SOCIAL CHANGE AND MEDIA

In the area of Sociology, we have tried to emphasize on the changes that are brought by the members of the society. Social change has importance in society because change in the behavior and attitude of the people and environment of the society is so slow sometimes that we even don’t know that what change has been brought in our lives. It was not tough for us to research on social change, while we are researching of Social Change in Pakistan. 'Social Change' in sociology is change in social relationships or culture. In simple words it means such a change that deals with society, as well as its members. ‘Social Change’ is also used as ‘Socio-Cultural Change’

which refers to the change in society as well as its culture. All societies are involved in a process of social change; however, this change may be increase by the members of the society when they are hardly aware. The actions of individuals, organizations and social activities have an impact on society and may become the way for social change. The process of social change in any society is mostly very slow so that the members of the society are unable to observe the change in the society. Social change in simple is to motivate the intended people towards better life style. There are some causes/factors and process, which are necessary to brought change in society like diffusion, discovery, invention, physical environment, population change, isolation & contact, social structure, attitudes & values and so on. There are also few theories (Evolutionary,

Cyclical, Functional & Conflict theory and so on), which are discuss in following respectively. While in present the media is playing a vital role in social change. Through media we should aware the members of society that how to change their life style, attitude and behaviors. Change can never always be positive. In some cases people brought such changes which are against the religion, behavior and attitude of the members of the society. There are three things included in process of social change are: Discovery, mean a shade of human perception of reality which already exist. Like discovery of Oil & gas in Pakistan, it affects the lifestyle of human and society of SUI. Invention, a new combination or new use of existing knowledge. Human being using their existing knowledge and invent new things I.e. Mobile, radio, Bluetooth etc. It’s revolutionizing which change world and change human lifestyle. The biggest social invention is ALPHABATES. Diffusion is the spreading and transferring of culture from one society to other society. When two culture exchange some ideas and thoughts, it’s called culture diffusion. Diffusion is two way process: one person learns as well teach. The factors which affecting rate of social change are: Physical environment mean topography. The social change is higher in that area where communication is easy. If we compare Peshawar with chital, the Peshawar area is plan and communication is easy as compare to chital and rate of social change is higher in Peshawar. Population change, change in population may be increase or decrease. In case of increase society goes from tradition to urban. While in case of decrease member of

society become closer to each other and goes toward traditional society. Isolation & contact, change comes in society due to contacts and isolation. Collectively we take example of faster social change in that area which is lies nearly with G.T road. Social structure, collectively its mean what type of social relationship prevailing among member of society. In Pakistan collectivism is prevailing. While in American society individualism prevailing. Now human moving from collectivism to individualism. Attitudes & Values, these are behavior, perception and outlook of an individual or group about different thing of society. Our internal thoughts playing a vital role in attitudes and values. e.g. educated people have more exposure and have more adoptability than non-educated people. Perceived needs, sociologist said that all need is not real, such as luxuries. Those needs are real which drive satisfaction. Technology development comes by perceived needs. Culture base, accumumilation of knowledge and techniques available for invention. Where more invention and techniques avail, there rate of social change will be high. Culture base have two parts: one is cross fertilization and second is exponential principle. Cross Fertilization, using the techniques and knowledge of one field in other field. e.g. Laser technology is the invention of physics, while it’s using in different other fields like in Bio, medical and so on. Exponential principle, it’s mean that the availability of unlimited techniques, there would be more chances of invention and the rate of social change would also be higher.e.g Mobile, T.V. Internet etc. There are some theories playing a vital role in social change:

Evolutionary theory, this theory social change was based on the

assumption

that

all

societies

develop

from

simple,

‘small-scale’

beginnings into more complex industrial and post-industrial societies. According to this theory change always takes place in one direction. Change always means progress. This development process was thought to be unilinear, that is, there was one line of development from simple to complex. Conflict theory, Marxism (Marx and Engels) Marxism also saw itself as offering a 'scientific account' of change but, in opposition to Functionalism, this focused on the premise that radical change was inevitable in society. Marxism argued that the potential for change was built into the basic structures of society, the relationships between social classes, which Marx saw as being essential to the social relations of production. According to Marx, ultimately society reaches a point where its own organization creates a barrier to further economic growth and at that point, crisis precipitates a revolutionary change of the society, for example, from feudalism to capitalism or from capitalism to socialism. Cyclic theory, Based on the observation that civilizations rise and fall. An exemplar of cyclical theory is the work of Pitirim Sorokin, he identified 2 types of cultures: Ideational cultures—emphasize spiritual values and Sensate cultures—emphasize sensual experience. Suggested that

societies move between these two extremes of sensate and ideational culture. Functional theory, Functionalist theory emphasizes social order rather than social change. Talcott Parsons viewed society as consisting of interdependent parts which work together to maintain the balance of the whole, rather like the human body with its mutually dependent organs

working for the health of the entire organism. Key concepts of this theory are those of differentiation and integration. In the era of modern technology MEDIA is playing an important role in changing human lifestyle, behavior, attitude and aware them, that what are there rights and how to achieved those rights. The creative media improve health, education, promote human rights and foster social change. Media inspires people to make positive personal choice that improve their health and place them on the path to social and economic independent. The best delivery method to reach the audience, including radio, television, print, internet, mobile messaging and so on.

1. INTRODUCTION1
In this area of Sociology, I have tried to emphasize on the changes that are brought by the members of the society. Social change, being as a
1

Report of Ms Rabia from Mass communication, National University of Modern Languages

topic, has its importance in society because change in the behavior and attitude of the people and environment of the society is so slow sometimes that we even don’t know that what change has been brought in our lives. I mainly try to cover-up those theories, factors and impacts (of social change) on society which are essential to brought change in it. First of all, I described the social change and later on its various aspects through which it is being brought. It was not tough for me to have research on social change, in general, but in case of Social Change in Pakistan. Social Change in Pakistan is the topic which took a lot of time to study about the changes that are brought by the people in the society. At the end of this Intro about my research, I would like to say thanks to my father for his guidance.

SOCIAL CHANGE
What is Social Change? 'Social Change' is a term used within sociology and applies to amendment in social relationships or culture. In simple words it means such a change that deals with society, a planned community of people, as well as its members. ‘Social Change’ is also used as ‘Socio-Cultural Change’ (in anthropology), The term social change is used to indicate the changes that take place in human interactions and interrelations. Society is a web of social relationships and hence social change means change in the system of social relationships. These are understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and social organization. Auguste Comte the father of Sociology has posed two problems- the question of social statics and the question of social dynamics, what is and how it changes. The sociologists not only outline the structure of the society but also seek to know its causes also. According to Morris Ginsberg social change is a change in the social structure. Societies are characterized by change: the rate of change, the processes of change, and the directions of change. The actions of individuals, organizations and social activities have an impact on society and may become the medium for social change. The process of social change in any society is mostly very slow so that the members of the society are unable to differentiate between off and on changes in the society. To observe the change in the society various socialists describe theories factors and patterns of social change through which these changes are being brought.

Impact of Technology Change
Factor means those reasons which are essential to brought changes in society.

TECHNOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES
The causes of social change below affect or characterize every aspect of society across the world. On a macro scale, they shape all of our major social institutions (economics, politics, religion, family, education, science/technology, military, legal system, and so on. On a micro scale, they shape our values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. In sum, they influence our ways of life.

