who contributed in this school of thought. Pitrim Sorokin (1889-1968) is one of those who was from Russia and than left Russia and went to USA. He saw all the modern civilization in an endless cycle of three culture systems i.e. ideational culture, idealistic culture, and sensate culture. Functionalist theorist says that change is the functional need of the society and is accepted. Societies those who change theme self survive and those societies are capable of going with the time. This school of thought says only those changes are adopted which are useful and are in fewer of society while those are rejected which are not useful.

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MEDIA IN THE BEGINNING
The beginning of visual media and even audio media were used for many purposes by the different countries. The most miss utilization of this fantastic media was used for propaganda during World War. This was the time when this media was trying to developed from its childhood stage. It is a say that well begin is half done. While in this case, it was an opposite media different this for experience. language. stages their that the of Time has changed history and of this media has flourished had had it each factor a is seen used so other, has with a new technology and today we are talking this by using a new The how people people’s benefit. whole people, Today, now electronic and the rule the talking media has to world, countries starting and factor world

communication

personalized almost gone in grabs the

avoiding heart. The

meeting to each other. I would say it is a kind of psychic air which mind which socializing this as background. Another information, people need related about with their communication power. education,

technology Thousands

is of

furthermore

considered

information

health,

livelihood, and so on. For instance, take the example of HIV/AIDS and STDs, if people know how to avoid these diseases, this could not be happened the saving all what If actually people being happening know that, including in African saving themselves, countries may be or then other there part they is of are no world. environment means

living

need of making “In convenient truth (an environmental documentary by Al Gore)”. It is actually a long debate but what I mean is that the time has come to think what best use of New Media technology and knowledge could be? The idea of “Visual media for social change” developed through all these madness. This is not a new idea, but this could be a

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reminder for and could be an alarm for, hey guys what are you thinking to go ahead with to fantasy your world? Or is would not you forcible like to to give some or no contribution back society? It anyone

one can change the idea or mind of anyone but it could be a serious question for New Media Artist that, what benefit is you going to do for society? food, the and Is it a technology and a toy for fun is all loving not these world societies, an issue? in where My the New health, last few education, months, is most I shelter, am trying livelihood to in search the

supplementary question could be the opposite of mentioned question. For answers of light of the New Media Arts. It was not a surprise for me that my idea thinking marginalized fantasy the Media. However, being an optimistic and a social activist I will always advocate for the use of New Media for social change. Today's discussion with Eleanor was great in the sense of New Media advocacy. (Jayprakash Panwar 'JP'
14/Aug/2007 www.Rediff.com)

MEDIA’S INFLUENCE ON SOCIETY
The shift of media and media industry over the past few years into new forms, such as DVD and the internet, changes the channels available for audiences to consume and receive media. The change has caused some media theorists to call into question the influence that the media has over attitudes and beliefs. Urbanization, industrialization and life is one good change created by social conditions in which the mass media has developed. Mass media plays a crucial role in forming and reflecting public opinion:media connects the world to individuals and reproduce the selfimage of society. Critiques in the early-to-mid twentieth century suggested that media weaken or delimit the individual's capacity to act autonomously . Mid twentieth-century empirical studies, however, suggested more limited effects of the media. Current scholarship presents a more complex interaction between the media and society, with the media on generating information from a network of relations and influences and with the individual interpretations and evaluations of the information provided, as well as generating information outside of media contexts. The consequences and the mass media 6

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relate not merely to the way newsworthy events are perceived (and which are reported at all), but also to many of cultural influences that operate through the media. The media has a strong social and cultural impact upon society. This is predicated upon its ability to reach a wide audience which often sends a strong and influential message. Marshall McLuhan uses the term “the medium is the message” as a means of explaining how the distribution of the message can often be more important that the message itself. [1] It is through the persuasiveness of mediums such as television, radio and print media that reach the target audience. These have been influential mediums as they have been largely responsible in structuring the daily lives and routines of Australians. Television broadcasting has a large amount of control in influencing the content that society watches and the times in which they are viewed. This is a distinguishing feature of traditional mediums and although they are by no means redundant, the development of the internet has challenged the traditional participation habits involved in mediums such as television. The internet has lifted some of the restrictions placed on society by allowing for diversification of political opinions, social and cultural differences and heightened level of consumer participation. There have been suggestions that allowing consumers to produce information through the internet will lead to a bombardment of too much information. It can however allow society a medium for expressing opinions and moving away from the political restrictions placed on society.( April 2007))

MEDIA’S ROLE IN SOCIAL CHANGE
Most of the time we feel very strongly against many a things taking place around us. But hardly ever we decide to act boldly. Be it any injustice being meted out to someone unknown to us today or to ourselves tomorrow, we prefer being silent spectators. Accept it or not for "practical reasons" we avoid the whispering sounds. As is visible in the way the foreign lifestyle has engulfed our life and mindsets too. Parents have stopped sounding like a 'nuisance' anymore since they realized their suggestions are viewed as 'interference' in their own beloved kids' life. They have somehow submitted themselves before the regularly updating definition of freedom. There was a time when everything required a permission of parents. One couldn't decide 7

