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Volume 25

Number 2
March - April 2008
IETE TECHNICAL REVIEW
The Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers

PRESIDENT
S Narayana

VICE-PRESIDENTS
A K Agarwal P N Chopra Anita G Dandekar

PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE

Chairman
M L Gupta
Co-Chairman
M C Chandra Mouly

Members
H O Agrawal S S Agrawal Smriti Dagur
M Jagadesh Kumar Surendra Pal Giridhar R Joshi
T K De T S Rathore S K Kshirsagar

Coopted
K M Paul K S Prakash Rao
Special Invitee
S C Dutta Roy P Banerjee

EDITORIAL BOARD
Chairman
Dilip Sahay

Members
H O Agrawal A K Bhatnagar R G Gupta
S S Motial Neeru Mohan Biswas H Kaushal

Secretary General Dy Managing Editor


V K Panday A P Sharma

The IETE Technical Review invite articles preferably readable without mathematical expressions, state-of-the-art review
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47

IETE TECHNICAL REVIEW


Published bimonthly by the Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers

March-April 2008 Vol 25 No 2

CONTENTS

48 SCAN IETE – R S KHANDPUR GOLD MEDAL


AWARD LECTURE
Dilip Sahay
81 Binaural Dichotic Presentation of
Speech Signal for Improving its
49 Telephone Caller-ID Signal Sending Perception to Sensorineural Hearing-
Over Internet Impaired using Auditory Filters
Aleksandar Lebl and •arko Markov D S Chaudhari

59 Issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks for 91 Dielectric Parameters as Diagnostic


Vehicular Communication Tools and Indicatrix of Disease — A
S S Manvi and M S Kakkasageri Microwave Study
V Malleswara Rao, B Prabhakara Rao and
D M Potukuchi
INVITED ARTICLE
73 MediaFLO™ - The Ultimate Mobile
Broadcast Experience
Sachin Kalantri

Note : The Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers assumes no responsibility for the statements and
opinions expressed by individual authors.

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


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SCAN

The second issue of Technical Review for the year 2008 contains five articles including an
invited paper and a lecture delivered during an IETE Award function.
First article by Aleksandar Lebl and Zarko Markov, describes calling subscriber number
transmission over Internet to the called subscriber. The paper describes how real time protocol
is used for this purpose. The paper discusses two ways of transmission of CLI over internet.
According to the authors the two methods were developed for the telephony requirements of
Telecom Serbia.
In the second article, S S Manvi and M S Kakkasageri, explain “Vehicular Ad hoc
Networks” (VANETs) for inter vehicle and vehicle to road side communication. The paper
describes various characteristics and applications as well as a few issues that needs to be
taken into consideration with VANETs. The paper broadly mentions the wireless technologies
that can be utilized but misses the adaptation of available mobile access technologies
including PMRTS.
In the invited article, Shri Sachin Kalantri describes about multicast service on Mobile TV.
The author has elaborated about MediaFLO platform to deliver quality content with roughly half
the spectrum and less than half the infrastructure required. According to the author, Mobile TV
service is going to be quite popular and mobile broadcasting using mediaFLO would offer high
quality service to the customers.
The fourth paper is an IETE-R S Khandpur Gold Medal Award lecture delivered by Prof D
S Chaudhari on “Binaural Dichotic presentation of Speech Signal for improving its Perception
to Sensor neural Hearing Impaired using Auditory Filters” on the theme “Connecting Persons
with Disabilities: ICT opportunities for All” set by International Telecommunications Union
(ITU) for this year’s theme.
In the last and fifth article, V Malleswara Rao, et all describe X-band microwave (9-10
GHz) study on Dielectric Parameters as diagnostic tools and indicatrix of disease. This article
demonstrates the capability of MW dielectric Measurements.
I take this opportunity to convey to the readers about the sincere efforts that have gone
to present these selected articles by the staff of the publication division of IETE. I also would
like to bring to your notice the sincere efforts to make some changes in the cover design of this
journal by IETE Secretariat. I hope that this cover design gels with the serious and interesting
reading of this journal and any suggestion in this regard is welcome.
I also take this opportunity to request and invite authors of article for state-of-the art
review papers on current and futuristic technologies and products in the areas of computer
science, engineering, Telecommunications, Information Technology etc and request them for
their suggestions for improvement of the journal.
Dilip Sahay
Chairman, Editorial Board

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Telephone Caller-ID Signal Sending Over Internet


ALEKSANDAR LEBL AND •ARKO MARKOV

ABSTRACT
This paper describes two methods of calling subscriber number sending over Internet to the called subscriber who is
connected to the classic telephone exchange by Internet. One, faster, method uses two event codes, while the other
method uses only one event code, but it is significantly slower.

1. INTRODUCTION Internet. These GWs make telephone speech


signals and signaling information suitable for
In the process of integrating packet and transmission over the Internet and enable their
traditional telecommunication, different inter- regeneration in telephone format at the receiving
working methods are developed. One interworking end.
method consists of connecting traditional user
One of the Common Control Unit (CCU)
equipment (telephone, fax) and classic telephone
functions in LE is to manage the operation of CIS
exchange, or interconnecting telephone exchanges,
signal generator (CISGEN). The generated CIS
across Internet. The basis for this interconnection
signal is sent from the LE towards GW1. The
is transmission of traditional telephone network
demodulator (DEM) in GW1 demodulates CIS
signals (dual tone multifrequency signals (DTMF),
signal, and the packetizer (PCK) forms packets of
line signals, fax signals, interexchange signaling)
CIS signal coded as telephony event in accordance
using procedures adopted in Internet. These
with the Internet standards. At the Internet egress
procedures were standardized in RFC2833 [1], in
port, depacketizer (DPC) in GW2 depacketizes
year 2000.
messages, and the modulator (MOD) modulates
Considering its latitude, the authors separated CIS signal. In this way CIS signal is put back to its
RFC2833 into three recommendations [2-4]. In original shape, and sent towards TE.
these recommendations, possibilities for Internet
transmission of almost all signals known in modern 3. METHODS FOR TELEPHONE
telephone network are described. One of the rare SIGNAL TRANSMISSION OVER
exceptions, not presented in recommendations, is INTERNET
Caller Identification Signal (CIS), which local
exchange (LE) sends to the called subscriber at the Real Time Protocol (RTP) is used for telephone
connection beginning. This paper presents some signal transmission over Internet [5]. Two methods
solutions for CIS signal transmission. can be used:

2. THE TRANSMISSION OF CIS (1) Transmission of telephone signal parameters


SIGNALS OVER INTERNET (TSP) (frequency, modulation frequency,
level, duration) ([2], section 4. RTP Payload
The methods for CIS transmission over Internet, Format for Telephony Tones), This method of
which are suggested in this paper, can be used in transmission is shown in the Fig 1a;
the setup phase of connection, shown in Fig 1.
(2) Transmission of event code (EC) ([2], section
In the setup phase of connection, classic TE is 2. RTP Payload Format for Named Telephone
connected to the Local Exchange (LE) using Events), as it is shown in the Fig 1b. The
Internet. Gateways GW1 and GW2 are located at Named Telephone Event means that it is
the points of contact of telephone network and necessary to detect the type of the signal (for

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(a)

(b)

Fig 1 The transmission of telephone signals over Internet

example: ring signal, DTMF digit, etc.), and to bits are volume field describing the signal power
send special code for the detected signal. level, and 16 bits are the event duration field.

The characteristics of the first method are RTP packet, shown in the Fig 2, is the payload
faster transmission, simpler gateway, but also the of the UDP datagram.
possibility to transmit invalid signal. For example, if
the original signal is attenuated more than it is 4. ABOUT CIS SIGNAL AND ITS
expected, its level will be measured and the TRANSMISSION IN CLASSIC
parameter expressing this attenuated level will be TELEPHONE NETWORK
sent across Internet.
The procedures for CIS signal transmission in
The second method requires a more complex
classic telephone network are defined in [6].
gateway. This gateway, standing at the point of
According to this recommendation, CIS signal is
connection between telephone and Internet
sent associated with first ring (or ringing) signal
network, needs more time to recognize the type of
using two methods. In the first method, data
telephone signal at the Internet ingress port, but the
transmission occurs during the first long silent
(tone) signals are replayed in standard shape and
period between first two ring patterns. In the second
level.
method, data transmission occurs prior to first ring
Figure 2 presents the RTP packet structure pattern and in that case Terminal Equipment
when signals are transmitted using event code and Alerting Signal (TAS) is sent before data. TAS is
the position of RTP packet in Internet packet. used to signal to the Terminal Equipment (TE) that
data transmission is to be expected. The TAS
After the usual RTP header, consisting of 12 shape and the characteristics are defined in [6].
octets, RTP payload follows. In the example,
represented by the figure, one event is defined. The Timing relations of CIS signal to ringing signal,
payload format for each event consists of one 32- or to TAS, are accurately defined. For example, if
bit word, In this word, 8 bits at the beginning are the the CIS signal is transmitted during the first long
event field for event code, E bit indicates if the silent period between two ring patterns, its
packet contains the end of the observed event, 6 transmission must start in the time interval between

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Ether. Header IP Header UDP Header RTP Header RTP payload


(14 bytes) (20 bytes) (8 bytes) (12 bytes)

}
0 PT 31
RTP header

Event E R Volume duration ) RTP payload

Fig 2 RTF packet structure when signals are transmitted using event code

tdmin = 0.5s and tdmax = 2s after the first ring CIS signal consists of sending Frequency-Shift
pattern, as it is shown in Fig 3. Keying (FSK) signal at the rate of 1200 baud [6,7].
The signal of frequency 1300 Hz represents binary
The various timing parameters in Fig 3 are as
1 (mark bit) and the signal of frequency 2100 Hz
follows:
represents binary 0 (space bit).
- R - ring signal;
The parts of the CIS message are successive,
- CIS - CIS signal; without interruption in sending:
- tRING - the duration of a ring signal; - Channel Seizure Signal: the block of 300
continuous bits of alternating “0”s and “1”s;
- tm - the duration of a CIS signal;
- Mark Signal: the block of 180±25 or 80±25
- tdmax - maximum time delay between a ring
mark bits;
signal end and a CIS signal start;
- Message type;
- tdmin - minimum time delay between a ring
signal end and a CIS signal start; - Message length;

R CIS CIS R

tRING tdmin tm tm tRING

tdmax

Fig 3 CIS signal transmission between two ring patterns

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- Presentation Layer Message (contains The use of dynamic PT is explained in [2]. The
different parameters: date and time of the call, structure of the RTP payload in this case is as
calling line identity, etc.); follows:
- Checksum, followed by 1 to 10 mark bits. - telephony event code: CIS signal transmission
after ring (code CIS) - separated code, which
Every byte representing Message type, is not defined in [2] and [3] - 8 bits. Our
Message length, Presentation Layer Message and application only deals with CIS signal
Checksum is enveloped by start bit (space) and transmission between two ring patterns, while
stop bit (mark). the coding according to other scenarios,
explained in [6], is planned for future;
5. CIS SIGNAL TRANSMISSION USING - the length of the RTP content which codes CIS
SIGNAL EVENTS signal - 8 bits;
- the number of space-mark pairs in Channel
CIS signal presentation in the packet format, as
Seizure Signal of CIS - 8 bits;
the one explained in Fig 2, is not mentioned in [2]
and [3], but is possible. Such a coding is too - the number of mark bits in Mark Signal of CIS
complex and requires great number of bytes. This - 8 bits;
coding will be realized by presenting every bit of - the n bytes of CIS message content (from
CIS information using 4 bytes, included in the RTP Message Type to Checksum) - nx8 bits.
payload shown in Fig 2. In order to avoid this, we
formed the new format for telephone event coding. This RTP payload has only 4 bytes more than
This format is presented in Fig 4. Some facts CIS message. According to recommendation [8],
simplify the formation of a packet: the maximum expected length of the Presentation
Layer Message is 75 bytes (including Message
1) The CIS signal transmission level is defined in
Type, Message Length and Checksum, it is 78
[6], and it can be known, a priori in GW2.
bytes). The Message Length in the CIS message
That’s why it is not necessary to send it in
has 8 bits, thus enabling the length of the
RTP packet;
Presentation Layer Message to be 255 bytes. The
2) Each bit duration is also defined in [6], and it is value mentioned here and in [8] is significantly
not necessary to send it in RTP packet; smaller.

3) The sequence of CIS message parts is defined 5.2. The second method
and known in GW2, so must not be particularly
coded. For example, it is known a priori that Alternatively, only CIS signal can be
the CIS message begins with channel seizure represented by the telephony event code, and the
signal consisting of alternating “0”s and “1”s, ring signal can be represented by the separate
followed by the mark signal, consisting of a packet and the separate telephony event code,
block of mark bits. mentioned in [2].
There are two methods for CIS signal For sending CIS associated with TAS, as
transmission. In the first one, one telephony event defined in [6], the separate telephony event codes
identifies ring signal and CIS (ring signal & CIS). can be used for each scenario of sending. The RTP
The second one uses transmission of different payload format in this case may be the same as the
codes for ring and CIS. one in Fig 4.
According to [1], the telephony event code 89 is
5.1. The first method reserved for ringing. After this code, the codes 90-
95 are free for assignment. That’s why the codes
The structure of RTP packet, which transmits
are configured in the following way:
CIS signal coded as telephone event, is presented
in Fig 4. The payload type (PT) is included in RTP - 90 - the unique telephony event code
header. For our application, we chose dynamic PT. representing ring signal & CIS;

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}
0 PT 31

RTP header

}
event length 01 pairs num. is seizure bit 1 number in mark
1. byte in CIS message 2. byte in CIS message 3. byte in CIS message 4. byte in CIS message
. RTP payload
.
.

