CUPRINS

Prefaţă ................................................................................................ 7 UNIT 1 PHYSICS ………………………………………………… Revision of tenses UNIT 2 NEWTON’S CONTRIBUTION TO DYNAMICS ….......... The Plural of Nouns (I) UNIT 3 TELESCOPES ..................................................................... The Plural of Nouns (II) UNIT 4 ATOMIC PHYSICS ............................................................ The Genitive Case UNIT 5 THE REVOLUTION IN LIGHT I ...................................... The Adjective UNIT 6 THE REVOLUTION IN LIGHT II .................................... The Adverb UNIT 7 THE PHENOMENA OF NATURE ................................... The Numeral UNIT 8 THE MYSTERIOUS FOURTH STATE OF MATTER ... The Sequence of Tenses UNIT 9 MAGNETISM ................................................................... The Passive Voice UNIT 10 NUCLEAR WEAPONS ................................................... Modal Verbs UNIT 11 HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS PHOTONS ...................... If Clauses UNIT 12 A CENTURY OF DISCOVERIES IN PHYSICS I .......... The Infinitive UNIT 13 A CENTURY OF DISCOVERIES IN PHYSICS II ......... The gerund The ”ING” Participle UNIT 14CONTRIBUTION OF PHYSICS TO THE INFORMATION AGE I ................................................................................. The Article UNIT 15CONTRIBUTION OF PHYSICS TO THE INFORMATION AGE II …………………………………………………… Direct/Indirect (Reported) Speech List of Irregular Verbs ...................................................................... Bibliografie ........................................................................................

PREFAŢĂ
„Engleza pentru fizică” se adresează studenţilor care frecventează cursurile Facultăţii de Fizică dar şi celor care doresc să-şi îmbunătăţească cunoştinţele de limba engleză. Lucrarea cuprinde 15 texte de specialitate axate pe câteva subdomenii ale fizicii (astronomie, electrodinamică, fizică atomică şi moleculară, fizică medicală, fizică nucleară, fizica particulelor elementare, magnetism, termodinamică, etc) menite să atragă interesul cititorului către această disciplină. In general, acestea sunt adaptări după texte originale englezeşti sau americane sau pur şi simplu documente autentice extrase din diverse cărţi de specialitate, fie utilizând internetul. Lecţiile au un nivel intermediar fiind concepute ca mijloc de perfecţionare a unor cunoştinţe de bază deja dobândite fie în anul I de studiu a limbii engleze ca limbă străină în cadrul facultăţilor tehnice, fie in timpul liceului. Din acest motiv, lucrarea cuprinde o tematică diversă adaptată preocupărilor studenţilor combinând elemente ale limbii engleze generale cu acelea specifice limbajului specializat al fizicii (fiecare text este urmat de explicarea termenilor de vocabular general cât şi a termenilor tehnici). Vocabulary Practice este destinat însuşirii şi fixării lexicului tehnic de specialitate pe baza unor exerciţii (identificarea greşelilor, găsirea sinonimelor sau antonimelor unor cuvinte extrase din text, adevărat sau fals, completarea spaţiilor goale, traduceri, etc). Focus on Language se axează pe prezentarea unor noţiuni şi subtilităţi gramaticale sub formă de scheme şi tabele pentru a facilita memorarea lor.Exerciţiile aplicative (traduceri, umplerea spaţiilor goale cu anumite structuri, alegerea formei corecte, etc) oferă posibilitatea de a folosi problemele gramaticale asimilate, în mod complex. Intenţia mea a fost de a concepe un material de referinţă pentru studenţii facultăţii de fizică cât şi pentru cei interesaţi de această disciplină. Sursele folosite în redactarea acestei lucrări sunt menţionate în cadrul bibliografiei de la sfârşit.

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UNIT 1 PHYSICS REVISION OF TENSES

In particle physics. whereas mathematics is concerned with abstract patterns. chemistry. chemistry is the science of molecules and the chemicals that they form in the bulk. . The properties of a chemical are determined by the properties of the underlying molecules. There is a large area of research intermediate between physics and mathematics. "natural". Physics deals with matter and energy and the fundamental forces of nature that govern the interactions between particles. is not always clear-cut. and (phusis). . and is likely to do so for the foreseeable future. Physical theories are almost invariably expressed using mathematical relations.PHYSICS Physics (from the Greek. which are accurately described by areas of physics such as quantum mechanics. because each of the other natural sciences (biology. the biggest unsolved theoretical problem is the explanation for high-temperature superconductivity. Such properties are often referred to as laws of physics. "nature") is the science of Nature in the broadest sense. The difference between physics and mathematics is that physics is concerned with descriptions of the material world. Physics is closely related to mathematics. and the mathematics involved is generally more complicated than in the other sciences. Foremost amongst these are indications that neutrions have non-zero mass. the first pieces of experimental evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model have begun to appear. For example.In condensed matter physics. thermodynamics. etc. electromagnetism. geology. such as the conservation of energy. Some of the properties studied in physics are common to all material systems. devoted to developing the mathematical structure of physical theories. Physics is sometimes said to be the "fundamental science".) deals with particular types of material systems that obey the laws of physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena. The distinction.mathematics provides the logical framework where physical laws can be precisely formulated and their predictions quantified. however. (phusikos). from the sub-nuclear particles of which all ordinary matter is made(particle physics) to the material Universe as a whole(cosmology). known as mathematical physics. Future directions Research in physics is progressing constantly on a large number of fronts.

= anticipare foreseeable. involving complexity.= grămadă. morman de nisip trickling. adv. a program ongoing for over half a century. adj. These complex phenomena have received growing attention since the 1970s for several reasons.=ce poate fi prevăzut. cantitate mare underlying.= a cuantifica. Although much progress has been made in high-energy. the baryon asymmetry. anormal sandpile. nod baryion. n.= care se prelinge droplet.= fundamental. superstring theory and loop quantum gravity. n. the shape of water droplets. n. mechanisms of surface tension catastrophes are unsolved. n.= neutrion loop. n. Many astronomical and cosmologicla phenomena have yet to be satisfactorily explained. as exemplified by the study of turbulence in aerodynamics or the observation of pattern formation in biological systems. de bază accurately. adj. GENERAL VOCABULARY bulk. n= barion anomalous.These experimental results appear to have solved the long-standing solar neutrino problem in solar physics. anticipat foremost.= neregulat.= grămadă. many everyday phenomena. adj. The current leading candidates areM-theory. v. and astronomical physics. Theoretical attempts to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity into a single theory of quantum gravity.= cu exactitate prediction. or turbulence are still poorly understood. have not yet borne fruit. like the formation of sandpiles. adv. The physics of massive neutrinos is currently an area of active theoretical and experimental research.= buclă. not least of which has been the availability of modern mathematical methods and computers which enabled complex systems to be modeled in new ways. Complex problems that seem like they could be solved by a clever application of dynamics and mechanics.= în primul rând TECHNICAL VOCABULARY neutrino. n. The interdisciplinary relevance of complex physics has also increased. adj. a determina sub raport cantitativ . the acceleration of the universe and the anomalous rotation rates of galaxies.= picătură to quantify. nodes in trickling water. including the existence of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. quantum. chaos.

Mathematics and physics are interconnected in the sense that mathematic relations are used to express physical theories. e. c. …………….  String theory treat spacetime as composed from strings who have properties like tension and vibration. d. Say which statements are true or false: a. Spot the mistakes in the following sentences and write down their correct version:  Since antiquity people tried to understand why unsupported objects drop on the ground. b. 2. Physics offers explanations and solutions to all natural phenomena. …………… …………… disaster disorder elucidated study to give …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… 3.COMPREHENSION Answer the following questions: a) Is physics an interdisciplinary science? How? b) What does physics really study? c) What is the physicists’ main concern regarding condensed matter? d) How many theories govern quantum gravity? e) Which are the main phenomena still waiting to be solved? PRACTICE 1. superstring theory and loop quantum gravity in a single one. ……………. Physics deals with the description of abstract notions. Read the text and find synonyms for the following words: WORD SYNONYM WORD SYNONYM illustrated irregular to foresee valid diversity ……………. Scientists succeeded in unifying M-theory. The conservation of energy is one of the fundamental laws of physics. .

modern astronomy being more concerned in understanding the physical nature of celestic objects. fuse or split them a branch of physics that studies the physical properties of molecules and of the chemical bonds between atoms that bind them into molecules a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter a branch of physics that studies the reactions involving degradation of polymerization of polymers and monomers a branch of physics that studies rigid matter or solids a branch of physics that studies the effects of the electron hull and the nucleus’s overall spin and electric charge a branch of physics that generates and controls photons particularly in the visible light spectrum a branch of physics that studies the universe on the largest scales and at the earliest times a branch of physics that studies the planets and the solar system        5. Write down the names of the major subfields of physics by reading the definitions below:   a branch of physics that deals with the forces within the atomic nuclei and reactions that alter. 4. !! “use” family of words to use – They use many gadgets. (utilizatori) . (a folosi) a use – Learn the use of this device. Neutrinos are the only known particles that are not significant atenuated by his travel through the interstellar medium.  Motions and position of objects are now much easy determined. Word study !! while – at the same time whereas – while on the contrary One carried the books while the other arranged them on the shelves. One arrived on time whereas the others were late. (folosirea) user – There are many computer users nowadays.  Astronomy is about finding what was going off beyond Earth.

Popescu. Bejan Nicolae. (folosire) useful – This is a useful tool. Irina. engleză pentru ştiinţă şi tehnică. Vîlceanu. mecanică cuantică.usage – The glass apparatus has broken because of rough usage. Ed. Florin. Rodica. 1981 Make up sentences of your own with “while”. Use the words below to form sentences: a) distinct/research/study/aspects/in physics/is/divided/several/ different/fields/of/material/the/contemporary/world/into/that b) research/disciplines/mix/areas/of/physics/with/other/many/are/ there/that c) scientists/help/astrophysical/system/of/solar/scientific/sources/ because/it/can/observe/the neutrino/is/our/interest/beyond d) objects/core/obscured/numerous/dense/galactic/the/bright/gas/ by/the Milky Way/is/of/and/completely e) the Earth/rotated/in/the/orbits/and/everything/Aristotle/said/were/ circles/around/the center/of/perfect/the Universe/it/that(2times)/was 7. oscilaţii şi unde.  Cosmologia studiază originea. util) useless – The machine is useless for this experiment. “whereas” and the family of the word “use”. Bucureşti. Ciobanu. etc. (a întrebuinţa greşit) (Bantaş. (inutilă) usable – This apparatus is still usable. . Andrei.  Fizica este poate una dintre cele mai importante ştiinţe ale naturii deoarece ea ne poate da informaţii despre fenomene ce sunt întâlnite şi în alte ştiinţe cum ar fi biologia sau chimia.  Fizica este o ştiinţă complexă structurată pe mai multe domenii de interes cum ar fi: astrofizica. Didactică şi pedagogică. Tudor. Lb. electricitate. (folositor.  Elucidarea acestei probleme îi va ajuta pe fizicieni să înţeleagă o serie de fenomene din domeniul astrofizicii. Translate into English:  Cuantificarea gravitaţiei este una dintre cele mai dificile probleme ale fizicii ce aşteaptă să fie soluţionată. termodinamică. (utilizabil) to misuse – Scientific discoveries may be misused. Georgeta. electrostatică. electrodinamică. 6. istoria şi destinul universului.

rezultat în prezent I’ve lost my key. never) Have you ever lost anything? .BE + S + Ving. HAVE/HAS+S+ BEEN+Ving…? . V+(e)s pers. Aff.Vinf. .? . HAVE/HAS+V3 NegS+HAVE/HASNOT+V3 Int..acţiune încheiată de curând (already.. . IIIsg Neg..HAVE/HAS+S+V3? . since... all day long) It has been raining since morning. repetată I eat twice a day.S+DO/DOES NOT + V Int. for) Aff. .acţiune încheiată în trecut. PERFECT CONT.HAVE/HAS+BEEN+Vi ng Neg...acţiune în viitor (plan personal) I am flying to London on Wednesday. plan official The plane takes off in an hour.acţiune temporară I am taking driving lessons this year.DO/DOES + S + V. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE -acţiune în desfăşurare în momentul vorbirii I am leaving now.adevăr general valabil A doctor cures sick people.BE + Ving Neg.acţiune începută în trecut dar care se continuă până în prezent (since.? Aff. moment neprecizat.. just.acţiune terminată într-o perioadă de timp neîncheiată (today. .. ever. S+HAVE/HAS NOT +BEEN+Ving Int. recently) He has just opened the book.acţiune obişnuită. .acţiune care a început în trecut şi se continuă până în prezent (for. -acţiune în viitor. .FOCUS ON LANGUAGE REVISION OF TENSES TENSE SIMPLE CONTINUOUS Aff.S +BE NOT+Ving Int.. yet.

PERFECT SIMPLE .SHALL/WILL+BE+Ving Neg. SIMPLE Aff.S+SHALL/WILL+NOT+BE+Ving Int. . PERFECT SIMPLE PERFECT CONT. . SHALL/WILL+Vinf Neg. HAD+V3 Neg. Aff. HAD+S+Ving…? -acţiune începută înaintea unei acţiuni trecute continuând până la ea He had been waiting for 2 hours when she came.S+SHALL/WILL NOT +Vinf Int.SHALL/WILL+S+BE+Ving . He will come tomorrow. V2 Neg. WAS/WERE+Ving NegS+WAS/WERE NOT+Ving Int WAS/WERE+S+Ving? PAST . SHALL/WILL+S+Vinf? Aff.acţiune încheiată intr-un moment determinat din trecut My brother arrived last week. yet) He had already been to London when I met him. CONTINUOUS Aff. just.S+HAD NOT BEEN + Ving Int.S+DID NOT+Vinf Int. PERFECT CONT. Ved.acţiune încheiată înaintea unui FUTURE moment din viitor -acţiune ce va avea loc în He’ll be eating this time viitor tomorrow. HAD BEEN+Ving Neg. S+HAD NOT+V3 Int.acţiune în desfăşurare în trecut (this time last week) I was reading at this time yesterday. TENSE SIMPLE Aff.acţiune repetată în trecut He used to sit for hours in front of the house. HAD+S+V3 acţiune încheiată înaintea unei acţiuni trecute (already.? CONTINUOUS Aff.He has been here for 2 hours.DID+S+Vinf….

She . in June..50..acţiune începută înaintea unui moment din viitor care se continuă până la acel moment By next month he will have been teaching for ten years. I read a lot in my spare time.AffSHALL/WILL+HAVE+V3 Aff........ three novels last week.... I .. +Ving. j) She (turn off) the light after she (find) the papers she (look for) an hour.. c) Jane (study) since I entered the kitchen. in the inter-school competition.S+SHALL/WILL Neg. 7.SHALL/WILL+HAVE+BEEN+ Ving Neg... Christine sings very well.... a vase this morning.... h) I (not pass) the exam last week because I (be) very tired. 5. earlier. We ..... 9... 8..... My sister often breaks things... The younger children ...? . Yesterday he ..SHALL/WILL+S+HAVE+BEEN +V3…? -acţiune încheiată înaintea unui moment din viitor She will have finished cooking by 5o’clock tomorrow... We leave for our holiday in August... 4. b) I already (do) my homework when father (come) home.. The bell rings for the long break at 9. our classes at 8 o’clock yesterday too.. 6. two songs at the school festival.. We begin our lessons at 8 o’clock.. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a) Don’t worry! I (wait) for you when you return from the school trip. g) He (live) in London for one year but he can’t understand English. Andy runs very fast.S+SHALL/WILL NOT+ NOT+HAVE+V3 HAVE+BEEN+Ving Int SHALL/WILL+S+HAVE Int.. d) He usually (eat) breakfast at 7 o’clock but yesterday morning he (eat) at 10.... Study the list of irregular verbs at the end of the book and then fill in the blanks with the past tense of the verbs in italics: 1.... 3.. Yesterday it . 2.. e) You (help) me clean the house on Saturday? f) They (not read) as many books as I’d like to. She . i) I (write) the composition last week but I (not tell) you because I (not obtain) a good mark. .

her four times. 9. g) Te rog să ieşi afară! De mâine nu vei mai lucra aici! h) Această regiune este foarte frumoasă. Translate into English: a) Ne-a plăcut foarte mult vacanţa la mare. We generally eat dinner at 7 o’clock. d) Îmi ia aproape două ore să ajung la serviciu cu maşina. 10. Children drink a lot of milk... Exerciţii de gramatică engleză. an engineer. 12... Yesterday morning the boys ... three cups yesterday.Stătea la coadă să cumpere bilete la meci. Bucureşti. Probabil s-a întâmplat ceva rău dar nu vrea să-mi spună. j) Se certau în timp ce noi încercam să-i împăcăm. and a mathematician? . Ed. e) De obicei nu fumează mai mult de patru ţigări pe zi. The form-teacher speaks to the parents once a week.8.. c) Am cumpărat o grămadă de lucruri cu banii pe care mi i-ai împrumutat marţea trecută... with them.... l) L-am văzut pe unchiul tău acum două zile.... f) Plânge de când a venit acasă... Georgiana. He ..Last week we ....... k) M-am gândit la oferta lui toată ziua dar tot nu ştiu ce hotărîre să iau.... Albatros.... FUN TIME: What is the difference between a physicist. We usually meet our English teacher three times a week. am înotat în mare şi am jucat fotbal pe plajă.. (Gălăţeanu .... The girls usually swim in the morning.. timpurile verbale. Last night we ... to them last night... Turiştii vor veni întotdeauna sa viziteze acest loc! i) Când m-am urcat în autobuz mi-am dat seama că cineva mi-a furat portofelul.. b) Şedinţa tocmai se terminase când am ajuns la birou. WRITING Write a short essay in which you express your own opinion about the way physics will contribute to development of the world in the distant future. My baby brother . dinner at 7 o’clock too. 11... 1979) 10.. am stat într-un hotel modern.

