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Module No.

3 : Basic Technical Drawings

Unit No. 2 - Engineering drawings

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UNITS IN THIS COURSE
UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT 3 UNIT 4 UNIT 5 UNIT 6 INDUSTRIAL DRAWINGS. ENGINEERING DRAWINGS. ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS. ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS. P & ID SYMBOLS. DIMENSIONS AND SCALES.

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Module No. 3 : Basic Technical Drawings

Unit No. 2 - Engineering drawings

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Para 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 COURSE OBJECTIVES ENGINEERING DRAWINGS BLOCK DIAGRAMS PLOT PLANS PROCESS EQUIPMENT DRAWINGS 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Piping Diagrams Fluid Power Diagrams Electrical Diagrams Page 2 4 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 19 20 21

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS PIPING AND INSTRUMENT DIAGRAMS ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS SPECIAL DRAWINGS 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 Exploded Views Cutaways Sectional Views

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Engineering drawings Page 5/21 . 2 .Module No. 3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No.

Recognise and explain the symbols used on piping and instrumentation diagrams. Identify and explain the reasons for exploded and assembly drawings. the student will be able to: • • • • • • Identify and explain the basic information given on industrial drawings. Page 6/21 . on completion of the course. blueprints and engineering drawings. and the different types of industrial drawings which are used.2. Recognise an orthographic drawing and be able to draw an object in orthographic views. Take dimensions off a drawing and understand the use of scale drawings. Other units in this course give more detailed information so that.0 COURSE OBJECTIVES This course explains the reasons why industrial drawings are needed. Recognise an isometric drawing and be able to draw an object in isometric view.

Module No. 3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No.1 ENGINEERING DRAWINGS Page 7/21 .Engineering drawings 2. 2 .

There are a great many different types of engineering drawings. The different types of engineering drawings which will be shown in this unit are. called orthographic drawings and isometric drawings. Note that engineering drawings may also be called 'diagrams' or 'plans'. • • • • • • • Block Diagrams Plot Plans Process Equipment Drawings Process Flow Diagrams Piping and Instrument Diagrams Assembly Drawings Special Drawings. Page 8/21 . Block diagrams can give the following information. The blocks can show many different things. o The main direction of flow in a process. depending on the type of system they represent. In block diagrams the components of the system and other important information are shown by a block (or rectangle) with writing in it. parts in a system. • The relative positions of the. All other drawings are based on the block diagrams. Many of the different types of drawings are useful to operators. Two specific types of engineering drawings. • • • The total amount of space needed for a system.2 BLOCK DIAGRAMS Block diagrams are the first drawings you do when you plan a system. are described in Units 3 and 4 of this course. The main components of a system. Each type has a specific purpose. They must be completed before anything else can be decided about the system. 2. Figure 4-9 shows a simple block diagram of an oil process.

3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No.Module No.Engineering drawings Page 9/21 . 2 .

An example of a plot plan is shown in Figure 2-2. traffic and transportation. Their purpose is to help in planning where to put the new buildings or equipment. main pipelines. • • Plot plans are used to.3 PLOT PLANS Plot plans show a top view of existing equipment. 2. control buildings and traffic ways. Plot plans are used when new buildings must be built or large equipment has to be installed. Provide information about the distance between equipment and buildings. Show the best place for a new building or new equipment with respect to controls. • • Page 10/21 . Decide where new buildings or new equipment can go in an existing plant making the most economical use of existing utility supplies. Then the key words in the block diagram can be used to get other drawings with that word in their titles.Figure 2-1 Simple Block Diagram The block diagram can be used to see which part of the plant you are interested in. piping and equipment.

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To get all this information we must study the three main types of process equipment drawings: • • • Piping Diagrams which deal with valves.Figure 2-2 Example of a Plot Plan 2. From these drawings an operator can learn where components are and how they are connected to each other. connections and the size of piping. They also show the size of piping. Page 12/21 . the parts in hydraulic and pneumatic systems and the parts of electrical circuits. Fluid Power Diagrams which show how hydraulic and pneumatic systems are arranged and what they do.4 PROCESS EQUIPMENT DRAWINGS Process equipment drawings (or diagrams) are drawings that provide information about the equipment used in a process plant. Electrical Diagrams which show the arrangement of electrical circuits in a system.