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upon living 'his/her own way' just because he/she has got into a 'big' college or institute. What a youngster watches on TV or listening or doing in his/her spare time was parents' first concern. Not to all youngsters such regulations felt 'disgusting' or 'suffocating'. For, being just open to SEX was not the only benchmark of anyone's being 'modern' or 'person of this planet'. People had friends and a huge social life too. Today, even mentioning such thing can make your listeners turn off their faces or laugh at you. Probably, such talks look fairy tales of 18th century. Of course today's youngsters are many a times sharpminded than youngsters of their age in the recent past. But it is also true that most of the youngsters appear engulfed or swallowed up by the 'copy cat' style of life. What we watch on big or small screen we just follow it without applying even our common sense. Certainly, the long cherished lifestyle in urban and rural areas of the country had its advantages and disadvantages too. But it had the power of keeping families united. It had the charisma of going to each other's place for great affection. Today, it is just to sound 'being in touch' we visit anyone's place. The values we give to our relationships have lost their sheen. Except on marriages, parties or funerals that we come to reunite for a few hours. Are we not living a life of seclusion in the absence of our near and dear ones? We can take it as reward (read penalty) of blindly submitting our lifestyle to 'Filmi lifestyle’. The sudden exposure of Cable channels have brought in Hollywood's vulgarity in our Pakistani families. Today, as a parent one cannot just tell a little strongly to his/her own child about not doing anything. For, they know the suggestion would fall on deaf ears. As today's youngsters is fast loosing faith in tolerance. Unsurprisingly, such an attitude creates problem in nurturing relations in married life too. Just ask any parent to go and stop anyone from watching any song or movie, which is coming on television. The hesitation would be just because nobody wants to face an 'open-mouthed' reply. But why? Who is responsible for such a precarious situation? Cannot we, as youngsters, make our parents at comfort with us? Be it any 'item number' or late night episodes shown on AXN or Movie channels, the media moguls are simply attacking our life and brain-washing our future generations. Like any individual with no control on his/her lifestyle or objective we have somehow

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submitted ourselves to others' way of life. By the time we realized the repercussions of such a 'trapped lifestyle', we would have lost our golden years of career too. It is regrettable when the western world is striving to take lessons from our tradition way of family system; we have lost interest in it. Can addiction to marijuana, cocaine, foreignbrands of drinks or half-naked lifestyle make us look more 'successful' than anyone in any part of the world? Well, sooner or later we have to learn what we could get benefited from even today-the Indian lifestyle. We should show how much deep-rooted we are to our family values without feeling embarrassed of it for a second in any gathering. It is only when we learn how to live with pride in our present circumstances; we will ensure great success despite every limitation or obstruction. But are we ready to change at bit today?
( Can We Dare To Change? By: Sandeep Datta””)

Media has changed the lifestyle as well as the structure of the families in Pakistan. Once it is consider as the luxury item but now it is the reach of almost every common people due to this families are modernized day by day and even they are broken into separate family system or you can say nuclear family system. This is only due to the influence of media. In Pakistan after the 1980s the trend had changed and the electronic media start moving the use of television start increasing. Before 1980s the people are not very much interested in watching television. Even people don’t have their own television at their homes and they go to others home of their relatives and friends to watch television. But now time has changed and the television is available at almost every home. Even in rural areas or in village’s people watch television as their great source of recreation. This thing has great impact on the lifestyles of families, different type of programs are telecast on television for the person of every generation from elder to younger women and men. With the use of dish and cable network the use of television is very increased. People are more aware with the things. You can watch almost all types of programs on television like news, fashion shows, dramas, movies etc. people love to watch non Pakistani channels instead of Pakistani channels. People watch Indian and English channels more than Pakistani channels that are not a right thing. Due to the increase in the use of watching Indian channels we are moving toward their culture. The

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Indian dramas had a very great impact on the women of our family. They demand those things that they watch on the television.

MEDIA BOOM IN PAKISTAN
The media scene in Pakistan has seen a tremendous growth over the last few years: The open media policy adopted by the present regime has resulted in frenzy with every big shot of Pakistan opening up his/her TV or FM channel. Leaving aside the quality of these channels for a while, let’s have a look at the impacts of this trend. We only had a single TV channel i.e. PTV till 2001. NTM proved to be a bit of fresh air in the early 90’s, but the conspiracies of PTV bureaucracy ultimately led to its closure. By then most of the Pakistanis especially the urbanites of Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad had already switched over to the cable TV. So when Indus TV network started its transmission on 14th August, 2001, it was a new phenomenon in Pakistani media scene. People started taking notice of this channel and its viewer ship increased many folds within months. Then other business interests jumped into the bandwagon in opening up new TV channels and since then there is no looking back. Now there are more dozens of private TV channels operating in Pakistan. These TV channels can be divided into five categories. First one has the largest market share and it comprises both News and Entertainment channels of Urdu language. They also have the largest viewer ship and revenue generation. The second category is of English TV channels. It’s a new phenomenon and only a single channel, i.e. Dawn News has recently started its transmission. The third category is of hybrid channels mostly catering to the urban youth of Pakistan. They mostly play both desi and foreign musical content interspersed with catchy programs related to the issues of young generation. The fourth category is of channels offering regional language programs. These channels are offering their services in almost all languages of Pakistan whether it’s Sindhi, Baluchi, Brahvi, Punjabi, Pashto or Kashmiri. They have proved to be a massive hit especially