UNIT 2 NEWTON’S CONTRIBUTION TO DYNAMICS THE PLURAL OF NOUNS (I) .If an engineer walks into a room and sees a fire in the middle and a bucket of water in the corner. If a mathematician walks into a room and sees a fire in the middle and a bucket of water in the corner. If a physicist walks into a room and sees a fire in the middle and a bucket of water in the corner. he takes the bucket of water and pours it eloquently around the fire and lets the fire put itself out. he takes the bucket of water and pours it on the fire and puts it out. he convinces himself there is a solution and leaves.

NEWTON’S CONTRIBUTION TO DYNAMICS Dynamics studies the mechanical motion of material bodies in connection with the factors causing the motion. These factors are: mechanical interaction between the bodies, the inertia of the bodies and the constraints imposed on the bodies. Thus, dynamics deals with the general laws of mechanical motion. Isaac Newton was the one who established these basic laws of mechanics, and, by formulating them, he explained the workings of the universe. Isaac published his most famous book “Principia” in 1687 while he was a mathematic professor at Cambridge. In the Principia, he explained three basic laws that govern the way objects move. He then described his idea, or theory about gravity. Gravity is the force that causes things to fall down. If a pencil falls off a desk, it will land on the floor, not the ceiling. In this book Isaac also used his laws to show that the planets revolve around the suns in orbits that are oval, not round. Newton created a system of mechanics by which the motion of all bodies, whether on the earth or in the heavens, can be understood or at least described and predicted. At the foundations of the system lie three simple principles – his three laws of motion. The first law is a clear statement of Galileo’s idea of inertia. We quote from Newton’s Principia: Law 1 – “Every body perseveres in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed thereon.” This is the law of inertia. There are three distinct points in this law. First, that a body at rest tends to remain at rest is a universal lesson of experience; second, it is also a matter of experience that the natural tendency of a body is to move in a straight line. The third point of

Newton’s first law – that a body continues to move with constant speed – seems contrary to experience. We know that a moving body may continue on its course for a time, but it always slows down and eventually stops. How could Newton make such a statement, and use it as the very foundation of his system? It was really Galileo who developed and justified the idea. He admitted that all moving bodies on the earth slow down and eventually stop, but he maintained that this happens because there is always interference with friction. True, he went beyond experience but not without reasoning. Newton’s second law answers the very question that the first law raises. Suppose we grant that a body tends to keep its state of motion, if it meets with no interference. What happens when we do interfere with it? Newton’s answer would be very simple but emphatic: “Then the body will be accelerated”. It will be either speeded up, slowed down, or deflected from its course, depending on the way we interfere with the body. In other words it will suffer change in its velocity. Newton himself expresses it as follows: Law 2. – The alternation of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed. This is the law of acceleration. The bigger the body – that is the more mass in the body – the less acceleration. Thus the acceleration produced is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass. One of the most important properties of forces is that they always appear in pairs. There is never just one force in any given situation. For every force there is always an equal and opposite force. This simple statement is Newton’s third law of motion. Newton stated it as follows: Law 3. – To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. Newton’s third law applies to countless interesting instances. As it speeds up, a car pushes the road backward and as it comes to a stop forward. An airplane pushes the air backward on moving through it. Newton’s calculations changed the way people understood the universe. No one had been able to explain why the planets stayed in their orbits. What held them? Isaac proved that they were held in place by the sun’s gravity. He was not the first to understand that the orbit of a planet was not circular, but more elongated, like an oval. What he did was to explain how it worked. GENERAL VOCABULARY TECHNICAL VOCABULARY

constraint, n. = constrângere ceiling, n. = tavan to predict, v.= a prezice to persevere, v.= a persevera to compel, v. = a obliga eventually, adv.= în cele din urmă to grant,v.= a acorda

motion, n.= mişcare; mecanism inertia, n.= forţă de inerţie gravity, n.= gravitaţie to revolve, v.= a (se) roti; a gravita; a (se) învârti orbit, n.= orbită; traiectorie heavens, n.= cosmos friction, n.= frecare to deflect, v.= a devia to elongate, v.= a (a)lungi

COMPREHENSION Answer the following questions: a. What does dynamics really deal with? b. How did Newton contribute to the development of dynamics? c. Can you define the three basic laws described by Newton in Principia? d. Why is it said that Newton’s calculations have changed the understanding of the universe? e. Who was Newton influenced by in his career as a physicist? PRACTICE 1. Match the two columns paying attention to the meanings the words have in the text above: 1. GRAVITY a. elementary particle of gravitation b. force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall toward the center of the earth 2. TO REVOLVE a. to turn around; to rotate b. to be revolved in the mind 3. INERTIA a. the tendency of a body to move when a force acts upon it b. the property of a body to maintain its state of rest so long as it is not acted upon by an external force 4. FRICTION a. the resistance of a surface to the relative motion b. a conflict between persons

. ........ the deviation from a staight line 6................. ............ extended... adjective or verb corresponding to the following words: VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE ..... ... the condition of a body to follow a straight line b..... .. Give the synonyms of the following words extracted from the text: WORD SYNONYM WORD SYNONYM motion constraint to revolve friction ....5......... 4..... f) Isaac Newton proved that planets were held in their orbits by the Sun’s gravity. e) The law of acceleration states that the acceleration produced to a body is not proportional to the force impressed.. 3.. ... b) Dynamics is the study of the mechanical motion of material bodies. ELONGATED a.... c) Newton described the system of mechanics in his famous book called Principia d) The first law of inertia concentrates on two distinct issues.... ........ Give the missing noun.. lengthened 2........... something that is round b..................... Say which statements are true or false: a) Newton was the first scientist preocuppied with finding an explanation to the workings of the universe. to persevere eventually elongated to quote ......................... DEFLECTION a...

pick them out and write down their correct version: mecanical celing straight conection emfatic elongated forword fundations friction eventualy heavens orbit matematic mecanics countless 6........ Cel de-al doilea principiu al lui Newton susţine că forţa ce acţionează asupra unui corp şi acceleraţia acestuia au aceeaşi direcţie... Translate into English: a........... e........... d..................... ................................. Principiul acţiunii şi reacţiunii afirmă că forţele pe care le exercită două corpuri aflate în interacţiune sunt egale în intensitate dar de sensuri diferite..................... c. ........ to impress .............................................. interference .................. Some of the words below are spelt incorrectly......to predict to persevere ........ . ... tendency ................. ................................. ... Conform teoriei lui Newton un corp nu se poate pune în mişcare sau opri de unul singur şi nu poate să-şi schimbe intensitatea şi direcţia vitezei decât dacă un factor extern acţionează asupra lui........... b.............. Legea inerţiei afirmă că un corp este în stare de repaus până în momentul în care o forţă ce acţionează asupra lui îi modifică această stare................................Crossword puzzle: 1 ....................... 5....... to quote ... Isaac Newton a fost unul dintre cei mai mari oameni de ştiinţă ai lumii fiindcă a reuşit să explice modul în care funcţionează universul. 7....... ..

9. the tendency of a body to maintain its state of rest along a straight line 11. movement . the shape of a body that 7 is lengthened 8 4. a branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of systems under the action of forces 8. a force that tends to cause 9 motion 10 5. ultimately. the resistance of a body when moving along a given surface 2 3 4 5 6 3. to force a body to 11 change its state 12 6. to move in a circular course 12. a science concerned with the action of forces on bodies. the force that causes things to fall down 7.1. 10. the reciprocal influence of two or more bodies 2. finally FOCUS ON LANGUAGE .

bus .s piano 4.lice mouse .mice ox .es crash church box 3. Nouns of Exc: kilo foreign origin or abbreviated photo words ending in –o. -ss.geese louse .sh. drop the f or fe and add . the plural of a noun is usually SINGULAR formed by adding ”s” to the dog singular room 2. nouns ending in –f or –fe. add only .oxen . nouns ending in – o following a tomato consonant add –es.ch.THE PLURAL OF NOUNS (I) RULES EXAMPLES PLURAL dogs rooms buses kisses crashes churches boxes tomatoes kilos photos pianos factories cities wives lives roofs proofs cliffs chiefs handkerchiefs 1. -x form their plural by adding kiss . .ves factory city wife life Exc: roof proof cliff chief hankerchief Irregular Plurals man – men woman – women child –children tooth – teeth foot – feet Foreign Plurals ENDINGS NOUN goose . nouns ending in – y following a consonant form their plural by changing the y into i and adding -es 5. nouns ending in: -s.

. duhuri) formula – formulas – formulae index – indexes (in books) – indices (in mathematics) appendix – appendixes (medical term) – appendices (addition(s)) to a book 8..... c) The physicist couldn’t describe the discovery he had made two weeks before the conference since he felt sick.is .um ............ apparatus ............ tendency ... mass .. a) Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity brought an important change in Newton’s law of gravitation...ae -a .... system ....es -a Singular stimulus larva erratum index thesis criterion Plural stimuli larvae errata indices theses criteria a) some foreign nonus do not follow the rules mentioned above: bonus – bonuses encyclopedia ................encyclopedias campus – campuses museum – museums diploma ...........................Singular .....diplomas electron – electrons b) some foreign nouns have two plural forms: genius – geniuses (oameni de geniu) – genii (spirite...... Write the plural of the following nouns: body .. b) The radius of an electron cloud is 10.. density ........ idea .. momentum .... property ......ex/ix ..... II...... inertia .000 times greater than the nucleus....... medium .............. electricity ................ d) Roentgen couldn’t calculate exactly the velocity and the mass of the mysterious ray that he discovered in 1896. velocity .........on Plural -i ..ices . gravity ........ ................ e) His discovery made the physicist study this phenomenon more closely............ formula ...... a) My life has completely changed after the child left for Paris............ 9.....us -a ..... Turn the following sentences into the plural: I.....

c) That man bought a funny toy for the monkey he had at home. e) He took a photo of his family. Combine the partitive expressions in column A with the uncountable nouns given in column B. Bucureşti. b) În aceste regiuni astfel de fenomene au loc cam de două ori pe an.b) This woman reads me a story every night but I still can’t sleep. c) Atunci când nu există forţe care să acţioneze asupra lor. Translate into English: a) Trebuie să înveţi aceste formule pe dinafară dacă vrei să rezolvi aceste probleme. Translate them into Romanian: Column A Column B an article of sugar a bar of meat a cake of bread a grain of paper a heap of soap an item of chocolate a loaf of land a lump of rice a piece of rubbish a pile of evidence a sheet of information a slice of advice a strip of luggage a word of furniture (*** Limba engleză pentru admiterea în învăţământul superior. 1978) 11. corpurile îşi menţin stările de repaus. Ed. Didactică şi Pedagogică. 10. . d) It’s hard to establish the right criterion of selection for these candidates. d) Are nişte idei foarte interesante cu privire la modernizarea acestor oraşe cu autobuze noi şi nepoluante care să ducă copiii la şcoală.

chickens in motion tend to cross roads. but it was moving very fast. Werner Heisenberg: We are not sure which side of the road the chicken was on. Isaac Newton: Chickens at rest tend to stay at rest. Albert Einstein: Whether the chicken crossed the road or the road moved beneath the chicken depends on your frame of reference. . Einstein etc. fizica a fost dominată de geniile lui Newton. WRITING Summarize the text using your own words (no more than 100 words) FUN TIME Why did the chicken cross the road? Aristotle: It is the nature of chickens to cross roads.e) Acum câteva secole.

Even today. scientists continue to rely on telescopes to learn about distant stars. For hundreds of years. Telescopes are typically used to observe the skies. nebulas and galaxies. . telescopes were the only instruments available for studying the planets and stars.UNIT 3 TELESCOPES THE PLURAL OF NOUNS II TELESCOPES A telescope is a device that permits distant and faint objects to be viewed as if they were much brighter and closer to the observer.

located in astronomical observatories around the world. Conventional optical telescopes use a curved lens or mirror to collect light and bring it to a focus. This powerful technique which uses a prism essentially “decodes” starlight to yield information about an object’s temperature. A small magnifying lens called an eyepiece. A reflecting telescope uses a precisely curved mirror instead of a lens to collect starlight. which causes different colors of light to come to a different focus because every color has its own degree of refraction. distorting the starlight.Most telescopes work by collecting and magnifying visible light that is given off by stars or reflected from the surface of planets. In astronomical research cameras or other instruments placed near the focus make a precise recording of the light gathered by a telescope. infrared light. There are two main kinds of optical telescopes: refracting and reflecting. or refract starlight and bring it to a focus. Refracting telescopes. visible light. and the presence of magnetic fields. use a glass lens to bend. a point in space where all the light rays converge. ultraviolet light. they also give off other types of electromagnetic radiation. Many telescopes are Earth-based. are just one part of what scientists call the electromagnetic spectrum. But. or colors. through a process called spectroscopy. microwaves. Chromatic aberration causes the image of a star or planet to be surrounded by circles of different colors. All these forms of electromagnetic radiation are emitted as waves. The visible light collected by a telescope is divided into component wavelengths. X rays and gamma rays. Reflecting telescopes are especially useful for . Rapid advances in astrophysics and optical technology broadened telescope technology in the last quarter of the 20th century. chemical composition. however. To overcome this problem. placed at the focus allows the image to be viewed. motion and other dynamics. They are typically hampered by chromatic aberration. Light rays. only radio waves. scientists have launched telescopes into space. Another fundamental limitation of refractors is that lenses with diameters beyond 100 cm are impractical because they weigh more than half a ton and sag under their own weight. or refractors. Such instruments are called optical telescopes. and some infrared radiation can penetrate Earth’s atmosphere and reach the surface of our planet. Just as stars emit visible light. including radio waves. Astronomical telescopes today come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes.

v. v. How many types of telescopes do you know? PRACTICE 1.= a aduna. TECHNICAL VOCABULARY curved. vag to gather. v. X-ray telescopes. adj.= a împiedica. v. Can you explain how optical telescopes really work? c. curbat lens. v. adj.= a se îndoi. etc. = neclar. v. to bend. Other types of telescopes are: radio telescopes. Why are telescopes considered to be important? b.= lungime de undă infrared. a se curba . şters COMPREHENSION Answer the following questions: a. infrared telescopes. Larger reflecting telescopes can typically detect objects that are a millionth or a billionth the brightness of the faintest star seen by the human eye.= a se îndoi. adj.= a mări. What is the electromagnetic spectrum composed of? e. a limita to sag. n. a strânge to yield.= a converge to magnify. Scientists use telescopes to find out information about planets.= infraroşu focus.= neclar.= focalizare. What are the main limitations of refracting telescopes? f. stars. n.= ocular wavelength. nebulas and galaxies. n. n. ultraviolet telescopes. v. GENERAL VOCABULARY faint. a amplifica eyepiece.= îndoit.gathering light from dim objects. What happens to the light collected by a telescope? d.= a obţine to hamper. adj. Say which statements are true or false: a. a se lăsa (sub greutate) dim.= lentilă to converge. Not only can a larger telescope see fainter objects but it can also obtain the data in a fraction of time. Are there any differences between refractors and reflecting telescopes? g.

………… ………… to activate to understand to activate to converge …………. motion. etc. Find antonyms of the following words by using negative prefixes: WORD ANTONYM WORD ANTONYM available practical correct material …………. …………… …………… to sag to detect to magnify to broaden ………….. Spectroscopy is a technique that helps scientists to get relevant information about an object’s temperature.b. 4. e. …………. Give synonyms of the following words extracted from the text: WORD faint SYNONYM WORD SYNONYM device available distant …………… …………. When speaking about the electromagnetic spectrum scientists actually refer to the light emitted by stars. …………. …………. …………. then.. 2. d. 3. Chromatic aberration is a specific phenomenon of refractors causing different colors of light to come to a focus. . …………. All telescopes are Earth-based being located in astronomical observatories around the world. the light emitted by the star is ………………. c. …………... chemical composition. …………. Fill in the blanks with the following words extracted from the text: refractors gamma rays microwaves infrared telescopes chromatic aberration to distort ultraviolet telescopes a) If the lens of a telescope is too heavy..

ultraviolet and infrared light as well as ……………. X rays. e) ……………….  A convex lens is thick in the center and thiner toward her edges. help us to find out more about the hottest and most energetic stars in the universe that can be seen only in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. motion. use a convex lens to converge the rays of light to a focus. Discover the word written down by solving the crossword puzzle: . allow scientists to gather significant information about the dark dusty region of space. 6. light rays. the mirror’s weigh has been dramaticaly reduced. f) The electromagnetic spectrum is formed of different types of electromagnetic radiation among which we can mention gamma rays.b) …………………… are the result of the most catastrophic events in the universe such as collisions between neutron star and black holes having wavelengths shorter than X rays. g) …………….  A new tehnique in optic astronomy is to combine signals from telescopes in separate locations so that the rezulting image are equal to that received from a giant telescope.  In some telescopes designed in the 1990. etc. 5. engineers developping meniscus mirrors. Spot the mistakes in the following sentences and write down their correct version:  These technique use a prism to yield informations about an object’s temperature. dynamics.  A reflecting telescopes’s light sensitivity increase with the square of the diameter of the telescope’s mirror.. c) When the optical image of a star or planet is distorted by the appearance of circles of different colors we have to do with the process of ……………… d) ……………….

systems of stars that 5 are held together by 6 gravitation 7 5. raze gama. lumina . raze X. to register 4 4.1 2. an electromagnetic wave of very high frequency 9. far off in space. Translate into English:  Spectrul electromagnetic cuprinde atât lumina emisă de aştri cât şi alte tipuri de radiaţie electromagnetică precum: unde radio. etc  Telescoapele sunt amplasate nu numai în observatoare pe pământ ci şi în spaţiu deoarece numai undele radio. to tend to meet in a 8 point 9 6. a group of light waves ordered in accordance with the magnitudes of a common physical property 8. 10 remote 11 7. the lens in an optical instrument that allows the eye to view the image formed 10. something that lacks 2 brightness 3 3. the adjustment of an optical device necessary to produce a clear image 7. a luminous dark mass of gases and small amounts of dust 11.

we add the plural ending to the first noun 3. we add the plural ending to the last word if the last word is a noun 2. in the case of verb+”-er” nouns + adverbial particle. in the case of noun + preposition + noun. in the case of verb + adverbial particle. nebuloase şi galaxii.  Telescoapele de reflexie au o importanţă deosebită. both parts are made plural 4.  Oamenii de ştiinţă folosesc telescoapele pentru a studia şi a afla cât mai multe despre aştri îndepărtaţi. when one of the compounds is ”man” or ”woman”.vizibilă şi radiaţiile infraroşii pot să ajungă la suprafaţa pământului.  Aberaţia cromatică este un fenomen specific telescoapelor de refracţie constând în aducerea diferitelor culori ale luminii în puncte de focalizare diferite. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE THE PLURAL OF NOUNS (II) The plural of compound nouns RULES 1. we add the plural ending to the first word 5. ajutândune să vedem obiecte neclare şi să obţinem date precise într-o fracţiune de timp. we add the plural ending to the last word EXAMPLES SINGULAR girlfriend shopassistant mother-in-law editor-in-chief man driver woman singer passer-by looker-on forget-me-not merry-go-round PLURAL girlfriends shopassistants mothers-in-law editors-in-chief men drivers women singers passers-by lookers-on forget-me-nots Merry-gorounds Unique nouns .

