Prepositions are short words (on, in, to) that usually stand in front of nouns (sometimes also in front of gerund verbs).

Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult, as a 1:1 translation is usually not possible. One preposition in your native language might have several translations depending on the situation. There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary, reading a lot in English (literature) and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips).

Reported Speech Definition Reported speech is often also called indirect speech. When we use reported speech, we are usually talking about the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. For example: "I'm going to the cinema". He said he was going to the cinema. Basic tense chart The tenses generally move backwards in this way (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right): present simple I'm a teacher. present continuous I'm having lunch with my parents. present perfect simple I've been to France three times. present perfect continuous I've been working very hard. past simple I bought a new car. past continuous It was raining earlier. past perfect The play had started when I arrived. past perfect continuous I'd already been living in London for five years. past simple He said he was a teacher past continuous. He said he was having lunch with his parents. past perfect simple He said he had been to France three times. past perfect continuous He said he had been working very hard. past perfect He said he had bought a new car. past perfect continuous He said it had been raining earlier. past perfect NO CHANGE POSSIBLE past perfect continuous NO CHANGE POSSIBLE

Examples: I went to the theatre last night. He said he had gone to the theatre the night before. I'm having a party next weekend. He said he was having a party the next weekend. I'm staying here until next week. He said he was staying there until the following week. I came over from London 3 years ago. He said he had come over from London 3 years before.

Theories about the creation of the Earth Origin of Our Planet There are different beliefs and theories about how the earth was formed and no one theory could tell exactly how the earth came to be. Scientists believe that the earth was formed more than 4 billion years ago. They found this out by studying the radioactive elements contained in rocks. Here are some theories and beliefs on how the world was formed: 1. Mythical Origin There are myths and folktales that tell about the origin of the earth. Some believe that the earth was made by God. The Chinese believe that the earth was created by Pan Ku, a supernatural being. A Japanese myth tells that the earth was a creation of two deities – Izanami and Izanagi. In 600 B.C., Thales thought that the life was made possible on earth because of water. According to him, the earth is like a big basin floating in water. Another important man named Anaximander suggested that the earth began from a ball of fire that covered a cold mass. When the ball of fire burst into pieces, the pieces became the bodies in space while the cold mass became the world. There are different versions of how the world originated which are based mainly on the types of people and their beliefs. 2. Scientific Theories Although there are so many beliefs on how the world formed, scientists have better explanations on how the world originated. The theories are based on long time studies, researches and observations made by the knowledgeable scientists. Scientific explanations are based on facts that are well researched by scientists. Big Bang Theory The Big Bang theory states that the world came from a cosmic egg that is extremely hot. The cosmic egg burst and the pieces that were torn formed into planets and other heavenly bodies. These theories are all very helpful in explaining how the world came to be. Rotation and Revolution of the Earth The Revolution of The Earth Around Our Sun Throughout the year, as our small blue planet orbits the Sun, many parts of the Earth experience changing seasons. The warm Spring brings new flowers and young animals. This is followed by a hot Summer filled with vacations, hikes, and outdoor swimming. Following Summer is another warm season known as Autumn, where leaves turn beautiful shades of reds and browns before falling from their trees. Finally, after all of these warmer seasons, comes one that is cold, wet, and dry, known as Winter.

Rotation of the Earth:

The Earth orbits around the Sun. It takes one year to go around the Sun one complete time. The Earth also rotates, or spins, on its axis. It takes one day to spin around itself one complete time. The Earth's axis is not straight up and down, but tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees. The rotation is what causes the change from day to night. This tilt is responsible for having seasons. If the Earth were not tilted, we would have the same season all year long. Revolution of the Earth: The movement of the Earth around the Sun in a fixed orbit is called as revolving. One full orbit around the sun is one revolution. The Earth takes 365 days or 1 year to complete one revolution. The Earth revolves around the Sun because of gravity. The Earth really rotates 365 ¼ times during each revolution. The calendar always has 365 days, after every 4 years, the earth has made one extra rotation. However, one extra day is added to the month of February once in every four years forming a leap year with 366 days.

E ngland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with: North: Scotland, West: Wales, North-West: the Irish Sea, South-West: the Celtic Sea East: North Sea, South: English Channel (separating it from continental Europe).

England became a unified state in AD 927, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialized nation. England's Royal Society laid the foundations of modern experimental science. England National Day: April 23rd London, England's capital, is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures.

David Robert Joseph Beckham David Robert Joseph Beckham, OBE (born 2 May 1975) is a former English footballer. He has played for Manchester United, Preston North End, Real Madrid, Milan, Los Angeles Galaxy, French Ligue 1 club Paris Saint-Germain, and the England national teamfor which he holds the appearance record for an outfield player, and also the first English player to win league titles in four countries. He announced his intention to retire at the end of the 2012–13 Ligue 1 season on 16 May 2013. Beckham's professional career began with Manchester United, making his first-team debut in 1992 aged 17. With United, Beckham won the Premier League title six times, the FA Cup twice, and the UEFA Champions League in 1999. He then played four seasons with Real Madrid, winning the La Liga championship in his final season with the club. In July 2007 Beckham signed a five-year contract with Major League Soccer club Los Angeles Galaxy. While a Galaxy player, he spent two loan spells in Italy with AC Milan in 2009 and 2010. In international football, Beckham made his England debut on 1 September 1996, at the age of 21. He was captain for six years during which he played 58 times. He has 115 career appearances to date.

David Beckman Beckham has twice been runner-up for FIFA World Player of the Year and in 2004 was the world's highest-paid footballer when taking into account salary and advertising deals. Beckham was the first British footballer to play 100 Champions League matches. When joining the MLS in 2007 he was given the highest player salary in the league's history of US$6.5m per year. He is married to Victoria Beckham and they have four children. In 2009, the couple's joint wealth was estimated at £125 million

Bar Graph A bar graph uses bars to show data. The bars can be vertical (up and down), or horizontal (across). The data can be in words or numbers. Also known as bar chart is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. The bars can be horizontally oriented or vertically oriented (also called column chart).

It is a really good way to show relative sizes: it is easy to see which types of movie are most liked, and which are least liked, at a glance. You can use bar graphs to show the relative sizes of many things, such as what type of car people have, how many customers a shop has on different days and so on.