INDUSTRIALIZATION (Economic Change)
Change in the economy is one of the main factors of Social Change. If in any country there is some economic revolution, it would directly impact on the masses. Economic change brought change in the attitude and behavior of the people which later on results change in the society which is called Social Change. For example; being as a prime minister of Pakistan, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, he announced Nationalization, a system in which all the private firms would be handed over to the Government. This Nationalization brought a major economic revolt in Pakistan, people were able to get more governmental jobs and the society was moving towards a change in their thoughts, behaviors and attitudes. This process results in a good communication between government and masses. Characteristics of industrialized societies • • • • • • Smaller percentage of workforce employed in agriculture Increased division of labor, specialization of occupations Increase in education of workforce Increase in economic organizations (businesses) Stronger link between government and economy – interdependent Technological change – new goods and services produced and new occupations result; control of environment and the need to do so. Geographical mobility

• • •

Occupational mobility Population change: Demographic transition; move from (1) high birth rates and high death rates (with smaller population sizes) to (2) high birth rates and low death rates (with extreme population growth) to (3) low birth rates and low death rates (with populations maintenance). People have fewer children as society industrialized because role of family changes and technological advancements allow control of reproduction. Families change from extended to nuclear families due to geographic and occupational mobility. Family is no longer mainly seen as an economic unit.

MODERNIZATION
The process of moving from an agrarian to industrial society is called Modernization. Characteristics of Modern Societies • • • • • • Larger role of government in society and civil service to run governments Forming of social institutions to control behavior Laws and sanctions to regulate behavior Improved quality of life which means, ability to buy good and services, better public health and housing facilities change of governments; replacing goods and services such as cars, mobile ; Change in occupations and careers Control over and management of environmental resources: oil, water, land, animals, etc... The ability to mass produce food, energy, etc... Larger role of science in society to produce knowledge to advance society. Larger role of education and universities. Improved quality of life – higher per capita GDP, ability to buy good and services, more recreational time, better public health, housing Self-efficacy Ability to adapt, expects, and desire continuous change. Example: change of governments; replacing goods and services

• •

• •

such as cars, phone service, marriages; change in occupations and careers.

URBANIZATION
When large populations live in urban areas rather than rural areas, usually results from economic opportunities: either people move to a city for jobs, or rural areas become the sites of large businesses which leads to population growth. If the people from rural areas heavily migrate to urban areas then the economy might deprived to give services to those people and create frustration among them and this would lead to the change in society’s behavior , attitude and environment. In Pakistan, majority is living in ruler area but now seeking the better life style peoples are moving towards in urbanization. It is happened changing the social change awareness. Cities offer social benefits as well as economic benefits: transportation, schools, diffusion of new products and services, and health care, cultural resources. Characteristics of urban populations • • • • • More diversity Independence Weaker social attachments – higher crime Secularization Mass communication systems

If urbanization occurs to fast, infrastructure can not support population (transportation, public health issues, housing, schools, emergency services, jobs). This can result in poverty and class conflict. Class conflict and poverty may also result if large urban areas experience loss of jobs.

Development of the means of transport and communication
Development of transport and communication has led to the national and international trade on a large scale. The road transport, the train service, the ships and the aero planes have eased the movement of men and material goods. Post and telegraph, radio and television,

newspapers and magazines, telephone and wireless and the like have developed a great deal. The space research and the launching of the satellites for communication purposes have further added to these developments. They have helped the people belonging to different corners of the nation or the world to have regular contacts.

Transformation in the economy and the evolution of the new social classes
The introduction of the factory system of production has turned the agricultural economy into industrial economy. The industrial or the capitalist economy has divided the social organization into two predominant classes-the capitalist class and the working class. These two classes are always at conflict due to mutually opposite interest. In the course of time an intermediary class called the middle class has evolved.

Unemployment
The problem of unemployment is a concomitant feature of the rapid technological advancement. Machines not only provide employment opportunities for men but they also take away the jobs of men through labor- saving devices. This results in technological unemployment.

Technology and war
The dangerous effect of technology is evident through the modern mode of warfare. The weaponry has brought fears and anxieties to the mankind. They can easily destroy the entire human race reveal how technology could be misused. Thus greater the technological advancement the more risk for the mankind.

Changes in social institutions
Technology has profoundly altered our modes of life. Technology has not spared the social institutions of its effects. The institutions of family, religion, morality, marriage, state, property have been altered. Modern technology in taking away industry from the household has radically changed the family organization. Many functions of the family have been taken away by other agencies. Marriage is losing its sanctity. It is treated as a civil contract than a sacred bond. Marriages a re becoming more and more unstable. Instances of divorce, desertion and separation are increasing. Technology has elevated the status of women but it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. Religion is losing hold over the members. People are becoming more secular, rational and scientific but less religious in their outlook. Inventions and discoveries in science have shaken the foundations of religion. The function of the state or the field of state activity has been widened. Modern technology have made the states to perform such functions as -the

protection of the aged, the weaker section and the minorities making provision for education, health care etc. Transportation and communication inventions are leading to a shift of functions from local government to the central government of the whole state. The modern inventions have also strengthened nationalism. The modern governments which rule through the bureaucracy have further impersonalized the human relations.

Cultural Lag
To provide a law of social change comparable to the laws of physics and biology that William F. Ogburn in 1922 advanced his theory of social lag. Ogburn pointed out that social changes always originate in the invention by some individual of a new way of doing something new to do. So far he was following in the tradition established by Gabriel Trade; but Ogburn then began to wander in the tracks of Marx, Historically, he argued, inventions occur most often in the field of material technology, if only because the advantages of an improvement in technology are self-evident. With each development in technology there comes, however, some disturbance to the effective working of the existing social order. A strain or stress is set up between the new technique and various organizational aspects of the social system, changes in which come slowly if at all; the result, disequilibrium between new technology and old social organization, is social lag. The core of Ogburn's theory is the idea that change first occurs in the material technology.

Social Movements
Social Movement is one of the major forms of collective behavior. We hear of various kinds of social movements launched for one or the other purpose. A social movement can be defined as collectively acing with some continuity to promote or resist change in the society or group of which it is a part. Horton and Hunt have defined it as a collective effort to promotes or resist change. Smelser defines it as organized group effort to generate or resist social change. According to M.S.A Rao social movement includes two characteristics.

Collective Action
Social Movement involves collective action. However it takes the form of a movement only when it is sustained for a long time. This collective action need not be formally organized. But it should be able to create an interest and awakening in relatively large number of people.

Oriented towards social change
A social movement is generally oriented towards bringing social change. This change could either be partial or total. Though the movement is aimed at bringing about a change in the values, norms, ideologies of the existing system, efforts are also made by some other

forces to resist the changes and to maintain the status quo. The counter attempts are normally defensive and restorative rather than innovative and initiating change. They are normally the organized efforts of an already established order to maintain itself. According to Yogendra Singh social movement is a collective mobilization of people in a society in an organized manner under an individual or collective leadership in order to realize an ideologically defined social purpose. Social movements are characterized by a specific goal which has a collective significance ideological interpretation of the collective goal a rank of committed worker and strong leadership. Social movements have a life-cycle of their own origin, maturity and culmination. T.K Oomen observes that a study of social movements implies a study of social structure as movements originate from the contradictions which in turn emanate from social structure. He states that all social movements centre around three factors- Locality, Issues and social categories. Anthony Wallace view social movement as an attempt by local population to change the image or models they have of how their culture operates. An important component of social movement that distinguishes it from the general category of collective mobilization is the presence of an ideology. A student strike involves collective mobilization and is oriented towards change. But in the absence of an ideology a student strike becomes an isolated event and not a movement. A social movement requires a minimum of organizational framework to achieve success or at least to maintain the tempo of the movement. To make the distinction clear between the leaders and followers to make clear the purposes of the movement to persuade people to take part in it or to support it, to adopt different techniques to achieve the goals - a social movement must have some amount of organizational frame-work. A social movement may adopt its own technique or method to achieve its goal. It may follow peaceful or conflicting, violent or non-violent, compulsive or persuasive, democratic or undemocratic means or methods to reach its goal.