Some of them have two different meanings in the plural NOUN a) colour SINGULAR culoare PLURAL 1. mathematics. luggage. minute 2. motive 2. etc b) nouns of material: bread.knowledge . etc. information.havo only the singular number a) unique objects: the earth. oil.qualities: length. soap. love.names of sciences: (take both a singular and a plural verb) : dynamics. depth. etc .etc Defective nouns . height. physics.actions and states: speaking. despăgubiri 1. tea.are always plural. process verbal 1. ochelari 1.water. etc – take a singular verb if we consider the word to mean a single group . shorts. avarii 2.doctrines. vamă 1. culoare 2. teren 1. team. they usually denote garments or instruments that consist of two equal parts: trousers.. writing. cauză minut durere Collective nouns a) crew. pahare 2. obiceiuri 2. osteneală b) custom c) damage d) glass e) ground f) minute f) pain obicei avarie pahar motiv. family. tennis. Renaissance -uncountable nouns: advice. currents: socialism.feelings: curage.etc . drapel 1. the east. dureri 2. the moon. games.news. etc . the sun. etc c) abstract nouns: . paper. hope. glasses.

.sheep. c) fish.take a plural verb if we take it to mean a number of individuals Our team are wearing their new T-shirts. carp. c) Cameras or other instruments placed near the focus make precise recordings of the light gathered by telescopes. b) The government (has/have) announced further VAT cuts. deer. h) Our crew (take/takes) part in a competition. Choose the right form of the verb: a) The government (is/are) against the favourable verdict delivered by the Court of Justice regarding the teachers’strike. c) Tom’s family (hide/hides) many secrets. etc 9. g) Ten people (is/are) standing in a queue to buy our products. c) This technique ”decodes” starlight to yield information about an object’s temperature. b) people. etc – always take a plural verb Those people are waiting for you in the office. a) Telescopes are typically used to observe the skies. TURN INTO THE PL. chemical composition. d) The family (was/were) waiting for him although it was midnight. a) A small magnifying lens called an eyepiece allows the image to be viewed.Our team is the best. motion. military. Turn the following sentences extracted from the text into the singular or plural: TURN INTO THE SG. e) Our football team (is/are) the best in Europe. b) A larger telescope can see fainter objects and obtain the data in a fraction of time. etc – do not change in the plural She bought three carp. PRACTICE 8. police. . b) Scientists continue to rely on telescopes to learn about distant stars. nebulas and galaxies. f) Their team (is/are) wearing the new red Tshirts.

........... of this quarrel? c) Children hava taken good care of their sports .. b) In case of fire the insurance company will pay the.... now......... He always takes great pain with his projects....... damage a) I’ll have to pay for the .i) The crew (is/are) discussing the possible solutions in case the terrible hurricane will strike their ship.......... 5.. c) Wait a ……………... Bucureşti.............. otherwise we’ll have tooth decays in a short period of time... Didactică şi Pedagogică... We certainly need a new tooth-brush......... Limba engleză – exerciţii pentru admiterea în învăţământul superior. I simply don’t trust woman-doctor that’s why I’m not coming with you......... Have you seen my glass? I cannot find them.... Choose the singular or plural form.colour a) I simply hate this . (***.... b) She was privileged to get acquainted with this .. of the previous meeting..... are blue and beige....... does it take to get to the office? b) We wanted him to read the …………... of the Burundians c) Hand shaking is one of the most frequent .... Translate into Romanian: 1... with your work......Turn the underlined nouns into the plural if necessary:       You have to show your passport at the custom... 2......... minute a) How many …………... if you want to ask for a divorce.... 1978) ..... is being raised c) My favourite .......... 11.. in Europe......... b) What do you recommend for stomach ……………? c) You do take great …………. 10. 4.. Ed.. custom a) You have to declare everything at the . I asked Tom to buy me four trout because I wanted to prepare a delicious dinner....... pain a) She feels no ………….. 3....! 6. ground a) You must have solid ............. b) What was the . b) You must stand still when the country’s ..

forget-me-not. fireman (Gălăţeanu. merry-go-round. Bucureşti. Georgiana. UNIT 4 ATOMIC PHYSICS THE GENITIVE CASE . bedroom. headmaster.12. Gramatica limbii engleze pentru uz şcolar. Ecaterina. passer-by. blackboard. man singer. Comişel. postman. masterpiece. brother-in-law. Turn the following compound nouns into the plural: schoolboy. footstep. father-in-law. Ed. 1982) WRITING Describe. Didactică şi pedagogică. looker-on. in writing. son-in-law. woman dentist. the type of telescope that you like best by using additional materials.

gas or plasma. Heating increases the motion of atoms and causes the matter to go from solid (ice) to liquid (water) to gas (vapor). the distance between them increases. Modern physics has discovered how atoms are made up of smaller particles and how these particles interact to build atoms into molecules and larger objects of matter. Heat and temperature is explained in atomic theory as the motion of the atoms (faster = hotter). Atoms are extremely small particles. Pressure is explained as the momentum transfer of . Splitting large atoms into smaller ones or ‘fusing’ small ones to create larger ones. How tight these bonds are determines which of the four states: solid. while one of the heaviest is that of uranium – 200 times heavier than hydrogen. Plasmas are only found naturally in the coronae and cores of the stars. liquid.ATOMIC PHYSICS One of the main quests of science throughout the ages has been to discover what matter is made of – and what holds it together. A typical atom is about one millionth of a millimetre across – a million of them laid in a line would measure one millimetre across. States of Matter Matter consists of atoms held together by electromagnetic forces. The lightest atom is that of hydrogen. matter exists as. They are the smallest particles of a chemical element that still have the properties of that element. As the atoms move faster. out of which all matter is made. releases energy – this is what happens inside nuclear reactors and atom bombs (‘fission’) and inside hydrogen bombs and the sun (‘fusion’). All matter is made out of tiny particles called atoms.

. The Nucleus The nucleus is only 1/100. in fact. Protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and reside in the nucleus. but some particles bounced back. The first subatomic particle to be identified was the electron. which contains protons. Each element may also have several isotopes (different numbers of neutrons). Alpha particles carry positive charge. Rutherford performed early experiments of shooting alpha particles (helium nuclei) at sheets of gold to show that atoms were. James Chadwick discovered the neutron. When you strike your hand on a table. They exist in a cloud that surrounds the atom.protons (positive charged particles) -neutrons (particles with no electrical charge surrounded by o electrons (small particles with negative charge) This model basically looks like a little solar system. another particle located within the nucleus. mostly empty space. Rutherford’s model of an atom has a small o nucleus containing . in 1898.000th the diameter of the atom and yet nearly all the mass of the atom is in that tiny nucleus. The three particles that make up atoms are protons. In 1932. Electrons are extremely lightweight and are negatively charged. There are just over one-hundred elements. and neutrons have no electrical charge. Ernest Rutherford discovered that atoms have a very dense nucleus. but generally only a few will be stable (not radioactive). The electron cloud has a radius 10. Some of the alpha particles passed through the foil as expected.000 times greater than the nucleus. Heavy atoms tend to be radioactive. the solidness you feel is an illusion caused by the electrons. Ten years later. Like charges repel and opposites attract. Protons have a positive electrical charge. The solid behavior of atoms is due to the electromagnetic repulsion of the electrons in the outer orbits. scientists thought that atoms were rather like billiard balls – solid objects with no internal structure. Subatomic Particles At first. But further experiments showed that atoms were made of subatomic particles. neutrons and electrons.those moving atoms on the walls of the container (faster atoms = higher temperature = more momentum/hits = higher pressure). which is the center of the atom. where the nucleus is the Sun and the electrons orbit the nucleus like the planets orbit the Sun. This meant that there was a small concentration of positive charges in the atom.

= a căuta să atingă. a ricoşa to repel. v. The electron is the light weight particle that “orbits” outside the atomic nucleus. împărţit fission. Do atoms have an internal structure? f. e. Can you name the lightest atom? What about the heaviest one? c. n. = orbital to split. and their electrical charges cancel each other. Usually there are the same number of protons and electrons in an atom. by combing your hair. What kind of charges do the protons. v. = a sări. n. = scurgere în cantitate mică corona. What happens inside a nuclear reactor? d. nuclei) trickle. adj. n. = rază a unui cerc (pl.= căutare. = a curge. neutrons and electrons have? .g. v. = micuţ. The inner orbitals surrounding the atom are spherical but the outer orbitals are much more complicated. = a respinge to flow. a se scurge to shoot at. a ţinti TECHNICAL VOCABULARY orbital. and their movement between atoms is responsible for electrical current. = plasmă. = traiectorie COMPREHENSION Answer these questions on the text: a. They can also be removed from atoms by rubbing different material together. = nucleu (pl.Electrons Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles. Which are the states of matter? e. = coroană solară (pl. n. gaz ionizat radius. v. Electrons surround the atom in pathways called orbitals. What is matter made of? b. adj. n. v. urmărire tiny. and they cause electricity when they flow or static electricity when many of them build up in one place. coronae) pathway. mititel to bounce. radii) nucleus. n. = divizat. n. = fisiune plasma. or are taken away. n. GENERAL VOCABULARY quest. The electrical charge of protons and electrons are exactly equal but opposite. The electrons have negative electrical charge. This is static electricity.

Select the answer which best completes or explains the meaning of the sentences: . a positively charged particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons emitted in radioactive decay or nuclear fission. nucleus l. the path traced by an electron revolving around the nucleus of an atom 11. the nucleus of a helium atom 2. fission 1. coronae c. molecule i. force or speed of movement 2. matter k. a straight line extending from the center of a circle or sphere to the circumference or surface 6. the substance of which any physical object consists or is composed 3. plasma j. orbital h. the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into nuclei of lighter atoms accompanied by the release of energy 4. Match the following words with the definitions given below: a. the positively charged mass within an atom. a highly ionized gas containing an approximately equal number of positive ions and electrons 10. an elementary particle that is a fundamental constituent of all atomic nuclei. having a positive charge 8. atom e. momentum b. a white or coloured set of concentric circles of light seen around a luminous body (sun. radius g. composed of neutrons and protons 7. neutrons and electrons 9. What is the size of the nucleus of an atom? PRACTICE 1. proton d. the smallest physical unit of an element or compound consisting of one or more like atoms in an element 12. alpha particles f. the smallest component of an element having all the properties of the element consisting of an aggregate of protons. moon or the Sun) 5.g.

Electrical current is the result of: a) the movement of the electrons between atoms b) the movement of the atoms c) the movement of protons and neutrons 3. E) The process through which energy is released as a result of splitting large atoms into smaller ones is called …………………. is generated by the movement of electrons between atoms D) The elements of the atom which have the same number of protons in the nucleus are named ………………. The nucleus of an atom consists of: a) neutrons and negatively charged electrons b) positively charged protons and a similar number of neutrons c) positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons C. . of the electrons in the outer orbits explains the solid behavior of atoms B) Hydrogen bombs are generated by the energy created through the ……………… of light atoms to form larger ones C) ……………………. The difference between atoms and molecules is that: a) molecules are made of small particles which contain two protons and two neutrons while atoms are solid objects with no internal structure b) molecules are made of different number of neutrons which are radioactive while atoms are composed of several isotopes c) molecules are the result of the interaction of the particles that build atoms while atoms are small particles of which all matter is made B. Fill in the blanks with the following words: FUSION FISSION ISOTOPES RADIOACTIVITY REPULSION STATIC ELECTRICITY ELECTRICAL CHARGE ELECTRICAL CURRENT A) The electromagnetic ……………….A.

… G) Most heavy atoms are generally characterized by ……………….. TO FUSE …………………… TO INTERACT ……………. Give synonyms to the following words extracted from the text: TO SURROUND ……………………. an entirely new _ _ c_ _ _ _ was created which was unstable and disintegrated into a form of oxygen and ordinary _ y _ _ _ _ _ _. It was this ejected _ y _ _ _ _ _ _ which he was detecting in the form of high-speed _ _ _ t _ _ _. 7. resulting from changes in the nuclei of atoms of the element H) When electrons are removed from atoms by rubbing different material together we have to do with ……………. 4. TINY ……………… QUEST ………… 6. …………………. Give nouns corresponding to the following verbs: TO REPULSE TO BOUNCE TO MOVE …………………. Complete the missing words in the paragraph using vocabulary items from the text studied above: Rutherford made a very important assumption after his experiment: when a_ _ _ _ particles collided directly with nitrogen nuclei. In 1935 he received the Nobel prize for his discovery of the _ _ u _ _ _ _.. This historic experiment was the first manmade _u _ _ _ _ _ transmutation. Translate into English: a) Atomul este cea mai mică parte dintr-un element chimic care păstreză însuşirile chimice ale elementului respectiv. . Chadwick in England was one of Rutherford’s disciples. 5.. …………………..F) Inside the nucleus of an atom. PROPERTIES ……………………. LOCATED ………………… EMPTY …………………… TO SPLIT ……………. neutrons have no ……………. He demonstrated the existence in nature of a fundamental _ _ _ _ i _ _ _ that was electrically neutral.

the hen’s egg b) geographical names or natural phenomena: Romania’s flag. value: a three weeks’ holiday. a life’s work . FUN TIME A hydrogen atom lost its electron and went to the police station to file a missing electron report. c) Chadwick a descoperit o particulă nouă care avea aceeaşi masă ca protonul dar nu avea sarcină electrică d) Sarcinile de acelaşi fel se resping în timp ce sarcinile opuse se atrag. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE THE GENITIVE CASE The Analytical Genitive – with the preposition of is used with: a) nouns denoting human beings: the book of the pupil b) nouns denoting objects: the doors of the house c) with long noun phrases: the sister of the boy you’ve just talked to . the day’s heat c) collective nouns: the government’s solution to this problem d) nouns denoting measurement. The Synthetic Genitive – with ’s is used with: a) singular nouns: the girl’s room. He was questioned by the police: "Haven't you just misplaced it somewhere? Are you sure that your electron is really lost?" "I'm positive. time. e) Curentul electric este rezultatul mişcării electronilor printre atomi." replied the atom.b) Rutherford a descris atomul ca fiind format dintr-un nucleu în jurul căruia se învârt electronii. space.. quantity. John’s pencil b) irregular plurals: the men’s club ! We add only ’ to plural nouns: my friends’ books ! The “Synthetic Genitive” is used with: a) nouns denoting persons or other beings: Tom’s pencil.

What’s the name of the new colleague of your twin brothers? d. e. (Gălăţeanu. f) (Babies) toys are bought especially on Christmas. g) He wanted to sharpen the blade (knife) in just two minutes. Didactică şi pedagogică. d) The woman’s work is very much appreciated. we do no longer use the mark of the genitive: afternoon schedule. b) The girl’s room is very pretty. c) Tom is (Mary) brother. g) Where are the child’s clothes? h) The baby’s food is in the fridge. Substitute synthetic genitive forms for the prepositional genitive forms when possible: a. d) (Children) answers are always direct and sincere. Gramatica limbii engleze pentru uz şcolar. h) We don’t know the (woman) opinion regarding this problem. Comişel. e) The worker’s life is much better today.The Implicit Genitive . Ed. Use either the analytical or the synthetic genitive with the nouns in brackets: a) He opened only one (window) his room. The interests of the police are to cover all the traces of the murder. Bucureşti. i) I have always received Tom (presents) earlier than expected. The bathrooms of that house are quite small and dirty. j) The pupils (relatives) were asked to join their trip to the mountains. c. e) (Woman) clothes are very expensive this summer. c) The pupil’s uniform is blue. b) I haven’t read today (newspaper). Ecaterina.is often used nowadays. 1982) 11. 10 Turn the following nouns in the genitive case into the plural: a) My cousin’s house is large. f) The teacher praised the student’s work. . The color of my favorite skirt is blue. audience participation PRACTICE 9. What can you tell me about the forests of this region? b. Georgiana.

There is a poster on the door of this house. nu de a te pedepsi. c. f. a bird’s eye view.12. His wife’s laughter drew everybody’s attention. Have you written down the effect of that interesting phenomenon? b. to be at one’s wits’ end. d. 13. The child’s foot was bleeding heavily so that he had to be taken to the hospital. Didactică şi Pedagogică. guvernul confruntânduse cu serioase probleme economice. h. Limba engleză – exerciţii pentru admiterea în învăţământul superior. c) Nu se poate să fi rupt toate paginile dicţionarelor. to my heart’s content. at arm’s length. Turn the following sentences into plural: a. b) Este foarte greu să contrazici declaraţiile femeilor privind răpirea copilului. g) Trebuie să faci curat în camera lui Sarah înainte ca ea să se întoarcă de la spital. . otherwise it will rain inside. He has been looking for the key of his car since morning. 1978) 14. i) Toţi am râs când am auzit numele pisicii ei. Ed. for conscience’ sake. The shelter of the sheep was made of wood and leaves. art for art’s sake (***. Your friend’s money is on the third shelf. i. având în vedere că nu ai nici o dovadă împotriva lor. Translate into English: a) Colegii lui Jane au organizat o petrecere frumoasă pentru ziua ei de naştere. f) Populaţia Chinei a crescut în ultimii ani. The roof of this building has to be repaired. e. Bucureşti. d) Ai văzut maşina familiei Brown după accidentul pe care l-au avut săptămâna trecută? e) Mi-a fost greu să mai recunosc feţele copiilor după ce au mâncat o ciocolată întreagă. in my mind’s eyes. at death’s door. for Heaven’s sake. Translate the following set phrases into Romanian: at one stone’s throw. h) Intenţiile părinţilor tăi au fost de a te încuraja să înveţi mai bine. The main traffic light of the city is out of order so pay attention while driving. g.