(n–1). byte in CIS mess. n. byte in CIS message

Fig 4 RTP packet structure when the CIS signal is transmitted using telephone event code

- 91 - telephony event code representing only 7. TIME RELATIONS IN THE RE-


CIS, while the ring pattern is represented by PRODUCED CIS SIGNAL
the code 89.
Important elements in CIS signal transmission
After this, codes 92 to 94 can be used for CIS are the time relations between a CIS signal and a
signal transmission associated with TAS, according ring signal. These relations in the reproduced signal
to scenarios defined in [6]. on the receiving part of the connection GW2 → TE
must be the same as in the original signal on the
6. THE CHANNEL CAPACITY NEEDED sending part of the connection LE → GW1 (refer
FOR CIS SIGNAL TRANSMISSION Fig 1).
If a CIS signal is transmitted using the first
The method, which is suggested in this paper
method (section 5.1), by coding ring signal & CIS
for CIS signal coding by telephony events, makes
with the code 90, the ring signal reproduction will
great saving in channel capacity. Let us suppose
start after a delay as shown in Fig 5. The timing
that Presentation Layer Message contains only
parameters in Fig 5 are as follows:
date and time of call (8 bytes) and the calling line
identity (6 bytes in our example, but more bytes - tp - the delay between a reproduced ring signal
may be used). The message coded by this method start and an original CIS signal end;
has 25 bytes. This is significantly less than that in
- tD1 - the delay of a reproduced ring signal in
the case of sample coding according to the
relation to an original ring signal. Other
recommendation G.711. The CIS message, with
abbreviations are adopted in Fig 3.
the Presentation layer containing 8 bytes for date
and time of call and 6 bytes for calling line identity,
Signals in the direction LE → GW1 are called
will have 700 bits coded using FSK (the duration of
original signals. Signals in the direction GW2 → TE
every bit is 0.833 ms). For coding samples of this
are called reproduced signals.
signal, 4666 bytes are needed. The saving is great
also compared to the case of coding each bit of FSK The original ring signal and CIS signal are
signal by 4 bytes, as telephony events are shown in Fig 5a. The reproduced ring and CIS
presented according to [2]. For this coding, 2800 signal are shown in Fig 5b. The ring signal
bytes must be used. reproduction, according to Fig 5b, starts after the

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R CIS
a)
tRING tm

tdmax

R CIS
b)
tp t RING
tD1

Fig 5 (a) Original ring and CIS signal LE →GW1 (b) Reproduced ring and CIS signal GW2 → TE

original CIS signal is completely received. The If CIS signal follows ring pattern, after CIS
delay of the reproduced ring signal after the end of message reception and its decipherment, the
original CIS signal (tp) is the sum of the message telephony event code 90, which defines ring signal
propagation time over Internet and time for CIS & CIS, is sent.
signal end detection. Thus, the maximum delay of
The second method (section 5.2) can be used
ring and CIS signal reproduction is:
for CIS signal transmission, whereby separate
tD1 = tRING + tdmax + tm + tp (1) packets are used for telephony event ring (packet
with event code 89), and for telephony event CIS
(packet with event code 91). In this case, the delay
When the longest expected message, having in reproduction is shorter than in previous case
Presentation Layer Message of 75 bytes, is sent, (given in section 5.1) when ring and CIS are sent by
its duration is tm ≈ 1080 ms. The ring signal duration unique event code (packet with the event code 90).
is tRING = (1±0.1) s, and the delay in ring and CIS The delay can be explained using Fig 6.
signal reproduction, neglecting tp, is:
Original ring and CIS signal are presented in
tD1 ≤ 4180 ms (2) Fig 6a. Reproduced ring and CIS signal on the GW2
side of connection are presented in Fig 6b only for
As ring and CIS signals are sent using unique the case of maximum CIS signal start delay. First,
telephony event code, even in the case the CIS the ring signal, which is sent as the event code 89,
signal is not sent after ring pattern, it is necessary is reproduced. It starts with the delay tp after the
to wait until the time tdmax, to see whether CIS original ring signal end.
signal succeeds ring pattern or not. If CIS signal The reproduced CIS signal starts with the delay
does not succeed ring pattern, GW1 sends the tp after the original CIS signal message end. This
telephony event code 89 - “only ring signal”. In this time is the sum of message propagation time over
way, the ring signal delay in reproduction, when Internet and the time needed for CIS signal end
only ring signal is sent, is: detection.

tD ≥ tRING + tdmax ≈ 3s (3) Due to this, the maximum delay between the
start of reproduced CIS message and reproduced

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R CIS
a)

t RING tm

tdmax

R CIS
b)

tP t RING tP

tD2

R CIS
c)

t DRING t RING t D3=t D2 –t DRING

Fig 6 (a) Original ring and CIS signal LE → GW1 (b) Reproduced ring and CIS signal
GW2 → TE (c) Required implemented delay of ring signal

ring signal is: 900 ms, we have:

tD2 = tdmax + tm – tRING (4) tD2 ≈ 2180 ms (5)

Considering the requirement defined in [6], to In order to prevent this situation, the delay must
satisfy the condition tD2 ≤ tdmax, we need to have be introduced in the start of ring signal reproduction,
tRING ≥ tm. represented in Fig 6b. The delay of the ring signal
start in this case can be seen in Fig 6c. Its value
If this condition is not satisfied, the start of the
is:
reproduced CIS signal could be delayed by more
than tdmax: = 2s. The most unfavourable situation is tDRING > tm – tRING (6)
when the longest message is sent and the
reproduced ring signal has the shortest duration. and with concrete values tm ≈ 1080 ms and tRING ≈
The Presentation Layer Message of this CIS signal 900 ms, we obtain:
has 75 bytes, and the message duration is tm ≈
1080 ms. For the shortest ring pattern of tRING ≈ tDRING > 180 ms (7)

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Perror CIS

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4

10-5

10-6
BER
10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5

Fig 7 Probability error in CIS signal transmission

8. THE ERROR PROBABILITY IN CIS CIS signals are sent using RTP, they are sent
SIGNAL TRANSMISSION without checking and retransmission and may be
corrupted.
When CIS signal is transmitted using telephony
event code, the wrong identification may happen as The message will be wrong in the case of error
the result of error in transmission over Internet. As on the part of message whose accuracy is verified

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by the part of message called frame check ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


sequence (FCS). This part of message, except
RTP payload, includes Ethernet Header, IP Header, This paper is the result of research supported by
Ministry of Science of Republic of Serbia.
UDP Header and RTP Header and its length is,
according to Fig 2, LNHeader = 54 bytes (or LHeader
REFERENCES
= 432 bits), where LNHeader and LHeader are the
lengths in bytes and bits of all headers which are 1. H Schulzrinne & S Petrack, RFC2833: RTP Payload
checked by the FCS. RTP payload can be at most for DTMF Digits, Telephony Tones and Telephony
LNRTPpay = 82 bytes (or LRTPpay = 656 bits) for CIS Signals, May 2000.
signal transmission in our case. The packet error 2. H Schulzrinne & T Taylor, RFC 4733: RTF Payload
probability (i.e. probability of packet loss) can be for DTMF Digits, Telephony Tones, and Telephony
calculated as: Signals, December 2006.
3. H Schulzrinne & T Taylor, RFC 4734: Definition of
PerrorCIS = (LHeader + LRTPpay) . BER (8) Events for Modem, Fax, and Text Telephony Signals,
December 2006.
where BER is Bit Error Rate, i.e. the probability that
a bit is corrupted. 4. H Schulzrinne & T Taylor, Definition of Events For
Channel-Oriented Telephony Signalling draft-ietf-avt-
The result of this calculation is shown in Fig 7. rfc2833biscas-05, June 2007.
5. H Schulzrinne, S Casner, R Frederick & V Jacobson,
RFC 3550: RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
9. CONCLUSION
Applications, July 2003.
6. ETSI EN 300 659-1 Vl.3.1, Access and Terminals
The paper presents two methods of calling
(AT); Analogue access to the Public Switched
subscriber number transmission over Internet to Telephone Network (PSTN); Subscriber line protocol
the called subscriber. These methods are over the local loop for display (and related) services;
developed for the telephone network requirements Part 1: On hook data transmission, 2001-01.
of Telekom Serbia. The first method uses only one
7. ITU-T Rec. V.23, Data Communication over the
telephony event code from the group of codes, Telephone Network: 600/1200-baud modem
but, unfortunately, produces great delay of ring standardized for use in the general switched
signal. telephone network, Fascicle VIII. 1, November 1988.
8. ETSI ETS 300 778-1, Public Switched Telephone
The other method is efficient, because ring Network (PSTN); Protocol over the local loop for
signal delay is small, but the method uses two display services; Caller Display Service - Terminal
telephony event codes and the more complicated Equipment Requirements; Part 1: Off-line data
GW on the user side. transmission, July 1996.

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Authors
Aleksandar Lebl, born 1957, BSc 1981, MSc 1986 is employed from 1981 in the Switching
Department of Research and Development Institute IRITEL in Belgrade, Republic of Serbia.
During years he worked on the project of Digital Switching System for Serbian
Telecommunication Industry.
^
Address: Aleksandar Lebl, IRITEL d.d, Batajnicki put 23, 11080 Zemun, Serbia, Europe.
E-mail: <lebl@iritel.com>

•arko M Markov, born 1946, BSc 1969, MSc 1975, PhD 1976 is a scientific counsellor in
IRITEL, Institute for Electronics and Telecommunications, Belgrade, Serbia. Area of work:
Switching technics, Teletraffic theory, Network signalling. Author or co-author of hundred
papers and six books. At the University of Belgrade, School of Electrical Engineering, Dr
Markov is a professor at the course of Switching technics and Network signalling.
^
Address: • arko Markov, IRITEL d.d, Batajnicki put 23, 11080 Zemun, Serbia, Europe.

Paper No 143-B; Copyright © 2008 by the IETE.

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59

Issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks for


Vehicular Communication
S S MANVI AND M S KAKKASAGERI

ABSTRACT
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are a specific type of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) that are currently
attracting the attention of researchers around the world. With pervasiveness of mobile computing technology and
wireless communications, VANETs could be a key networking technology of the future vehicle communications.
VANETs can make a possible wide-range of interesting applications focusing on vehicle traffic safety, entertainment
in vehicles, cooperative driver assistance, sharing traffic and road conditions for smooth traffic flow, user interactions,
information services, etc. Key characteristics that distinguish VANETs from other networks are time-varying nature
of vehicle density, high mobility, and time-critical safety applications. Hence, devising protocols for VANETs may not
be successfully accomplished by simple adaptation of protocols designed for wired networks and MANETs. This
paper outlines the current research issues in VANETs, which may benefit the researchers to design and develop
protocols for VANETs.

1. INTRODUCTION manufacturers have already developed system


prototypes, allowing vehicles to communicate with
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are an their surroundings using wireless media [3]. This
envision of the Intelligent Transportation System has motivated the research community to design
(ITS). Vehicles communicate with each other in two and develop protocols and standards for VANETs.
ways: (1) Intervehicle communication and (2) A typical VANETs scenario is as shown in
Vehicle to roadside infrastructure communication. Fig 1. Vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to roadside
VANETs are based on short-range wireless base station/gateway communication is possible
communication between vehicles. Unlike for providing safety and other information services
infrastructure-based networks such as cellular to vehicle users. Group of vehicles together may
networks, these networks are constructed on the form a cluster to disseminate information among
fly (self organizing). themselves as well as to other clusters and base
VANETs are special case of Mobile Ad hoc stations.
Networks (MANETs). The key differences as VANET may integrate networking technologies
compared to MANETs are following: components such as WiFi (Wireless Fidelity Standard IEEE
building the network are vehicles, restricted vehicle 802.11 b/g), WiMAX (Wireless Metropolitan Access
movements, high mobility and time-varying vehicle Standard IEEE 802.16) and Bluetooth (IEEE
density [1]. One advantage of VANETs over 802.15). WiFi can be used for vehicle to vehicle as
MANETs is that most of the vehicles provide well as vehicle to base station communication.
sufficient computational and power resources, thus WiMAX can be used for forming wireless backbone
eliminating the need for introducing complicated connecting different base stations. Bluetooth can
energy-aware algorithms [2]. be used for intra-vehicle communication as well as
communicating with nearest neighbors.
The optimal goal of VANETs is to provide safer
and more efficient roads in future by communicating In a VANET, each vehicle in the system is
timely information to drivers and concerned equipped with a computing device, a short-range
authorities. The prominent evolution of wireless wireless interface and a GPS (Global Positioning
communication witnessed recently has sparkled System) receiver. GPS receiver provides location,
the interest of the automotive industry. Many speed, current time and direction of the vehicle.