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among the rural populace of Pakistan. Last but not the least is the genre of sports channels. Currently only one channel i.e. GEO SUPER is reining this field. The TV industry, of course, will be preferred as its the strongest medium of expression. Before we take on a long and arduous journey on analyzing the TV industry, let us have a go at the Radio scene, FM Radio to be more precise, in Pakistan. The traditional AM radio was literally dead in Pakistan by early nineties. The urban listeners were fed up with the old-fashioned type of entertainment that was and still is the hallmark of Radio Pakistan. Braving all the above mentioned grim realities of radio scene in Pakistan, the first FM channel of Pakistan, FM 100, was launched in 1995. This channel revolutionized the radio scene of Pakistan. Targeting the young and urban population, FM 100 gained massive listeners base in a few months. The people who were sick of traditional radio switched over to FM because the a) the content was new and pop-oriented (b) the interactive style with live call in really caught peoples attention and the DJ phenomena was also warmly accepted by the urban masses To cut the long story short, the bureaucracy at the Radio Pakistan decided to launch a Sarkari FM channel, FM 101, in 1998 to curb the growing popularity of FM 100. Since 2001, we have seen a massive growth of FM channels all over Pakistan. It is operating in Pakistan, by the end of this year. Now FM listening has become a habit of many Pakistani urbanites irrespective of their economic standings. In fact its become almost impossible to not listen to FM channels while driving. The FM mobiles have further broadened the listener’s base of these channels. I must say that urbanites have become sort of addicted to FM mania. As they say, quantity and quality are two opposite sides of a coin, so same is the case with these FM channels. Only a few of them stand out in quality. First let’s have a look at the sub-categories of these FM channels. The most popular ones are indeed the entertainment FM channels. The second one deals with community based channels. The community based channels mostly cater to the educational institutions and NGOs. We also have some sectarian based FM channels (of course operating illegally) in the tribal areas, which are a great mess for national security.

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This post mainly deals with the entertainment based channels. Although we have seen a tremendous growth in this industry but there is still a huge room for improvement. As per the international norms, Pakistani FM channels also cater to different social and economic groups of Pakistan. First we have the hi-fi FM channels which mostly cater to the elite and the professional classes. City FM 89 is the most notable one with its crisp programming and popularity among the target audiences. Some of its programs especially Cloud 89 has garnered international repute for their socio-political content and innovative concepts. There are some critics too who think that the moderator of the program, Hameed Haroon a.k.a Red Baron tries to force his own ideology on the interviewees. Radio Active 96 is another elite channel catering mostly to the young generation. Radio One FM 91 is a channel with broader listeners base. It caters both to the desi as well as vilayati music lovers. The content and style makes this channel one of the most popular ones among all the urbanites. Then there are other channels which mostly play Pakistani and Indian music like FM 100, FM 101, Apna Karachi 107 (famous for its traffic updates), Hum FM, Must FM and others. Their quality ranges from good and average to being gross. The old channels especially FM 100 and FM 101 have now lost their significance and major chunk of listeners due to their scruffy programming. Now let’s have some dig at the advertisement trends of these channels. Unfortunately, Radio Pakistan still takes the big portion of the cake, followed by the oldest FM channel of Pakistan. One wonders why the advertisers still prefer the grand daddies.I think the sole reason is the extensive coverage of these channels which attracts the wallets of these advertisers. The advertising revenues of these FM channels can be seen here (Please note that these revenues are in millions, not in billions as written over there). The quality of advertisements is quite appalling on most of the channels. I am surprised at even the elite channels like City FM 89 and Radio One playing the same ads of candies and phone entertainment services. At least they should prefer quality over these nasty ads provided that they are owned by business tycoons. On a final note, it’s quite satisfying that FM channels, despite their shortcomings have revolutionized the listening trends in Pakistan. Most of these channels have sprung up in a few years and needs time for evolution. One can hope that with the passage of time, the

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process of natural selection will take place and the sub-standard FM channels will be discarded by the listeners.

SOCIAL CHANGE IN INSTITUATIONS OF THE SOCIETY FAMILY STRUCTURE
Media has a great impact on the family lifestyle. The major reason is the advancement of electronic media. Television plays a great role in it. The use of television create different types of issues relate to the family members of the family. Television also plays a great role in the awareness of different types of things related to the families. Like family health issues, like family planning programs, campaigns for the cure of different diseases like HIV aids, hepatitis, polio etc and other different types of diseases. With the passage of time now the whole world is connected trough satellite media broadcasting the introduction of dish TV and cable network is the advanced form of television media. Though with lot of advantages and disadvantages it gave birth to different types of family issues like teen issues, children issues, kids issues etc. these all issues are related with the awareness of media network: SPECIAL ISSUES FOR TEENS: There are different types of issues regarding the teens: Television viewing generally drops during adolescence as young people start to spend more time socializing, doing schoolwork, and using other media, such as music, video games, computers and the Internet. Because watching television is a relaxing activity, requiring low levels of concentration, teens tend to watch TV when they're alone or bored. But even though viewing drops during these years, it's still important for parents to know what their kids are watching. For teens, television is a major source of information about sex. A survey conducted in 1997 by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that 61 per cent of young teens, ages 13-15,

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rated entertainment media as their top source of information on sexuality and sex health. This should concern parents because although two-thirds of TV shows contain sexual content, only one in ten includes any reference to safe sex or the consequences of unprotected sex. The main focus of many teen dramas is sex, with each episode containing countless verbal and visual references to sexual activity. These highly sexualized portrayals of relationships bear little resemblance to the real lives of teens—and are generally not balanced by clear messages about safe and healthy attitudes towards sex. The early teen years are considered a crucial time for the development of healthy self esteem. Insecurities over attractiveness and weight are increasing while at the same time teens are bombarded with TV images of impossible thinness and beauty. It's important that young people understand that most of the images they see on TV are unrealistic and unattainable. Because teens are usually not supervised when watching television, parents have to make a concerted effort to find out what they are watching. You can help lessen the negative effects of TV if you:  Watch your teens' favorite shows with them occasionally—if they'll let you!  use television as a springboard for talking about topics such as sex, AIDS, smoking, drug and alcohol use, divorce and peer pressure  talk about what you find objectionable on TV, and ask their opinions  encourage teens to analyze and question what they see on TV  steer kids towards diverse, good quality programming such as science shows, documentaries, news, realistic teen dramas  watch music videos with your kids and discuss the often-sexist images of women and the representations of masculinity