The second atom says "I think. no wait". I'm Positive" UNIT 5 THE REVOLUTION IN LIGHT I THE ADJECTIVE . "I've lost an electron" "Are you sure" "Oh.. Then he turns to the second and helps him up.. he pats himself down. The first atoms picks himself up and dusts himself off. FUN TIME Two atoms are walking down the street and they collide. "Are you OK?" he asks.j) Bărbatul de acolo este fratele unchiului tău sau nepotul bunicilor lui Tom? WRITING Write your own short history of the atom by using the information in the text studied above or you may add further details that you consider to be necessary.

according to Newton. and refraction.THE REVOLUTION IN LIGHT I In 1921 Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for having conceived the theory that explained the “photo-electric effect”. Two years later Robert Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize for having performed the experiment that proved Einstein’s theory. Millikan’s great experiment was performed almost a decade after that. Huyghens – that light consisted of a vibration in the ether – began to come to the fore. The great French physicist Fresnel demonstrated mathematically that if . the bending of light as it passed from a rare medium like air to a denser medium like water. Isaac Newton had enriched the science of physics with two theories: the first described the laws of motion of ponderable bodies. The double award marked the success of one of the most profound revolutions in physics. even though it explained only two of the known phenomena of light. the second described light a being composed of very tiny particles of radiant matter. Newton’s theory of light could not explain interference. By the beginning of the eighteenth century. Newton supported the corpuscular theory of light. diffraction or polarization. Reflection. was simply the elastic bouncing of the light particles form the reflecting surface. Einstein’s theory had first been advanced in 1905. the wave theory of light put forward by Newton’s contemporary.

Half a century later. or frequency. but the individual energies of the electrons were not affected by the intensity of light even though Maxwell’s theory said that this was the measure of light energy. Einstein used the symbol h for the number out of deference to his colleague.light were truly a wave phenomenon. Not until the last decade of the nineteenth century did there appear to be any discrepancy in Maxwell’s theory. In 1887 Hertz had noticed that light – particularly ultra-violet light – would cause metal surfaces to become electrically charged. less the amount of energy needed to extricate the electron from the atom. The energy of each pulse was proportional to its color or. . Einstein said that this dependence was a direct one. in classical terms. therefore be identically equal to the energy of the captured light corpuscle. Thomson showed that the positive charge on the surface was due to the instantaneous emission of negative electrons from the metal. Einstein offered this explanation: A beam of light was composed of a stream of tiny corpuscles or pulses of energy. To Einstein the contradiction was this : The more light that was shone on a metal surface. and in 1905 he suggested that the “photoelectric effect” could be explained only by a return to the corpuscular theory of light with certain important modifications. The energy of these liberated “photoelectrons” should. called “quanta”. James Clerk Maxwell strengthened the wave theory of light by demonstrating dramatically that light was a vibration of electric and magnetic waves. One physicist who seemed aware that this involved a contradiction in the wave theory of light was Albert Einstein. Max Plank. When light struck solid matter. and the “certain number” was the same for every color. The absorbed energies in some cases were great enough to allow electrons to escape from the atoms in which they had been held. the greater the number of electrons that were given off. it had to be a constant of nature. Energy was equal to frequency multiplied by a “certain number”. as Maxwell had said. This last quantity. then all the observed behavior could easily be explained. its frequency – not its amplitude. Einstein stated this in the form of an equation that connected the velocity of an emitted photoelectron with the energy of the captured light quantum and the work function The crux of Einstein’s theory was the way energy was supposed to depend on color. some of these Einsteinian corpuscles of energy were absorbed. the “work function” could be measured by direct means.

= undă charge. n. = impuls. dificultatea deference. = difracţie a luminii wave. = viteză quantum. Who was the physicist that was awarded the Nobel Prize for having explained the “photo-electric effect”? b. v. POLARIZATION a) a state in which rays of light or similar radiation exhibit different properties in different directions b) a device. CORPUSCLE . n. n. n. DIFFRACTION a) any of a variety of translucent materials for filtering glare from the light source b) the bending of light waves around obstacles in their path 2. Did James Maxwell agree to the wave theory of light? d. How did Einstein explain the photo-electric effect? e. = esenţa. = a întări. n. n. = mişcare. Match the two columns paying attention to the meaning the words have in the text above: 1.= stimă. a consolida to give off. What were the two theories described by Isaac Newton? c. consideraţie COMPREHENSION Answer the following questions: a. = lege to come to fore = a veni în prim plan to strengthen. n. a emite crux. n. = rază. şoc velocity. n. n. încărcare beam.= vibraţie diffraction. often a crystal or prism that produces polarized light from unpolarized light 3. fascicul de raze pulse. n. What was the crux of Einstein’s theory? PRACTICE 1.= cuantă law.= a elibera.GENERAL VOCABULARY TECHNICAL VOCABULARY motion. = sarcină. mecanism bouncing. n. v.

EMISSION a) something that is emitted. discharge. Fill in the blanks with the following words: . usually considered as an elementary particle b) an elementary particle that is a fundamental constituent of all atomic nuclei. REFRACTION a) the return of light after striking a surface b) the change of direction of a ray of light in passing obliquely from one medium into another in which its speed is different 5. mass. having a positive charge equal in magnitude to that of the electron 7.a) an elementary particle of matter as an electron. oscillation 6. PHOTON a) a quantum of electromagnetic radiation. WAVE a) a progressive disturbance propagated from point to point in a medium or space without progress or advance by the points themselves as in the transmission of light b) the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like. REFLECTION a) the ratio of the intensity of reflected radiation to that of the radiation incident on a surface b) the return of light after striking a surface 8. Say which statements are true or false: a) Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for having conceived and performed the photo-electric effect b) Reflection and refraction were the only two phenomena explained by Isaac Newton c) James Maxwell demonstrated that light was a vibration of electric and magnetic waves d) Hertz observed that ultra-violet light would cause metal surfaces to become electrically charged e) Einstein thought that the individual energies of the electrons (given off by a metal surface) are affected by the intensity of light 3. proton or atom b) a body. emanation b) the total flux emitted per unit area 2. or part having a special character or function 4. whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed.

emission interference frequency wave photoelectron intensity amplitude (2 times) a.. e.. The ………………. The ………………… of the sound was so high that for a moment I had the impression of deafness. adjective. Give the noun. VERB …………… …………… to conceive …………… …………… to extricate …………… …………… …………… ADVERB …………………. there takes place a(n) ………………… of ………………. diffractively …………………. ………………… …………………. b. c. are propagated through the atmosphere with the speed of light. of earthquakes in this region made my parents leave their home and move to a less dangerous town. . The ………………… of two electromagnetic waves leads either to their reinforcement or to their canceling. Give the synonyms and the antonyms of the following words extracted from the text: WORD SYNONYM OPPOSITE     to prove discrepancy to amplify radiant ……………. …………………. The …………….. f. proportionally 5. When a metallic surface absorbs light. ……………. verb or adverb corresponding to the following words: NOUN …………… interference …………… …………… light …………… …………… intensity ………… ADJECTIVE radiant …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… frequent …………… ……………. ……………. Radio …………….. d... 4. ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………. …………………. ……………. …………………. of the resulting of two electromagnetic waves is equal to the sum of their ……………….

…………… …………… …………… CONTRADICTION …………………… ………………….Some of the words below are spelt incorrectly. …………………… …………………. ……………… ……………… 6.. ……………….. ………………... Crossword puzzle: intensity emision polarization genius diffraction discrepancy instantaneous trully equation diference 1 DOWN: 1 the phenomenon 2 which describes the change of direction of a ray of light ACROSS: 2. RADIANT ……………… ………………. Write down the family of the following words: ENERGY ……………. positive or negative electricity of a 3 4 5 6 . ……………. 7.  to capture to contradict …………….. Spot the mistakes and write down the correct version: physicist ponderabile eter quantum corpuscul 8.

nu spunea nimic despre interferenţă. movement 10. c) Contemporanii lui Newton au considerat lumina un fenomen de undă şi au definit-o ca o vibraţie de unde electrice şi magnice. rapidity of an action. 10. to back up an affirmation 9. something that is essential 10 and decisive 11 particle. a state characteristic to the rays of light which exhibit different properties in different directions 7. elementary particles negatively charged 8. speed 8 4. the smallest quantity of radiant energy 9. a sudden leap or spring 11. to bend the light waves 9 5. Translate into English: a) Newton a contribuit la dezvoltarea fizicii prin elaborarea unei teorii corpusculare a luminii.7 3. . b) Teoria lui Newton nu a fost completă în sensul că deşi oferea definiţiile reflexiei şi refracţiei. b) In (classical/classic) terms he meant that the energy of the tiny corpuscles that composed the beam of light was proportional to its frequency. difracţie sau polarizaţie. body or system 6. d) Einstein a fost primul fizician care a reuşit să explice efectul foto-electric prin câteva modificări aduse teoriei corpusculare a luminii. change of position in space. Select the appropriate word in the following sentences: a) Einstein noticed that the energy of each pulse was proportional to (it’s/its colour). c) The wave theory considered light to be a vibration of (electric/electrical) waves. e) Concluzia lui Einstein a fost că energia micilor corpusculi ce formează o rază de lumină depinde în mod direct de culoarea şi frecvenţa acesteia.

Jane is the most beautiful girl in the classroom very + adj. The Absolute very + adj. . + as of equality John is as short as Chris. + than of inferiority John is less short than Chris. + than Jane is more beautiful than Diana as + adj. e) For having succeeded in giving an explanation to the photoelectric (affect/effect). Comparative less + adj. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize. + as Jane is as beautiful as Diana less + adj. The the + adj. Comparative adj + -er +than of superiority John is shorter than Chris. + than Jane is less beautiful than Diana the most + adj. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE THE ADJECTIVE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES Degrres of Monosyllabic Comparison Adjectives Positive adj. Jane is beautiful more + adj. Jane is very beautiful. + -est Superlative John is the shortest in Relative the classroom. f) Newton explained the phenomenon of reflection as being the (elastic/elastical) bouncing of the light particles. THE IRREGULAR COMPARISON Positive good bad much/many little Comparative better worse more less Superlative the best the worst the most the least Plurisyllabic Adjectives adj.d) The (absorption/absorbtion) of the Einsteinian corpuscles of energy took place when light struck solid matter. Superlative John is very short. John is short. Comparative as + adj.

terminate în Y precedat de o consoană. b) the + comparative ………… the + comparative (“cu cât mai . „tot mai”) The weather is getting better and better. monosilabice terminate în consoană precedată de vocală dublează consoana finală fat – fatter – the fattest b) adj. Underline the adjectives from the text studied above “The Revolution in Light I” and write down their positive. PRACTICE 8... c) the + comparative (when two things or persons are compared) Mary is the prettier of the two sisters... terminate în E îl pierd nice – nicer – the nicest c) adj.. transformă Y în I easy – easier – the easiest SPECIAL CONSTRUCTIONS a) comparative + and + comparative (“din ce în ce mai”.late old far later older elder farther further the latest (cel mai recent) the last (ultimul) the latter (ultimul din doi) the oldest (mai bătrân. . comparative and superlative forms. cu atât mai”) The more we are the merrier we’ll be. His answers are more and more correct.mai vechi) the eldest (mai în vârstă) the farthest (cel mai îndepărtat – ca distanţă) the furthest (cel mai îndepărtat – ca timp) ! Când se adaugă terminaţiile ER şi EST adjectivele suferă următoarele modificări: a) adj.

medicine. (old) son of the Browns but he is ……………. (lucky) thing that had ever happened to him was that Pupin did not take him on as his assistant... (thin) although I always eat ………. (low) than expected. I can’t get ……………. c) The role of polymeric materials is becoming …………….. What is the ………………. (high) grade of civilization... f) Millikan said that ……………. (good) solution to this problem? He is the ……………. (light). Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the adjective or adverb (the positive. ……………. physics is considered one of …………… (important) sciences and its achievements will take mankind to a …………. Can you show me the …………………. h) Even …………….9. (beautiful) phenomena from the atmosphere used to be considered a “heavenly sign”. i) Nowadays.. …………(heavy) quarks were present in the early universe. first. (little) than my colleagues.. (short) than Mark.. (powerful) brightness appears after the preliminary discharge of the lightning. g) There are six types of quarks in nature. d) The existence of the particle is not a surprise. (late) incarnation of the steady state theory does not dispute that the universe is expanding and cooling. b) The rainbow. (radical) alternative. comparative or superlative degree) a) Physics as a science is even …………… (important) when we think of it in relation with other sciences like: chemistry. (high) and …………… (high) to the clouds. (beautiful) dresses than her sister. then …………. (old) building in this town? Why don’t you try to talk to him …………… (late)? This is the …………… (interesting) book I have ever heard. e) A ……………. . Supply the appropriate form of the adjectives given in brackets: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Which is the ……………. The up and down quarks are ………………. (important) . 10. (funny) joke you have ever heard? Jane often wears …………. near the earth. …………………. but its mass is …………….

(interesting) its reading. 7. (difficult) its consolidation. j) Do you know that his sons are ……………. the slimmest free …………. ……. (tall) than Chris but not ………………… (tall) her mother.. 6. the ………… (boring) it is. (high) the building. It has taken long years of historic/historical research to gather all the data about this historic/historical building. Supply the comparative form of the adjectives paying attention to the comparative of adjectives “cu cât…. 2.. (long) the trip is. 12. d) The …………. the ……………. 4. 3. Choose the appropriate adjective: 1. ……. Everybody has realized that big cars are not economic/economical to run. I am fond of classic/classical languages. Fill in the following blanks with the appropriate form of the adjectives: bad worse the worst busy ………. the …………… (bright) the room. the …………. b) The …………. . 5. Romania’s economic/economical performance is no longer considered a miracle. drier …………. ………. 8. …………. e) The …………. ……………… ………… steadier ……………… 13. The Royal Ballet’s performance of “The Nut-cracker” was a classic/classical one. Many innocent men have gone to the electric/electrical chair. (early) our arrival at the conference. (strange) the story.i) Lily is …………. She was quite a sight with that comic/comical old hat on... (fast) the train. (young) and …………… (fat) than my nephews? 11. (big) the windows. c) The …………. the …………….cu atât”: a) The …………. Caragiale’s play “The Lost Letter” is a comic/comical masterpiece.

b) Cercetările recente au arătat importanţa ultimelor descoperiri din domeniul fizicii.. 1978) 14.”. c) Noua tehnică nu era foarte atractivă deoarece necesita un echipament mai complex şi mai scump decât cea anterioară. din ce în ce mai mulţi oameni de ştiinţă au fost concediaţi din universităţi din diferite motive. e) Am adunat cât de multe informaţii am putut pentru a crea prototipul ideal. Ed. Translate into English: a) Fizicienii au încercat să găsească cea mai bună metodă de a demonstra că teoria lor este corectă. He is quite an expert in electric/electrical engineering. Didactică şi Pedagogică. d) Treptat. Bucureşti." . (***. Limba engleză – exerciţii pentru admiterea în învăţământul superior. WRITING Write an essay beginning with “Einstein was a great scientist because he …. (200 words) FUN TIME Seen on the door to a light-wave lab: "CAUTION! Do not look into laser with remaining good eye.9.

UNIT 6 THE REVOLUTION IN LIGHT II THE ADVERB THE REVOLUTION IN LIGHT (II) Some years earlier. Max Planck had been able to solve a hitherto insoluble theoretical problem in radiation by arbitrarily replacing the term for energy with another term that included frequency and this constant. it was possibly a true statement and meant what it said. Einstein perceived that Planck inadvertently had done considerably more: because Planck’s “mathematical convenience” had solved a problem. Planck had written the number as “h” and regarded the whole operation as a mathematical convenience adopted simply to make the problem “come out”. .

The different pure colors were played in turn upon a narrow slit so that Millikan could observe the effect of only one color at a time upon the metal surfaces. Knowing this velocity. Because the experiment would depend so crucially on the nature of the surface of each metal sample. Did the energy of a light quanta actually equal “h” times the frequency of light? 2. and lithium. When this was repeated for all the various portions of the spectrum. His result gave conclusively positive answer to the three questions he had asked Einstein’s theory. as a teacher at Chicago he took the time to train and encourage the young man with whom Michelson had not patience. Millikan measured the number of electrons that came off and their energy. His researches were of the first rank. The number of electrons coming off each second was simply the current. On three faces of the turntable were samples of three highly reactive metals –sodium. He measured their energy by determining how much electrical force was needed to stop them. potassium. one can say that the body weighs five pounds. If a body of unknown weight requires a force of five pounds to be held in the air.57x 10-27 erg seconds. White light from a lamp source was refracted into its spectrum by means of lenses and a prism. as administrator at California Institute of . The direct measurement of Planck’s constant turned out to be 6.” Inside a glass vacuum chamber he had a turntable which could be rotated by means of a magnet outside the chamber. Did Einstein’s photo-electric equation agree with what occurred in nature? For the experiment Millikan designed an ingenious apparatus which he was later to call his “vacuum barber shop. he was then able to plot a curve showing the electron’s energy dependence on color or frequency. he was able to calculate the energy of the electrons emitted for each color. Millikan determined electron velocity by measuring the force required to cancel it out. Millikan decided to subject Einstein’s theory to these three questions: 1. the vacuum chamber also contained a small polishing device which could be brought to bear on the metal surfaces by magnets outside.each of which responded to light of different frequencies. America had waited a long time for such a man as Millikan.Einstein gave it literal meaning and so his photoelectric equation was the first direct application of the new quantum theory. Was “h” really a constant for all colors? 3. Following the same reasoning. As each pure color shone in on the metal surface.

n. the smallest quantity of radiant energy equal to Planck’s constant. n. = a se rezema de sample. = a trasa. n. adv. placă vacuum chamber = cameră de vid polishing device = dispozitiv de netezire spectrum. = mostră. v. = a se întâmpla. v. LENS . = disc turnant. = curbă PRACTICE 1.Technology. acum to occur. n. the frequency of the associated radiation b. QUANTUM a. any one of the three types of elementary particles that are believed by some physicists to form the basis of all matter in the universe 2. v. = spectru slit. n. he trained several generations of young scientists to a level of achievement which would put an end forever to the necessity for young Americans to go abroad for scientific training GENERAL VOCABULARY hitherto. = până azi. = fisură to plot. Match the two columns paying attention to the meaning of the words in the text: 1. n. eşantion achievement. = realizare COMPREHENSION Answer the following questions: a) b) c) d) e) What did Planck’s symbol “h” really designate? Did Einstein agree to Planck’s mathematical convenience? What did Millikan invent in order to prove Einstein’s theory? How was Millikan’s apparatus designed? What did his experiment consist of? TECHNICAL VOCABULARY turntable. a desena curve. a avea loc to bear on.