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Fig 1 A typical VANET scenario

Manufacturers are already enhancing cars with such as media access, security and routing. In
sensors that help drivers to park and provide GPS order to meet these requirements, the structuring
compasses as standard equipment on luxury cars. of functionalities into protocols and their interaction
Within a decade, full integration of on-board must be re-thought.
software and hardware computing facilities with
wireless communications and environmental A number of research projects show great
sensors can be achieved. interest in VANET, which aim at development of
VANET protocol architecture, connectivity for inter-
Each vehicle stores information about itself and vehicle communications using roadside
other vehicles in a local database. The records in infrastructure and secured routing of critical events
this database are periodically broadcasted. A [10-12]. This paper briefly outlines research issues
record consists of the vehicle identification, position in a VANET and also focuses on the adoptable
in the form of latitude and longitude, current speed wireless technologies for deployment of VANETs.
of the vehicle, direction, and timestamps
corresponding to when this record was first created
2. UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF
and when this record was received.
VANETs
The vision for VANETs includes applications
such as route planning, road safety, e-commerce, In order to suggest a protocol stack suitable for
entertainment in vehicles, cooperative driver VANETs, we should pinpoint the fundamental
assistance, sharing traffic and road conditions for characteristics that differentiate VANETs from
smooth traffic flow, user interactions, information other networks.
services, etc. [4-9]. VANETs have unique
requirements with respect to applications, types of • Geographically constrained topology:
communication, self-organization and other issues Roads limit the network topology to actually

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one dimension; the road direction. Except for signs that obligate drivers to move on specific
crossroads or overlay bridges, roads are roads and directions. Hence, mobility models can
generally located far apart. Even in urban now include some level of predictability in
areas, where they are located close to each movement patterns. Car manufacturing companies
other, there exist obstacles, such as buildings have already implemented such models for testing
and advertisement walls, which prevent mechanical parts.
wireless signals from traveling between roads. • Power consumption: In traditional wireless
This implies that vehicles can be considered
networks, nodes are power limited and their
as points of the same line; a road can be
life depends on their batteries - this is
approximated as a straight line, or a small-
especially true for ad hoc networks. Vehicles
angled curve. This observation is quite
however can provide continuous power to their
important, because it affects the wireless
computing and communication devices. As a
technologies that can be considered. For
result, routing protocols do not have to account
example, since the packet relays are almost
for methodologies that try to prolong the
all in the same one-directional deployment
battery life. Older network protocols include
region, the use of directional antennas could
mechanisms such as battery-life reports for
be of great advantage.
energy-efficient path selection, sleep-awake
• Partitioning and large-scale: The probability intervals, as well as advanced network cross-
of end-to-end connectivity decreases with layer coordination algorithms. These schemes
distance; this is true for one-dimensional cannot offer any additional advantages to
network topologies. In contrast, connectivity vehicular networks.
is often explicitly assumed in research for
• Node reliability: Vehicles may join and leave
traditional ad hoc networks, sometimes even
the network at any time and much more
for the evaluation of routing protocols. In
frequently than in other wireless networks.
addition, VANETs can extend in large areas,
The arrival/departure rate of vehicles depends
as far as the road is available. This artifact
on their speed, the environment, as well as on
together with the one-dimensional deployment
the driver needs to be connected to the
increases the above probability.
network. In case of ad hoc deployments, the
• Self-organization: The nodes in the network communication does not easily depend on a
must be capable to detect each other and single vehicle for packet forwarding. This
transmit packets with or without the need of a occurs because of non-coverage of
base station. communication range between communicating
• Unpredictability: The nodes (or vehicles) vehicles. Thus there is a need to take help of
constituting the network are highly mobile. intermediate nodes for packet forwarding to
Because of this reason, there is also a high destination vehicle. Intermediate nodes must
degree of change in the number and be reliable to forward the packets efficiently.
distribution of the nodes in the network at • Channel capacity: The channels in VANETs
given time instant. The nodes must be over which the terminals communicate are
constantly aware of the network status, keep subjected to noise, fading, interference,
track of the hosts associated with the network, multipath propagation, path loss, and have
detect broken links and update their routing less bandwidth. So high bit-error rates are
tables whenever necessary. common in VANETs. One end-to-end path can
be shared by several sessions. In some
Since vehicle mobility depends on the
scenarios, the path between any pair of users
deployment scenario, the movement direction is
can traverse multiple wireless links and the
predictable to some extent. In highways, vehicles
link themselves can be heterogeneous. So
often move at high speeds, while in urban areas
smart algorithms are needed to overcome of
they are slow. In addition, mobility is restricted by
fluctuating link capacity in networks.
the road directions as well as by traffic regulations.
Assuming that these regulations are obeyed, there • Vehicle density: Multi-hop data delivery
are lower and upper speed bounds, and restriction through vehicular ad hoc networks is

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complicated by the fact that vehicular example, a vehicle can check the status of up
networks are highly mobile and sometimes front vehicles status (speed, brake applied,
sparse. The network density is related to the road blocks, etc.).
traffic density, which is affected by the
• Co-operative assistance systems:
location and time. Although it is very difficult
Coordinating vehicles at critical points such
to find an end-to-end connection for a sparsely
as blind crossings (a crossing without light
connected network, the high mobility of
control) and highway entries.
vehicular networks introduces opportunities
for mobile vehicles to connect with each other • Safety services: Safety applications include
intermittently during moving. emergency breaking, accidents, passing
To deal with disconnections in sparse ad hoc assistance, security distance warning, and
networks, carry and forward, (where nodes carry coordination of cars entering a lane.
the packet when routes do not exist, and forward Furthermore, sensors embedded in the car
the packet to the new receiver that moves into its engine and elsewhere could be used for
vicinity) method may be applied. Work given in [13] exchanging information, either with the
explains that there is a high chance for moving onboard computer of the vehicle itself or
vehicles to set up a short path with few hops in a vehicles with sophisticated computing and
highway model. communication abilities, for diagnostic
purposes. Also, safety applications are time
• Vehicle mobility: Since the nodes are mobile, sensitive and should be given priority over
the network topology may change rapidly and non-safety applications. This could facilitate
unpredictably and the connectivity among the preventive maintenance and minimizes road
terminals may vary with time. VANET should breakdowns.
adapt to the traffic and propagation conditions
as well as the mobility patterns of the mobile • Traffic monitoring and management
network nodes. The mobile nodes in the services: In such type of services, all vehicles
network dynamically establish routing among are part of a ubiquitous sensor system. Each
themselves as they move about, forming their vehicle monitors the locally observed traffic
own network on the fly. Moreover, a user in a situation such as density and average speed
VANET may not only operate within the using an onboard sensor and the results are
network, but may also require access to a transferred to other vehicles via wireless data-
roadside infrastructure. Hence there is a need link through the network.
of strong mobility patterns in VANETs. Other applications are more related to
multimedia communications like entertainment and
3. APPLICATIONS OF VANETs non-safety information for example information
download at gas stations or public hotspots, and
Some of the important applications of VANETs car-to-car information exchange, etc. Some of
are as follows: these applications will be free, while others would
• Message and file delivery: This application require a service subscription or a one-time
focuses on enabling the delivery of messages payment.
and files in a vehicular network to the target
receivers (group communication) with 4. ISSUES IN VANETs
acceptable performance.
VANET raises several interesting issues in
• Internet connectivity: This application
regard to media access control, mobility
focuses on connecting the vehicles to the management, data aggregation, data validation,
Internet using roadside infrastructure and data dissemination, routing, network congestion,
intervehicle communications to facilitate performance analysis, privacy and security.
browsing, send/read e-mails, chatting, etc.
• Communication-based longitudinal 4.1. Media access control (MAC)
control: Exploiting the look- through capability
of VANETs to help avoiding accidents. For Design of VANET MAC protocols should give

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more significance to fast topology changes and A MAC protocol that adapts Dual Busy Tone
types of services rather than power constraints or Multiple Access (DBTMA) for use with directional
time synchronization problems. Moreover, VANET antennas is discussed in [17]. By transmitting busy
MAC protocols have to reduce the medium access tones directionally, in addition to the directional
delay and increase the reliability, which is important transmission of RTS/CTS and data frames, protocol
in case of safety applications. avoids collisions in a much finer grain in terms of
spatial reuse and thus increases the channel
An IEEE working group is investigating a new
capacity significantly.
PHY/MAC amendment of the 802.11 standard
designed for VANETs, which is known as Wireless
Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE), also
4.2. Mobility management
referred as IEEE 802.11p [14]. In terms of MAC
Since vehicles are highly mobile and change
operations, WAVE uses CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense
their point of network attachment frequently while
Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance) as the basic
accessing Internet services through gateways, it is
medium access scheme for link sharing and should
advisable to have some mobility management
probably use one control channel to set up
schemes that take care of vehicle mobility and
transmissions.
provide seamless communication. Mobility
ADHOC MAC [15] is a MAC protocol conceived management has to meet the following
within the European project CarTALK2000 with the requirements: seamless mobility (communication
purpose to design novel solutions for VANETs. must be possible irrespective of vehicle position),
ADHOC MAC works in slotted frame structure, low handoff latency, support IP V6, scalable in
where each channel is divided into time slots. The terms overheads. Ad hoc routing protocol
ADHOC-MAC protocol is devised for an extensions are unsuitable for the mobility
environment in which the terminals can be grouped management of VANETs. They highly depend on
into clusters in such a way that all the terminals of the routing protocol deployed in the ad hoc network,
a cluster are interconnected by broadcast radio and they do not support Mobile IPv6. Application-
communication through slotted channel. Such a specific enhancements are an interesting approach
cluster is defined as One-Hop (OH). The access for the mobility management of VANETs. They
mechanism of ADHOC-MAC is Dynamic TDMA support the mobility of nodes and they are
(Time Division Multiple Access) and channels are independent of the ad hoc routing protocol.
assigned to the terminals according to terminal
needs. A mobility management protocol called MMIP6
is based on the principles of Mobile IPv4, but is
Directional antenna transmission has a designed to support IPv6-based mobile nodes
promising place in VANETs, in particular for MAC organized in ad hoc networks [18]. MMIP6 uses
issues. In VANETs, node’s movement is limited by foreign agents (FAs) like in Mobile IPv4, which are
roads and driving rules (e.g. opposite driving located at the Internet Gateways (IGWs). The FA
directions on the same road). Hence, directional (Foreign agents) represents the vehicle located in
antennas would surely help in reducing interference the VANET; this way, it hides the multihop capability
and collisions with ongoing transmissions over of the VANET and the vehicles appear as common
parallel neighboring vehicular traffic. mobile nodes. A very important feature is that
MMIP6 relies on globally routable and permanent
A MAC protocol that uses directional antennas IPv6 addresses to identify the vehicles. With the
in an ad hoc network where the mobile nodes do not use of FAs, all vehicles participating in the VANET
have any location information is proposed in [16]. form one logical IPv6 subnet, where the IGWs act
The protocol uses RTS/CTS (Request to send / as transition points between the VANET and the
Clear to send) exchange similar to that in 802.11 for Internet. The IPv6 addresses can be assigned
enabling the source and destination nodes to statically to each vehicle, i.e. they are
identify each other’s directions. The nodes transmit preconfigured in the communication hardware
as well as receive data packets using directional shipped with the vehicles. In contrast to Mobile
antennas, thereby reducing the level of interference IPv6, a vehicle does not receive a valid IPv6 care-
to other nodes as well as to themselves. of address when entering a foreign network. MMIP6

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avoids link local addresses when a vehicle is affects the performance of data dissemination is
located in a foreign network. given in [20].

4.3. Data aggregation A probabilistic validation of aggregated data in


VANETs is given in [21]. An aggregated record
The vehicles have to pass on the data sent by comprises of following: individual records from
the neighbors to other neighbors of its coverage vehicles, random number, time stamp, signature;
area. This increases the number of packets to be regular record (one of the individual record selected
sent by a vehicle. Therefore, data aggregation by using “random-number mod number-of-
techniques are applied to reduce such overheads. individual-records”), time stamp and signature.
Data aggregation is an interesting approach, which When a vehicle receives an aggregated record, it
reduces the number of packets transmitted first verifies the signature and certificate of the
drastically by combining several messages related sender and then verifies individual records. Vehicle
to the same event into one aggregate message. For uses random number to generate an index for set of
example, the records about two vehicles can be records. Later, it checks for regular record matching
replaced by a single record with little error, if the with the record in set of records as per the index. If
vehicles are very close to each other and move there is a match, then the record is valid.
with relatively the same speed.
The CARISMA road traffic simulator served as 4.5. Data dissemination
a means for modeling the mobility of the network
nodes and tests the data aggregation [19]. In Data dissemination can be defined as
simulations, a rain area was placed randomly within broadcasting information about itself and the other
the scenario and all vehicles start to send a warning vehicles it knows about. Each time a vehicle
message if they detect it. After the aggregation, the receives information broadcast by another vehicle,
aggregate is not broadcasted directly, however, a it updates its stored information accordingly, and
timer is started to wait for further messages. A defers forwarding the information to the next
revocation message will be generated if a vehicle broadcast period, at which time it broadcasts its
detects no rain. This revocation message is updated information. The dissemination mechanism
included in the aggregate to adapt the hazard area should be scalable, since the number of broadcast
information. messages is limited, and they do not flood the
network. VANET characteristics like high-speed
4.4. Data validation node movement, frequent topology change, and
short connection lifetime especially with multi-hop
A vehicle may send the data it has observed paths needs some typical data dissemination
directly (assuming that a vehicle always trusts the models for VANETs. This is because topological
data it has gathered itself) to its neighbors. transmission range needs to maintain a path from
Sometimes, malicious vehicles may send the the source to the destination, but the path expires
incorrect information to confuse the users. For quickly due to frequent topology changes.
example, a malicious node may send the false
A successful VANET data dissemination model
accident information and divert all the vehicles on
needs to handle issues such as sparse network
other roads, which may some times lead to traffic
density, interfering environment, long path length,
congestion. In such situation, data validation
latency, etc. The transmission power signal level of
techniques must be applied before passing on the
a vehicle may be too strong or too weak during
received information to other nodes.
certain times of the day and in certain city
The vehicles test the validity of data received environments. When the transmission range is too
from other vehicles. This is done by correlating the strong, it creates interference and lowers the
data from different vehicles and cross-validate it system throughput. When transmission power
against a pre-defined set of rules. A formal model of signal level is too low, the vehicle cannot reach
data validation and dissemination in VANETs and other vehicles. Smart algorithms for data
study of how VANET characteristics, specifically dissemination that adjusts according to the
the bi-directional mobility on well defined paths, transmission power signal level are needed.