2 . 3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No.4.Engineering drawings 2.1 Piping Diagrams Page 13/21 .Module No.

Piping is found in every area of a process plant. and how pipelines and pipe sections are connected together. Figure 2-3 Simple Piping Diagrams of the Same System Page 14/21 . Therefore. Figure 2-3 shows a simple piping diagram as both single line and double line.5 in) diameter and smaller are always drawn in single line because a double line diagram for that size of pipe is impossible to draw. pipe sizes of 38 mm (1. piping diagrams are very useful for operators. • • single line piping diagrams which use one line to show the pipes. There are two kinds of piping diagrams. Piping diagrams show how the flow of fluid is controlled in different parts of the plant. The information given by the two diagrams is the same. he single line piping diagram is much simpler and cheaper to produce so it is used much more often. However. double line piping diagrams which use two lines to show the pipes.

2 Fluid Power Diagrams Page 15/21 .Module No. 3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No.4.Engineering drawings 2. 2 .

(These diagrams should not be confused with the cutaways as described in 'Special Drawings. Air is the most commonly used gas and a special type of oil (hydraulic oil) is the most commonly used liquid. Schematic Diagrams.8. 1.Fluid power diagrams represent and describe fluid power systems. Figure 2-4 gives examples of the three types of fluid power diagrams. paragraph 2. The fluid can be either gas or liquid. which use symbols and single lines to represent the parts of the system.) Pictorial Diagrams. which are double line drawings of a fluid power system. Page 16/21 . There are three types of fluid power diagrams. Cutaway Diagrams. which are single line drawings which use pictures to represent the components. A fluid power system is a piping circuit which carries fluid under controlled pressure to provide a source of power. Schematic diagrams are the most common type of fluid power diagrams.

Engineering drawings Page 17/21 . 3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No.Module No. 2 .

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Module No.Engineering drawings Figure 2-4 Three Types of Fluid Power Diagram Page 20/21 . 2 . 3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No.

There are two major types of electrical drawings. A schematic diagram helps you to see how an electrical system works. 1. The drawings which show the electrical circuits are called electrical diagrams. These are used to join two or more components in an electrical circuit. 1. generators. Inductors and Transformers. Circuit Breakers and Ground Connections (earth connections). circuit breakers. Wiring Diagrams show where the components are in the circuit. These start. or change the flow of electricity in a circuit. etc. The most common components are listed below. wiring diagrams are very useful for maintenance or repair work. Because of this. 1. 1. These are used to control the voltage or the current in an electrical circuit. These can be transmission lines from the power company. examples of which are shown in Figure 2-5.2. There are many different kinds of loads. These drawings are used to show the flow of current through the circuit. Power sources. Contacts. Coils. Both wiring diagrams and schematic diagrams show the components of an electrical circuit. Loads. Schematic Diagrams use single lines and symbols to show the components and their connections. These are components used to make changes in electrical power using electromagnetism. These are the components which actually use the electricity supplied by the circuit. Page 21/21 . Switches. 1. motors and heaters. or batteries. 1. The positions of contacts. 1. stop.4. Resistors. Fuses. These are devices used to protect electrical systems. If the circuit is shown energised it will be clearly stated on the drawing. for example. 1. shown on electrical schematic diagrams are almost always shown with the circuit de-energised. 1.3 Electrical Diagrams There are electrical circuits in almost every part of a process plant.

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Figure 2-5 Examples of Electrical Drawings Page 23/21 .

3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No. 2 .Module No.Engineering drawings 2.5 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS Page 24/21 .

Heaters. Process flow diagrams must include information on. The type of equipment and piping used in each step of the process. They provide important information about. They also help prevent accidents by showing critical flow control points. Pumps and Compressors. Mechanical Flow Diagrams. level. Process Flow Sheets. Page 25/21 . The normal operating conditions. they are useful when you need to change operating conditions. Instruments. Because of this. Process flow diagrams provide information about what happens in each stage of a process. Vessels. The utilities used in the different stages of operation in the plant. and where they are located. Utility Flow Diagrams. They show thing like temperature. Heat Exchangers. There are three main types of process flow diagram. Valves. pressure and flow in each part of the plant and at each stage in the process.Process Flow Diagrams (often called PFD) show the operator how process fluids flow through different areas of the plant. Piping. The main instruments used in each part of the plant.