3.a. something beyond the violet in the spectrum corresponding to light b. electromagnetic radiation. a method of impressing a signal on a radio carrier wave by varying its frequency 5. usually glass. SPECTRUM a. the number of cycles or completed alternations per unit time of a wave or oscillation b. a tiny convex glass forming part of such lenses impressed on the surface of a film 3. as for affecting sound waves. polygonal body. ULTRAVIOLET a. Give the noun. a transparent. solid. something emitting or reflecting light 2. used for dispersing light into a spectrum for reflecting rays of light 6. FREQUENCY a. the band of colors produced when sunlight is passed through a prism 4. Say which statements are true or false: a) Max Planck suggested a mathematical approach to the problem of radiation b) The turntable that Millikan designed inside the glass vacuum chamber had no metals on it c) Millikan played different colors in turn upon a narrow slit in order to observe their effect upon the metal surfaces d) Millikan calculated the electron’s velocity by measuring the force required to cancel it out. a unit of prismatic deviation b. e) Millikan couldn’t demonstrate the electron’s energy dependence on colour or frequency. an optical device for producing and observing light and radiation b. verb or adverb corresponding to the following words: . adjective. often having triangular bases. a piece of transparent substance. or streams of electrons b. PRISM a.

to magnetize …………… ……………. Spot the mistakes and write down the correct version: inginious turntable narow emited chamber weigth lithium frequency conveniance dependance hitherto aplication inadvertently potasium achievement 6. Inside a thermionic tube takes place an …………. simple crucial weight constant device …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… 5. …………. according to the context: EMISSION / EMITTANCE 1.NOUN weight …………… …………… …………… measurement ……………. ……………. 2. ……………. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word in the pair. ……………. ADJECTIVE ……………… theoretical ……………… ……………… ……………… reactive ……………. ……………. …………. …………. of electrons as a result of thermal agitation. in terms of lumina. Some of the words below are spelt incorrectly.. ………….. In optics. ……………. simply ……………… ……………… ……………… conclusively ……………… 4. .. we often talk about luminous …………. to apply …………….. …………… color VERB ……………. ……………. ADVERB ……………… ……………… ………………. Give the synonyms of the following words extracted from the text: WORD SYNONYM WORD SYNONYM to polish inadvertent conclusive application ingenious ………….

damaged all the small houses from this area. of him to solve all the exercises so quickly. something which doesn’t change 9. It was …………. the band of colors produced as a result of the passing of sunlight through a prism 8. Translate into English: . Crossword puzzle: 1 1. inventive 6 5. another word for hue 10 without others. a space that contains 10 no matter 7. exclusively 8. an extremely small 7 amount of radiant 8 energy 9 6. I ate so many ………….. CURRANT / CURRENT 1. 2. a synonym of “area” 3 3. She was …………… with everybody not only with her family. The water …………. 2. a regular happening of events 2 2. a solid body having 4 triangular bases 5 4. 7.INGENIOUS / INGENUOUS 1. last Monday that I felt sick all day long.

etc ! The most common suffix for adverb formation is „ly” which is attached to the adjectival form: brilliant – brilliantly Other suffixes for adverb formation are: „ward(s)”.adverbs of manner show the way an event occurs: slowly.adverbs of place indicate the whereabouts of an event: here.Explanatory adverbs: namely. b) Millikan a creat un aparat extrem de ingenios prin intermediul căruia a reuşit să calculeze constanta lui Plank. never. d) Millikan a măsurat energia electronilor emişi în urma refractării luminii pe suprafaţa metalică prin aflarea forţei electrice necesare opririi lor. etc . upside down. above.interrogative adverbs: when. etc . still. northward. extremely. where . e) Millikan a afirmat că. reason. result and concession show the circumstances under which an event takes place: so that. at least. fast. possibly Adverbial phrases: at first. outside. yet. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE THE ADVERB According to the meaning criteria there are: . „way(s)”. c) Millikan a folosit o lampă ca sursă de lumină pentru a urmări efectul fiecărei culori în parte asupra suprafeţei metalice.adverbs of quantity. etc . at random. such as . measure: little. etc . monthly. well.Introductory adverbs: however. Pay attention to the following sentences: . more.adverbs of cause. why. etc .adverbs of frequency: always. etc ! The suffix „ly” also creates adjectives.a) Ecuaţia fotoelectrică a lui Einstein a fost un pas important în dezvoltarea teoriei cuantice a luminii. inside. etc Other adverbs: maybe. etc . far. there. afterwards. consequently. „long”. tomorrow.adverbs of time show the temporal circumstances of an event: today. consequently. often. greutatea unui corp este egală cu forţa necesară susţinerii lui în aer.

 The absorbed energies in some cases were great enough to allow electrons to escape from the atom in which they had been held.  By the beginning of the eighteenth century. Underline the adverbs from the text studied above: ”The Revolution in Light II”. (adjective) He phones his parents daily. Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize for having performed the experiment that proved Einstein’s theory.  In 1887 Herz had noticed that light would cause metal surfaces to become electrically charged. 10. Recognize the grammar issues representative for the following sentences extracted from the text “The Revolution in Light I” and discuss them:  R.  The double award marked the success of one of the most profound revolutions in physics.This is a daily magazine. (adverb) The spelling of the adverbs formed by „ly”: a) the final „e” of the adjective is maintained: large – largely.is similar to that of the adjectives: fast –faster – the fastest likely – more likely – the most likely The Irregular Comparison of Adverbs: POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE well much far late ill/badly little near better more farther/further later worse less nearer the best the most the farthest/the furthest the latest/the last the worst the least the nearest/the next 9.equally c) adjectives ending in „ll” lose one of them: full – fully d) adjectives ending in „ue” lose the final „e”: true – truly e) adjectives ending in „y” change it into „i”: day – daily The Comparison of Adverbs . double the „l”: equal . Exc: whole-wholly simple – simply b) adjectives ending in vowel and „l”. the wave theory came to the fore. .

. Refraction is the bending of light as it passed from a rare medium like air to a denser medium like water. . 15..... d) You move (slowly) of all the children in the class.. .... Rewrite the following sentences paying attention to the degree of comparison of the adverbs in parentheses: a) Sarah speaks English (well) but she can’t understand French. Jones held it (tight. He spoke so (quick. appreciable hungry good true questionable ...... You must work (hard..... 7.. .. (last....... brightly) and girls wearing (bright.......... Choose the correct word: 1... 2. c) He phoned me (quickly) than I had expected... ........ 6.. .. 14.. 5... His voice sounds (merry..... deadly) tired...... e) His cake tastes (well) than the one I did yesterday.... You are an excellent cook.... b) You run (fast) than my brother. It tastes (bitter.. nearly) five o’clock.. bitterly).... It rains (heavy... 4... lastly) I must account for my sister’s behaviour.......... merrily). Limba engleză – exerciţii pentru admiterea în învăţământul superior. Mr. 3.. directly) interested in what you think. 11. The food tastes (good.. Didactică şi Pedagogică.. He couldn’t move as he was (dead....... It is (near. His eyes hurt him (bad. brightly)-coloured dresses.. When did you (last....... Bucureşti.... nearly) as he could guess... . It was six o’clock as (near........ 13... heavily).... 9.... hardly) for your exams...... (***.. I don’t think he is ill. well)... It was a lovely day with birds singing and the sun shining (bright. 1978) 13............. I am (direct... 12. Ed. lastly) see him? 10.. 11. 12.. 8... I hate taking medicine........... quickly) that we could (hard.. ...... badly).. ….. hardly) follow him... Give the adverbs of the following adjectives: ADJECTIVE ADVERB ADJECTIVE ADVERB ambiguous emotional crazy marvellous unhappy .... tightly)........ .

One holds the bulb. while the other rotates the universe.f) g) h) i) j) This dress cost me (much) than I could afford. he is just lucky. I paid (little) than all the other teachers. dar mi-am dat seama şi mam intors în staţia de autobuz să cer cuiva informaţii despre adresa ce. FUN TIME How many physicists does it take to change a light bulb? Eleven. h) Mergi mai încet. Translate into English: a) Săptămâna aceasta a învăţat mai mult decât săptămâna trecută. How many radio astronomers does it take to change a light bulb? None. They are not interested in that short wave stuff. 14. You don’t have to walk (far) than I do. g) Eşti destul de inteligent ca să înţelegi că nu se mai poate face nimic în ceea ce-l priveşte pe fratele tău. How many astronomers does it take to change a light bulb? None. . astronomers prefer the dark. mai ales noaptea. d) Care dintre lucrări a fost scrisă cel mai frumos? e) Trebuie să conduci maşina cu atenţie. How many general relativists does it take to change a light bulb? Two. Tom sings (badly) than his colleagues do.o aveam. b) Cu cât citim mai mult cu atât ştim mai mult. nu pot să ţin pasul cu tine! i) Nu mai mânca atât de repede! Este suficientă mâncare pentru toată lumea! j) Am mers mai departe decât trebuia. c) S-a jucat mai puţin decât ceilalţi copii deoarece nu s-a simţit bine. One to do it and ten to co-author the paper. He doesn’t work (hard) than me. f) Dacă vrei să iei o notă mare trebui să citeşti mai mult.

UNIT 7 THE PHENOMENA OF NATURE THE NUMERAL THE PHENOMENA OF NATURE .

the red colour is situated outside of it. very small and insignificant in the beginning. orange. Usually there are two rainbows arising:a main and a secondary one. the more vivid and pure the light is. The clouds are more or less delineated by water drops or by ice crystals groups. in its turn. The cloud and the earth can be considered the accessories of a condenser of which electrical power can reach values of decimals and even hundreds of millions of volts. charges by influence the surface of the earth with positive charge. had a great impact upon people of all times. find their scientific explanation in the electricity of the atmosphere. while in the secondary one. this . The same as with the optical prism. the most beautiful phenomenon from the atmosphere. The irradiant phenomenon accompanying the thunder is called the flash of lightning and the accoustic one is called the thunder. In most cases. aniland violet. being considered a “heavenly sign” bringing welfare and prosperity. red is inside. the light in the water drops from the clouds is decomposed in seven colours: red. The more light is inflected and reflected on the bigger rain drops. When the cloud moves forward. takes place near the clouds and then it is extended towards the earth direction. it takes place a very powerful electrical discharge called thunder. The thunder is an electrical discharge sparkling in the terrestrial atmosphere. blue. arising from the condensation or sublimation of the water vapours. It can be seen when the sun shines from behind us in the front cloud curtain. If the power between two clouds or between clouds and the earth becomes high enough. green.The rainbow. suspended in the atmosphere. yellow. Inside the bow of the main rainbow. The sparks of the lightning can reach lengths starting from thousands of meters to a few kilometers. may it be between two clouds or between a cloud and the earth. The storm clouds charge especially in their inferior part and with negative charge and the latter. The diameter of the sparks is of a few centimeters (to 20cm). the spark of the lightninig. the area of positive charge from the earth follows the cloud like a shadow. the light reflecting on the clear vault of the sky. The rainbow is an optical phenomenon which arises from the solar light dispersion and reflection in the rain drops from the atmosphere. It is to mention that sometimes rainbow can accompany even moonlight but they are pale and hard to notice without special apparatus. The thunder and the lightning accompaning storms which terrified people for centuries.

being a preliminary discharge which creates a kind of a good-leading electricity channel in the air and which travels to the earth about 50 meters, with a speed of 50000 km/hour. After a very short period of time (decimals of microns of seconds) after the first discharge is gone, there is another preliminary discharge occurring; this one approaches even more the earth and then is interrupted again. Sometimes, there are even decimals of preliminary discharges. After the preliminary discharge reaches the earth or an object in electrical touch with this one, it follows a very powerful brightness of the sparkled channel, first, near the earth, then, higher and higher to the clouds. There is only now that the main discharge of the lightning occurs and the first one mentioned moves form the earth to the cloud. So, the two opinions according to which the lightning strikes man both from the above and from the insides of the earth are right. Inside the channel of the lightning, the air is completely ionized, the substance in here being the plasma. Due to discharging of a large amount of energy in a very short period of time, there is a sudden jumping pressure inside the thin plasma channel and which causes acoustic shock wave (the lightning). The irradiant phenomenon accompanying the electrical discharge is called the flash of lightning. The perlite lightning is called the lightning whose irradiant channel is fragmented in a series of small round irradiant groups, looking as the beads of a necklace. It is considered a type of transition between the habitual and the globular lightning. Statistics show that every minute the globe of the earth is stroke by about 1800 lightning, which means a rate of one billion lightning per year. On global scale, lightning strikes every day 20 persons and wounds 80. Against the damages caused by the direct effect of the lightning, there is used protection equipment called lightning conductors. They are composed of one or more catching elements (steel or copper electrical conductors with curved bars); these are put on the highest parts of the protected objects; they can also be composed of one or several descending conductors (by which the electric power of lightning discharge passes through in its way to the earth) and a bottom electrode.

GENERAL VOCABULARY

TECHNICAL VOCABULARY

welfare,n.=bunăstare, prosperitate vault,n.= boltă anil, n.= indigo (culoare şi colorant) thunder, n.= tunet to sparkle, v.= a scânteia bead, n.= mărgea necklace, n.= colier, lanţ lightning, n.= fulger COMPREHENSION

rainbow,n.= curcubeu dispersion,n.= difuziune, dispersie to inflect, v.= a devia discharge, n.= descărcare perlite lightning = fulger perlit steel, n.= oţel copper, n.= cupru catching, adj.= de captare

Answer the following questions: a. What makes the rainbow appear after the fall of the rain? b. Is there just one rainbow that arises? c. What is the scientific explanation of the thunder phenomenon? d. Are there many electrical discharges that occur during the lightning? e. What is the protection equipment that people use against the damages caused by the lightning? PRACTICE 1. Match the two columns paying attention to the meanings the words have in the text above: 1. TO INFLECT a. to produce an electrical charge in a neighboring body without contact b. to turn from a direct line (about a body that has electric or magnetic properties) 2. PLASMA a. a highly ionized gas containing an approximately equal number of positive ions and electrons b. the liquid part of blood or lymph 3. CONDUCTOR a. a device that conducts electricity installed to divert lightning away from a structure by providing a direct path to the ground b. a combination of lenses that gathers and concentrates light in a specified direction

4. VOLT a. the meter-kilogram-second unit of power equivalent to one joule per second b. the meter-kilogram second unit of electromotive force or potential difference equal to the electromotive force 5. TO DISCHARGE a. to relieve b. to lose or give up a charge of electricity 6. DISPERSION a. the separation of white or compound light into its respective colours b. the linear distance in a given direction between a body or point and a reference position 7. IRRADIANT a. acting along or in the direction of the radius of a circle b. emitted or propagated by radiation 8. ION a. an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons b. the meter-kilogram-second unit of resistance equal to the resistance in a conductor in which one volt of potential difference produces a current of one ampere 2. Say which statements are true or false: a) A thunder is produced when a storm cloud is charged positively in its inferior part and this charge is influenced by the negative charge of the Earth b) It is well known that inside the main rainbow the colour is red while in the secondary one the red colour is situated outside c) The lightning is an electrical discharge that moves from the Earth to the cloud d) In the case of the perlite lightning we have to do with series of irradiant groups situated in just one irradiant channel e) The lightning is caused by the sudden jumping pressure inside the plasma channel as a result of the discharge of a large amount of energy in a very short period of time

In a concert hall the sound is improved by the …………cloud that is installed near its ceiling. A capacitor is an _ _ _ c _ _ _ _ _ _ device. glass has refractive properties? 3. 5. These are the _ _ u _ _ _ _ that one hears after a flash of lightning. chair for their murders. In this motor. ohm but. Give verbs corresponding to the following nouns: .. 2. 4. Complete the missing words in the paragraph using vocabulary items from the text studied above: When a lightning flashes. many criminals used to be executed on the ……. according to the context: OPTIC/OPTICAL 1. nerve. 5. A cranial nerve that conducts impulses from the retina to the brain is called an ………….3. 3. This heat causes the temperature and the _ _ _ _ _ u _ _ to rise . storm to a student in the 5th grade. It is quite difficult to explain what is an ……………. We can protect ourselves from _ i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ by using a capacitor. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word in the pair. nerve so I didn’t pass the exam. 2. In the past. I couldn’t remember anything about the …………. 4. The physicist gave us an accurate description of an …………. ACOUSTIC/ACOUSTICAL 1.. Did you know that an ………. They want to hire a good ………… engineer so they advertised the position in the local newspaper. motor is a machine which transforms ………… energy into mechanical one. power is usually converted into mechanical power. 2. An …………. the air moves faster than the speed of the sound causing sound _ a _ _ _. frankly. What are these ………… instruments used for? ELECTRIC/ELECTRICAL 1.. Thus. I was too tired to understand it.. it carries a lot of _ _ e _ _ _ and beats the air. 3. the ……….