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The dissemination mechanism can either optimize this repetition process is to be


broadcast information to vehicles in all directions, developed.
or perform a directed broadcast restricting
A multihop information dissemination scheme
information about a vehicle to vehicles behind it.
in inter-vehicle networks is discussed in [22]. Model
Further, the communication could be relayed using
for information Dissemination in mobile ad hoc
only vehicles traveling in the same direction,
geosensor networks is given in [23].
vehicles traveling in the opposite direction, or
vehicles traveling in both directions.
4.6. Routing
In order to design a data dissemination model,
we have to consider some of the following issues: Since the topology of the network is constantly
changing, the issue of routing packets between any
• For one way, and two way in the context of pair of nodes becomes a challenging task. Most
traffic, a system for scalable traffic data protocols should be based on reactive routing
dissemination and visualization in VANETs is instead of proactive routing. Multicast routing is
needed. Vehicles moving in both directions another challenge because the multicast tree is no
may yield the best performance. But vehicles longer static due to the random movement of nodes
in the opposite direction needed better model within the network. Routes between nodes may
to increase the data dissemination potentially contain multiple hops, which situation is
performance. more complex than the single hop communication.
• How to make efficient usage of available
Improving proactive routing in that of VANETs
bandwidth consumed by each vehicle? with the movement prediction framework is given in
• To limit the number of re-transmissions due to [24]. A route is composed of several communication
collisions. links (pair of vehicles) connected to each other
from the source to the destination. By knowing the
• In dense networks, such as cities or major movement information of vehicles involved in the
highways with a large portion of equipped routes (including source and destination), we can
vehicles, the data load on the channel should predict their positions in the near future in order to
be controlled in order not to exceed the limited predict the lifetime of the link between each pair of
wireless bandwidth. In contrast, in sparse vehicles in the path.
networks, channel saturation is not a critical
issue. Moreover, messages should be 4.7. Network Congestion
repeated since equipped vehicles are most
likely out of wireless radio range of each Congestion control in VANETs is a challenging
other; vehicles inside the area of influence of issue. The Internet is based on an end-to-end
a hazard, but not reachable at the time they paradigm, where the transport protocol (e.g. TCP)
are detected, should also be notified. Note instances at the endpoints detect overload
that in case of experiencing a dense network, conditions at intermediate nodes. In case of
the forwarding strategy is required to be very congestion, the source reduces its data rate.
efficient in terms of overhead while ensuring However, in VANETs, the topology changes within
high reliability to priority messages with the seconds and a congested node used for forwarding
most important payload, i.e., safety-of-life. a few seconds ago might not be used at all at the
• Safety information must be kept alive: Safety point in time when the source reacts to the
hazards can be associated with a time duration congestion.
and geographical area while/where they can Due to the mainly broadcast/geocast oriented
potentially affect vehicles safety state. The communication and the highly dynamic network
distribution of some state information will be topology, conventional mechanisms such as per-
repeated (e.g., periodically or at detection of a flow fair queuing are difficult to apply. So an
new neighboring vehicle) for a defined duration appropriate model is needed for VANET where each
of time while being inside a specific node locally adapts to the available bandwidth.
geographical area. The specific strategy to Congestion control for VANETs has not been

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studied thoroughly so far but this feature will be duration defined by the ‘pause time’ parameter.
extremely necessary for VANET applications and After this duration, it again chooses a random
network performance. The work given in [25] destination and repeats the whole process again
performs congestion control by using clusters until the simulation ends.
depending upon the vehicle density. The cluster
Real- track model are derived from the streets
size is reduced as the vehicle density increases.
of the actual maps. The grouped nodes must move
Due to the high mobility and the resulting highly
following the constraint of the tracks. At the switch
dynamic network topology, congestion control has
stations, which are the intersections of tracks/
to be performed in a decentralized and self-
streets, a group can then be split into multiple
organized way, locally in each VANET node.
smaller groups; some groups may be even merged
into a bigger group. Such group dynamics happen
4.8. Performance analysis randomly under the control of configured split and
merge probabilities. Nodes in the same group move
The cost of deploying and implementing
along the same track. They also share the same
designed schemes for VANETs in the real world is
group movement towards the next switch station. In
high. Hence there is a need for development of
addition, each group member will also have an
effective simulators to evaluate the performance of
internal random mobility within the scope of a group.
protocols for VANETs before deployment. Most
The mobility speeds of these groups are randomly
research in this area relies on simulation for
selected between the configured minimum and
evaluation. Key component of simulations is a
maximum mobility speeds. One can also define
realistic vehicular mobility model that ensures
multiple classes of mobile nodes, such as
conclusions drawn from experiments will carry
pedestrians, and cars, etc. Each class of nodes
through to real deployments. A VANET simulation
has different requirements: such as moving speed
platform should provide support to vehicle to vehicle
etc. In such cases, only nodes belonging to the
as well as vehicle to base station communications
same class can merge into a group.
in various road conditions, traffic conditions and
mobility patterns. Simulation may also use The random trip model is a generic mobility
collection of mobility traces and network statistics model that generalizes random waypoint and
to experiment on a real vehicular network. random walk to realistic scenarios, which gives a
realistic flavor to simulations [27].
To facilitate users to rapidly generate realistic
mobility models for VANET simulations following Some of the simulators used for evaluation of
mobility models may be considered [26]: Straight VANETs are as follows. VanetMobiSim, Glomosim,
freeway model or Highway mobility model, Random CORSIM, QualNet, NS-2, OPNET, PARAMICS,
Waypoint (RWP), and Real-Track model (RT). CORSIM and VISSIM [28-32]. But none of them are
standard simulators. Thus there is a scope for
In Straight freeway model or Highway model designing VANET simulators.
nodes move following a certain path in certain
direction. Nodes are not supposed to change their 4.9. Privacy and Security
direction. The velocity in case of Highway mobility
model is very high in three lanes (slow, medium and VANETs demand a thorough investigation of
fast lane). Vehicle can change lanes as they do in privacy related issues. On one hand, users of such
real life situation i.e. from slow to medium lane but networks have to be prevented from misuse of their
not to fast lane directly. Nodes can overtake each private data by authorities, from location profiling
other. and from other attacks on their privacy. On the
other hand, system operators and car
The Random Waypoint model implementation manufacturers have to be able to identify
is as follows: At every instant, a node randomly malfunctioning units for sake of system availability
chooses a destination and moves towards it with a and security. Further, wireless link characteristics
velocity chosen randomly from minimum to introduce also reliability problems because of the
maximum allowable velocity for every mobile node. limited wireless transmission range, the broadcast
After reaching the destination, the node stops for a nature of the wireless medium (e.g. hidden terminal

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problem), mobility-induced packet losses, and data some cases the vehicle real identity will be
transmission errors. required for service usage. In such a case, it
is obvious that the communication partner has
In the automotive market, customers can
the identity anyway, so the identity must only
choose among a large variety of products and there
be protected from neighbors overhearing the
is a strong competition among automakers.
communication. A communication protocol
Customers concerned about a new technology
that keeps the identity of the vehicle hidden
would probably pick products that reflect their
from third party observers is needed.
concerns. It is therefore a vital interest of all car
manufacturers promoting vehicle to vehicle • A good thing about mobility is that real
communication technology, to pay close attention (communication) traffic analysis would
to security and privacy of such systems. The huge probably be hard to do, since nodes usually
number of vehicles registered in different countries move at high speed and in large geographic
and traveling long distances, well beyond their areas. But nevertheless, an attacker might
registration regions, requires a robust and scalable use the properties of communicating vehicles
privacy and security management scheme. as an aid for tracking a specific car. A strong
solution is needed to overcome this problem.
Some of the security and privacy related issues
are as follows. • Vehicular networks lack the relatively long-
lived context. Hence password-based
• Secure Positioning: Position is one of the
establishment of secure channels, gradual
most important data for vehicles. Each vehicle
development of trust by enlarging a circle of
needs to know not only its own position but
trusted acquaintances, or secure
also those of other vehicles in its
communication only with a handful of
neighborhood. GPS signals are weak, can be
endpoints may be impractical for securing
spoofed, and are prone to jamming. Moreover,
vehicular communication. Particularly for
vehicles can intentionally lie about their
VANETs security concerns, the issues for
positions. Hence there is a need for a secure
identification and addressing have to be
positioning system that will also support the
resolved.
accountability and authorization properties,
frequently related to a vehicle’s position. Some of the efficient architectures that can
really manage above mentioned privacy and
• A very dangerous and often ignored fact about
security related issues are discussed in [33-36].
privacy is that innocent looking data from
various sources can be accumulated over a A group signature based secure and privacy
long period and evaluated automatically. Even preserving vehicular communication framework is
small correlations of the data may reveal given in [37]. This scheme achieves authenticity,
useful information. And once privacy is lost, it data integrity, anonymity, and accountability
is very hard to re-establish that state of simultaneously. It utilizes a group signature
personal rights. scheme, in which members maintain only a small
number of secret key/group public key pairs.
A data verification system, which helps to
Privacy is provided due to the fact that signers are
prevent the forging attacks, has to be developed.
anonymous within the group from which they sign.
This can be achieved by a data correlation
Additionally, not only are signers anonymous within
mechanism that compares all collected data
their group, but two messages signed by the same
regarding a given event.
individual are not linkable, that is to say, one cannot
• Existing solutions such as frequency hopping determine if two messages came from the same
do not completely solve the problem of member of the group, or two different members of
jamming. The use of multiple radio the group.
transceivers, operating in disjoint frequency Digital signatures are a good choice because
bands, can be a feasible approach. safety messages are normally standalone in
• In scenarios where a vehicle communicates VANETs [38]. Because of the large number of
with a dedicated partner, we assume that in network members and variable connectivity to

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authentication servers, a Public Key Infrastructure maintain permanent direct links from vehicles to
(PKI) is a good way to implement authentication. cellular base stations, without the direct
Under the PKI solution, each vehicle would be communication among vehicles. However, from the
given a public/private key pair. Before sending a cellular network perspective this will probably result
safety message, it signs it with its private key and in a relatively low throughput. Features of WiMax
includes the Certification Authority (CA) certificate. are given in Table 1.
Because of the use of private keys, a tamper-proof
device is needed in each vehicle. This is where the 5.2. WLAN/WiFi
secret information will be stored and the outgoing
messages will be signed. To lower the risk of WiFi is another possibility for vehicular
compromise by attackers, the device should have networks. An IEEE 802.11 transmitter has a 250
its own battery and clock. The clock should be mts omni directional coverage range, which is
capable of being resynchronized when passing by a potentially sufficient enough to maintain a level of
trusted base station on the side of a road. multihop connectivity in both highway and urban
regions. In addition, extended-vicinity antennas
5. WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES FOR (umbrellas) could be employed in base stations, for
VANETs covering larger distances. A lot of research has
been done for the popular IEEE 802.11 wireless
Wireless technologies suitable for VANETs are protocol, mostly for the MAC (CSMA/CA) and
Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs), network layers. However, this research cannot be
Wireless Local Area Networks (Wireless LANs/ taken off the shelf for use in vehicular networks.
WiFi) and Wireless Personal Area Networks This is because of the unique characteristics of
(Wireless PANs), Dedicated Short Range VANETs that we have described in section 2.
Communications (DSRC)/WAVE (Wireless Access Features of WiFi standards are given in Table 2.
in Vehicular Environments) together with their ad
hoc mode of operation [39,40]. 5.3. WPAN

5.1. WMANs Wireless Personal Area Networks are used for


short-range wireless communications (IEEE 802.15
A WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Network) or Bluetooth). Even though the data rates offered by
can interconnect distant locations. Two kinds of WPAN are tempting, the short transmission range
WMANs exist: back haul and last mile. Back haul is (maximum 10-20m) restricts the applicability of
for enterprise networks, cellular base station this technology to only dense urban-area
communications and Wi-Fi hotspots. Last mile set- vehicular networks. Features of Bluetooth are given
ups can establish wireless as an alternative to in Table 3.
residential broadband modems. WMAN
connections can be PTP (Point-to-Point) or PMP 5.4. DSRC/WAVE
(Point-to-Multipoint).
Dedicated Short Range Communications
One of the most interesting recent (DSRC) was conceived to provide architecture for
developments is the standardization of WMANs in nodes within a vehicular network to communicate
the form of WiMAX IEEE 802.16. Finally, the WMAN with each other and with the infrastructure. In
category also includes the GSM/GPRS (Global DSRC, subsequently specialized as WAVE
System for Mobile communications/ General (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments, also
Packet Radio Service) Cellular infrastructure referred as IEEE 802.11p), GPS-enabled vehicles
networks. The WMAN type of technology could be are equipped with on board units, which can
employed in infrastructure - based vehicular communicate with each other to propagate
networks alone, or in coordination with Wireless information through Vehicle-to-Vehicle
LANs or Wireless PANs (and their ad hoc multihop communications.
types) as last-hops. It provides a high-potential
solution for vehicular networks, even for distant DSRC/WAVE operates in the 5.9 GHz band
highway environments. Another possibility is to (U.S.) or 5.8 GHz band (Japan, Europe) and has 75

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TABLE 1: WMAN standards

802.x Characteristics Advantages Applications


16 a Operates in 2 to 11 GHz range. Very long range. Broad band
WiMAX, Range up to 50 Kms. High data throughput. wireless access
Data rate per sector is between 60 Thousands of users per site. for rural and
and 70 Mbits/s. MIMO (multiple-input and multiple- metropolitan
Support modulation methods from output) support and turbo code areas.
BPSK (binary phase shift keying) support. Backhaul for
up to 64 QAM (Quadrature WLAN
amplitude modulation). hotspots/hubs.
16 e Operates in 2 to 6 GHz range. Support of low latency Offers regional
Mobile WiMAX, typical range is data, video, and real time voice roaming
likely to be between one and three services for mobile users at upto
miles. pedestrian speed.
Data rate is up to 15 Mbits/s. Backward compatible with
Support for adaptive modulation. 16 a base stations.
MIMO and Enhanced
LDPC (low-density parity-check)
coding support.
20 Operates in licensed bands Support for mobile Mobile users in
between 500 MHz and 3.5 GHz. users at very high motor vehicles
Mobile broadband wireless access, speeds of up to 250 Kmph. and trains.
range up to 15 Kms. Also supports voice over internet
Data rates of 1 Mbit/s per user. protocol.
Modulation rates from BPSK to Global mobility and roaming.
64QAM. Supports both convolutional and
turbo coding.