SPECIAL ISSUES FOR YOUNG CHILDERN:

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Parents of young children need to actively manage and control TV viewing in the home. Children need a variety of activities for healthy development and television can be a fun and educational part of a child's daily routine, if managed properly. Preschoolers (2-5 years)  Children in this age group should spend most of their day playing and socializing, not watching TV. The Canadian Pediatric Society suggests no more than one hour of television per day for preschoolers. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no television for children under age two, saying that parents should focus on interacting with their children instead.  Because preschoolers are more prone to exhibiting aggressive behavior after watching shows containing violence, parents should restrict their exposure to violent programming, especially cartoons. Avoid buying action toys based on violent programs.  The good news for this age group is that there is a lot of wonderful programming for it, particularly on public television. Build up a videotape library of your kids' favorite shows—because preschoolers love to watch the same programs over and over again. School-aged kids (6-11 years)  Because television takes time away from reading and schoolwork it's important to control TV viewing during the school week. Studies show that even one to two hours of daily television viewing by school-aged children has a significant harmful effect on academic performance, especially reading.  Unfortunately, there is a dearth of good programs for older kids, so they tend to spend their time watching cartoons and adult-oriented fare. Try to find quality shows that are aimed specifically at this age group, or appropriate general audience fare such as nature shows, family sitcoms or sports.  Children at this age (as well as preschoolers) like action cartoons, and identify with superhero figures. Parents should actively supervise superhero play to minimize the aggressive aspects and maximize the creative, imaginative potential.

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FRIGHTENING TV CONTENT Because young children have trouble distinguishing make-believe from reality, parents need to safeguard them from violent or scary TV content. Research shows that children want to be protected from media images that are disturbing or frightening. A 2000 study by Ryerson University asked more than 900 kids, between 2 and 12, if they felt they should be protected from certain kinds of TV shows, Web sites and video games. Over half (64 per cent) said they needed safeguarding, while only 19 per cent said they didn't. It's important for parents to understand what is appropriate TV viewing for the various developmental stages of childhood. In her book Mommy, I'm Scared, author Joanne Cantor describes the types of media images that children find most frightening at different ages: Two-to-seven-year-olds:  visual images, whether realistic or fantastic, that are naturally scary: vicious animals, monsters, and grotesque, mutilated, or deformed characters  physical transformations of characters, especially when a normal character becomes grotesque  stories involving the death of a parent or child victims  natural disasters, shown vividly  Seven-to-twelve-year-olds:  more realistic threats and dangers, especially things that could happen to children  violence or the threat of violence Seven-to-twelve-year-olds:  More realistic threats and dangers, especially things that could happen to children  violence or the threat of violence

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TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON KIDS Television is one of the most prevalent media influences in kids' lives. According to Kids' Take on Media, a survey conducted in 2003 by the Canadian Teachers’ Federation, watching TV is a daily pastime for 75 percent of Canadian children, both boys and girls from Grade 3 to Grade 10. How much impact TV has on children depends on many factors: how much they watch, their age and personality, whether they watch alone or with adults, and whether their parents talk with them about what they see on TV. To minimize the potential negative effects of television, it's important to understand what the impact of television can be on children. Below you will find information on some areas of concern. Violence Over the past two decades, hundreds of studies have examined how violent programming on TV affects children and young people. While a direct "cause and effect" link is difficult to establish, there is a growing consensus that some children may be vulnerable to violent images and messages. Parents should also pay close attention to what their children see in the news since studies have shown that kids are more afraid of violence in news coverage than in any other media content. Fear based on real news events increases as children get older and is better able to distinguish fantasy from reality. PROS AND CONS OF MEDIA HAVE ON FAMILTY STRUCTRE There are different positives and negative impacts made on our family lifestyle due to the increase of watching television. PROS  People are connected with the whole world keep sitting at their home.  They watch all types of news of all over the world. 17

Media in Social Change  People are aware of about different things on television.  Awareness of different diseases, like HIV aids, hepatitis etc.  Family planning programs for the women.  People are aware of new fashions in use.

Sociology

 Due to the advancement of media it will create a lot of job opportunities for the all the generation s like elder, younger, children men and women.  People are aware of their country affairs.  There are different types of programs being telecast on television for the recreation of peoples.  People are aware of different social issues regarding their lives.  People can easily pass their time by watching television.  People are aware of different campaigns start in Pakistan related with health, education.  It will give time to sit together for the families. CONS  People waste there lot precious time on watching television.  People believe more what so ever is telecast on television.  It promotes sexual attraction between male and females.  It destroys our youth. They move towards fashion and the modernization.  People are adopting others culture means western culture.  Indian media had badly effect our families, their life style and their living patterns are completely changed.  Indian channels like star plus and other Indian channels badly affect the minds of our females. After watching dramas on TV wives demand that thing from their husbands what so ever they watch on television which is a virtually created on the television and those things are out of reach of the common men of the society.  Our family structure is changed rapidly into nuclear family system or you can say separate family system. 18

Media in Social Change  People learn different types of illegal thing from television.

Sociology

 Due to the openness of media in our society there are lots of commercials and advertisements star telecasting on television which you can’t watch while sitting with your whole family members.  It promotes lot of unethical things which is against our family norms, traditions and culture.