NO. pământul este lovit de fulger cam de 100 de ori pe secundă. NO. Translate into English: a) Tunetul este descărcarea electrică dintre doi nori sau un nor şi pământ. CARD. NO 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 1st first 2nd second 3rd third 4th fourth 5th fifth 6th sixth 7th seventh 8th eigth 9th nineth 10th tenth 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 20 twenty 30 thirty 40 forty 50 fifty 100 one hundred 11th eleventh 12th twelfth 13th thirteenth 14th fourteenth 15th fifteenth 20th twentieth 30th thirtieth 40th fortieth 50th fiftieth 100th one hundredth . ORD. e) În medie. NO. c) Paratrăznetul este singura modalitate de protecţie împotriva efectelor distrugătoare ale fulgerului. d) Tunetul este întotdeauna însoţit de fulger care se formează în urma unei foarte mari descărcări de energie. ORD. b) Curcubeul se creează ca urmare a reflectării luminii soarelui în picăturile de ploaie din atmosferă.NOUN reflection brightness energy pressure sublimation VERB ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… NOUN dispersion condenser thunder spark equipment VERB ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… 6. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE THE NUMERAL CARD.

000 one milliard ! One billion înseamnă (un) miliard în limba americană şi trilion în limba engleză.601 three point six nought one single double threefold Distributive numerals: one by one.05 nought three times point nought five 3.000.1000 one thousand 1. two and two.000. two by two.4 nought once point four twice 0.302= nought point three hundred and two FRACTIONAL NUMERALS ADVERBIAL NUMERALS MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS Common ½ a half ⅓ a third ¼ a fourth ¾ three fourth Decimal 0. half a dozen (6 elements).o [∂u] for telephone numbers .zero (for temperature) . ! Adjectivul numeralului este invariabil 300 = three thousand. by twos. etc.000 one million 1. etc Collective numerals: a couple. two at a time. one at a time. dozen (12 elements) !! Zero is read: .000. Miliard se spune thousand millions în limba engleză.nought (in mathematics) .nil or love in sports scores Mathematical symbols and operations EXAMPLE SPOKEN . 2000= two thousand ! Pentru zecimale virgula devine punct 0.

. Choose the best answer that completes your sentences paying attention that: 1 mile = 1. .857 miles 8.6093 km a) The distance between the Sun which is the central body of the solar system and the Earth is about ………. 19th the nineteenth …………. Write the next three numbers in each sequence: 11th the eleventh ……….000. ..……….3 + 7 = 10 6–2=4 30 : 5 = 6 7 x 3 = 21 3² 6³ √9 x≡y x≠y x≈y x→0 x<5 x>5 x ≤ 10 x ≥ 10 x→∞ three plus seven is/are ten six minus two is/are four thirty divided by five is/are six seven multiplied by three is/are twenty one three squared/three to the power of two six cubed the square root of nine x is equivalent to y x is not equal to y x is approximately equal to y x tends to nought x is less than five x is greater than five x is less than or equal to 10 x is greater than or equal to 10 x tends to infinity PRACTICE 7. .... ………. ………… ………... Write down the name of these signs and their numerical computation: “+” “-“ “x” “ ÷ “ 9.000 miles 3) 238.. 1) 186... ………… ….……. 39 thirty nine ………… ………….………… .300 miles/s 2) 93. b) The distance between the Moon which is the Earth’s natural satellite and the Earth is about ………… c) The speed of light is about ……. 12 twelve ……… ……….……… 1st the first ……….

5/7 ……………………. Some of the words below are spelt incorrectly.. If you don't hear it. so never mind. you got hit. d) Am fost a cincea din clasă care a reuşit să treacă examenul la fizică atomică de prima dată. ………………….723 813.045 ……………………. 12. b) Au intrat în sala de examen 5 câte 5 pentru că nu era suficient spaţiu pentru toţi. in writing.844 215.502 ………………… ………………… …………………. pick them out and write down their correct version: channel botom approach lightening fourteen acompanying fourty brighteness atmosphere iradiant welfare cristal energy fortieth interrupted 11. ………………….10. Write the following numbers: 326 …………………….802 ……………………… 2. 0. FUN TIME You can listen to thunder after lightning and tell how close you came to getting hit.985 4. Translate into English: a) Am 35 de ani dar încă nu am absolvit facultatea de fizică pe care am început-o acum 7 ani... c) Colegii mei s-au dus de două ori pe săptămână la laborator dar tot nu au înţeles experimentul. . e) Tu ai fost a treia persoană care a părăsit sala de conferinţă fără să-şi citească articolul.756.643 312. WRITING Describe. another interesting phenomenon of nature than the ones mentioned above. 1593 ……………………… 7.

UNIT 8 THE MYSTERIOUS FOURTH STATE OF MATTER THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES THE MYSTERIOUS FOURTH STATE OF MATTER .

He also noted that the mysterious rays seemed to act as if they had mass and velocity. The marvelous rays discovered by Roentgen had a history going back some forty years in European science. To the medical world. An electric force outside the tube would also cause the cathode rays to be deflected. nor solid. The invention of the same highly efficient vacuum pumps that allowed Edison to invent an incandescent lamp also allowed Crookes to observe the weird vacuum glow at lower and lower pressures. and finally diminished and disappeared altogether. He showed a photograph of parts of his own living skeleton – the bones of his hand. the explanation of the phenomenon seemed far more important at the moment than its use. Crookes established that the glow in the tube was due to the passage of rays which were called cathode rays. It further was established that the cathode rays were electrical in nature because a magnet held outside the tube could cause the cathode rays to bend in an arc within the tube. His announcement created a sensation in two sciences. the phenomenon of the Roentgen rays was a miracle that had to be put to diagnostic work at once. The flask suddenly was filled with a bright. When the vacuum was sufficiently thorough. “a paper screen washed with barium-platinum-cyanide lights up brilliantly and . a French physicist named Masson played a high voltage spark on a glass vessel from which most of the air had been evacuated. gaseous. It brightened. the glow in the tube was gone. Roentgen described the discovery of an entirely new form of radiation which permitted him to photograph objects hidden beneath opaque. In 1853. Hittorf and Crookes made further investigations of this beautiful phenomenon during the 1860’s and ‘70’s. solid shields. 1896. He did not understand their nature. In the autumn of 1895. neither liquid. with the tube so shielded. The nature of the glow changed as the pressure inside the glass flask was reduced to a hundredth and then thousandth of the atmosphere outside. The search for this explanation was to prove the first leap into the atomic and sub-atomic world. Roentgen was performing some experiments with a Crookes tube which was wrapped tightly in black paper so that none of the glow would escape.On January 4. By accident. unearthly purplish glow. and he referred to them as “a fourth state of matter”. but the glass walls of the vessel itself began to shine with a ghostly greenish light. then broke into isolated blobs of light. he noticed that in the completely dark room. Wilhelm Konrad von Roentgen read a paper before the Wurzburg Phyisico-Medical Society. To the world of the physicist.

= minunat. adj. = a înfăşura. scut spark. flacon vacuum pump = pompă de vid blob. Only lead seemed opaque to it. He traced back the source of the rays. adv. he called “X-radiation”. n. incandescenţă to deflect. v. = scânteie flask. whether the treated side (of the paper) or the other be turned toward the discharge tube. To prove it. = săritură. He found that he could activate photographic films and this made photography possible with the new rays. he designed a tube which would give a more intense form of radiation which. salt marvelous. = luminescenţă. = balon. = a ricoşa. = picătură de lichid cathode ray = rază catodică glow. butelie. They came from the spot on the glass where the cathode rays impinged at high vacuum. v. n. n. n. n. adv.fluoresces equally well. dedesubt. a curba to wrap. = descărcare lead. n. Roentgen himself did not understand the phenomenon and offered the explanation that these were “longitudinal vibrations in the ether”. complet to bend. a curba discharge. Roentgen knew that the cathode rays would make such a coated sheet fluoresce and he soon found out that all substances were more or less transparent to the mysterious new rays. = total. = ecran de protecţie. a îndoi. the unknown. a (se) lovi COMPREHENSION . v. = mai jos. grafit to impinge. GENERAL VOCABULARY beneath. uimitor altogether. for lack of a better name.n. = plumb. He then said that the new rays could be generated whenever cathode rays struck any solid body. n. sub leap. = a îndoi. v. a înveli TECHNICAL VOCABULARY shield. -X. His discovery made physicists study the phenomenon of fluorescence more closely while the medical world used the tube to analyze the inner structures of the human body. = a devia.

PRESSURE . brilliance. heating device through which steam or hot water passes b. any of numerous fishes having a fattened body adapted for life on the sea bottom 6. Is it Roentgen that discovered this marvelous X ray? c. a device for measuring the quantity of electricity passing through a conductor 8. the process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves 2. What could Roentgen do with the new form of radiation? b. VACUUM a. an enclosed space from which matter. electromotive force expressed in volts b.Answer the following questions: a. What was Roentgen’s conclusion toward the reaction of the substances to the new rays? e. liveliness or vivacity 3. the light produced by a sudden discontinuous discharge of electricity through air b. a cavity within a cell. INCANDESCENCE a. air. the emission of visible light by a body. a conductor through which a current enters or leaves 7. electric current b. SPARK a. How did Roentgen explain the phenomenon of X rays? PRACTICE 1. ELECTRODE a. Match the two columns: 1. VOLTAGE a. What explanation did Croookes give to the fact that the rays had mass and velocity? d. RAY a. RADIATION a. esp. has been partially removed 4. a narrow beam of light b. caused by its high temperature b. the chanting or uttering of words thought to have magical power 5. often containing a watery liquid b.

it was the first time I saw a ……………… in the laboratory. g. etc. Say which statements are true or false: a) Milikan discovered a new form of radiation which allowed him to photograph objects beneath opaque shields. ……………….a. d. e.. A vacuum tube that generates a beam of electrons which can be deflected by electric or magnetic fields is called ………………… tube. is a heavy metal sometimes found in its natural state. Physicists can produce a space partially devoid of matter with the help of a ………………… c. sometimes combined with other elements b. Yesterday. When certain substances are exposed to external radiation such as light or X rays they become ……………….. Stars emit not only visible light but also other types of electromagnetic …………………… such as radio waves. one which presses or applies pressure b. force per unit area 2. f. b) Crookes’s tube was sealed in both ends by a metal plate c) Ectoplasm is the fourth state of matter d) The medical world used Roentgen’s tube in different ways to analyze fractures. When electricity passes through a low-pressure gas it produces a ………………… discharge. deep-seated wounds and the inner structure of the human body e) Roentgen did not understand the phenomenon and stated that the X rays are in fact longitudinal vibrations in the ether 3. . Fill in the blanks with the following words: fluorescent radiation lead glow flask vacuum pump cathode ray a. X rays.

electrical ……………….. ……………. .4. …………………. vibration …………………. ………………….. 5. Give the missing noun. ………………. Descoperirea razelor X a reprezentat un pas important atât pentru lumea medicală cât şi pentru fizicieni. Translate into English: a. solid ……………….. adjective or verb corresponding to the following words: NOUN radiation …………………. Razele X sunt o formă de radiaţie electro-magnetică asemănătoare luminii dar cu o lungime a undelor mai mică. vacuum ………………….. . ADJECTIVE ……………… ……………… incandescent ……………….. invention …………………. . ……………. Deşi Roentgen a descris pentru prima oară această formă nouă de radiaţie nu i-a putut da o explicaţie. S-a demonstrat că razele catodice sunt de natură electrică prin intermediul unui magnet plasat în afara tubului lui Crookes. d. b. ……………. c.. . ……………. .. opaque VERB ……………… to fluoresce ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… to impinge ……………… ……………… ……………… 6. Give the synonyms and the antonyms of the following words extracted from the text: WORD SYNONYM OPPOSITE       beneath marvelous to diminish velocity to prove weird …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… ……………. …………….

7. De la descoperirea lui Roentgen.Crossword puzzle: 1 DOWN: 1.e.to discover something new 3. something that protects 8 a hypothetical substance which is responsible for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation through space 9.below.under 4. a light emitted by a substance heated to luminosity 6. a space entirely devoid of matter 7.to deviate from a straight line 5. Roentgen’s new discovery FOCUS ON LANGUAGE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . medicii folosesc aceste raze X pentru a depista orice nereguli din interiorul corpului uman. another word 2 for speed ACROSS: 2.

We all knew that the atom is the smallest particle. you needn’t repeat that. PRACTICE 9. the tense of the verb is required by the context. Past Perfect – anteriority I thought that he had passed the test but he didn’t. in attributive clause – the verb in the subordinate can be at any tense He gave me presents which I shall always remember. Present Tense – simultaneity (Temporal Clause) I’ll solve this problem when I have time. in the subordinate clause we can use a verb in the Present Tense when we deal with general truths. Present Perfect – anteriority I shall give you an answer after I have read the paper. 3. Even if in the main clause we have a verb in the Past Tense. 2. Future in the Past – posteriority He mentioned that he would lend me his book.any tense required by context TENSE PAST TENSE Past Tense – simultaneity He told me the truth when he returned home She was watching TV while I was studying. Exceptions: 1. more than. They were laughing when their brother entered the room. in comparative clauses – introduced by: as.PRESENT . as much as. as well as. FUTURE Future Tense – simultaneity TENSE You’ll tell me what you’ll buy. He asked for the TV set more than I’ll ever ask for it. Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense paying attention to the sequence of tenses: .

I phoned my sister to ask about it and she said she (to see) it a few days ago in the kitchen. d. Black when you (meet/met/will meet) him. i) She remembered that the money (is/was/would be) in the top drawer. I don’t know for sure. De îndată ce a gustat prăjitura bunicii. e) Show this paper to Mr. Tremura de nelinişte în timp ce aştepta rezultatul examenului. Voi veni la tine când voi termina proiectul la fizică.I am sure I (to forget) my passport at home and I wonder why it (not to be) here. g) She gave me magazines which I never (would forget/forgot/shall forget). . 10. c) He had demonstrated long time ago that the neutrons (are/were/had been) the fundamental constituents of the atomic nucleus. The passport should be here but I still can’t find it. b) The teacher told us that the Earth (had/has/would have) a period of revolution of 365. Select the correct word or expression in parentheses in each of the following sentences: a) She will buy me books as soon as she (will arrive/ has arrived/arrives) in New York. h) I was doing my homework while he (read/was reading/had read) the local newspaper. c. I just hope I (not miss) the plane. j) People will forget him if he (doesn’t do/will not do/hasn’t done) something to change that. I-am spus de două ori că este cel mai bun dintre toţi şi că nu trebuie să-şi facă griji deloc. a rămas nemişcat gândindu-se că este cea mai bună prăjitură pe care a mâncat-o vreodată. f) They said they (send/will send/would send) me a postcard on Tuesday. 10. d) My father asked me yesterday why I (left/had left/have left) so early the previous day. b.26 days. Nu am crezut că mă va minţi vreodată. I’ll call him later when the conference (to be over). Maybe my father (to come across) it and (to put) it somewhere else. e. Translate into English: a.

Mary i-a telefonat bunicii sale de îndată ce a coborît din tren. I-a plăcut să citească mai mult decât îi place sau îi va place vreodată să conducă maşina.f. h. Write a paper about it and read it before your colleagues. UNIT 9 MAGNETISM PASSIVE VOICE . i. Sunt sigură că şi-ar fi dorit să vizităm Parisul împreună. Citea de două ore în staţia de autobuz când John l-a remarcat. g. WRITING Imagine that you are a researcher who has just made an important discovery.

The most familiar evidence of magnetism is the attractive or repulsive force observed to act between magnetic materials such as iron. Romans. More subtle effects of magnetism. and Chinese. one of the fundamental forces of nature. History The phenomenon of magnetism has been known since ancient times. each has two sides or ends called north-seeking and south-seeking poles. and unlike poles attract. Magnetic forces are produced by the motion of charged particles such as electrons. an oxide of iron that has the property of attracting iron objects.MAGNETISM Introduction Magnetism is an aspect of electromagnetism. When a piece of iron is stroked with lodestone. Like poles repel one another. who found that a magnetic needle could be deflected by an electric current flowing through a wire. indicating the close relationship between electricity and magnetism. The magnets thus produced are polarized – that is. the theories of electricity and magnetism were investigated simultaneously. however. was known to the Greeks. Electromagnetic theory In the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In recent times these effects have provided important clues to the atomic structure of matter. In 1819 an important discovery was made by the Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted. are found in all matter. This discovery. the iron itself acquires the same ability to attract other pieces of iron. which showed a connection between electricity and . The mineral lodestone.

which was based on the atomic structure of matter. This concept. who postulated the existence of an internal “molecular” magnetic field in material such as iron. was followed up by the French scientist André Marie Ampère. n. two American physicists showed that the electron itself has spin and behaves like a small bar magnet. = a prezice. n. who magnetized a piece of iron by placing it near a current-carrying wire.magnetism. = fier (ca metal) lodestone. when combined with Langevin’s theory. n. Faraday discovered that moving a magnet near a wire induces an electric current in that wire. and the configuration of the object that produces the magnetic field. n. magnetism is measured in terms of magnetic moments – a magnetic moment is a vector quantity that depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field. indicator wire. who studied the forces between wires carrying electric currents.= ac. Other scientists then predicted many more complex atomic arrangements of magnetic moments. v. Subsequent studies of magnetism were increasingly concerned with an understanding of the atomic and molecular origins of the magnetic properties of matter. a se îndrepta spre needle. a cauza . a TECHNICAL VOCABULARY iron. = a se mişca. with diverse magnetic properties. who predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves and identified light as an electromagnetic phenomenon. GENERAL VOCABULARY clue. punct de reper to seek. v. In 1925. served to explain the properties of strongly magnetic materials such as lodestone. while Faraday showed that a magnetic field can be used to create an electric current. = indiciu. and by the French physicist Dominique François Jean Arago. Langevin’s theory was subsequently expanded by the French physicist Pierre Weiss. n. At the atomic level. v. In 1905 the French physicist Paul Langevin produced a theory regarding the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties of paramagnets. In 1831. = sârmă. fir de sârmă to predict. = oxid pole. săgeată. = a produce. n.= magnet natural sau magnetit oxide. the inverse effect to that found by Oersted: Oersted showed that an electric current creates a magnetic field. n. = pol to induce. After Weiss’s theory. The full unification of the theories of electricity and magnetism was achieved by the English physicist James Clerk Maxwell. magnetic properties were explored in greater and greater detail.