TABLE 2: WLAN/WiFi standards

802.x Characteristics Advantages Applications


11 a Operates in unlicensed 5.725-to-5.850 No interference. Multimedia
GHz. applications like
Optimum range is 50 feet. home and business.
High average throughput
speed 6 to 54 Mbps.
OFDM (Orthogonal frequency-
division multiplexing) modulation
technique.
11 b Three channels in the 2.4 GHz Low hardware price. Home, campus, factory
unlicensed frequency. Compatible with 11 g. and office networking.
Range up to 150 feet.
Throughput speeds of 2 to 11 Mbits/s.
DSSS (Direct sequence spread
spectrum) modulation technique.
11 g Three channels in the 3.4 GHz High average throughput Multimedia
unlicensed frequency. speeds. applications like
Range upto 150 feet. Backward compatible with Home and
Throughput speeds 11 b. office networks.
of 6 to 54 Mbits/s.
OFDM modulation technique.

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TABLE 3: WPAN standards

802.x Characteristics Advantages Applications

15.3 Operates in 2.4 – 2.4835 GHz frequency. Can penetrate High speed
UWB Data throughput speed of 110 Mbits/s at a range walls. home and office
(Ultra of 10 mts and 480 Mbits/s over 1 mt. Uses less power. networking.
wideband) OFDM, optional TDD (Time division duplex) Specialized imaging.
modulation.

15.4 Operates 27 channels in three unlicensed Uses very Personal-area-


ZigBee frequency bands: 2.4 GHz, 902 to 928 MHz low power. network (PAN) for
and 868 to 870 MHz. monitoring and
Covers up to 30 mts range. controlling devices
Peak data rate is 250 Kbps. in home networks.
CSMA-CA (Carrier Sense Multiple
Access/Collision Avoidance), optional TDD.

MHz of bandwidth allocated for vehicle Applications, Proc. Radio and Communication,
communications, which are based on line of sight Linkoping, Sweden, pp 375-380, 2005.
with a range of up to 1 km and vehicle speeds of up 2. Emanuel Fonseca & Andreas Festag, A Survey of
to 140 km/h. Existing Approaches for Secure Ad Hoc Routing and
Their Applicability to VANETS, NEC Technical Report
NLE-PR-2006-19, NEC Network Laboratories, March
6. CONCLUSIONS
2006.

VANETs combine short-range communica- 3. Jun Luo & J. P. Hubaux, A Survey of Inter-Vehicle
tions, with the scalability and mobility of classic ad Communication, Proc. Embedded security in Cars-
Securing current and Future Automotive IT
hoc networks, in order to support a number of
applications, pp 164-179, Springer-Verlag, October
applications aiding in the safety, entertainment and 2005.
simplification of everyday driving. Emerging
wireless technologies are expected to enhance the 4. Murat Caliskan, Martin Mauve, Bernd Rech &
Andreas Luebke, Collection of dedicated Information
better models in vehicular networks, if both the
in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. 12th World
automotive manufacturers and the research Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems 2005,
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interoperable standards.
5. HolgerFler, MarcTorrent-Moreno, MatthiasTransier,
This article described the characteristics of RolandKrger, HannesHartenstein & Wolfgang
VANETs and raised several issues such as media Effelsberg, Studying Vehicle Movements on
Highways and their Impact on Ad Hoc Connectivity,
access, routing, congestion, performance analysis,
Proc. ACM MobiCom 2005, Cologne, Germany,
security, etc., for implementing intelligent August 2005.
transportation system and services. The article
has also reviewed the ongoing progress in the area 6. SaschaSchnaufer, HolgerFler, MatthiasTransier &
WolfgangEffelsberg, Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks:
of VANETs and the technologies to be adopted for
Single-Hop Broadcast is not enough, Proc. 3rd
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VANETs. 2006.
7. SaschaSchnaufer, HolgerFler, MatthiasTransier &
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Authors
Sunilkumar S Manvi completed his PhD from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
Presently he is serving as a Professor of Department of Computer science and
Engineering, REVA Institute of Technology and Management, Bangalore. His areas of
research include wireless/wired networks, AI applications in network management, E-
commerce, Grid Computing and multimedia communications. He has published over 25
papers in referred national/international Journals and 60 papers in referred national/
international conferences. He has coauthored books “Communication Protocol
Engineering” and “Computer Concepts and C Programming” published by PHI. He is a
reviewer of several reputed international/national Journals. He is a member of IEEE
USA, Fellow of IETE, India, Fellow of IE, India and member of ISTE, India. He has been
included in Marqui’s Who’s Who in World and International Biographies of Cambridge,
London in the year 2006.
Address: Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Basaveshwar Engineering
College, Bagalkot 587 102, India.
Email: <agentsun2002@yahoo.com>

Mahabaleshwar S Kakkasageri completed his MTech from Visvesvaraya


Technological University Belgaum, Karnataka. He is pursuing his PhD in the area of
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs). Presently he is serving as a Lecturer of
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Basaveshwar Engineering
College, Bagalkot, Karnataka. He has published 03 papers in referred national/
international Journals and 06 papers in referred national/international conferences
Address: Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Basaveshwar Engineering
College, Bagalkot 587 102, India.
Email: mahabalesh@indiatimes.com>

Paper No 146-A; Copyright © 2008 by the IETE.

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INVITED ARTICLE 73

MediaFLO™ - The Ultimate Mobile


Broadcast Experience
SACHIN KALANTRI

ABSTRACT
The exponential growth in wireless penetration and advancement in technology has accelerated the development of
new and exciting wireless services. Given the mass appeal for video and multimedia content, technology providers
have debated the feasibility and economical viability of large scale delivery of high-quality multimedia content to a
wide range of wireless subscribers.
Although delivery of this type of content is technically feasible over today’s existing unicast networks such as 3G,
these networks cannot support the volume and type of traffic required for a fully realized multimedia delivery service
(many channels delivered on a mass market scale). Offloading multicast (one-to-many) multimedia traffic to a
dedicated broadcast network is more efficient and less costly than deploying similar services over 3G networks.
Multicast services, such as the FLO mobile broadcast platform, are built ground up to address the market demand for
mobile media and provide the critical link between technical feasibility and economic viability. Designed to work in
concert with existing cellular data networks, FLO effectively addresses the issues in delivering multimedia content to
a mass consumer audience. Unencumbered by legacy terrestrial or satellite delivery formats, this technology offers
better performance for mobility and spectral efficiency than other mobile broadcast technologies, offering twice the
channel capacity.
FLO is a globally-recognized, open technology standard with a broad-based licensing program. The FLO Forum, with
90+ active members, including Huawei, LG Electronics, Motorola, Samsung and Sony Sharp, is driving the global
standardization of MediaFLO Technology.

MOUNTING DEMAND FOR MOBILE TV providers have constantly debated the feasibility
and economical viability of large scale delivery of
In 2007, worldwide mobile telephone high-quality multimedia content to a wide range of
subscriptions reached 3.2 billion – equivalent to wireless subscribers.
half the global population. India’s mobile subscriber
base totaled 281.62 million at the end of January ADVANTAGES OF A DEDICATED
2008 [1]. The exponential growth in wireless BROADCAST NETWORK
penetration and advancement in technology has
accelerated the development of new and exciting
Although delivery of multimedia content is
wireless services. The mobile phone has become
technically achievable over today’s existing cellular
indispensable in India today, increasingly providing
networks, these networks cannot support the
consumers with access to targeted and
volume and type of content traffic required for a
personalized content.
fully realized multimedia delivery service (many
The advent of mobile TV is one of the most channels delivered on a mass market scale). The
exciting of all the latest capabilities transforming best mobile TV experience is delivered over a
the mobile phone today. Research suggests that dedicated mobile broadcast network, which
mobile TV service is around four times more aggregates programming and prepares it for
appealing than mobile gaming [2,3]. That revelation, transmission to handsets. 2.5 G or 3G telephony is
coupled with the fact that there was a 15 percent configured for one-to-one or “unicast” network
increase in the worldwide sale of mobile handsets connectivity – this enables streaming of live
last year [4], highlights the potential for a truly a content to mobile handsets but the quality of the
mass-market technology. Spurred by the strong broadcast will deteriorate as the number of viewers
appeal for video and multimedia content, technology increase.

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INVITED ARTICLE 74

Fig 1 Forecast showing significant growth for mobile TV [2]

By establishing a dedicated broadcast network and services, while maintaining a very high quality
for mobile TV, operators can prevent any user experience. In other words, they can provide a
degradation to existing voice and data services. A compelling mobile viewing experience that mimics
dedicated mobile broadcast network allows pay TV what consumers have become accustomed to after
providers to deliver a range of different channels more than 70 years of conventional television.

Note: Based on server cost for 1,000 to 3,000 simultaneous users is $40,000 (Source:
Bakhizen & Horn, 2005, and Interview with Wireless Carrier by Robert Hale & Associates).

Fig 2

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INVITED ARTICLE 75

Figures 2 & 3 show how content server costs Invented for the mobile environment, the
via unicast technology rise based on the number of MediaFLO platform optimizes power consumption
users; however, mobile broadcast technology costs on the mobile device (4 hours of view time on a
remain fixed for unlimited users. standard battery). This technology provides
superior carrier to noise performance that very
MediaFLO - The Technology with an favorably impacts a network’s infrastructure cost.
Edge A factor of two reductions in transmitter costs is a
reasonable outcome for similar bit per second Hz
The MediaFLO mobile broadcast platform capacity modes – based on current independent
enables the delivery of high-quality media to field test results using typical log 30 propagation.
countless mobile subscribers, with more efficient MediaFLO achieves superior throughput and
coverage and higher channel capacity than spectral efficiency in 5, 6, 7 and 8MHz channels.
alternative technologies. A key component of the For example, in a single 8 MHz RF channel,
MediaFLO mobile broadcast platform is the FLO air MediaFLO can support up to 30+ streaming
interface, a globally-recognized, open technology channels of QVGA-quality video and AAC+ stereo
standard which is purpose-built to efficiently audio as well as multiple Clipcasting™ downloads
broadcast rich multimedia content over both single- per day.
frequency and multiple frequency networks with no
impact on the capacity of the cellular network. This Live mobile TV for the masses
allows for the efficient distribution of mobile
television in the most cost–effective manner. As a MediaFLO provides the delivery platform for a
result, existing cellular networks can be preserved compelling mix of content and services, including
for core voice, SMS, data, and other value-added broadcast TV, which help reach a mass viewing
services. audience in the millions. Wherever they go,
The MediaFLO platform supports layered subscribers can watch their favorite sports, ‘must-
modulation and source coding which extends the see’ shows, and live newscasts. By multiplexing
geographic coverage area while providing a channels, MediaFLO technology can pack more
graceful degradation of service. Consumers can than twice as many services into available
receive signals where reception would not spectrum than competitive technologies at the same
otherwise be possible, and this efficiency provides level of quality. And because it uses an efficient
better coverage along with higher quality services. transport mechanism with less overhead, there is
Network coverage is more predictable, and that additional capacity for more tailored content such
adds up to a better quality of service. as short-format video clips and streaming data
services.
MediaFLO technology can deliver superior
service with roughly half the infrastructure as Clipcasting™ Media
compared to legacy broadcast technologies.
Alternatively, it supports twice as much capacity Consumers have a nearly insatiable demand
for content programming within the same amount of for personalized, timely, and informative content.
spectrum and geographic coverage area. Greater The MediaFLO system allows them to tap new
capacity equates to a dramatic increase in revenue- revenue with Clipcasting media – short-format
generating services and optimizes operational video clips delivered on a scheduled basis. From
costs while delivering a compelling end-user news and individual sports highlights to movie
experience. This clearly differentiates the moments and comedy clips, consumers can
MediaFLO platform from alternative technologies. subscribe to a wide variety of Clipcasting media
Eliminating wait times associated with that is broadcast and stored on their devices.
downloading and buffering content, MediaFLO
technology provides a more immediate, immersive, IP Datacasting Applications
interactive experience. Channel switching takes
approximately two seconds, replicating the channel The mobile lifestyle is all about staying informed
surfing experience that consumers have grown and connected, and the MediaFLO system can help
accustomed to while watching TV at home. by instantly delivering a large number of data and