EDUCATION
Whether we live in Germany or the United States, we are all aware of the pervasiveness of new media in our everyday lives. We are surrounded by television, the internet, cell phones, blogs, blackberries, pod casting, and other digital formats, as well as the more conventional print media. These media forms offer educators incredible opportunities for teaching. However, at the same time they pose an equal number of challenges as we strive to make sense of media forms and employ them effectively as educational tools. How can we interpret and deal with these media and their influence? How do these media directly and indirectly shape our opinions, as well as those of our students and the rest of the society in Germany and the United States? How do we process the information presented to us? How does the German media differ from American media? How do our respective national media portray the other country? What is the role of the newspaper in the digital age? Join 10 Illinois and 10 German educators in an important, exciting, and constructive seminar and cultural exchange in which we consider contemporary media. The seminar will be hosted by the ministry of education for the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. English serves as the primary language of instruction, but knowledge of the German language can be useful. The seminar is open to full-time K-12 teachers, school librarians, and counselors, with three or more years of full-time experience. Special preference will be given to teachers with German language skills and to IHC seminar alumni (who have 19

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not attended the Germany seminar in the past). Participants pay their own airfare and some incidental expenses. Room, board, group ground transportation, and course materials are paid for by the host organization. IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is distinctively and widely acknowledged for it’s exhaustive utilization of information and communication technologies for teaching – learning process. A variety of media such as radio, television, computer and Internet etc are being used as a part of learning material by many Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institutions. As a result, course delivery in such institutions is multi-channel; multi-media mix (Kulandai Swaymy, 2002). The requirements of the distance education for developing the course material using the multi-media approach has necessitated, apart from print material, embracing of technologies such as radio, television, audio and video cassettes. Last decade has witnessed a virtual explosion in the advancements made in several areas of technology especially those relating to computer, networking and communications, which have a direct bearing on the distance education system There are some positive educational implications associated with using technologies in Distance Education, like the availability of greater variety of learning resources; improved opportunities for individualities learning; the possibilities of greater control for students over their learning; more extensive coverage via technologies and therefore greater access to them; greater flexibility offered by the wide range of technologies; characteristic fall in the cost of new technologies as they become established; and there is a higher degree of interactivity as convergence occurs between old and new technologies. Because of their qualities, such as greater delivery capabilities, contributing to specific learning activities, promoting participatory learning, motivating the learners to get involved with learning activities, accommodating individual needs and extending the role of teacher etc electronic media such as radio, television, computer and Internet etc have been embraced as a part of learning material by many ODL institutions. However, in practice, the pattern of technologies use among institutions across the world is varied, and

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is commonly influenced by non-pedagogical factors, such as cost, access and availability as much as by pedagogical factors. The ways in which different institutions employ any one particular technology are also subject to great variation.

Some PROS and CONS of Media on education: PROS  Education is widespread all over the world.  You can listen to lecture sitting in your home.  The lectures can be stored and than can be retrieved.  Cost of the education is been lowered because of distant education.  Availability of greater variety of learning resources  Improved opportunities for individualities learning  Video conferencing has made education is easier and if you want ot ask question it is answered on the spot. CONS  Miss use of information.  Intellectual property right issues.  Due to physical absence matters can not be discussed thoroughly with the instructor.  One of the main issues is that the respect of teacher has diminished although not fully finished but student now don’t respect their teacher as much as wanted. It may be because of not knowing who is his/her teacher or the distance between the

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teacher and student. Like in ancient times teachers were given a high place in the society which is now absent in our society.

RELEGION
By Islamic electronic media we mean that the media should be designed in such a way that it will present the true Islam. In Pakistan, Islamic media does not exist. In 1977 during Zia’s era there was a process of Islamization in which use of dopatta was made compulsory for the television announcers, actresses and they were forced to cover their heads with dopatta. Another step taken by TVBy Islamic electronic media we mean that the media should be designed in such a way that it will present the true Islam. In Pakistan, Islamic media does not exist. In 1977 during Zia’s era there was a process of Islamization in which use of dopatta was made compulsory for the television announcers, actresses and they were forced to cover their heads with dopatta. Another step taken by Zia was ban on nudity i.e. ban on display of nude posters particularly on portraying women as publicity symbols. Display of nude scenes and moving films with nudity were also banned. The function and role of Islamic media is very important for a society they should provide the general public with the knowledge of Islam through informative programmes about religion they can educate the people as well as able to remove all the misconceptions regarding Islam. The most important role of Islamic media is to promote religious sectarian harmony among public by showing programmes and by calling Renowned Religious Scholars for educating the public. Secondly they have to play an important role in character building of the public. They have to transmit true Islamic values among the public related to religion. They have to create a positive image of Islam in the western world that Islam means Peace and Muslims are not terrorists. Television Islamic Channels  QTV-ARY

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These are the list of religious channels which are producing programmes relate to Islam. QTV Part of ARY Digital group was started in September 2003. It’s a first Islamic channel in the country. It was started with a purpose to educate the public regarding Islam and to present the true image of Islam throughout the World. Its targeted audience is the Muslims around the World. They design programmes for every member of the society such as man, womam and especially for the children so that they can learn about their religion from their childhood. QTV also offered certificated courses for the people sitting in homes they just have to watch the program Q –Campus and in the end of a program there is a question and answer sessions and they have to answers these questions and if there answers are correct they will get a certificate. They offered certificate courses for Arabic grammar, Hadiths, etc. The structure and policy of Islamic electronic media is to present the true Islam and to educate, and guide the general public about the right way of Islam. So they design their policies in way such that they can educate the public and to introduce the modern enlighten vision of Islam. Their main aim is to remove the misconceptions related to Islam. Services provided by the Islamic media are to spread Islam, secondly to remove all the misconceptions relate to Islam, thirdly they wanted to present complete information about the religion and also to solve problems of people relate to Islam. For this purpose they invite renowned Religious Scholars, which help the public in understanding the true Islam and answer their questions. Recent statistic shows that the viewer ships of Islamic channels have increased now. People these days are more interested in getting information about the religion as television is now found in every house in urban as well as in the rural areas. Mostly the target of Islamic media is the people who are uneducated and do not have the knowledge about the religion and also target the Muslims living in the western world. 23