Engineering drawings Mechanical flow diagrams and utility flow diagrams are more usually called 'Piping Page 26/21 . 3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No. 2 .Module No.

They show all major equipment and piping.7 in this Unit. Figure 2-6 shows an example of a process flow sheet for the depropanizing stage of a refining process.and Instrument Diagrams'. They show how material moves through a process. Figure 2-6 Example of a Process Flow Diagram Page 27/21 . They also give temperatures. these drawings are easy to read and to understand. pressures and other operational information at critical points in the process. You will learn the symbols for equipment later in this course. shortened to P & ID. Process flow sheets show the main stages in a process. These types of drawings are described separately in Paragraph 2. Because they include only the main pieces of equipment.

3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No.6 PIPING AND INSTRUMENT DIAGRAMS Page 28/21 . 2 .Engineering drawings 2.Module No.

They give information on. The difference between the two types of drawings is that mechanical flow sheets show the main equipment of the process. not just the main components. Page 29/21 . steam. All the equipment used. Compare the detail on these to the process flow diagram shown in Figure 2-6. drains. Sizes and types of piping used (manufacturers provide schedules of specifications for pipes). Operating conditions at every step of the process. All the instruments used. etc.Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID) give more detail than process flow sheets. Piping and instrument diagrams are also called mechanical flow diagrams and utility flow diagrams. water. Examples of piping and instrument diagrams are shown in Figures 2-7 and 2-8. Utility flow sheets show the utility services such as air. which are supplied to the process.

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Make sure you read the symbols correctly and understand what they mean. Because there are so many symbols on a P & ID. You will learn the symbols for instruments later in this course. There are a great many symbols and abbreviations which you will learn with practice.Figure 2-7 Example of a Piping and Instrument Diagram (Mechanical Flow Diagram) Because of the detail shown on them. Page 31/21 . You should always get a copy of this list to help you understand the drawings. Every set of drawings has a list of the symbols and abbreviations used. piping and instrument diagrams use a lot of symbols and abbreviations to save space on the drawing. It will also help you learn the symbols. many of the symbols are almost the same.

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7 ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS Assembly drawings show how the different parts of a piece of equipment are put together (assembled) to make a complete unit.Figure 2-8 Example of a Piping and Instrument Diagram (Utility Flow Diagram) 2. They show where each part goes in relation to other parts. Page 33/21 .

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Figure 2-9 Two Types of Assembly Drawing Page 35/21 .

Engineering drawings 2. 3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No. 2 .Module No.8 SPECIAL DRAWINGS Page 36/21 .

The following types of drawings can be classified as 'special' drawings. Sectional views. Exploded views. 2 . 3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No.Engineering drawings Page 37/21 . Cutaways. Module No.

Figure 2-10 An Exploded View Page 38/21 . the parts of a component are 'exploded' (separated) to show how they fit together.1 Exploded Views Figure 2-10 shows an exploded view. As the name suggests. There are guidelines in the drawing to make sure that all the parts are shown in their correct positions.8.2.

3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No.8. 2 .Engineering drawings 2.Module No.2 Cutaways Page 39/21 .

The amount of casing removed on the drawing can vary.Figure 2-11 shows an example of a cutaway drawing. Usually one quarter of the outer casing of the equipment is removed to show what is inside. The drawing is produced in either isometric view or perspective view. Figure 2-11 Cutaway Drawing Page 40/21 .

3 : Basic Technical Drawings Unit No.Engineering drawings 2.8. 2 .Module No.3 Sectional Views Page 41/21 .

A sectional view can be used as an assembly drawing.Figure 2-12 shows an example of a sectional view of a valve. The separate parts which make up the valve are shown with different hatch markings. Sometimes only half of the piece of equipment is shown in sectional view. The other half is an external view. The centre line of the equipment is used to divide the drawing into these two halves. Figure 2-12 Sectional View Page 42/21 .