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INVITED ARTICLE 76

services. This persistent stream of information can channels quickly is always important to the user.
provide constant real-time updates to applications Watch time should be comparable to talk time, if not
such as news tickers, sports scores, financial longer, so as to not compromise the functionality of
reports, weather, and traffic. By combining the the device. The capacity of the system is optimized
delivery of live TV with value-added services such when per application QoS is available in a network.
as Clipcasting and IP datacasting, MediaFLO is
providing the most compelling mobile media A combination of both real-time and non-real-
solution available with no compromise to the user time media provides the best overall content mix.
experience (Table 1). The delivery of non-real-time content allows
immediate access to content such as weather or
Media FLO vs Competitive Techno- news summaries by topic, while real-time
logies streaming services support live events such as
sports. The ability to support both wide-area and
A number of technologies address, at least local content within a single RF carrier allows an
partially, the requirements of mobile multimedia. operator to maximize the value of the available
These technologies are mostly variants or spectrum through the flexible allocation of
derivatives of an existing digital television channels.
broadcast format. The Table 1 lists a number of
significant features of the individual formats and Why Service Provider Should Choose
the implications for the user. Media FLO

By providing an ideal balance of technical The selection of a mobile broadcast technology


performance parameters, MediaFLO provides a can have a strong influence on network deployment
superior user experience. The ability to change costs. Several factors help determine the cost:

TABLE 1: Service experience and features

Format Average Time Video Watch Per File Download Local- and
Channels Time With 850 Channel Wide-Area
Switching mAhr Battery QoS [4] in Single
RF Channel

ISDB-T ~1.5 sec unknown Yes No No


T-DMB ~1.5 sec ~2 hours Possibly Possibly No
S-DMB ~5.0 sec ~1.2 hours No No No
DVB-H ~5.0 sec Goal ~4 hours No Possibly No
Demo ~2 hours
with 1600 mAhr
bettery
MediaFLO 1.5 sec ~4 hrs with Yes Yes + integrated Yes
standard 850 Clipcasting
mAhr battery solution with
memory
management,
conditional
access and
subscription
model

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INVITED ARTICLE 77

• Number of infrastructure sites that are A GLOBAL ECOSYSTEM


required.
• Total spectrum required to support a defined The introduction of mobile television services
channel line up. in India presents a major opportunity for the entire
mobile TV value chain including: service providers,
• Total number of transmitter assemblies wireless operators, broadcasters, handset
required to achieve a service line up. manufacturers, infrastructure providers,
technology enablers, and content providers
The table below shows the relative costs of (Fig 3).
utilizing the various technologies (Table 2).
Wireless Operators
This comparison assumes that each system
has the same link margin, which forces the capacity For wireless operators, new revenue streams
constraints. The table attempts to target 20 real- are possible through subscriptions and mobile
time services at 300kb/sec per service; however, advertising. Wireless operators can also benefit
due to structural limitation, some formats cannot from exclusive access to popular content,
achieve the desired link margin at the specified bit programming, or value-added services – such as
rate. In those cases, the product of average bit rate Clipcasting, IP datacasting, interactive services –
and number of services is held constant. or by exclusive rights to sell certain handsets.
This analysis shows that, due to the superior
efficiency of the FLO air interface in the areas of Content Providers and Programmers
Packet Error Rate (PER) performance, protocol
efficiency, and the application of layered service For content providers, mobile TV presents an
and modulation, MediaFLO technology can deliver exciting opportunity to increase revenue and extend
equivalent or superior service with roughly half the their services into the mobile space by leveraging
spectrum and less than half the infrastructure existing content assets and developing new mobile
required. The implications for the user and service content. Content providers and programmers may
operator are significant relative to the cost and also be able to negotiate for a share of advertising
breadth of services that can be delivered. revenues.

TABLE 2: Required infrastructure for comparable service

Format Channels Per Infrastructure Costs Channels Required


Transmitter for 20 Channels per MHz Spectrum for
20 Channels

ISDB-T 13 channels, 6 ~2X ~2 12 MHz (26


MHz lower quality
~ 230kbps each channels)
T-DMB 3 channels, 1.5 ~4-6X ~2 10.5 MHz
MHz
~ 250kbps each
S-DMB ~20 channels, Broadcast satellite <1 25MHz
25 MHz plus terrestrial
repeaters
DVB-H 9 channels, 6 MHz ~2X 1.5 12MHz
~ 300kpbs each
MediaFLO 20 channels, 6 Reference (1X) >3 6MHz
MHz
~ 300kbps each

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


INVITED ARTICLE 78

Fig 3 The mediaFLO ecosystem bringing all players in the value chain together

Handset manufactures devices and the creation of new multimedia


services. Currently, India is fourth in global wireless
Handset manufacturers are able to sell penetration and the consumers here are
advanced products to wireless operators which increasingly looking at their mobile phones as ‘all-
may exportable to other countries that have also purpose’ devices. This trend, coupled with our huge
chosen MediaFLO as their preferred mobile TV appetite for entertainment on the television hints at
technology platform. the future success of mobile TV in the country.
MediaFLO technology was designed specifically to
Other stakeholders address the global market demand for mobile
multimedia services, making them more
There are many other key players in the economical, efficient, and accessible than ever
MediaFLO ecosystem For example, infrastructure before.
vendors are very critical to the success of the
MediaFLO platform. They fall in a variety of REFERENCES
business categories including transmitters,
encoders, and Conditional Access Systems (CAS). 1. TRAI January 2008.
There are numerous opportunities for companies to 2. Informa – August, 2007, Juniper – September, 2007,
supply their mobile TV infrastructure in support of TeleAnalytics – November, 2007(this compilation
the MediaFLO ecosystem. shows that Mobile media subscribers are expected
to grow significantly across the globe).
CONCLUSION 3. FICCI-PWC report 2006- 2007.
4. Q3 mobile handset sales: Gartner (source: http://
While the mobile TV market is still in its infancy, www.thehindubusinessline.com/2007/11/28/stories/
it is expected to be a key driver in the sale of mobile 2007112851720400.htm)

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


INVITED ARTICLE 79

Author
Sachin Kalantri is a senior staff engineer, Qualcomm, India. Sachin is responsible for
promoting MediaFLO Technology in the South Asia region and is actively involved in field trials
and product deployment for MediaFLO. In the past, Sachin has been the Chair of the Test and
Certification Committee under the FLO Forum, a US based organization that is responsible for
the standardization of FLO Technology and has worked extensively on QSEC 800, BREWChat,
QChat, MediaFLO and Digital Cinema.
Prior to joining Qualcomm, Sachin has worked with leading companies such as IBM,
Bellcore, TATA Consultancy Services and P&O NedLloyd. He has been associated with MTNL,
Indian Air Force, and DRDO on various projects. Sachin has experience of more than 17 years
in the telecom industry, in areas spanning wireless systems, residential broadband, mobile
broadcast, video on demand, VoIP and push-to-talk systems.
Sachin holds a Bachelors degree in Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering from
the Government College of Engineering, Pune and a Masters degree in Electrical Control
Systems from the Indian Institute of Information Technology, Kharagpur.

Email: <skalantr@qualcomm.com>

Paper No 172-B; Copyright © 2008 by the IETE.

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


IETE – R S KHANDPUR GOLD MEDAL AWARD LECTURE 81

Binaural Dichotic Presentation of Speech Signal


for Improving its Perception to Sensorineural
Hearing-Impaired using Auditory Filters
D S CHAUDHARI

ABSTRACT
Sensorineural hearing loss relates to spread of spectral masking resulting in reduction in frequency resolving
capacity. Such hearing-impaired persons find difficulties while identifying consonantal ‘place’ feature cued by
spectral differences. In binaural dichotic presentation scheme splitting of speech signal in real-time into two signals
with complementary short-time spectra using filters with magnitude response based on two auditory filter banks
with linear phase was implemented and evaluated. Filter banks corresponding to eighteen critical bands over 5 kHz
frequency range were used. Listening tests were performed on subjects with ‘mild’ to ‘very severe’ bilateral
sensorineural hearing loss. The usefulness of the scheme for better reception of spectral characteristics was evident
as the results indicated improvement in speech quality, response time, recognition scores and transmission of
‘place’ feature particularly.

INTRODUCTION Binaural dichotic presentation, in which speech


signal is split into two complementary spectra,
Sensorineural hearing loss entails increase in would solve above problem. In this, the signals
hearing threshold, dynamic range reduction, and corresponding to two neighbouring bands that are
increase in temporal masking and hence likely to mask each other get presented to different
degradation of temporal resolution and increase in ears. Humans have ability to perceptually combine
spectral masking due to degraded frequency the binaurally received signals from the two ears
resolution. Amplitude compression and frequency for improving speech perception under adverse
compensation are incorporated in many hearing listening conditions [2].
aids. Signal processing schemes such as spectral
Among several schemes used for binaural
transposition and speech enhancement using the
dichotic presentation, one employed synthesis of
properties of ‘clear’ speech form the basis for
vowels with the alternate formants presented to the
several techniques that have been investigated.
two ears. Possible fusion of the information at the
These techniques are supposed to enhance the
higher levels in the auditory system resulted in
performance of hearing aids for the persons with
proper perception of vowels. Some researchers
residual hearing. Besides, they are also likely to
tested the scheme of splitting speech using 8-
enhance the performance of other sensory aids like
channel constant bandwidth of 700 Hz for binaural
cochlear prostheses and vibro-tactile aids used by
dichotic presentation. The scheme was
profoundly hearing-impaired.
experimentally evaluated by finding the signal-to-
Widening of auditory filters along the cochlear noise ratio (SNR) that satisfied 50% correct speech
partition characterise the increase in hearing (word) recognition. An overall improvement of about
loss [1]. The problem of degradation in speech 2 dB in SNR for the dichotic condition over diotic
perception due to broadening of critical bands was indicated [3].
corresponding to auditory filters is not adequately
dealt with by above-mentioned processing The proposed scheme used critical bands
schemes. Due to spectral masking, recognition of corresponding to auditory filters based on
transition of formants and frequency bands of the psychophysical tuning curves as described by one
noise bursts becomes difficult for a person. of the researchers [4]. Eighteen critical bands over

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


IETE – R S KHANDPUR GOLD MEDAL AWARD LECTURE 82

5 kHz frequency range were used. The magnitude restricted to twelve.


response of each band is an approximation of an
Speech stimuli were acquired and analysed
ideal filter with the bandwidth of critical band having
using a PC based set-up. The signal from
linear phase response. The implementation was
microphone goes to an amplifier, low pass filter
done using the off-line processing of speech signal
(fp = 4.6 kHz, fs = 5.0 kHz, pass band ripple < 0.3
on five normal hearing subjects with simulated
dB, stop band attenuation > 40 dB) and then through
sensorineural hearing loss of varying degrees in
ADC of data acquisition board interfaced to a PC.
the age group of 21 to 40 years and ten hearing-
DAC of data acquisition board was used for testing
impaired subjects in the age group of 18 to 58 years
the stimuli.
with ‘mild’-to-‘very severe’ bilateral sensorineural
hearing loss [5,6]. The usefulness of the scheme Syllables were spoken by a male speaker and
was indicated by improvement in speech quality, each syllable was recorded a number of times.
response time decrease, enhancement in They were played back after spectrographic
recognition scores. The better reception of analysis. Out of these recordings, the syllables
consonantal ‘place’ feature without affecting the with most normal sounding were chosen to be
other features was realised by noting transmission stimuli.
of various speech features.
Based on the above encouraging results, the 1.3. Procedures
scheme was implemented for real-time processing
of speech signal. For comparison of the dichotic Two DSP boards based on 16 bit fixed-point
presentation of the processed signal with diotic processor TI/TMS320C50 were used for real-time
presentation of the unprocessed ones, listening speech processing [7]. Each board comprises a
tests were carried out on subjects with bilateral processor along with analogue interfacing circuit
sensorineural hearing loss. (AIC) with 14-bit ADC, DAC with low pass filter and
a programmable timer used for setting sampling
rate. The processing set-up consisted of an input
1. METHOD
low pass filter, two DSP boards operating with
sampling rate of 10 k samples/s and two audio
1.1. Subjects amplifiers.
In the off-line processing implementation
The bilateral sensorineural hearing-impaired
cascade combination of band-reject filters [5] was
subjects who participated in test were from different
used. Being computationally intensive it was found
parts of India and had no difficulty in clearly
unsuitable for real-time implementation. An FIR
recognising the test stimuli. The six right-handed
filter with comb filter magnitude response was used
hearing-impaired subjects were familiar with
for real-time implementation as shown in Fig 1. The
English and they had ‘mild’ to ‘very severe’ bilateral
frequency sampling technique of an FIR filter design
sensorineural hearing loss. The pure tone threshold
was used and magnitude response was
averages (PTAs) are given in Appendix - A.
approximated with 128 coefficients. The filter
Subjects’ PTA difference between right and left ear
program and coefficients were loaded into the
was from 4 to 30 dB.
program RAM on the DSP chip using serial port
interface. After loading, the serial port was
1.2. Stimuli disconnected while keeping DSP boards powered.
However, there was no data transfer between the
Nonsense syllables were used for stimuli for two DSP boards.
minimising the contribution of linguistic factors and
maximising the acoustic factors. The twelve The magnitude of all filter bands was kept
consonants /p, b, t, d, k, g, m, n, s, z, f, v / were constant in real-time processing of speech stimuli.
used with vowel /a:/ as in father in vowel- The magnitude response of each filter bank was
consonant-vowel (VCV) and consonant-vowel (CV) obtained by applying sine waves of constant
contexts. In order to conveniently accommodate amplitude from 100 Hz to 5 kHz (∆f = 20 Hz) and
them on subjects’ screen in computerised test plotted as shown in Fig 2 (pass band ripple < 2 dB,
administration system, the number of stimuli was sideband attenuation > 28 dB, transition bands < 90

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IETE – R S KHANDPUR GOLD MEDAL AWARD LECTURE 83

Filter 1 1 3 17 s1(n)
.........

s(n)

Filter 2 2 4 18 s2(n)
.........