BUREAUCRATIZATION
Process by which most formal organizations in a society (businesses, government, non-profits) run their organizations via the use of extreme rational and impersonal thinking, an extreme division of labor, and record keeping All tasks and functions broken down into small parts which become positions in the organizational hierarchy. Roles attached to positions. Pay and benefits attached to positions not persons. People can rotate in and out of positions but organization survives with little change. Although bureaucratization allows us to be highly efficient and effective and produce surpluses of goods and services, it also can lead to extreme inefficiencies:

Characteristics of Bureaucratization • People in the organization become machine like – just performing the specific aspects of their role; no more, no less. People interactions with the organizations become machine like – example, voice systems. Wasting of workforce skills Inefficient transactions – have to speak to 10 different people before you get to the right person. Mass amounts of paperwork –jobs become largely processing paperwork. Miscommunication. Power is held by a few at the top of the hierarchy which can become problematic if they seek to protect their individual power in the organization. Bureaucrats. Temptation to cheat – corporate crimes. Often because of a lack of checks and balances which gets lost in the maze of offices, departments, positions, supervisors, managers, administrators, etc… or because of extreme power/position in the organization and ability to exploit it. Goal of departments becomes to survive in the organization and protect their own resources, rather than work together to provide a product.

• • • • • •

Process of Social Change

DIFFUSION
Rate at which populations adopt new goods and services is called diffusion. In this process, when people adopt new things and service others got impressed and influences them to have the same one and in result it brings change in the society. This is the spreading and transferring of culture from one society to other society. When two culture exchange some ideas and thoughts its called culture diffusion. Diffusion is two way process, one person learns and teach also. Diffusion is selective process, we select those things which are suit us and to our culture. In contact and isolation diffusion is fast.

INVENTION
An invention is often defined as a new combination or a new use of existing knowledge. Human being use their existing knowledge and invent new things. Thus inventions may be classified as material inventions, such as the telephone, or airplane, and social inventions. The biggest social

change is Alphabates. It is revolutionize which change the world and change human life. Invention may be different in form and function. Different in function mean, the things which already prevail and make some modification in them. e.g “changche” . 1. Prevailing things describe into new things 2. Function things are same but it is modified

DISCOVERY
A discovery is a shared human perception of an aspect of reality which already exists. A discovery becomes a factor in social change only when it is put to use. For example, America is discovered. Natural Gas is discovered in Baluchistan. The question arose that how discovery affect social change. The best example of Gas discovery in Pakistan. It affect the lifestyle of Pakistani people and affect society.

Factors of Social Change

Physical

Environment

Major changes in the physical environment are very compelling when they happen. The desert wastes of North Africa were once green and well populated. Climates change, soil erodes and lakes gradually turn into swamps and finally plains. A culture is greatly affected by such changes although sometimes they come about so slowly that they are largely unnoticed. Human misuse can bring very rapid changes in physical environment which in turn change the social and cultural life of a people. Deforestation brings land erosion and reduces rainfall. Much of the wasteland and desert land of the world is a testament to human ignorance and misuse. Environmental destruction has been at least a contributing factor in the fall of most great civilization. Many human groups throughout history have changed their physical environment through migration. In the primitive societies whose members are very directly dependent upon their

physical environment migration to a different environment brings major changes in the culture. Civilization makes it easy to transport a culture and practice it in a new and different environment. Simply we can say that in plan area social change is higher as compare to mountain areas, because the communication and interaction of society members is easy in plan area. Where communication easy, the social change would be high. For example the area of peshawar is plan and communication is easy and the rate of social change is fast as compare to Chitral, Dir, Gilgit and so on.

Population change
A population change is itself a social change but also becomes a casual factor in further social and cultural changes. When a thinly settled frontier fills up with people the hospitality pattern fades away, secondary group relations multiply, institutional structures grow more elaborate and many other changes follow. A stable population may be able to resist change but a rapidly growing population must migrate, improve its productivity or starve. Great historic migrations and conquests of the Huns, Vikings and many others have arisen from the pressure of a growing population upon limited resources. Migration encourages further change for it brings a group into a new environment subjects it to new social contacts and confronts it with new problems. No major population change leaves the culture unchanged. Change in population may increase or decrease in population. In case of increase in population society goes from tradition to urban or simple to complex. While in case of decrease the member of society become closer and make more relationship with each other and goes back to traditional society. The decrease in population mostly come by natural disasters. The best example is the Earth quick in Balakot, Hazara, Azad Kashmir.

Isolation and Contact
Societies located at world crossroads have always been centers of change. Since most new traits come through diffusion, those societies in closest contact with other societies are likely to change most rapidly. In ancient times of overland transport, the land bridge connecting Asia, Africa and Europe was the centre of civilizing change. Later sailing vessels shifted the centre to the fringes of the Mediterranean Sea and still later to the north- west coast of Europe. Areas of greatest intercultural contact are the centers of change. War and trade have always brought intercultural contact and today tourism is adding to the contacts between cultures says Greenwood. Conversely isolated areas are centers of stability, conservatism and resistance to change. The most primitive tribes have been those who were the most isolated like the polar Eskimos or the Aranda of Central Australia.

Collectively we can put the example of those areas which are lies on or near with G.T road, the social change is fast there due to contacts and isolation.

Social Structure
The structure of a society affects its rate of change in subtle and not immediately apparent ways. A society which vests great authority in the very old people as classical China did for centuries is likely to be conservative and stable. According to Ottenberg a society which stresses conformity and trains the individual to be highly responsive to the group such as the Zunis is less receptive to the change than a society like the Ileo who are highly individualistic and tolerate considerable cultural variability. A highly centralized bureaucracy is very favorable to the promotion and diffusion of change although bureaucracy has sometimes been used in an attempt to suppress change usually with no more than temporary success. When a culture is very highly integrated so that each element is rightly interwoven with all the others in a mutually interdependent system change is difficult and costly. But when the culture is less highly integrated so that work, play, family, religion and other activities are less dependent upon one another change is easier and more frequent. A tightly structured society wherein every person's roles, duties, privileges and obligations are precisely and rigidly defined is less given to changes than a more loosely structured society wherein roles, lines of authority, privileges and obligations are more open to individual rearrangement. The question arose that how social strcuture affect society, it is quite simple. If we see collectively, when a person change their life style, attitude, behavior and so on. The other members of society will pointed him and fire him. While in individualism society change fast and the member of society not fire individuals.

Attitudes and Values
To people in developed nations and societies change is normal. Children there are socialized to anticipate and appreciate change. By contrast the Trobriand Islanders off the coast of New Guinea had no concept of change and did not even have any words in their language to express or describe change. Societies differ greatly in their general attitude toward change. People who revere the past and preoccupied with traditions and rituals will change slowly and unwillingly. When a culture has been relatively static for a long time the people are likely to assume that it should remain so indefinitely. They are intensely and unconsciously