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Mostly radio channels like FM 100.101,103 only made religious programmes on special occasions like Ramadan, Muharram, Rabiul-ul Aval, and Hajj. In daily transmission they broadcast recitation of Quran with translation, Hamd and Naat in the beginning of their transmission. Radio Pakistan shows programmes related to Islam in order to educate the public and to create awareness in them regarding religion.

POPULAR RELIGIOUS PROGRAMMES ON VARIOUS CHANNELS According to a survey programmes, which are popular, are Aalim Online (Geo), Aaj Aurat aur Islam, Deen Aasan (ATV) AAJ Islam (AAJ TV) Seratay Mustakeem, (TV 1) Haeya UL fallah (PTV). Aalim Online is a religious program that has tried to tackle the issues, which were not discussed even behind closed door The program broadcast almost daily, brings together Islamic scholars from the two main schools of thought, Sunni and Shia, who answer questions via live telephonic calls from various corners of the world. AAJ Islam: AAJ Islam is a programme design to safeguard the beliefs and protect the theological foundations of the religion by answering the questions in the light of Quran and Sunnah. Religious leaders of the highest order will take questions and provide the ideological reasoning behind every aspect of Islam and is its modern application. The format of the programme is talk show. Aaj Aurat aur Islam: It’s a programme based on the teaching of Islam with regard to the status and role of women. Dr Sammar Fatima renowned religious scholar gives answers in the light of Quran, and Hadith. INTERNET The most important medium used for communication these days is the Internet. In Pakistan there are many websites related to Islam but there are so many controversies regarding these websites because people are of the opinion that some websites are not educating people regarding the true teachings of Islam and some are doing propaganda against Islam and encouraging wrong concepts related to Islam some people are of the 24

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views that there are some websites which are owned by non Muslims and are providing the people with the incorrect information about Islam but on the other hand there are some websites which are providing the people with the complete knowledge of Islam their main target is the youth but they are very few. There are many websites, which are in Urdu also, which are working in order to inform the people regarding true Islam. In terms of credibility and authenticity there are many controversies regarding these Islamic websites. Some are of the view that these websites are using religion for their own benefits and exploiting people in terms of religion. The future of Islamic channels and shows is very bright because nowadays people are interested more in knowing about their religion and with the help of more and more dedicated Islamic channels and programmes they will gain more awareness about that which will help them not only in becoming a good Muslim but also a good citizen. But the most important thing needed is that the programmes related to religion should be design very carefully correct and accurate information should be given to the people on the topic of Islam due to these Islamic channels and programmes those who don’t have the complete awareness regarding religion will be able to educate themselves by watching these programmes and by doing this, the media can play a significant role for the betterment of the society. Some PROS and CONS of Media on Religion: PROS  Awareness about Islam as we can see that Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world.  Image of Islam can be bitterly produced.  Islamic channels show TV Programs which are very useful in the preaching of Islam.  The teaching of Islam can spread at a high pace.

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 You can directly contact any “AALIM” without any problem and ask about any issue you want. CONS  Some Evil minded people are spreading false rumors about Islam and it damage the image of Islam very quickly as the information spread at a fast speed.  Sectarian conflicts are exaggerated by some forces.  Some channels are trying to make some non Islamic issues legal such as “KHUDA KAY LEYE”.  The extra freedom that is given to media is damaging the image of Islam and some forces are hurting the feelings of Muslims. Such as in case of caricatures of our beloved Prophet (P B U H).

POLITICS
Over the past century we have seen so much changes in the political system of the world.and media has been one of the most important factor in changing the conditions. From boosting of the compaign to the coverage of violance or protests agianst government these all are the result of media.but it has been oue dilema that the government use media to strenghten their self and if media in any way talk aginst government the government try to burry their voices. In recent exemple of Lal Masjid and Case of chief justice the government didn’t let the media to give coverage or information to general public. And history tell us that the dictators or monarchs use media in their favour eithier it was print media or elecronic media. REVIEW OF TRENDS IN POLITICAL CHANGE: FREEDOM AND CONFLICT  POLITICAL GOVERNANCE During the 20th century, the number of democratic states and number of people living in democracies increased. In 2000, over half of the world population lives in democracy, but one third live in authoritarian regimes. Almost all more developed states are now 26

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democracies. Almost 2/3rds of less developed countries are democracies, but almost 30 percent are authoritarian or totalitarian regimes

Table 1 World population living under these Governance types 1900 1950 2000 Population Population Population Percent of Percent of Percent of (millions) 0 207 299 23 610 0 0 503 27 1668 Population 0% 12% 18% 1% 37% 0% 0% 30% 2% (millions) 743 286 78 16 13 122 817 118 203 2,396 Population 31% 12% 3% 1% 1% 5% 34% 5% 9% (millions) 3,439 298 0 58 0 1,968 142 0 5 5,910 Population 58% 5% 0% 1% 0% 33% 2% 0% 1% -

Democracy Restricted_Democracy Constitutional_Monarchy Traditional_Monarchy Absolute_Monarchy Authoritarian_Regime Totalitarian_Regime Colonial_Dependency Protectorate Total