Band Passband Band Passband


frequency frequency
1 -- – 0.20 2 020–0.30
3 0.30–0.40 4 0.40–0.51
5 0.51–0.63 6 0.63–0.77
7 0.77–0.92 8 0.92–1.08
9 1.08–1.27 10 1.27–1.48
11 1.48–1.72 12 1.72–2.00
13 2.00–2.32 14 2.32–2.70
15 2.70–3.15 16 3.15–3.70
17 3.70–4.40 18 4.40

Fig 1 Schematic representation for splitting of speech signal using two comb
filters. The filter magnitude response is shown in each block (table
shows 3-dB cut-off frequencies)

Hz). The magnitude response was verified by To find confusion among the set of 12 English
obtaining spectrograms using a spectrographic consonants, listening tests were performed.
analysis set-up [8]. Automated computerised test administration
system was resorted to avoid the repetitiveness
1.4. Listening tests and time consuming nature of the tests [8]. The
tests were administered for (a) an unprocessed
Experimental investigation aimed at evaluating speech diotically presented and (b) processed
the effectiveness of the scheme in reducing the speech dichotically presented. The subjects were
effects of spectral masking. The implementation briefed about the test procedure.
had constant gain for all filter bands and listening
tests were conducted on bilateral sensorineural 1.5. Evaluation schemes
hearing-impaired subjects. The stimuli were
presented at the most comfortable listening level of Various researchers used different methods for
an individual subject [9]. For each listening performance evaluation of speech processing
condition, subject did presentation level selections schemes. Intelligibility test and perceived sound
and it was kept constant for all the tests under a quality judgement have been generally employed.
particular listening condition. In intelligibility test subject listened to a list of

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


IETE – R S KHANDPUR GOLD MEDAL AWARD LECTURE 84

(a)

(b)

Fig 2 Magnitude response of the filters used in real-time processing of


speech signal: (a) left ear (b) right ear

standard words (e.g. spondees, phonetically for 50% correct word recognition was also
balanced words, central institute for the deaf employed in some studies [10,11]. Some
wordlist) and the correct responses were noted. researches used this method with a variation of
The parameters like clarity, loudness, etc. were SNR in 3 dB steps [3].
considered for perceived sound quality judgement.
Though speech intelligibility test is well established, The features responsible for the relative
judgement of sound quality has been used for improvement cannot be assessed from intelligibility
comparing hearing aids [10]. The recognition score scores. Earlier subject responses were noted for
versus SNR (15, 20, 25 and ∞ dB) for both types of 16 syllables in consonant-vowel context to the
hearing aids were plotted for comparing the stimuli and scores were recorded in the form of
performance. The evaluation scheme in which the confusion matrix. For studying the various features
processed speech is mixed with noise and the stimulus-response cell entries were converted
listening tests were carried out to find the SNRs to stimulus-response confusion probabilities that

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


IETE – R S KHANDPUR GOLD MEDAL AWARD LECTURE 85

were then subjected to information transmission of the scheme was to study the effect of spectral
analysis. The probability of correct responses is smearing due to the loss of spectral resolution.
called recognition or articulation score. It can be Hence improvement in the reception of place
obtained as the sum of probabilities in the diagonal feature without adversely affecting the reception of
cells. Recognition scores may have influence of other features was desirable. This required
the subjects’ response bias. A measure of appropriate selection of set of stimuli. The
covariance between stimuli and responses, nonsense syllable stimuli with 12 consonants
employing mean logarithmic probability (MLP) formed two stimuli sets in VCV and CV contexts
measure of information was furnished in information with vowel /a:/ were used for studying the reception
transmission analysis [12]. of consonantal features of voicing, place, manner,
nasality, frication and duration [9].
The response time statistics shall help in
comparing the speech processing and presentation
schemes besides the information available from
2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
stimulus-response confusion matrices. In case of
Listening tests were carried out on six hearing-
same recognition score or information transmitted
impaired subjects in order to evaluate the scheme
as a result of two schemes, one with less response
for dichotic presentation. The evaluation was done
time can be considered as superior.
by qualitative assessment of the stimuli followed by
In present study for evaluating the benefits of assessment based on response times, recognition
speech processing for dichotic presentation, the scores and information transmission for various
stimulus-response confusion matrix for the close features.
set of speech stimuli was used and the response
time statistics was obtained. For obtaining The results from listening tests conducted with
recognition scores and information transmission six hearing-impaired subjects in VCV and CV
matrices were analysed. In order to study the contexts are presented here. The speech stimuli
contribution of various speech features, the cell were presented for comparing diotic presentation
entries in the matrix were used to obtain matrices of an unprocessed speech with the dichotic
by grouping stimuli with the same feature. The aim presentation of processed speech with constant

Fig 3 Recognition scores in VCV and CV contexts : (a) for subject SG


(b) averaged for the six subjects. US: unprocessed speech, PS:
processed speech

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IETE – R S KHANDPUR GOLD MEDAL AWARD LECTURE 86

Speech Features
(a)

Speech Features
(b)

Fig 4 Percentage relative information transmitted for subject SG: (a) VCV and (b) CV contexts.
OV: overall, DU: duration, FR: frication, NA: nasality, MA: manner, VO: voicing, PL: place

gain filter implementation. A compilation of In order to compare the effectiveness of


subjects’ qualitative assessment about the test processing scheme in terms of load on perception
stimuli for ascertaining the improvements in speech process, average response time was used. For
quality was carried out. Subjects indicated definite obtaining recognition scores stimulus-response
preference for processed speech over confusion matrices were used, which were
unprocessed. subjected to information transmission analysis in

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


IETE – R S KHANDPUR GOLD MEDAL AWARD LECTURE 87

Speech Features
(a)

Speech Features
(b)

Fig 5 Percentage relative information transmitted averaged for the six subjects: (a) VCV and (b) CV
contexts. OV: overall, DU: duration, FR: friction, NA+ nasality, MA: manner, VO: voicing, PL:
place

order to obtain a measure that is not affected by In response time analysis, decrease in
subjects’ response bias. The matrices resulting response time was observed due to processing for
after combining the twelve stimuli in-groups were all the subjects. As seen by t-test, decrease in
analyzed for reception of the consonantal features response time was statistically significant for most
of duration, frication, nasality, manner, place and of the subjects. Highly significant decrease
voicing. (p < 0.005) in both the contexts were indicated from

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


IETE – R S KHANDPUR GOLD MEDAL AWARD LECTURE 88

paired t-tests across the subjects. Most of the voicing to overall improvement was indicated by
hearing-impaired subjects showed significant information transmission analysis of the stimulus-
decrease in response time for processed speech. response confusion matrices. Maximum
This indicated an improvement in listening condition improvement was observed for place feature for
with processing. almost all the subjects. Since the place information
is linked to frequency resolving capacity of the
The recognition scores for a subject and
auditory process, it can be said that the
averaged across the subjects for both the contexts
implemented scheme has reduced the effect of
are plotted in Fig 3. The scores for processed
spectral masking without adversely affecting the
speech (PS) implementation were higher than
reception of the features cued by amplitude and
unprocessed speech (US) for all the subjects. The
duration.
relative improvement in recognition score (R.S.)
was calculated by following formula.
3. CONCLUSIONS
[(R.S.)PS – (R.S.)US]/(R.S.)US
The promising strategy for improving speech
Percentage scores ranged from 9.2 to 23.6 in intelligibility for hearing-impaired listeners was
VCV and 14.4 to 19.2 in CV contexts. Averaged implemented in which speech signal was split into
across the subjects, the percentage improvement two signals with complementary spectra employing
in the scores was 14 in VCV and 16.3 in CV critical bandwidth corresponding to auditory filters.
contexts. For testing the statistical significance of The use of signal processing strategy resulted in
improvements in scores due to processing, the improvement in overall speech reception quality in
recognition scores were subjected to t-test. Highly the listening test carried out on sensorineural
significant (p < 0.005) improvement in both contexts hearing-impaired listeners with real-time
was observed for all the subjects. For testing the processing of speech for dichotic presentation. The
significance of the improvement due to processing tests recorded remarkable fall in average response
paired t-test was also carried out across the time for most of the subjects indicating reduction in
subjects. And the improvements were highly load on perception process. Significant
significant (p < 0.0005) for both the contexts. The improvement was recorded in recognition score
usefulness of the scheme was evident as all the suggesting the corresponding enhancement in
subjects showed highly significant improvement in listening condition. Results indicated reduced effect
recognition score due to processing. of spectral masking since better reception of
consonantal ‘place’ feature was observed
The confusion matrices were subjected to implicating possibility of implementing the strategy
information transmission analysis. The overall in binaural hearing aids for persons with ‘mild’ to
information transmitted as well as information ‘very severe’ levels of binaural sensorineural
transmitted for specific features were obtained for hearing impairment.
all the subjects. Figures 4 and 5 show information
transmitted for a subject and averaged across the ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
six subjects for VCV and CV contexts. Better
reception of almost all the six features of duration, The author wishes to the authorities of
frication, nasality, manner, place and voicing Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi
contributed to overall improvements in speech for providing supports.
reception. These improvements were observed to
REFERENCES
be higher for the features of manner, voicing, and
place in both the contexts. Maximum improvement 1. J R Dubno & D D Dirks, Auditory filter characteristics
in place feature was observed for all subjects as and consonant recognition for hearing impaired
well as averaged across the subjects. Averaged listeners, Journal of the Acoustical Society of
across the six subjects, the relative improvement America, vol 85, pp 1666-1675, 1989.
for place feature was 34 and 41 % in VCV and CV 2. B C J Moore, An Introduction to the Psychology of
contexts respectively. Hearing, Academic, London, 1997.

The contribution of all the six features of 3. T Lunner, S Arlinger & J Hellgren, 8-channel digital
duration, frication, nasality, manner, place and filter bank for hearing aid use: preliminary results in

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


IETE – R S KHANDPUR GOLD MEDAL AWARD LECTURE 89

monaural, diotic and dichotic modes, Scandinavian 8. D S Chaudhari, Dichotic presentation for improving
Audiology Journal, S 38, pp 75-81, 1993. speech perception by persons with bilateral
sensorineural hearing impairment, PhD thesis, IITB,
4. E Zwicker, Subdivision of audible frequency range Mumbai, 2000.
into critical bands. (Frequenzgruppen), Journal of
the Acoustical Society of America, vol 33, p 248, 9. C Simon, On the use of comfortable listening levels
1961. in speech experiments, Journal of the Acoustical
Society of America, vol 64, pp 744-751, 1979.
5. D S Chaudhari & P C Pandey, Dichotic Presentation
of Speech Signal with Critical Band Filtering for 10. A Gabrielsson, B N Schenkman & B Hagerman, The
Improving Speech Perception, Proceedings of IEEE effects of different frequency response on sound
International Conference on Acoustics Speech and quality judgments and speech intelligibility, Journal
Signal Processing, Seattle, Washington, paper AE3.1, of Speech and Hearing Research, vol 31,
1998. pp 166–177, 1988.
11. D B Hawkins & W S Yacullo, Signal-to-noise ratio
6. D S Chaudhari & P C Pandey, Dichotic Presentation
advantage of binaural hearing aids and directional
of Speech Signal using Critical Filter Bank for Bilateral
microphones under different levels of reverberation,
Sensorineural Hearing Impairment, Proceedings of
Journal Speech and Hearing Disorder, vol 49,
16th International Congress on Acoustics (ICA),
pp 278-286, 1984.
Seattle, Washington, 1998.
12. G A Miller, P E Nicely, An analysis of perceptual
7. Texas Instruments, User’s Guide, TI-TM320C5X confusions among some English consonants, Journal
Digital Signal Processor Products, Texas of the Acoustical Society of America, vol 27(2),
Instruments, USA, 1993. pp 338-352, 1955.

APPENDIX – A

Hearing thresholds for the hearing impaired subjects

Subject Code Ear Hearing thresholds (dB HL) PTA


(Sex, Age) L: left
R:right Frequency (kHz)

0.25 0.50 1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0


SG (M, 27) L 25 45 75 100 120 120 73
R 25 60 70 100 120 120 77
SSN (M, 31) L 80 70 80 75 75 75 75
R 65 60 70 65 85 85 65
KRV (M, 49) L 50 60 60 60 60 65 60
R 40 45 50 60 65 75 52
BAS (M, 58) L 50 40 30 30 40 40 33
R 45 50 35 30 30 30 38
SAV (M, 46) L 50 45 45 45 35 40 45
R 60 70 65 65 85 95 67
LDM (M, 52) L 65 65 50 40 40 75 52
R 70 80 85 80 80 95 82

PTA: pure tone average hearing threshold level (dB HL), test frequencies: 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz.

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


IETE – R S KHANDPUR GOLD MEDAL AWARD LECTURE 90

Author
Devendra Chaudhari, obtained BE, ME from Marathwada University, Aurangabad and PhD
from Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai. He has been engaged in teaching,
research for period of about 21 years and worked on DST-SERC sponsored Fast Track Project
for Young Scientists. Presently he is working as faculty member in Department of Electronics
and Telecommunication Engineering at Government College of Engineering, Amravati.
Dr Chaudhari published research papers and presented papers in international conferences
abroad at Seattle, USA and Austria, Europe. He worked as Chairman / Expert Member on
different committees of All India Council for Technical Education, Directorate of Technical
Education for Approval, Gradation, Inspection, Variation of Intake of diploma and degree
Engineering Institutions. As a university recognised PhD research supervisor in Electronics
and Computer Science Engineering he has been supervising research work since 2001.
He has worked as Chairman / Member on different university and college level committees like
Examination, Academic, Senate, Board of Studies, etc. He held chair position for one of the
technical sessions of International Conference held at Nagpur. He is fellow and life member of
various national, international professional bodies. He is recipient of Best Engineering College
Teacher Award of ISTE, New Delhi. He has organized various Continuing Education
Programmes and delivered Expert Lectures on research at different places. His present
research and teaching interests are in the field of Biomedical Engineering, Digital Signal
Processing and Analogue Integrated Circuits.