ethnocentric; they assume that their customs and techniques are correct and everlasting. A possible change is unlikely even to be seriously considered. Any change in such a society is likely to be too gradual to be noticed. A rapidly changing society has a different attitude toward change and this attitude is both cause and effect of the changes already taking place. Rapidly changing societies are aware of the social change. They are somewhat skeptical and critical of some parts of their traditional culture and will consider and experiment with innovations. Such attitudes powerfully stimulate the proposal and acceptance of changes by individuals within the society. Different groups within a locality or a society may show differing receptivity to change. Every changing society has its liberals and its conservatives. Literate and educated people tend to accept changes more readily than the illiterate and uneducated. Attitudes and values affect both the amount and the direction of social change. The ancient Greeks made great contributions to art and learning but contributed little to technology. No society has been equally dynamic in all aspects and its values determine in which area-art, music, warfare, technology, philosophy or religion it will be innovative. Cultural Factor influences the direction and character of technological change Culture not only influences our social relationships, it also influences the direction and character of technological change. It is not only our beliefs and social institutions must correspond to the changes in technology but our beliefs and social institutions determine the use to which the technological inventions will be put. The tools and techniques of technology are indifferent to the use we make of them. For example the atomic energy can be used for the production of deadly war weapons or for the production of economic goods that satisfy the basic needs of man. The factories can produce the armaments or necessaries of life. Steel and iron can be used for building warships or tractors. It is a culture that decides the purpose to which a technical invention must be put. Although technology has advanced geometrically in the recent past, technology alone does not cause social change. It does not by itself even cause further advances in technology. Social values play a dominant role here. It is the complex combination of technology and social values which produces conditions that encourage further technological change. For example the belief or the idea that human life must not be sacrificed for wants of medical treatment, contributed to the advancement in medical technology. Max Weber in his The Protestant Ethic and the spirit of Capitalism has made a classical attempt to establish a correlation between the changes in the religious outlook, beliefs and practices of the people on the one hand and their economic behavior on the other. He has observed capitalism could grow in the western societies to very great extent and not in the eastern countries like India and China. He has concluded that Protestantism with its practical ethics encouraged capitalism to grow in the west and hence industrial and economic advancement took place there. In the East, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism and Islam on the other hand did not encourage capitalism. Thus cultural factors play a positive as well as negative role in bringing about

technological change. Cultural factors such as habits, customs, traditions, conservatism, traditional values etc may resist the technological inventions. On the other hand factors such as breakdown in the unity of social values, the diversification of social institutions craving for the new thoughts, values etc may contribute to technological inventions. Technological changes do not take place on their own. They are engineered by men only. Technology is the creation of man. Men are always moved by ideas, thoughts, values, beliefs, morals and philosophies etc. These are the elements of culture. These sometimes decide or influence the direction in which technology undergoes change. Men are becoming more and more materialistic in their attitude. This change in the attitude and outlook is reflected in the technological field. Thus in order to lead a comfortable life and to minimize the manual labor man started inventing new techniques, machines, instruments and devices.

Technological Factors
The technological factors represent the conditions created by man which have a profound influence on his life. In the attempt to satisfy his wants, fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable man creates civilization. Technology is a byproduct of civilization .When the scientific knowledge is applied to the problems in life it becomes technology. Technology is a systematic knowledge which is put into practice that is to use tools and run machines to serve human purpose. Science and technology go together. In utilizing the products of technology man brings social change. The social effects of technology are far-reaching. According to Karl Marx even the formation of social relations and mental conceptions and attitudes are dependent upon technology. He has regarded technology as a sole explanation of social change. W.F Ogburn says technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in turn adapt. These changes are usually in the material environment and the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies customs and social institutions. A single invention may have innumerable social effects. Radio for example has One of the most extreme expressions of the concern over the independence of technology is found in Jacques Ellul's 'the technological society'. Ellul claims that in modern industrial societies technologist has engulfed every aspect of social existence in much the same way Catholicism did in the middle ages. The loss of human freedom and the large-scale destruction of human beings are due to the increasing use of certain types of technology which has begun to threaten the life support systems of the earth as a whole.

Perceived Needs
Sociologist says that all needs are not real such as luxuries and so on. Those needs are real which drive satisfaction. The technology development is also come by perceived needs. For example when an individual buy a Motor cycle after it his needs will be become higher and he will think that to purchase a Motor Car now. This is perceived needs.

I.

Cultural base

Culture base mean accumulation of knowledge and techniques available for invention. Where more techniques and knowledge available there will be more chances of invention. Where invention is fast, the rate of social change will too fast. There are two parts of cultural base. i. Cross Fertilization Cross fertilization mean the using of techniques of area in other field. For Example: Laser technology is the invention of physics but it using in many different field. Like in Medical mostly operation are performing through laser technology. Specially, operation stone in kidney. ii. Exponential principle : Exponential principle mean that the availability of unlimited techniques. Where more unlimited techniques would available there will more chance of invention and at the other hand rate of social change will be fast. E.g. Mobile, TV, Internet etc.

THEORIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE

There are four theories in Social Change. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Evolutionary (Linear) Theory Conflict Theory Cyclical Theory Functional ( Functionalism) Theory Societal Change Organizational Change Theories of Social Structure Social Movement

Evolutionary (Linear) Theory
This theory of social change was based on the assumption that all societies develop from simple, 'small-scale' beginnings into more complex industrial and post-industrial societies. According to this theory: • Change always takes place in one direction • Change always means progress • Change always leads to betterment This development process was thought to be unilinear, that is, there was one line of development from simple to complex. It also assumed that the changes inherent in this development were all 'progress’. This theory emerged around the time Charles Darwin was publishing his theories on the origin of species; that biological species evolved from the simple to the complex and that there was 'survival of the fittest'.

Conflict Theory
Marxism (Marx and Engels) Marxism also saw itself as offering a 'scientific account' of change but, in opposition to Functionalism, this focused on the premise that radical change was inevitable in society. Marxism argued that the potential for change was built into the basic structures of society, the relationships between social classes, which Marx saw as being essential to the social relations of production. According to Marx, ultimately society reaches a point where its own organization creates a barrier to further economic growth and at that point, crisis precipitates a revolutionary change of the society, for example, from feudalism to capitalism or from capitalism to socialism. Marxists believed that social order was maintained through socialization, education and ideology. . While Conflict Theory is useful in explaining ongoing changing patterns of race and gender relations, it struggles to effectively explain the impressive impact of industrial development on society or the changes to family organization.

a. Education
It” is a good example of conflict theory as applied to education. He argues that teachers treat lower-class kids like less competent students, placing them in lower “tracks” because they have generally had fewer opportunities to develop language, critical thinking, and social skills prior

to entering school than middle and upper class kids. When placed in lower tracks, lower-class kids are trained for blue-collar jobs by an emphasis on obedience and following rules rather than autonomy, higherorder thinking, and self-expression. They point out that while private schools are expensive and generally reserved for the upper classes, public schools, especially those that serve the poor, are underfunded, understaffed, and growing worse. Schools are also powerful agents of socialization that can be used as tools for one group to exert power over others – for example, by demanding that all students learn English, schools are ensuring that English-speakers dominate students from nonEnglish speaking backgrounds. Many conflict theorists argue, however, that schools can do little to reduce inequality without broader changes in society (e.g. creating a broader base of high-paying jobs or equalizing disparities in the tax base of communities).

Crime
“The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison” is a good example of a conflict theory perspective on crime. Conflict theorists argue that both crime and the laws defining it are products of a struggle for power. They argue that a few powerful groups control the legislative process and that these groups outlaw behavior that threatens their interests. For example, laws prohibiting vagrancy, trespassing, and theft are said to be designed to protect the wealthy from attacks by the poor. Although laws against such things as murder and rape are not so clearly in the interests of a single social class, the poor and powerless are much more likely than the wealthy to be arrested if they commit such crimes. Conflict theorists also see class and ethnic exploitation as a basic cause of many different kinds of crime. Much of the high crime rate among the poor, they argue, is attributable to a lack of legitimate opportunities for improving their economic condition. They would also be likely to point to racism as well as classism in the criminal justice system, suggesting that crime will disappear only if inequality and exploitation in that system and in society at large are also eliminated.

