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For critical high-tensile-strength applications, low-grade bolts may fail, resulting in damage or injury. On SAE-standard bolts, a distinctive pattern of marking is impressed on the heads to allow inspection and validation of the strength of the bolt. However, low-cost counterfeit fasteners may be found with actual strength far less than indicated by the markings. Such inferior fasteners are a danger to life and property when used in aircraft, automobiles, heavy trucks, and similar critical applications.
Rotating screw and fixed trough A screw is a specialized application of the wedge or inclined plane. It contains a wedge, wound around a cylinder or shaft, that either fits into a corresponding inclined plane in a nut, or forms a corresponding inclined plane in the wood or metal as it is inserted. The technical analysis (see also statics, dynamics) to determine the pitch, thread shape or cross section, coefficient of friction (static and dynamic), and holding power of the screw is very similar to that performed to predict wedge behavior. Wedges are discussed in the article on simple machines. Critical applications of screws and bolts will specify a torque that must be applied when tightening. The main concept is to stretch the bolt, and compress the parts being held together, creating a spring-like assembly. The stretch introduced to the bolt is called a preload. When external forces try to separate the parts, the bolt sees no strain unless the preload force is exceeded. As long as the preload is never exceeded, the bolt or nut will never come loose (assuming the full strength of the bolt is used). If the full strength of the bolt is not used (e.g., a steel bolt threaded into aluminum threads), then a thread-locking adhesive may be used. If the preload is exceeded during normal use, the joint will eventually fail. The preload is calculated as a percentage of the bolt's yield tensile strength, or the strength of the threads it goes into, or the compressive strength of the clamped layers (plates, washers, gaskets), whichever is least.
Screws and bolts are usually in tension when properly fitted. In most applications they are not designed to bear large shear forces. For example, when two overlapping metal bars joined by a bolt are likely to be pulled apart longitudinally, the bolt must be tight enough so that the friction between the two bars can overcome the longitudinal force. If