Address: Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Government College of


Engineering, Amrarali 111604.
Email: <ddsscc@yahoo.com>

Paper No 186-B; Copyright © 2008 by the IETE.

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


91

Dielectric Parameters as Diagnostic Tools and


Indicatrix of Disease — A Microwave Study
V MALLESWARA RAO, B PRABHAKARA RAO AND D M POTUKUCHI

ABSTRACT
An X-band microwave, (9-10 GHz) technique to determine the dielectric blood parameters as an indicatrix for the
severity of disease is reported. Relevance of dielectric parameters as the main indicators in the area of diagnostic
tools is discussed. An experimental set-up and the relevant procedural details for the measurement of microwave
blood parameters for the typhoid and diabetic disease is presented. Microwave (MW) dielectric parameters viz,
dielectric constant εr*(ω), wave velocity ν (ω) and the impedance z(ω) are measured for collected blood samples (from
hospitals) and compared to the clinical values reflecting the disease severity. The dielectric parameters are identified
to exhibit similar trends as exhibited by clinical parameters for disease severity. Parametric relations are obtained to
address the correlation between dielectric and clinical parameters reflecting the severity. The capability of MW
dielectric measurements as the diagnostic tools and severity indicators is demonstrated.

INTRODUCTION terms of characteristic constants of the media,


viz., the propagation constant γ ( i.e expressed in
At MW frequencies, the changes in the dielectric terms of attenuation constant α, and phase shift
properties of tissues are closely related to constant β). Needless to say that depend upon the
frequency and to the amount of water present. The nature of the media, one can estimate the media
MW method of determining the lung water content constants by measuring these parameters by
is known [1] to utilise the changes in dielectric propagating the EM radiation in the fluid.
properties. The method is based on a continuous Measurements of MW region parameters [7,8] viz.,
monitoring of the reflection / transmission complex dielectric constant εr*( ω), attenuation
coefficient to indicate changes in the permittivity of constant α, Phase shift constant β, electron (or ion)
the lung tissue. This method has the advantage of density ηe and collision frequency ‘ρ'’ provide the
using highly penetrating MW signals rather than necessary information to estimate the
ultrasonic signals, the later being highly attenuated characteristic constants of the components of the
and dispersed in the lung. Radiometry technique fluid under test. Finally, these measurements
originates [2] from the fact that all bodies above represents a family of diagnostic tools in the field of
absolute zero temperature emit energy in the form MW EM radiation.
of electromagnetic radiation. The use of energy in
In the present research work, it is proposed to
the MW spectrum provides a method of controlling
perform diagnosis by propagating EM radiation in
the rate and uniformity of heating of deep-frozen
blood plasma. An attempt is made to study the
materials. MW thawing [3] techniques are known to
diversity of the blood parameters using MW EM
recover the deep frozen organs from low
radiation. The present work is based on the fact that
temperature storage banks. In MW biology studies,
the changes in electrical properties are caused by
waveguide systems are preferable as the fields are
the prevalence of disease at varied severity in the
known. Recent investigations [4-6] have revealed
human anatomy.
that effect of non-ionising EM radiation on human
body may not be restricted to thermal effects only,
but it may help to explain some of the unsolved EXPERIMENTAL SET UP FOR MEASUR-
important biological activity. ING THE BLOOD PARAMETERS
The propagation of electromagnetic (EM) The block diagram of the experimental set-up
radiation in a fluid needs to be characterised in [9] consisting of a MW bench used for measuring

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


92

the blood parameters during the present collected from hospitals) is presented for the
investigation is presented in Fig 1. The dielectric following case studies.
constant of the collected blood sample is determined
1) Typhoid
[10,11] with the experimental set up shown in Fig 1.
2) Diabetes
The MW bench is operated at a frequency of 10
GHz. The observed variation of MW blood parameters
(collected from patients of different diseases) are
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION presented in Fig 2 and 3 for typhoid and diabetes
respectively.
The blood sample (collected from the patient) is
divided into two equal parts. While the clinical test 1. Typhoid
is administered ( by the hospital clinics) over the
first part, the second part of the sample is exposed It is observed that for values obtained for
to microwave radiation as to further determine the Dielectric constant εr*(ω):
dielectric parameters, i.e., that the sample is
treated as the media of propagation. The clinical (a) The dielectric constant εr*(ω) is found to be
test on the first sample is known to come out with a slightly greater than 2.95 for normal blood
parameter value, whose magnitude reflects upon sample, the sample not affected by the
the severity of the disease. As such, more is the typhoid disease. The corresponding value
clinical parameter, the severe is the disease of clinical parameter is less than 80.
attributed (or the blood sample of the patient is (b) The dielectric constant εr*(ω) is found to
severely inflicted). The dielectric parameters of the vary between values 2 and 2.9, for the case
blood samples (of patients with diversity of disease of marginally affected typhoid sample.

VSWR
meter

Klystron
Power Crystal
Supply Detector

Slotted
Klystron Isolator Attenuator Waveguide Load
Oscillator Section

Fig 1 Experimental set up for the measurement of dielectric parameters of blood sample

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


93

However, the corresponding value of the determination by MW dielectric method. The


clinical parameter is found to be 80 for that observed variation of MW dielectric parameter
marginally effected case. values with severity of disease is found to be
analogous to the variation of clinical parameters
(c) The dielectric constant εr* (ω) is found to be
(supplied by clinics) with severity of disease. As
less than 2, for the affected blood sample,
such, the possible correlation between them are
while the corresponding value of the clinical
estimated for different samples. The value of the
parameter is found to be more than 80.
correlation coefficient [12] between MW
measurement and clinical measurement is
2. Diabetes estimated. The values of these coefficients are
found to be in between 0.96 6 to 0.996 to imply that
It is observed that for values obtained for
there is a strong correspondence between the two
Dielectric constant εr*(ω):
methods used to estimate the severity of disease.
(a) found to be a value between 1.915 and 4.9
Further a meticulous and in depth analysis is
for the normal blood sample, the sample not
carried out for a possible parametric dependence
affected diabetes. While corresponding
between the clinical measurement and MW
value of the random sugar is found to be in
measurement of blood parameters. An overview of
between 60-160.
variation of observed dielectric parameters (Tables
(b) found to be greater than 5 for the diabetic 1 and 2) with clinical parameters (reflecting the
affected blood sample. While the severity of disease) seems to follow a third order
corresponding value of the clinical polynomial dependence.
parameter (random sugar) is greater than
A non linear least square method is used to fit
160 (mg/dL)
the data to the equation
Statistical Analysis for parametric f(x) = a + bx + cx2 + dx3 (1)
relations and correlation between MW
dielectric and clinical parameters Where x is dielectric value

An overview of the collected data of clinical The data in Tables 1 and 2 is fitted to the
parameters and the observed dielectric parameters equation (1). The goodness of the fit [13] is
(at the various levels of disease severity) seems to demonstrated through the corresponding t-test and
maintain a strong correlation between them to the p values ≥ 0.995. The back estimated values
address the problem of severity of disease and its are superposed as solid lines in the Figs 2 and 3 for

TABLE 1: The values of clinical parameters and dielectric parameters for typhoid disease

S.No. Clinical lab Dielectric Velocity Impedance Confirmation


Parameter Constant (108)m/s (Ω)

1 640 0.7486 3.4673 435.73 Positive


2 620 0.917 3.1328 393.69 Positive
3 160 1.315 2.6161 ;328.76 Positive
4 88 1.495 2.4536 308.33 Positive
5 80 2.065 2.0877 262.35 Marginally effected
6 80 2.864 1.7727 222.77 Marginally effected
7 20 7.005 1.1335 142.44 Negative
8 10 9.905 0.9532 119.79 Negative

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


94

TABLE 2 : The values of random sugar and dielectric parameters for diabetes

S.No. Random Dielectric Velocity Impedance Confirmation


Sugar Constant (108)m/s (Ω)
(mg/dL)

1 63 1.915 2.1678 272.43 Negative


2 68 2.065 2.0876 262.35 Negative
3 71 3.155 1.6889 212.25 Negative
4 77 3.275 1.6577 208.32 Negative
5 152 4.965 1.3463 169.19 Positive
6 177 6.225 1.2024 156.10 Positive
7 231 7.255 1.1137 139.97 Positive
8 240 7.705 1.0807 135.82 Positive
9 292 8.625 1.0215 128.37 Positive
10 307 10.285 0.9354 117.55 Positive
11 328 10.675 0.9182 115.39 Positive

NORMAL ABNORMAL
150 800
Clinical Parameters
Clinical Parameters

—— Polynormial x —— Polynormial
600 x
x Experimental x Experimental
100 x
x
400
50 200 x
x x
x 0
0 x
–200
0 0.5 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Dielectric Constant Dielectric Constant

Fig 2 Variation of the clinical parameter with dielectric constant of the blood
sample for typhoid disease for both in normal and abnormal range of disease

NORMAL ABNORMAL
200 350 —— Polynormial
—— Polynormial x x
Random Sugar

x Experimental 300 x Experimental


Random Sugar

x
150 x
250 x
x
100 200
x
xx
150
x x
50 100
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Dielectric Constant Dielectric Constant

Fig 3 Variation of the random sugar with dielectric constant of the blood sample for
diabetes disease for both in normal and abnormal range of disease

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


95

different diseases. An overall study of relative 2. Om P Gandhi, Medical applications of


magnitude of the polynomial coefficients reflects Electromagnetic fields-Part V, IEEE Trans Microwave
upon highest value adopted by the linear coefficient Theory Tech, July, 15, 1981.
term and its predominance for the strong 3. R Paglione and et al, 27 MHz Ridged Waveguide
correspondence (or correlation) between dielectric Applications for Localized Hyperthermia Treatment
parameters and clinical parameters. This of Deep-seated Malignant Turners, Microwave
Journal, vol 24, Feb 1981.
observation is suggestive of using MW dielectric
parameters as an equivalent and potential tool of 4. S Gabriel, R W Lau & C Gabriel, The dielectric
medical diagnostics. properties of biological tissues: III parametric models
for the dielectric spectrum of tissues, Phy Mod Biol,
vol 41, 1996, pp 227-2293.
CONCLUSIONS
5. Yuri Feldman & Irina Ermolina, Time domain dielectric
In this paper, the estimation of severity of spectroscopy study of biological systems, IEEE
Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulators,
ailment of typhoid and diabetes diseases are
vol 10, no 5, 2003, pp 728-748.
considered by measuring the dielectric constant,
velocity and impedance of the blood sample. This is 6. Liquid dielectric property determination using mono
carried out by propagating electromagnetic waves pole probes operating at microwaves frequencies,
IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology
through the blood sample. The trends of results and Conference 2006, Sorrent, Itley.
investigations are fruitful as the meticulous
statistical analysis presented in the paper supports 7. Edward C Jordan & Keith G Balmain,
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems, PHI,
the claim that the microwave dielectric parameter
New Delhi, 2004.
can be used as a powerful tool to estimate the
severity of disease. The above discussion for the 8. Rajeswari Chatterjee, Microwave Engineering
observed trends in clinical and dielectric special topics (A post graduate text book), Affiliated
East West Press, New Delhi 1988.
parameters followed by the meticulous statistical
analysis is suggestive of 9. V Malleswara Rao & B Prabhakara Rao, The Role of
Microwaves in the measurement of Blood
• Subtle and strong implied relationship Parameters, Journal Institute of Engineers India, pp
between the MW dielectric and the clinical 61-63, Jan 2006.
parameters. 10. V Malleswara Rao, B Prabhakara Rao, Blood Sugar
Estimation Through Measurement of Dielectric
• MW dielectric parameters can also be Constant By Using Microwaves, 62nd ARFTG IEEE
treated as bench markers to diagnose Microwave Measurements Conference Differential
Measurements, Dec 2-5, 2003, Hotel Boulderado
medical diagnostics.
Downtown Colorado USA, pp 301-305.

• Representing a reliable estimate of the 11. M L Sisodia & G S Raghuvamshi, Basic Microwave
Techniques and Laboratory-Manual, New age
severity of disease (affecting the biological
International Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 2000.
system under consideration).
12. K Park, Preventive and Social Medicine, M/s
Banarsidas Bhanot publishers, Jabalpur, 2002.
REFERENCE
13. Suranjan Saha, Mathematics and Statistics Centre’s
1. Magdy F Iskander & Carbh Durney, Electromagnetic C.A. Foundation course series 2002, New central
Techniques for Medical Diagnosis: A Report, Proc book agency (P) Ltd, Calcutta (India).
IEEE, vol 68, no 1, Jan 1980.

Vol. 25, No. 2, March-April’08 I E T E T E C H N I C A L R E V I E W


96

Authors
V Malleswara Rao
Email: <mraoveera@yahoo.com>
Address: Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, GITAM College of Engineering,
Visakhapatnam 530 045, India.

* * *

B Prabhakara Rao
Address: Depepartment of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological
University College of Engineering, Kakinada 533 003, India.

* * *

D M Potukuchi
Email: <potukuchidm@yahoo.com>
Address: Depepartment of Physics, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University College of Engineering,
Kakinada 533 003, India.

Paper No 79-A; Copyright © 2008 by the IETE.

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