Sports
Again, the conflict theorists would be likely to look at who “makes it” in sports through a lens of inequality. As in Messner’s article, the conflict theorist would point out that while many people strive for big-time athletic success, boys (or girls) from the lower classes may be under inordinate pressure to achieve athletic success as their “ticket out of the ghetto.” The conflict theorist would also be critical of the commercialism pervading sports today, pointing out that athletes are not as socially valuable as, say, teachers but make a lot more money. Some argue that athletes are often exploited by corporate and university interests, thus becoming “commodities” and possibly becoming “alienated” from a sport

they once loved. Because sports is such a big-time business, conflict theorists would be concerned that college players in particular are being exploited by colleges and universities, who may give them scholarships but make much more money off their talents than the players do. In turn, colleges often “use” players for their talents while investing little in their education. As above, the conflict theorist would point out that inequality in sports cannot be reduced unless changes first occur to lessen broader income inequalities and our commercial culture.

Cyclical Theory
• • • Based on the observation that civilizations rise and fall An exemplar of cyclical theory is the work of Pitirim Sorokin Sorokin identified 2 types of cultures  Ideational cultures—emphasize spiritual values  Sensate cultures—emphasize sensual experience Suggested that societies move between these two extremes of sensate and ideational culture Societies occasionally arrive at an intermediate point, or idealistic point, which represents a harmonious mix of both ideational and sensate cultural features

• •

Functional Theory
Functionalist theory emphasizes social order rather than social change. Talcott Parsons viewed society as consisting of interdependent parts which work together to maintain the balance of the whole, rather like the human body with its mutually dependent organs working for the health of the entire organism. Key concepts of this theory are those of differentiation and integration. Functionalists see society as a homeostatic system--consisting of solid parts.

The normal state of society is one of stability Because society is an open system, it is usually in a energetic state, or a state of near stability Society changes, as it try to find combine conditions which act upon it • The changes, however, are bit by bit and very slow • The purpose of these changes is to bring society to a place of stability.

• •

Societal Change
Factors in societal change may be summarized under three main headings: economic, political and cultural. Marx is perhaps the most famous proponent of the notion that societies/forms of social organization are largely determined by economic factors and in particular the impact of industrial capitalism. Among political influences the state – government – now plays a very large role in social life and change in industrial societies. Cultural influences clearly play an important part in social change. For example, secularization and the development of science have had major effects on the way in which we think, attitudes to legitimacy and authority, and have thus also influenced social structures, systems and values (Giddens and Duneier, 2000). If these are the key factors in societal change, foundations wanting to effect change at this level need to focus on changing economic, political or cultural structures and processes. This macro approach to social change is adopted by some international foundations aiming to change economic and political conditions. These fundamental themes of resources, power/politics, and cultural factors reappear, in a sense, in theories of organizational change. Theories of Social Change

Organizational Change
Very broadly, there are four main approaches to organizations and organizational change:

Classical / early modernist, Modernist, symbolic interpretive and post modern
Classical and early modernist theorists are more concerned with stability than change. Early modernists see change as planned change in which a change agent introduced change in a deliberate way. In contrast, for the modernists organizational change stems from changes in the environment and is outside the organization's direct control. More recently, population ecology, organizational life cycle and learning organization theories have seen organizations as not just adapting to external pressures but creating their own internal dynamics. Symbolic Interpretive theories of organizational change are essentially dynamic insofar as because the processes of social construction are seen as both reproducing existing structures and leading to their alteration. The post modern approach explores the paradox of stability/change in organizations. Post modernist theory sees planned organizational change as rhetoric and change processes as discourse. Both theories reject the notion of organization, as some sort of definable, discrete entity, focusing instead on organizing as an on' going dynamic process. Depending on which approach to organizational change is adopted, a foundation wanting to effect change at this level would need to recruit top management or consultants to introduce change from within; attempt to change the organization via changes in its environment; encourage change from within by creating learning organizations; change the rhetoric and discourse of the organization/management.

Theories of Social Structure
The themes of organizational change have parallels in theories of individual and group change. According to Backer (2001), behavior is more likely to change if: the person forms a strong positive intention, or makes a commitment, to perform the behavior; there are no environmental constraints that make it impossible for the behavior to occur; the person possess the skills necessary to perform the behavior; the person perceives that the advantages of performing the behavior outweigh the disadvantages; the person perceives more normative pressure to perform the behavior than not to perform it; the person believes that performance of the behavior is more consistent than inconsistent with his or her self' image or that it does not violate personal standards; the person’s emotional reaction to performing the behavior more positive than negative; and the person perceives that he or she has the ability to perform the behavior under a number of different circumstances.(Backer, 2001) Foundations wanting to

encourage change at this level might work to reduce environmental constraints on changing particular behaviors, and/or try to alter the advantage/disadvantage calculus by attempting to strengthen normative pressures. ories of Social Change

Social Movement
It is worth highlighting an approach to economic, cultural and political change which stresses the role of individuals, groups and organizing in effecting social change. Groups can attempt to encourage or discourage social change via social movements. The conditions under which social movements occur have been the subject a long and vigorous debate. Marx believed that social movements/revolution occurs as a result of the contradictions or UN resolvable tension in societies, in particular related to economic changes. But contrary to Marx’s expectations revolutions did not occur in all advanced industrial societies. This led Davies (1962) to theories that social protest movements are more likely to occur not when people are in dire poverty but when there is some improvement in their living conditions and their expectations start to raise i.e. relative deprivation. But Tilly (1978) pointed out that Davies’ theory does not explain how and why different groups mobilize to achieve change. Tilly distinguishes 4 components of collective action: The organization, mobilization of resources, common interests, and opportunity Collective action is a means of mobilizing group resources when people have no institutionalized means of making their voices heard, or when their voices are repressed by government. Smelser (1963) identified six conditions for the development of social movements: structural conduciveness; structural strain; spread of generalized beliefs and suggested ways of remedying them; precipitating factors – trigger factors. These four conditions do not lead to development of social movements unless there is leadership, a means of regular communication, funding and material resources. The way in which a social movement develops is strongly influenced by the operation of social control. Touraine’s (1977, 1981) analysis differs from Smelser’s principally in allowing that social Movements may develop spontaneously to achieve desired social changes rather than being Responses to situations. His ideas include: historicity – there are more social movements today because people know that social activism can be used to achieve change; rational objectives and strategies regarding how injustices can be overcome; interaction in the shaping of social movements i.e. movements develop in deliberate antagonism with established organizations and with rival social movements. He

emphasizes the way in social movements occur in the context of fields of action i.e. the connections between a social movement and the forces or influences against it. Foundations adopting a social movement approach to achieving societal change would obviously work to foster the development of (selected) social movements. How exactly a foundation might do this depends in large part on the particular theory of social movements it favors. For example, Smelser’s theory would suggest a focus on promoting leadership, means of communication, funding and material resources. Touraine’s theory might suggest a focus on promoting the idea of social activism and interactions between social movements.

In the era of modern technology MEDIA is playing an important role in changing human lifestyle, behavior, attitude and aware them, that what are there rights and how to achieved those rights. The creative media improve health, education, promote human rights and foster social change. Media inspires people to make positive personal choice that improve their health and place them on the path to social and economic independent. The best delivery method to reach the audience, including radio, television, print, internet, mobile messaging and so on.