A vector quantity does not depend on the orientation of the magnetic field e. = moment de răsucire. = următor. There are both attractive and repulsive forces between two magnetic materials d. lodestone f. electron g. a pretinde COMPREHENSION Answer these questions on the text: a. Mark the following sentences true (T) or false (F): a. electricity j. It was Pierre Weiss that postulated for the very first time the existence of an internal “molecular” magnetic field inside iron c. magnet h. Oersted proved that there was no connection between electricity and magnetism b. iron b. matter i. pole c. Match the following words with the definitions given below: a. wire e. Who succeeded in unifying both theories for the very first time? d. elementary particle that is a fundamental constituent of matter . subsequent. Can you define a magnetic moment? PRACTICE 1. ulterior rotire to postulate. = a accepta fără dovezi. Did Faraday agree to Oersted’s theory? e.prevedea spin. v. oxide 1. What was the main property of the mineral lodestone? b. adj. magnetite d. Which is the cause that generates the appearance of magnetic forces? c. n. By the polarization of magnets we understand the existence of two poles called north-seeking pole and south-seeking pole 2. magnetism k.

…………….2. ……………. ……………. either of the two regions or parts of an electric battery 11. ……………….…………… to expand . the substance or substances of which any physical object consists or is composed 3. a fundamental physical agency which is caused by the presence and motion of electrons. EXISTENCE ………………. protons and other charged particles 8. a very common black iron oxide that is strongly attracted by magnets 6. ………………. Give synonyms to the following text: • evidence. 4. ……………… . ………………. stringlike piece or filament of relatively rigid or flexible metal 3. a compound containing oxygen and one or more elements 10. ……………….. 5.…………… • repulse . a slender. malleable silver-white metallic element 9. a variety of magnetite which possesses magnetic polarity 5.…………. ……………. Give nouns corresponding to the following verbs: VERB to predict to polarize to acquire to deflect to postulate NOUN ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… VERB to induce to achieve to expand to combine to discover NOUN …………….…………… to discover . the properties of attraction possessed by magnets 4. ……………….…………… to postulate .. a body that possesses the property of attracting certain substances such as iron 7.………… • connection-…………… words extracted from the to acquire . . Write down the family of the following words: MAGNET …………… …………… …………… …………… ELECTRIC ………………. a ductile.…………… • phenomenon .

6. A (An) …………………. Crossword puzzle: 3 4 5 6 arangement strocked existence repulsive aquire 7 8 9 10 . Inside a compass you can find a ……………………. Some of the words bellow are spelt incorrectly. pick them out and write down their correct version: attractive magnet lodstone polarized through repel simultaneously unification subsequently achived 2 8. The magnetic field is measured by means of ……………… which is in fact a vector quantity. f. that indicates the direction of the Earth’s magnetic fields or (the approximate position of North and South) 7. a magnetic substance has in its vicinity a ………………… which manifests itself as a force d. Generally. A body or a substance that possesses magnetization in direct proportion to the strength of the field in which it is placed is called ………………… c. He described the ……………………. e. The acceleration of an electric charge produces a (an) ………………… that is propagated by the periodic variation of intensity of perpendicular and magnetic fields. as being a quantity equal to the product of the pole strength and length of a given magnet b. Fill in the blanks with the following words: electric current magnetic needle electromagnetic wave magnetic moment magnetic field magnetic induction paramagnet a. is an ordered (directional) motion of charged particles (these particles are free electrons) g..

William Gilbert a subliniat că pământul însuşi se comportă ca un magnet uriaş. John Michell a afirmat că.ACROSS: 1. a space in the vicinity of a magnet 9. to presuppose 8.something which consists of molecules the structure of an atom 3.physical repulsion 1 5. atracţia şi respingerea magneţilor descreşte pe măsură ce distanţa dintre polii acestora creşte. s-a descoperit că. 9. d. a quantity possessing both magnitude and direction 4. b. în interiorul unor materiale ca fierul. In 1905. Teoria structurii atomice a avut o importanţă deosebită în explicarea prezenţei magnetismului în elemente de tranziţie ca fierul sau compuşi ai acestora. c. the science dealing with magnetic phenomena 6. DOWN: 2. există un camp magnetic molecular. În 1600. .a fundamental constituent of matter having negative charge 7. to cause approach or union. to spread 10. Translate into English: a.

was/were+being+Ved V3 PERFECT Had+been+Ved V3 PERFECT CONT. Relaţia apropiată dintre electricitate şi magnetism este reprezentată de forţele magnetice care sunt produse de mişcarea unor particule încărcate ca electronii. FUTURE SIMPLE CONT. PERFECT PERFECT CONT. h.Cele două teorii de mai sus. . g. Underline the verbs that were used in the Passive Voice in the text studied above “Magnetism”. Faraday a contrazis teoria lui Oersted arătând că un câmp magnetic poate fi folosit pentru a crea curent electric şi nu invers. Pe baza mecanicii cuantice. f. Oersted a descoperit că un ac magnetic ar putea fi deviat dacă sar introduce curent electric într-un fir. fizicianul Heisenberg a explicat câmpul molecular. PRESENT am/is/are+Ved V3 am/is/are+being+Ved V3 Have/has+been+Ved V3 - FUTURE IN THE PAST shall/will+be+Ved would+be+Ved V3 V3 _ _ Shall/will+have+ Would+have+ Been+Ved/V3 Been+Ved/V3 - 10. cea a electricităţii şi cea a magnetismului au fost unite de Maxwell care a prezis existenţa undelor electromagnetice i. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE THE PASSIVE VOICE PAST SIMPLE was/were+Ved V3 CONT.e.

John had painted the house three times before he left. . Make the underlined words the subject of your passive sentences: a. They offered Jane a well-paid job but she couldn’t accept it. The new model __________________________. e) It is claimed that the new model is more economical than the old one. (adapted from www. He ought to lend you $50.weburbia. so that the original sense is preserved: a) What caused the explosion? What _____________ by? b) We must look into this matter.co. Jane couldn’t have written all those funny jokes. d. Rephrase the following sentences using the words suggested. e. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice. f) The police believe he left the country several days ago.11. e. You ________________ enter the bank. g. I’ll send you the letter as soon as I arrive home. j. Someone saw you enter the shop over there. Scientists have viewed celestial objects through a telescope’s eyepiece. c. The physicist is reading a paper on the gravitomagnetic field. It ________________________. Gilbert applied scientific methods to the study of electricity and magnetism. She hasn’t watered the roses for a week now. He is ___________________________________. f. h. She didn’t allow me to enter her room. i. c) People say he is a reliable man. b. d) Someone saw you enter the bank. People generally use telescopes to observe the skies. Galileo had already formulated the law of inertia when Newton was born.uk/physics) 12. b. This ______________________. d. c. He will give us an answer as soon as possible. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice: a. 13. When they were good friends he was phoning her twice a day.

Translate into English paying attention to the use of the Passive Voice: a. Kempinski. (Pawlowska. h) People know that he has had three wives already.g) She doesn’t like when they keep her waiting. Am fost surprinsă de experimentul pe care voia să-l facă dar nu am putut să-l determin să renunţe la el. I ____________ that our cellar ____________. i) It surprised me to find that someone had broken into our cellar. He is __________ been _________ three times already. b. c. Teora. 1997) 14. Teste de limba engleză. Bucureşti. FUN TIME What is the meaning of the abreviation SPIN ? S ociety for the P rotection of I nnocent N uclei . Zbigniew. Barbara. Aceste teorii vor fi testate săptămâna viitoare pentru a le demonstra eficienţa. d. Dintre toate încercările făcute pentru a explica acest rezultat. cel mai promiţător a fost oferit de Lorentz. Tocmai mi s-a explicat teoria relativităţii a lui Einstein dar tot nu pot s-o înţeleg. e. ________________ kept ___________________. Celebra carte a lui Isaac Newton „Principia” trebuie să fie citită până la sfârşitul semestrului. Ed.

constructed and tested by a massive United States enterprise during the World War II. including research on hydrogen bombs. which was tested on July 16.UNIT 10 NUCLEAR WEAPONS MODAL VERBS NUCLEAR WEAPONS Nuclear weapons. or nucleus. The A-bomb was developed. of the atom. or fission. Nuclear explosives involve energy sources within the core. explosive devices designed to release nuclear energy on a large scale. in which nuclei of . of all the atomic nuclei in several kilograms of plutonium. New Mexico. After the war. In these bombs the source of energy is the fusion process.S. 1945. represented a completely new type of explosive. The first atomic bomb (or A-bomb). the U. The A-bomb gained its power from the splitting. Atomic Energy Commission became responsible for the oversight of all nuclear matters. used primarily in military applications.

Of the three isotopes of hydrogen the two heaviest species. One neutron per generation of nuclear fissions is necessary to sustain the chain reaction. This weapons research resulted in the production of bombs that range in power from a fraction of a kiloton to many megatons. It is for this reason that the weapons based on nuclearfusion reactions are often called hydrogen bombs or H-bombs. The term thermonuclear implies that the nuclei have a distribution of energies .5 neutrons. When a uranium or other suitable nucleus fissions. This process is the opposite of fission. or they may be absorbed in impurities or in the heavy uranium isotope if it is present. the relation between mass and energy is expressed by the equation E= mc2 . the neutrons that are emitted in fission produce a chain reaction. permitting the development of nuclear artillery shells and small missiles that can be fired from portable launchers in the field. German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann split the uranium atom into two parts by bombardment with neutrons. A very small amount of matter is equivalent to a vast amount of energy. Fission Weapons In 1905 Albert Einstein published his theory of relativity. the physical size of a nuclear bomb was drastically reduced. At the same time. the same type of particle that initiated the fission of the uranium nucleus. which states that a given mass (m) is associated with an amount of energy (E) equal to this mass multiplied by the square of the speed of light (c). combine most readily to form helium. scientists realized that a type of nuclear reaction different from the fission process was theoretically possible as a source of nuclear energy. since it involves the fusing together of the nuclei of isotopes of light atoms such as hydrogen. nuclear weapons could use the energy liberated in the fusion of light elements. with continouous release of energy. Fusion (Thermonuclear) Weapons Even before the first atomic bomb was developed. deuterium and tritium. In 1938. This makes it possible to achieve a self-sustaining series of nuclear fissions. Instead of using the energy released as a result of a chain reaction in fissile material. According to this theory. Others may be lost by escape from the mass of chain reacting material. Any substance capable of sustaining a fission chain reaction is known as a fissile material. it breaks up into a pair of nuclear fragments and releases energy. Furthermore. The light isotope of uranium is easily split by the fission neutrons and. the nucleus emits very quickly a number of fast neutrons.the isotopes of hydrogen combine to form a heavier helium nucleus. upon fission emits an average of about 2.

= aparat.= partea centrală. n. GENERAL VOCABULARY weapon. Fission-Fusion-Fission Bomb within the bomb. n. . mijloc fission. a elibera core. n. Answer these questions on the text: a) Which are the three types of nuclear bombs described in the text? b) How did Einstein’s theory of relativity contribute to the creation of the first fission weapon? c) What are hydrogen bombs based on? d) What does thermonuclear really mean? e) Can you describe the process involved in the fabrication of thermonuclear bombs? PRACTICE 1. a produce chain reaction = reacţie în lanţ COMPREHENSION 1.= a degaja. adj.= fuziune shell.= pătrat on a large scale = pe scară mare TECHNICAL VOCABULARY to release. dispozitiv to oversight.= obuz missile. n. No chain reaction was produced. which consisted of natural uranium.= fisiune fusion. The third stage resulted from the impact of these high-speed neutrons on the outer jacket of the bomb.= proiectil fissile.= a emite. Mark the following sentences true (T) or false (F): a. n. v. n. In the process helium and high energy neutrons were formed. The A-bomb consists of the fusion of the atomic nuclei in several kilograms of plutonium.= armă device.= a supraveghea square. v. n.characteristic of the temperature. v. but the fusion neutrons had sufficient energy to cause fission of the uranium nuclei and thus added to the explosive yield and also to the radioactivity of the bomb residues. n.= fisionabil to yield. This plays an important role in making rapid fusion reactions possible by an increase in temperature.

can be launched from the ground. Fill in the blanks with the following words extracted from the text: fissile (2 times) fusion missile isotope nuclear neutron thermonuclear fission a) It was impossible to create hydrogen bombs before the perfection of the A-bombs since only the latter could produce the heat necessary to achieve ………………….. e. 3. Fission bombs are based on the bombardment with neutrons of an uranium atom. material by bombarding it with ………………. g) The detonation of a ……………. material needed to sustain a chain reaction is known as the critical mass. 2. Thermonuclear bombs are the result of the impact of high speed neutrons with the outer jacket of the bomb. c. adjective or verb corresponding to the following words: NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE . e) ………………. weapon leads to catastrophic effects for the environment since the resulting fireball burns everything.. d. f. is not able to maintain a chain reaction. Scientists realized that nuclear weapons could not use the energy liberated in the fusion of light elements. Both fission and thermonuclear bombs are based on chain reactions.b. the air or underwater. c) Nowadays guided ……………. b) Although the heavy uranium ……………. f) The minimum amount of …………….. d) The chain reaction is formed as a result of the ……………… of an uranium nucleus into nuclear fragments. Give the noun. it can be converted into a ……………... weapons can be used for a variety of applications in the military field. Deuterium and helium are the lightest isotopes of hydrogen. of hydrogen bombs..

....... a mechanical invention 1 .. opposite ………………… ………………… military ………………. the US Atomic Energy Comission become responsable for the oversight of all nuclear mater including hydrogen bombs... Crossword puzzle: DOWN: 1.  In a fission bomb the uranium atom is splited into two parts by bombardament with neutrons releassing energy.. Spot the mistakes in the following sentences extracted from the text and write down their correct version:  The oposite process of fussion is fision which involve the fusing of the nuclei of isotopes of light atoms such as hydrogen. 5.. Give the synonyms of the following words extracted from the text: WORD SYNONYM WORD SYNONYM fission shell readily to fuse to sustain …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… to oversight to release to yield to fire ………….. one of the heaviest isotopes of hydrogen ACROSS: 2. 4.. launcher ……………….  After the war... ……………… fraction ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………… ………………… to permit ………………… ………………… to reduce ………………… to split explosive ………………… ….. …………. ………….... 6....  Such a reaction imply that two of the most heavy isotopes combine to form helium.  Scientists realized that a type of nuclear reaction diferent from the fision proces were theoreticaly possible before the first atomic bomb was developped..... ………….……………….....

 Bomba termonucleară nu se bazează pe o reacţie în lanţ ci pe fuziunea neutronilor care au suficientă energie pentru a duce la o fisiune a nucleilor de uraniu. a thermonuclear reaction in 3 which nuclei of light atoms join 4 to form nuclei of heavier atoms 5 5.3. an instrument used to attack in 8 combat 9 7.  Bombele cu hidrogen sunt rezultatul fuziunii a doi nuclei ai izotopilor hidrogenului şi anume: deuteriu şi tritiu pentru a forma heliu. another isotope of hydrogen 6 having an atomic weight of three 7 6.  Atunci când dimensiunile bombelor nucleare s-au redus. to support 10. acesta se sparge în fragmente nucleare şi emite energie. a projectile from a canon filled with an explosive charge 2 4. . Translate into English:  Când are loc fisiunea unui nucleu de uraniu. a kind of weapon for shooting 7. artileria nucleară s-a dezvoltat rapid de la obuze până la proiectile mici. to free from anything that 10 restrains 8. the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into nuclei of lighter atoms 9.

must/to have to. used to. ( ! You don’t have to finish your work before 11 a. to have to”. etc) b) They do not take –s/-es in the third person singular ( I am sure he can do this. mean.) c) In interrogative and negative sentences modal verbs are not accompanied by the auxiliary ”to do” excepting ”to have to”. prefer. intend. (I must do it at once. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE MODAL VERBS Modal verbs are used to indicate a certain attitude towards what is being said. may – might. Present can must PastT. wish. i. need. that is why they have equivalents to express the other moods and tenses ( must – to have to. advise.) ii. (You mustn’t worry./ Equivalent Conditional could to be able to _______ to have to Meaning a putea a trebui . order. dare) which express manner but they have some specific characteristics: a) They can not be conjugated in all the moods and tenses. shall/should. Prima bombă atomică a fost construită de Statele Unite şi testată pentru prima oară în timpul celui de-al doilea război mondial.m. etc) which act just like normal verbs. (Could you give me an example?) iii. ( Don’t oblige her to wash the dishes!) 2) defective modal verbs (can/could. There are two types of modal verbs in English: 1) notional verbs expressing manner (want.) i. will/would. oblige.).) d) Modals are followed by the short infinitive that is by infinitive without ”to” (except ”ought to. ought to. towards the information transmitted concerning the intentions of the speaker or the effect on the hearer. may/might.

MAY a) requiring/granting permission – May I use your phone? b) possibility – She may be working in her room. COULD a) ability in the past – I could swim when I was young. b) moral obligation – I should pay the electricity bill. c) prohibition (must + not) – You mustn’t come late. a se cuveni a fi nevoie a îndrăzni a) Ability (physical or intellectual) – I can/am able to swim. b) more polite request – Could you stay with me? c) condition – I could buy you a book if I had money. WILL – a) strong intention of the subject imposed on the others – I will solve the problems if I want to. MIGHT a) past tense of may – She said she might help you. b) to ask an advice – Shall I buy this dress? c) a promiss – The manager shall settle the complain. SHOULD – a) advice – You should work. MUST a) obligation – I must/have to be there before 2. SHALL – a) the strong intention imposed on the subject by someone else – You shall leave by 10 o’clock. b)Permission – Can I go out? c)Possibility – You can eat. there is enough food. b) deduction – She must be rich. d)Polite request – Can you wait a little longer? e)Negative deduction – Jane can’t be working so long. WOULD – a) polite request – Would you like to talk to him now? NEED – a) necessitiy – Need I go there? CAN .may shall will ought to need dare might should would ______ Needed dared to be allowed to to be permitted to to be possible to _________ _________ __________ __________ __________ a (se) putea a avea voie a trebui a vrea a trebui. (I am sure she is rich). b) more polite request – Might I use your phone? c) smaller possibility – She might pass her exams.