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Table 2 Number of countries with these Governance types

Less Developed Countries 1900 1950 2000 Democracies 0% 4.2% 53.1% Restricted_Democracies 14.7% 14% 11.2% Monarchies 7% 8.4% 7% Regimes 0% 13.3% 28.7% Colonies 52.4% 40.6% 0% Protectorates 14% 18.9% 0% Empires 11.9% 0% 0% Number of countries 143 143 143

More Developed Countries 1900 1950 2000 0% 34.8% 95.7% 10.9% 4.3% 0% 45.7% 6.5% 0% 0% 43.5% 2.2% 6.5% 2.2% 0% 4.3% 8.7% 2.2% 32.6% 0% 0% 46 46 46

Democracy's Century: http://freedomhouse.org/reports/century.html  FREEDOM The Freedom House country ratings also can be combined with census from the International Database data to show the number of people who were living in countries with freedom, partial freedom and no freedom. These data show that freedom increased for both less developed and more developed countries. However, using population to examine freedom in less developed countries shows 1. Only moderate growth in the number of people in freedom in Less Developed countries.

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2. Significantly less freedom and less growth in freedom than might be indicated by looking at freedom using countries as the unit of analysis. For example, table 2 shows over 50% of less developed countries are democracies. However, only 32% of people in less developed countries live in countries that are free. Table 3 Percent of people living in countries that are free, partially free, and not free

1980 Less Developed Countries Free 26.5% Partially Free 29% Not Free 45% More Developed Countries Free 88% Partially Free 5% Not Free 7%

2000 31.5% 26% 43% 99% 0.2%

Freedom House ratings available at http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=1 The above analysis does not include many of the countries and satelites of the former Soviet Union. These countries did not exist until 1990 or so. In 2000, a few of these countries (e.g., Latvia, Slovakia, Slovenia, also East Germany) were free. Several more were partially free, but a few (e.g., Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan) were still not free in 2000. Inclusion of these countries might change the percents above slightly. A number of less developed countries gained freedom, while a number of less developed countries lost partial freedom. (No countries went from Free to Not Free).

 TERRORISM

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Data from the US Department of State shows that, since the late 1980s, there has been a decline in the number of international terrorist attacks. Data from the Terrorism Knowledge base show a similar decline since the early 1980s. The major decline in international terrorist attacks was in Western Europe. On the other hand, Asia experienced an increase in international terrorist attacks. Other regions experienced less consistent patterns over time from 1991 to 2003; there was a consistent increase in the number of casualties from international terrorist attacks in Asia, but few other consistent trends in casualties from international terrorist attacks. Three different regions had, in three different years, a few attacks with a large number of casualties. On the other hand, data from the MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base show that since the mid to late 1990’s there have been a large increase in the number of total terrorist incidences, injuries and fatalities. Most of this increase is due to an increase in domestic terrorism. The above changes in the political conditions during the last century can be said that caused by boom in media for instance we talk about freedom then it is media that played important role in giving the people right and up to date information and awareness about their rights and responsibilities. Similarly political governance system has been changed parallel to changes and boom in media. And at last but not the least terrorism which seems to be the most widely used and misused word now days why it has spread so fast we can imagine. That’s because of media and especially electronic media which made it really fast to move. Some PROS and CONS of Media on Politics: PROS  People are aware of current affairs.  Freedom of expression.  People have all the coverage to what government is doing and can decide whether government is doing fair or not. 30

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 E-Election or electronic election. Now the process is in the hands of PC’s not men so least chances of errors.  Faster communication between countries.  Forecast of future projects.  Least chances of corruption as everything is known to the general public and every common man know what is right and wrong. CONS 

ECONOMY
An economy is the realized system of human activities related to the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area. The composition of a given economy is inseparable from technological evolution, civilization's history and social organization, as well as from Earth's geography and ecology, e.g. ecoregions which represent different agricultural and resource extraction

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opportunities, among other factors. Economy refers also to the measure of how a country or region is progressing in terms of product. The earliest economic activity centered around food gathering and animal hunting. During the Stone Age, which lasted until about 11000 years ago, early humans wandered in tribal or family groups, hunting animals for food and picking nuts, berries, and fruits where they could. All of this continued until an agricultural revolution occurred. People realized that instead of always having to hunt for animals and search for berries, they could just domesticate them. This meant that they would graze the animals like sheep. They would domesticate them for milk and meat. They could also grow their own desired plants. This meant that humans would have a reliable supply of food. This improved people’s lives and provided leisure time, which could then be used to develop other activities. The demands of crops and herding animals also encouraged people to remain in one location, so villages and towns began to develop. That was the first human economic activity as trading was first performed among people. The food grown by individuals now would not only be used to feed themselves, but if they had more than they needed they could trade for other needed equipment. Continued improvement in agricultural technology—such as the plough, the tractor and better farming techniques— led to even better lives for people. The new technology improved crop yields and food quality, and also resulted in better methods for storing, transporting, and selling food. One result of this technological change was that people had more time to do other things beside produce food. They could become craftspeople, working with metal wood or cloth. Or they could host other things, including teaching, developing laws, practicing medicine, or leading their growing communities. These new crafts and skills that people developed from the leisure time they created from the new farming techniques, generated jobs and money. For example metal workers could sell their products to farmers and they would either barter with food, or would trade with capital (money). The money would then keep flowing around the community and the economic activity would increase. Modern Economic Activities—Industrial Revolution and Urbanization The modern era for economics started around 1700 A.D. It was that time when a second agricultural revolution took place. Farmers began to apply new scientific knowledge to producing