CASE STUDY & ARTICLES (Social Change in the Post Relief Aid of Earthquake in Pakistan)
Social Change in the Post Relief Aid of Earthquake in Pakistan 1. Introduction

Relief in simple words is assistance in time of difficulty or it means to provide temporary comfort in trouble. Soon after the devastative earthquake the relief phase started and it continued for more than six months. During this phase the survivors were provided with goods of immediate needs. Their emergency needs were given preferences both by

government and private sectors. The relief programs consisted of; recovery of the corpses, provision of edibles, tents, dresses, and cash amounts, medical facilities, formation of tent village etc As the earthquake struck Pakistan, philanthropic works were started by various actors. Those involved government agencies, community itself, NGOs, religious organizations, Jihadist Groups, volunteer workers and political organizations. All these actors helped the victims in terms of providing them immediate help for basic recoveries. These philanthropic efforts were both physical and financial. Cheques DEATH INJURY 2. For Rs.25000 of Major relief Injured Rs. Injuries works / and Rs.15000 on the Minor Deaths 100,000 Injuries life

Impacts

social

Relief works had great impact on the social life of the people of earthquake hit areas. Many major changes occurred due to the relief works. 2.1. Dependency Syndrome

Each household was provided with excessive amount of edibles such as wheat flour, ghee, tea, pulses, and rice. They were also given cash amounts by individuals, government and various organizations for more than six months, which developed dependency syndrome among the community and majority of them left working. They would roam around the area so as to find more relief goods. Many of them would catch every newcomer and asked for help by showing their national identity cards. This tendency led them to leave work and majority of them did not work for a year after the earthquake. Only few persons started work six months of major earthquake. People are waiting for relief outside the camp of RDP (Rural Development Program me) 2.2 Changes in Statuses

The major earthquake brought a rapid change in statuses of the community people. Before earthquake there were strong feelings of superiority among the Swati (Caste) against Go jars and other castes. Usually Swati would consider; they are superior and it was reflected by their behavior and their residence patterns. Swati would keep distance from Go jars and Mazaree (Land worker on rent).Majority of Go jars and Mazaree would feel deprived due to their lower social and economic statuses. Major changes regarding each aspect of human life took place i.e. people

living in an unorganized and socially stratified society faced a change as after earthquake. They all were to face same problems of fear, hunger, shelter, and family disorganization. It was for the first time when all the residents of the village faced identical problems and all of them were in search of relief goods. During first days of the earthquake when helicopters would drop relief goods the community people both Swatis and Go jars would rush to catch more goods and in during that situation the class difference would not be given any importance. Helping organizations would come to the village and the people of high status would also stand in rows with people of low status. All the residents would stand in rows for relief goods. During this process conflicts would emerge between Swatis and Go jars but the Swatis would get instant replies due to their new statuses as now all of them were equal. This tendency brought great disturbance in the village and after one month of the earthquake Swatis changed their strategy and threatened Go jars and Mazaree not to forget their past and after that they would contact helping organizations to come to the village and when helping organizations would arrive the Swati elders would lead them to the village as the officials of organizations were unaware of the village ethnic composition .so majority relief goods would be distributed among Swati people. 2.3 Impact on religiosity of people

All community members accuse of NGOs of spreading immorality among the females of area. People of the village developed sense of hatred and jealousy among each other. Before the earthquake they would cooperate but after earthquake majority of them have left cooperation with one an other. Before earthquake people would offer five time prayers in mosques but after earthquake the tendency of people to offer prayer has changed to a great extent. Only few elders go to mosques for prayer. Before earthquake people had fear of Allah (God) but after the earthquake this tendency has decreased. Regular aftershocks hit the area due to which many people terms those after shocks as missed call from Allah’s side. 2.4 Disputes

During the process of relief works helicopters would drop tents and other relief goods near the earthquake hit areas. People would rush to collect those goods. In this process weak and old individuals would remain empty handed. There were many cases of conflicts among the people for relief goods in earthquake hit areas. These disputes were of many kinds which are mentioned as under in a detail.

2.4.1.

Inter

Family

Disputes

Inter family conflicts had developed as each one wanted to get maximum

relief .when the relief teams would arrive and prepare the list of Households with the help of indigenous people during this list formation process. Few people would get their names written. They would not tell the names of their relatives which then caused conflict. 2.4.2. Inter Group Disputes

During relief process many disputes emerged between Swati and Go jar groups. Swatis were economically well-off and they had lost assets comparatively more than Go jars. They anticipated more relief goods but they received equal amount of relief goods from governmental authorities while they expected more share than that of Go jars and other people. “This situation was interpreted by the Swatis Balakot as due to ethnicity of District Nazim who was Go jar. From last few years politically the area is dominated by the Go jars and district Nazim was Go jar. So the Swatis would consider him to be responsible for all the process. Gojars, on other hand, considered themselves to be ignored in relief works due to Swatis as they would lead the officials of all the helping organizations in village and would provide them wrong data about Gojar families. The organizations officials would not involve all the community members in distributing process of relief. They would give preference to Swatis. 2.4.3. Disputes of Khan and Mazaree

The system of patron and client prevails in the area. The clients reside on lands of patrons. After the earthquake when the relief works were started the clients were given relief goods but after a month many patrons compelled the clients to leave their lands. When relief workers would arrive at the village the patron would not allow their clients to get relief goods. The patrons would also not let any one to write names of their clients for relief goods. This tendency led towards conflicts among patrons and clients. Few clients were beaten and their relief goods were taken by patrons. “Ashfaq was a Swati. He was landlord of village where as Safdar was a Mazara, working on the land of Ashfaq. After the earthquake a huge quantity of relief goods was distributed to the community. Mr. Safdar took a lot of relief. But his patron did not allow him to get relief goods. The patron would also not let Safdar to write name for relief goods. Few times Safdar was beaten by Ashfaq and his relief goods were set aside. Ashfaq would not allow his client to work on his land as Mazara after the disaster.” 2.5. Exposure of Modern Technology and Outer World

After earthquake various cellular companies provided the area with mobile phone services. Majority of the community people when got cash amount in relief from government and other organizations bought mobile phones. This also affected norms of the area as in many cases young generation was accused of using this technology for love. Many local people for the first time came in contact with foreigners.

2.6.

Economic

development

of

community

life

Majority of the people of earthquake hit areas did not buy edibles for a year due to the stock which they had received in relief from various organizations and government. Few Mazaras who had nothing before earthquake received a lot of relief goods, which brought dramatically change in the economic status. Many Swatis faced hard days due to the destruction of their houses and all luggage’s, which made them stand among the Gojars with low economic status. Upper class of the people of earthquake hit areas faced problems and received severe economic shocks due to earthquake .Same was the case with middle class population while the lower class population enjoyed the most positive impact of the relief. This brought a huge moral and economic support to these people. 2.7. Less community participation in decision making

only in few cases community was taken into consideration while in majority cases they were given no importance in decision making due to which many relief works were considered as useless by the community. Certain programs were perceived as contrasting and disastrous for culture of the area. In majority programs the community was treated as recipients not as participants. So this causes as a big social change after the earthquake. 3. Summary and Conclusion

Current study was conducted in the earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. The basic question of the research was to find out that how relief brought the major social changes in the earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. The objectives of the study were to find out the reasons and causes of social change in relief process of the earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. The data was collected through anthropological techniques and methods. The researcher collected the data by using the qualitative techniques of participation observation, key informants, case study, socio economic and census survey, photography, random sampling, in-depth interviews and secondary data. Earthquake brought an emphatic social changes in the norms and and values of the culture of earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. The majority of people were engaged in the equal cultural system where they were living in identical tent culture. The status was of no matter and the people were enchanting the relief aid from the local and foreign donors. Many of them were sitting free at home and it leads them to dependency. If we look at the over situation we would see that earthquake has not come as an examination of local of Pakistan it has also come as a test of donations and help of the national and international agencies.

Satellite Television and Social Change in Pakistan: A Case Study of Rural Sindh Published in Books & Authors (Daily Dawn) on May 20, 2007
Review: SINDH is the land of devoted Sufis and sand dunes. It has been home to the most advanced of ancient civilizations — the Indus Valley. It is blessed with a legacy of the poetic works of Sachal Sarmast, Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai and many others. But do we also know that ages ago, Sindhi women were given prime importance in decision-making, Sindhi folk tales and fiction always depicted strong and central female characters and the process of acculturation, after the advent of Islam in Sindh, took around three centuries. Mohammad Ali Sheikhs’ work makes one realize how little we actually know about the place we live in, of its history, culture and society (both primitive and present). The book will be of interest to marketers, advertisers, media persons, mass communication professionals, sociologists, anthropologists, other social scientists and anyone who cares for history and wants to gain a basic insight into the rich and complex culture of Sindh. Several Pakistani and foreign authors and travelers have written about Sindhi society, as it was during different epochs. However, this is the first time somebody has acknowledged and investigated the kind of impact that a popular medium like television has on the rural society of Sindh (which is actually 60 per cent of the entire population of the province). Technological advancement is said to be directly related to social progress. Television is a medium that affects everyone in society, directly or indirectly, since it is so easily accessible. The satellite exposes us to a range of value systems, belief systems, and social institutions and so on. It perhaps not only brings about changes in traditional and indigenous values and customs, but also helps in the process of social and cultural evolution. The author makes us aware of prevalent mindsets in the region. For instance, many people in Sindh do not watch television because they consider it un-Islamic or a satanic practice. Another interesting example of influence on thinking patterns, is as follows:

“A group of college students remarked that they knew now that MBA is a much sought-after degree as almost every second hero in a television drama is shown to be a holder of this degree and that chartered accountants get very high salaries as they are shown to be leading a luxurious life.” With the statistics of survey results provided for a number of categories, a base is established for addressing issues such as linguistic barriers, illiteracy, the issue of Karo-kari, the lack of cultural diffusion between Sindhis and Mohajirs (immigrants from India) and so on. With further research and updates, goals may be chalked out and television content adjusted accordingly, to achieve these for the betterment of society. The book will also prove to be an amazing guide for those preparing a dissertation and/or conducting a research on this subject. Shaikh has devoted an entire section to explaining the research methodologies used by social scientists (quantitative and qualitative), which in his opinion, are perhaps more important than the actual end results obtained. He elaborates on why he chose a certain method, how questions and surveys were developed and how to get the best response from the target audience. Inclusion of colour photographs or sharper black and white images as well as slightly better proof reading of the text would have considerably added to this otherwise brilliant work of research. The research is intensive but the work is not exhaustive with regard to understanding the Sindhi people. It is merely a beginning (hopefully) that will inspire others to delve further into the subject, the use of which cannot be emphasized enough. — Ayesha Hoda.

PAKISTAN: Media's role for positive social change Importance of media as link between government and civil society stressed at workshop organized by Pakistan Press Foundation and European Union Dawn Tuesday, April 18, 2006
Karachi --- The media should play the role of a catalyst to ensure a positive social change, said speakers at a workshop here on Monday. The five-day workshop on "Training of trainers on media and local government" was organized by the Pakistan Press Foundation (PPF) with support of European Union at a local hotel. Addressing the concluding session of the workshop, the head of EU's delegation to Pakistan Michael Dale said the role of media was very vital, as it was a go-between between the government and civil society. He said that the media was not only the conscience of society but also its safety valve. Mr Dale said it was very difficult to be unbiased while reporting, but it was the prime responsibility of media to ensure objectivity and impartiality while discharging their professional duties. He said sometimes to boost sales, some newspapers indulge in sensationalizing of news. He said it was a two-edged sword as if used for a positive purpose, it would get appreciation of readers, but if an unbiased news item was sensationalized, the media would lose its credibility. He said that the credibility and confidence of readers was a major asset of the media.

Mr. Dale said the media should play the role of a catalyst for a rapid and positive social change. He said that it were not the yes-men but the people who dared to say 'No', which helped the society to progress and prosper. He said that the media could only help the society by raising bold questions. Mr Dale said that not only in countries like Pakistan but also in the Western societies many vested interests find their way in government. He said here the responsibility fell on the shoulders of media to unearth the negative vested interest in the larger interest of public and society. Quoting example of Western countries, he said that people sued media there for giving wrong information. Mr Dale hoped that the participants would use information obtained during the training workshop in their practical work. He stressed for public-private partnership to solve the problems of masses. He assured that the European Union would continue to support such training programmes in future. Earlier, City Nazim Syed Mustafa Kamal, addressing the workshop, said the local government and media had a close relationship. He said that the objective of local government, the third tier of government, was to facilitate masses at grassroot level. He said that the media provided a useful guidance for the local government regarding the problems of people. He said that during the last four months as a city mayor, he had found the media very positive and helpful. The city nazim said that Karachi was a big city with a population of around 18 million, and having 170 union councils. He said that it was not possible for the city government officials to monitor each and every area of the city and know all their problems. He said that here the city government had to rely on media, which provided it with useful information about the problems faced by the masses. He said that he always welcomed the criticism and took it as a positive response. He said that sometime vested interest also used media for their negative designs, but again these cases were very rare and 99 per cent media reports were a very positive and constructive. Syed Kamal said that for the first time in history of Karachi, his administration was inviting suggestions and feedback from the citizens before initiating a new uplift scheme.

Quoting example of the Hassan Square Flyover projects, he said that suggestions had been invited from citizens and decision was taken in their light. PPF Chairman Fazal Qureshi, General Secretary Owais Aslam Ali, Roshan Ara and others also spoke. Adequate security urged for journalists The Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists, the Karachi Union of Journalists and KUJ's Dawn unit have condemned the April 11 blast at Nishtar Park and expressed concern over the security lapse which besides killing prominent religious leaders and others injured over 100 people, including eight media personnel. A joint statement demanded security for journalists in view of the deteriorating law and order situation in the country, particularly in Karachi, Balochistan and tribal areas. The statement said the situation in Karachi demanded foolproof security measures and required newspaper establishments and owners of TV channels to provide life-saving jackets and life insurance cover to their reporters and other staff members and to pay them security allowances. Effective security steps were also urged for newspaper employees returning home after night duty.

Agenda for By Hashim Abro Pakistan times

Social

Change!

WHILE visiting various parts of the country from Karachi to Kalat and chatting with all and sundry and discussing different issues, in particular, population growth, role of womenfolk and Ulema in stabilization of population, during week I have concluded that the population growth rate in the country had declined considerably and dropped to 1.9 per cent, but still three million are being added every year. As a result, it is creating more challenges. Besides, it also has implications on government’s efforts towards fighting poverty. The population explosion has increased the pressure on resources; therefore, water availability has declined from 5,300 cubic metres per capita in 1951 to 850 cubic metres per capita today. Of course, few can deny that Pakistan is facing an intense crisis of resources. There is intense competition for the nation’s limited natural resources that is leading to quarrels among provinces distribution of NFC

Award is evidence, between communities and even families. Our land and water resources are being exploited to the hilt. The exploitation of our resources is threatening our forests, natural reserves, and general ecology. Over use of resources is contributing to natural disasters occurring more frequently and with greater devastation. Yes, for many Pakistanis, life is a big struggle just to put together the bare essentials for survival, and shortages of resources works most against the poor and underprivileged. Even as sections of Pakistan’s middle-class struggle with scarcities - it is the poor and vulnerable sections of society who suffer most. It is true that better management of resources could reduce this problem. Others have argued that if the family planning like project were to be implemented in some acceptable form that could alleviate such problems in the future. But even with appropriate development schemes and optimum utilization of scarce resources, it would be hard to argue, that on a per capita basis, Pakistan’ s natural resources are not becoming severely strained. No doubt, some Pakistanis have the luxury of taking long showers twice or thrice a day - even their pets are bathed daily, and their cars scrubbed from top to bottom. Others are lucky if they get to bathe once a week. And many are lucky just to have access to clean drinking water. If in the future, Pakistan is to become a more egalitarian nation, and attempt to share its water-resources in a fairer and more just way, it is evident that with projected population growth rates, it is unlikely that every Pakistani citizen will have access to a reasonable amount of water every day. The same would be true of other precious resources like land, energy and scarce minerals. Even as “globalization of the media” has created amongst many Pakistanis the desire for a more comfortable and even extravagant lifestyle, our growing population makes it almost impossible for anything more than tiny elite to actually live that way. This is creating tremendous stress in terms of rising middle-class and even working class expectations and what is actually possible for Pakistan’s limited geography to deliver. With the population still growing rapidly amongst the poor peasants, the consequences for the future are serious, if not catastrophic. Last month addressing the foundation-stone laying ceremony of the Population House, Shaukat Aziz emphasized the need to expedite efforts to control increasing population to ensure rapid development of the country. Of course, population planning is very critical to the development and economic growth of the country and no nation without active involvement of all stakeholders particularly Ulema, Mashaikah and women can make the real difference because in all civil societies they are considered the virtual agents of social change .