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food, especially through the use of machines and equipment. This drove the development of manufacturing, and the Industrial Revolution was underway in the 1800’s. This revolution dramatically changed economic activities. Huge numbers of people were no longer needed as food producers. Many moved from farms to cities to find work in the new factories that were springing in there. Cities became the focus of economic activity during the Industrial Revolution. Urbanization shifted the population from the countryside to the cities. Cities that were built on manufacturing grew and expanded. By the beginning of the 1900’s, more and more people were working jobs not related to agriculture and manufacturing. This created the different types of industries (primary, secondary, tertiary). These jobs were created to provide consumers in the cities with services such as entertainment, shops and stores, banking and insurance. All these revolutions and changes in economic system have brought us to today’s economy. There are 4 types of economic systems: traditional, command, market and mixed. Economic systems is the way economy works. The 4 basic resources to an economy are land, labor, capital, and technology. Land refers to all natural resources that we use to make something such as minerals, energy, water, or land. Labor refers to human energy, efforts and talents that go towards making something. Capital is money— money invested in machinery, buildings and the like. Technology includes all resources that are not natural resources, such as scientific knowledge which allows decisions to made. These are the world’s economic systems: 1) Traditional economy is an economy in which decisions are made based on what has been done in the past. People organize their economic choices by following their religion, custom and tradition. An example of how traditional economy worked would be if there was a new road to be built, elders might be consulted and the decision would be made according to the tradition of the people. 2) Command economy is an economy where decisions are made by a central authority, such as dictator or a government. Citizens are required to carry out these decisions with few personal choices. An example would if a new industry was to built there, people in power decided if it fit into their plans and if it met their needs. The citizens of the country would have to carry out these commands. A country that follows this economic system is North Korea. 3) Market economy is an economy where decisions are made by all members of

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the society based on their own needs and desires. Citizens make their own choices through buying and selling in the market place. If a factory were to be constructed, decisions would be made by a corporation, based on whether or not profit could be made. The government might or might not be involved. A country that uses this type of an economic system is the United States. 4) In mixed economies decisions are made within a system that has aspects of both market and command economies. Governments, businesses and individuals are all included in the making of the decision. So, if there was an automobile manufacturing industry to be built there, the decision to construct a road would be made after discussions among governments, businesses and consumers. The decision would rest in the hands of any of these groups. Canada is an example of a mixed economy. In modern economies, there are three main sectors of economic activity:

Primary sector: Involves the extraction and production of raw materials, such as corn, coal, wood and iron. (A coal miner and a fisherman would be workers in the primary sector.) Secondary sector: Involves the transformation of raw or intermediate materials into goods e.g. manufacturing steel into cars, or textiles into clothing. (A builder and a dressmaker would be workers in the secondary sector.) Tertiary sector: Involves the provision of services to consumers and businesses, such as baby-sitting, cinema and banking. (A shopkeeper and an accountant would be workers in the tertiary sector.)

First, the majority of world population has been and continues to be in Asia (except Japan). Over time, however, this majority shrank from 65% in 1000 CE (Common Era) to 51% in 1950. At the same time, the percent of world population in Western Europe and its offshoots (including the US) grew from 10% in 1000 CE to 19% in 1950. More recently, population dynamics have been changing. While the population in the Western Offshoots (US and others) has nearly doubled between 1950 and 1998, the population of Asia (except Japan) nearly tripled in that same time. In addition, the population of Africa has more than tripled.

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In consequence of the differences in population growth, the percent of world population in Asia has increased slightly, up to 57% in 1998, while the percent of world population in Western Europe and it's offshoots declined to 12% in 1998. Second, in 1000 CE, economic output per capita was approximately similar across all regions. As a result, percent of world economic output for each region was roughly similar to percent of world population. After 1000 CE, output per capita started to vary by region, increasing most dramatically in Western Europe and in its offshoots. As a consequence, percent of world output from Asia decreased from 67% in 1000 CE to 16% in 1973, while percent of world output from Western Europe and its offshoots increased, at the same time, from 9% to 51%. SOCIAL ECONOMY Social Economy refers to the economy of the social web and emerging social media technologies, rather than “social innovation” or “social enterprise”. The merging together of these definitions and exploration will make very interesting intersection of social media and social innovation. Or call it new media in the social economy, if you will. The use of social media technologies to meet social needs, empower civil society, fight global warming will have a huge impact on raising citizen awareness and activism. Already, a number of sites have emerged, with the ability, if not, the express intention to impact positive social change. Social media differs from traditional media in that it enables interaction and dialogue its users, and can be entirely self sustaining through user-generated content. Social media relies heavily on democratic principles that allow anyone to promote anything from videos and news stories, to music and photos. Social media is a force to be reckoned with, as it has the awesome potential to democratize society by placing the power of information back into the hands of civil society through citizen journalism. It can harness the wisdom of crowds and create community in unprotected ways.

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Media in Social Change Some PROS and CONS of Media on Economy: PROS  Societies learn form their past experiences in case of failures.  Awareness to common men thaw ether economy is growing or not.

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 The type of economic system a country having also determine the state of common man.  Like the fascist or dictatorship economy bound common men not to raise voice against government so productivity is low.  Fast communication is there which means productivity will increase.  Economic strategies of developed are available and underdeveloped countries can learn from their strategies. CONS  Government use media in their favor which hide the real facts and figures from general public and there are greater chances of corruption.  It is difficult to maintain law and order when government has given liberty to general public because some people can use it for their personal purpose.  Threat of hacking or security because of transfer of government’s confidential data via internet.

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