The Ministry of Population Welfare is doing a wonderful job to involve Ulema and Mashaikh in the whole area of population planning to create awareness among the people and reach to every door to speed up its efforts to control population growth. We can learn a lot from the Ulema of Egypt, Iran and Bangladesh, who in this regard. The ongoing international conference in Islamabad under the auspices of the Ministry will go a long way to tap the untapped potential and bring about the attitudinal change needed to be brought in, allowing them to better deal with issues regarding gender, education, reproductive health, environment and narcotics. Prime Minister Shauakt Aziz was apt to say that the models adopted by the neighbouring countries to check their population growth may also be studied and adopted if these can help achieve country’s goals. It is, indeed, the need of the hour to harness this potential — the Ulema and Mashaikh — proper direction, as they could have a decisive impact on the future of the country. And that is one of the surest means to achieve population stabilization! And that is an agenda for action on which the incumbent Shaukat Aziz Government should work.

Social change News, OF journalism It is said that” change is always good” so it also implies on society? social change in simple is to motivate the intended PEOPLE towards better life style, which ultimately leads to change in a community .though it is very

difficult to bring change in society. there are several hindrance. First of all these should be removed before launching a change process. However it is not definite that change is always positive! In today’s world of technology the negative aspect of change is sharply absorbing in societies, anyhow yet I am talking about prerequisites of social change. So what should be the strategies before bringing change in particular segment? Few are here that I consider worthy. 1) Purpose of change Explaining the purpose, aim and objectives of change, it is

important before driving towards bringing the change, it is essential for the target audience to know about what is the motive behind the change & how they get benefits from it. 2) Knowing the existing lifestyle It is keeping in mind the ground norms, values, behaviors and the overall social setup of the target locality. 3) Knowing the hindrance lies between gaining better lifestyle It is must to consider the prominent barriers lies in the way of change & development. They may be physical, psychological, social, religious or financial. All of them should be studied before formulating strategies for social change. 4) Venues of financial support It is said that money open closed doors, so financial aid plays a vital role in change process.

5) Selection of appeal Selection of appeal is directly related to psychological orientation of intended public, selection of appeal should be done carefully, keeping in mind the existing mental approach. 6) Selection of communication channel Proper selection of media is very essential for a change campaign. it is important to make possible that the selected media is accessible to intended public locality. 7) Importance of feed back It is necessary to identify the means that should be used to get feedback as how he feels about the change & comment how to improve the change plan. 08) Proper planning Good planning is the cause behind the success of any project, so all the change strategies is properly planned in order to gain suitable results.

Reference

• •

http://www.sociologyguide.com i. Impact of Technology ii. Theories of Social Change http://www.iguides.org/articles/ i. Social Change in the Post Relief Aid of Earthquake in Pakistan

• •

Report of Ms Rabia from National university of modern Languages. Paul B.Hortan, Chester L. Hunt. International Edition. 1. Process of Social Change 2. Factors of Social Change Case Studies • Sociology. Mcgraw-Hill

Satellite Television and Social Change in Pakistan: A Case Study of Rural Sindh. (http://dawn.com/weekly/books/archive/070520/books15
.htm)

Social

Change

journalism

(http://www.zebno.com/?cat=21)

Table of Contents
1..................................................................................................................SOCIAL CHANGE AND MEDIA 5...........................................................................................................................................INTRODUCTION .1 6.............................................................................................................................................SOCIAL CHANGE 7.....................................................................................................IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY CHANGE TECHNOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES.................................................................7 INDUSTRIALIZATION (ECONOMIC CHANGE).............................................................................7 MODERNIZATION............................................................................................................8 URBANIZATION...............................................................................................................9 DEVELOPMENT
OF THE MEANS OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION...........................................................9 IN THE ECONOMY AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE NEW SOCIAL CLASSES...................................10

TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CHANGES

UNEMPLOYMENT...................................................................................................................10
AND WAR..........................................................................................................10 IN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS...............................................................................................10

CULTURAL LAG...................................................................................................................11 SOCIAL MOVEMENTS.............................................................................................................11 COLLECTIVE ACTION..............................................................................................................11 ORIENTED
TOWARDS SOCIAL CHANGE...........................................................................................11

BUREAUCRATIZATION..................................................................................................12 13..............................................................................................................PROCESS OF SOCIAL CHANGE DIFFUSION....................................................................................................................13 INVENTION...................................................................................................................13 DISCOVERY...................................................................................................................14 14..............................................................................................................FACTORS OF SOCIAL CHANGE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 14 POPULATION ISOLATION ATTITUDES
CHANGE.............................................................................................................15

AND

CONTACT........................................................................................................15 VALUES.........................................................................................................16

SOCIAL STRUCTURE..............................................................................................................16
AND

TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS.......................................................................................................18

19......................................................................................................................................PERCEIVED NEEDS 20............................................................................................................THEORIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE EVOLUTIONARY (LINEAR) THEORY..............................................................................................21 CONFLICT THEORY................................................................................................................21 22 22 CRIME SPORTS

CYCLICAL THEORY................................................................................................................23 FUNCTIONAL THEORY.............................................................................................................23 SOCIETAL CHANGE...............................................................................................................24 ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE.......................................................................................................24 Classical / early modernist, Modernist, symbolic interpretive and post modern ......25 THEORIES OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE..............................................................................................25 SOCIAL MOVEMENT...............................................................................................................26 27........................................................................................................................CASE STUDY & ARTICLES (SOCIAL CHANGE
IN THE

POST RELIEF AID

OF

EARTHQUAKE

IN

PAKISTAN)...............................................27

32 SATELLITE TELEVISION AGENDA SOCIAL
AND

SOCIAL CHANGE

IN

PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY

OF

RURAL SINDH .........................32

PAKISTAN: MEDIA'S
FOR

ROLE FOR POSITIVE SOCIAL CHANGE.................................................................34

SOCIAL CHANGE! NEWS, OF
JOURNALISM......................................................................................38

BY HASHIM ABRO................................................................................................................36
CHANGE

1) PURPOSE 2) KNOWING 3) KNOWING 4) VENUES

OF CHANGE

........................................................................................................39

THE EXISTING LIFESTYLE..........................................................................................39 THE HINDRANCE LIES BETWEEN GAINING BETTER LIFESTYLE....................................................39

OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT.............................................................................................39 OF APPEAL........................................................................................................40 OF COMMUNICATION CHANNEL..................................................................................40 OF FEED BACK.................................................................................................40

5) SELECTION 6) SELECTION 08) PROPER

7) IMPORTANCE

PLANNING..........................................................................................................40

40

REFERENCE

42.................................................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS

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