........It . b..... b) a supposition – He ought to be in the session by now. 10................ 9..... take a shower if you plan to go out with Mary.. to buy her a present although I didn’t have too much money. Fill in the blanks with modal verbs: a) You . .... may not have come d............. keep your promise if you want to be successful... couldn’t have come b) You (nu e nevoie să iei) those tablets so often............ e) You ........ c or d to complete the following sentences: a) Jane (nu se poate să fi venit) to the club last night..................b) absence of obligation – You needn’t do it. d) You . (it’s not necessary according to the speaker) OUGHT TO – a) obligation – You ought to do the homework after 11 o’clock.............................. c) They ... be writing a composition for the English class otherwise they would be here right now. have paid $500 for the painting of an unknown artist....... h) I ........ b) You ...... couldn’t come b... f) I . turn you down if you propose to her dressed like that...... g) She ........ can’t have come c.... Underline the modal verbs that you can find in the text studied above.... Choose the one item marked a.. PRACTICE 8.. to run again in two weeks......... translate what he is saying....... a. shoot the horse. c) moral duty – He ought to be on time...... j) You …………… have accepted when he asked you for the very first time.... i) You …………… give up eating chocolate if you want to be thin............ It’s too complicated..

will be on duty d. might not see c. will have to be on duty b. needn’t take b. a. might not have come late j) I’m afraid I (va trebui să fiu de serviciu) next Sunday. had had to send e) Kate (ar fi trebuit să fie dusă)to hospital a long time ago. must have sent c. Bucureşti. couldn’t see b. isn’t used to get up i) Professor Swindon (nu se poate să fi întârziat) for the lecture. should have been taken f) John (se temea pe vremuri) of horses. a. . Teste de limba engleză. must send d. Ed. d) E posibil ca trenul să nu ajungă în gară la 4 fix din cauza zăpezii. a. used to being afraid d. ought to be taken c. Teora. Zbigniew. should take b. a. Kempinski. used to be afraid c. have to be on duty (Pawlowska. had to send b. couldn’t have seen d) She said she (trebuia să trimită) a telegram to her husband. mustn’t work d. shouldn’t take c. couldn’t have come late b. must be on duty c. might not come late d. wasn’t able to come late c. used to have been afraid b. mustn’t take d. should have taken d.a. a. aren’t allowed to take c) Frank (se poate să nu fi văzut) “Hair” while he was in London. Translate into English: a) Vrei să mă ajuţi să car toate aceste cutii pline de jucării până la etajul 3? b) Doriţi o cafea cu frişcă sau una simplă? c) Ar fi trebuit să aştepte mai mult de 10 minute sosirea autobuzului. 1997) 11. f) Trebuie să citeşti toate aceste cărţi dacă vrei să obţii bursa. a. e) Ar fi putut conduce maşina dar nu a vrut deoarece era foarte obosit. needn’t have worked b. a. isn’t used to getting up d. may not have seen d. Barbara. didn’t use to get up b. didn’t have to work c. a. haven’t had to work h) She (nu e obişnuită să se trezească) so early. usen’t to get up c. used to having been afraid g) I’m glad I (n-am fost nevoit să lucrez) overtime last week.

o) Nu era nevoie să conduci atât de repede. l) A trebuit să dovedească că este cel mai bun deoarece nimeni nu-l cunoştea atunci.g) Ce să fac în cazul în care sună să mă invite la cinema? h) Nu aveţi voie să vă plimbaţi pe stradă. O maşină v-ar putea lovi oricând. WRITING Write a short essay focusing on the damage caused by nuclear weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. i) Conducătorii auto ar trebui să calce frâna dacă semaforul este roşu. Te aşteptam oricum. k) I s-a dat voie să privească la televizor când şi-a terminat antrenamentul la fotbal. n) N-ar fi trebuit să plătească el dacă prietenul lui l-a invitat. m) Pot să răspund la telefon? Este ceva urgent. . j) Nu trebuie să-ţi fixezi centura de siguranţă dacă avionul este încă în aeroport.

UNIT 11 HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS PHOTONS IF CLAUSES HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS PHOTONS The question: Does light have mass? Light is affected by gravity. So. then light must have mass. . if a black hole gravity field is so strong that light cannot escape itself. and. anything that has mass is affected by gravity. as we all know.

the gravitational field at the surface becomes . thus bending the light more. the gravitational field at its surface gets stronger. This makes it more and more difficult for light from the star to escape. how gravity affects light. scientists were still struggling to understand which theory of light was correct: was it composed of particles or was it made of waves? Under the theory that light is waves. The photons are responding to the curvature in space-time. And no one understood how light. Armed with these facts. As a star contracts. not directly to the gravitational field. Eventually. as a wave. Figuring it all out is what made Albert Einstein famous. Any light emitted from the star’s surface would be dragged back by the star’s gravity before it could get very far. a paper was published in 1783 by John Michell. Space-time is the four-dimensional “space” we live in. in a consistent way. But if light was composed of particles it would be expected that they would be affected by gravity in the same way apples and planets are. the path of the light is bent slightly inward toward the surface of the star. and one time dimension). The strong gravitational field of the star changes the paths of light rays in spacetime from what they would have been. y. many years. puzzled scientists for many. Back in the 1700s. General relativity explained. We now knew that while photons have no mass. it was not clear how it would respond to gravity. Not much was done over the next hundred years or so with the ideas of Michell. if the star shrinks to a certain critical radius. had the star not been present. Specifically. in which he pointed out that a sufficiently massive compact star would possess a strong enough gravitational field that light could not escape. the wave theory of light became the most accepted one. This expectation grew when it was discovered that light did not travel infinitely fast. (also known as a Minkowski space – there are 3 spatial dimensions. but because gravitational fields (in particular strong gravitational fields) change the shape of spacetime. the indivisible units in which light can be emitted or absorbed) has mass and how it is affected by gravity. Let us relate this to light travelling near a star. This was mostly true because during that time. but with a finite measurable velocity. they do possess momentum. in 1915 Albert Einstein proposed the theory of general relativity. Then. and z. thus it appears to us that the star is dimmer. think of x. We also knew that photons are affected by gravitational fields not because photons have mass.The answer: Whether or not light (or more accurately photons. We see this effect all the time when we observe distant stars in our Universe. could be affected by gravity.

n. general relativity has withstood every test. So far. We call the region of space for which this condition is true a “black hole”. v.= a înţelege to point out.so strong that the path of the light is bent so severely inward so that it returns to the star itself.= undă to drag back. nothing can travel faster than light. A black hole is in essence a space singularity (a point in space where the curvature of the space-time is infinit).= a trage. adj.= a (se) micşora to withstand.= impuls. n. We can just put upper limits on what mass it can have. v. surrounded by a horizon (the radial distance from the singularity from which even light cannot escape). a târî înapoi photon. a curba dim. Now. n. We constantly test them. moment mecanic curvature. v. = rază COMPREHENSION Answer the following questions: a) Does light travel so fast that we cannot measure its velocity? b) What was Michell’s opinion concerning the influence of gravity on light? .= a pune în încurcătură. v.= a sublinia. we do not just accept theories like general relativity or conclusions like photons have no mass. v.= foton. we can measure no mass for the photon.= puţin to bend. These upper limits are determined by the sensitivity of the experiment we are using to try to “weigh the photon”. trying to definitively prove or disprove.= curbă path. cuantă de lumină momentum. a nedumeri to figure out. n. mic to shrink. n. being scientists. neither can anything else. GENERAL VOCABULARY to puzzle. And try as we might. n. adv. if light cannot escape. a atrage atenţia asupra slightly.= punct singular velocity.=a rezista TECHNICAL VOCABULARY black hole = gaură neagră wave.= viteză radius. v. According to the theory of relativity. Everything is dragged back by the gravitational field.= a îndoi. n. n. The light can no longer escape.= redus.= traiectorie singularity. Thus. v.

d) When a star shrinks.. . is a force that attracts all bodies towards the center of the earth. b) John Michell considered that any light emitted by a star’s surface is dragged back by its gravity. 2. Fill in the blanks with the following words: gravity momentum velocity gravitation wave path mass moment a) Einstein’s theory of relativity modified the ancient opinion of time and space and changed even Newton’s law of …………………. its gravitational field becomes stronger. d) …………………. e) Scientists are now able to calculate precisely the mass of the photon..c) How did Einstein’s theory of relativity explain the influence of gravity on light? d) Why are photons affected by gravitational fields? e) Is there anything that can travel faster than light? f) Can you define a black hole? PRACTICE 1. f) Newton’s laws refer mainly to the motion of particles which have infinite dimensions but finite ……………. c) Some materials that possess magnetic properties usually have magnetic ……………. Say which statements are true or false: a) The theory of relativity states that photons are not affected by gravitational fields because they have no mass. e) It is hard to calculate the ……………… of this body since you don’t know all the details of the problem. b) You can easily predict the ……………… of this charged particle once you have used a magnetic field. c) The path of light changes when the gravitational field of a star acts upon it.

g) In the past. VERB …………………. …………… ………….. 3. ADJECTIVE divisible …………………. of a particle before explaining the law of acceleration.. …………………. many scientists believed that light travelled across the space like ………………. ………………….. ………….. to respond …………………. 4. to contract to possess 5. Crossword puzzle: emited momentum dragged massive infinitely to posess radius dimer esence severely .. ………….. specifically compact momentum to withstand to figure out …………… …………. adjective or verb corresponding to the following words: NOUN …………………. …………………. …………………. …………………. Some of the words below are spelt incorrectly.. h) Newton had to define the ………………. Give the synonyms of the following words extracted from the text: WORD SYNONYM WORD SYNONYM to absorb finite massive to affect path …………. gravity/gravitation …………………. pick them out and write down their correct version: expectation specificaly gravitational indivisible measurable 6... …………. ………….. …………. Give the missing noun.

a quantity expressing 2 3 4 5 the motion of a body 7. something that is large 9. a theory concerning light put forward by Newton’s contemporary Huygens 4. something that is oriented 1 toward the interior of a place 3. 5. 6 7 8 9 10 11 .1. force of attraction generated by earth 7. 2. something that exists in the space 8. Translate into English: a) Una dintre problemele care i-a preocupat pe oamenii de ştiinţă din toate timpurile a fost să afle dacă lumina are într-adevăr masă. you usually study it at mathematics when talking about circles 10. a sort of elementary particle of light 11. a theory according to which space and time are relative. a region in space where the gravity is so great that not even light can escape. a luminous point in the sky at night 6.

if his parents are happy. unless (dacă nu). câmpul gravitaţional devine mai puternic modificând traiectoria luminii. supposing (presupunând că) MAIN CLAUSE Future/Present/Imperatif I I’ll go to the seaside probable A child is always happy action Watch this film Present Conditional II They would go to the improbable seaside action III impossible action TYPE IF CLAUSE Present if I have money.b) Momentul în care fizicienii au descoperit că viteza luminii poate fi calculată. if homework is done. provided that (cu condiţia ca). Past Tense if they had enough money. even if (chiar dacă). au înclinat mai mult în favoarea teoriei particulelor decât cea a undelor. particule elementare ale luminii sunt menţinuţi în câmpul gravitaţional din cauza tendinţei acestuia de a modela spaţiul. Past Conditional Past Perfect They would have gone to if they had had money. d) Fotonii. Michell a remarcat că o stea are un câmp gravitaţional atât de puternic încât nici lumina nu poate scăpa. in case (în cazul când). FOCUS ON LANGUAGE IF CLAUSES If clauses or conditional sentences are made up of: a) a main clause b) a conditional or “if” clause introduced by the following conjunctions: if (dacă). the seaside Remarks on the 1st condition: .spre interiorul suprafeţei acesteia. on condition that (cu condiţia ca). e) Pe măsură ce o stea se contractă. c) În 1783.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a) b) c) d) e) f) I shouldn’t drink that wine if I (be) you. . 2) In order to express anteriority to the action of the verb of the main clause we use present perfect If you have finished your homework I’ll call a taxi. i) They would have visited New York if they (to have) enough money. b) He (not bring) you the newspaper if he had known that you were sleeping. If I had realized that the traffic lights were red I (stop). If you (not belong) to a union you couldn’t get a job. e) Unless they stop the fire alarm I (call) the Police. If you may/can solve this problem we’ll leave earlier. we use the form ”were” for all persons. j) She would drive to London if she (to have) a driving licence. Remarks on the 2nd condition: As far as ”to be” is concerned. If she were here she would help me do the housework. “should”.1) If “will”.(“will”) expresses willingness If you would see a doctor. “would”. PRACTICE 8. or “can” appear in a conditional clause. You’ll get pneumonia if you (not change) your wet clothes. If I (had) a map I would have been all right. “may”. they are not auxiliaries of mood helping to form the future or the conditional but modal auxiliaries. d) I wouldn’t have bought these clothes if I (see) their price. f) They might get angry if you (tell) them the news. I’ll bake a cake. If he had known that the river was dangerous he (not try) to swim across it. c) I could find this building very easily if I (know) the town. I’ll take you to the zoo. 9. Supply the correct tense of the verbs in brackets: a) You’ll catch the disease if you (not leave) the hospital at once. If you’ll clean the room. h) If he (to be) there he would work hard for this job. g) She (not try) to take your place if she had known that you were her sister. .

A Practical English Grammar.. j) Ar cânta toată ziua dacă vecinii nu i-ar cere să înceteze. Translate into English: a) Dacă i-ai fi explicat regulile cu răbdare le-ar fi înţeles cu siguranţă. h) Tatăl tău ar fi făcut infarct dacă te-ai fi căsătorit cu acel bărbat. (Thomson. j) The flight may be cancelled if the fog (get) thick. f) Ar fi stat pe acea bancă toată ziua dacă nu ar fi fost proaspăt vopsită.V. c) Ne vom petrece vacanţa la munte dacă vom reuşi să reparăm maşina.. 2 Oxford University Press. 1986) 9. b) Dacă aş fi în locul lui aş învăţa totul pe dinafară. d) Ar absolvi facultatea printre primii dacă ar învăţa mai mult decât colegii săi. i) Ea ar plânge ore în şir dacă ar afla că părinţii ei au avut un accident de maşină. . Oxford.g) If I were sent to prison you (visit) me? h) You would play better bridge if you (not talk) so much. Martinet. A.J. WRITING Explain Einstein’s theory of relativity using your own words (no more than 10 lines) FUN TIME Why did the chicken cross the road? Albert Einstein: Whether the chicken crossed the road or the road crossed the chicken depends on your frame of reference. g) Dacă părinţii tăi pleacă la servici să nu deschizi uşa la nimeni. i) You (not get) into trouble if you had obeyed my instructions. A. e) Nu ar fi privit la televizor în acea seară dacă i-ai fi interzis acest lucru. Exercises 1.

UNIT 12 A CENTURY OF DISCOVERIES IN PHYSICS I THE INFINITIVE .

heavy nucleus around which light-weight. Nowadays. has become a misnomer. achievements that have transformed the way that humanity views the universe. scientists believed that the basic constituents of matter were protons. the proton is positively charged while the neutron is neutral. Thirty-five years ago. In summary. Since then. electricity was thought to be the flow of a liquid rather than of microscopic particles. the nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons. both of which weigh almost 2000 times the weight of an electron. Furthermore. It was only in 1897 that the existence of the electron was established. high-energy accelerators have revealed that protons and neutrons are made up of three quarks. previously. Quarks are microscopic entities with electric charges that are one-third and two-thirds of the charge of the electron. The name atom. (1) The Unraveling of the Microscopic Constituents of Matter The concept of the atom had been hypothesized by Greeks two-andhalf millennia ago. neutrons and electrons. having no electrical charge. As their names imply. the atom is not the most fundamental building block since it is constructed out of smaller units. which means “indivisible”. it is worth enumerating the great physics achievements of the 20 th century. the atom was thought to be a spherical blob of more-or-less uniform density. negatively charged electrons swarm. it is known that the atom possesses considerable structure: it consists of a tiny. In the nineteenth century. . scientists have been able to divide matter into ever increasingly smaller units.A CENTURY OF DISCOVERIES IN PHYSICS (I) Given that 1999 is the last year of the second millennium.

an electron in an atom can only assume particular types of motions. During the last three decades. which are called states.(2) Quantum Mechanics One of the greatest scientific achievements of physics in the 20 th century is the discovery of quantum mechanics. At the end of the 19th century. There are also regions of the universe with relatively few if any galaxies – these are known as giant voids. The galaxy in which the Sun and the Earth reside is called the Milky Way. Today. Most galaxies are pancake-shaped. astronomers have come to realize that 10 to 1000 galaxies often group together. We now have a reasonable picture of the universe.such a structure is called a galaxy cluster. which can be observed with the naked eye on a clear night sky. For example. and particular values for its energy. a name that arose because the other stars in this spiral galaxy create a band of whitish hue across the heavens. which are called energy levels. In summary. the size of the visible universe is about 200. Amazingly. Furthermore. GENERAL VOCABULARY TECHNICAL VOCABULARY . For example. they have discovered that the universe contains many interesting structures. Another feature of quantum mechanics is discreteness. and still others are irregular in appearance.000 light years away. Galaxies are vast collections of stars. instead the electron’s position is probabilistically determined. The most distant stars were thought to be about 100.000 times larger than the size the scientists thought it was in 1899. the universe was thought to contain only hundreds of thousands of stars arranged in no particularly interesting patterns. One feature of quantum mechanics is uncertainty. It governs the dynamics of microscopic objects such as atoms and electrons. 1 light-year is about 10 trillion kilometers. astronomers have observed objects that are about ten billion light years away. it was not until the 1920’s that it was realized that galaxies exist. Others are ellipsoidal shaped. the exact position of an electron in an atom is not knowable. (3) The Discovery of the Vastness of the Universe Few people realize how much our picture of the universe has changed in 100 years.

n. ………………. ………………. v. n.to unravel. vid Milky Way. componentă ipotetică a particulelor elementare void. Nowadays.= quark.= curgere.= a se ivi. v. Why is our galaxy called “The Milky Way”? PRACTICE 1. d. Mark the following sentences true (T) or false (F): a.= picătură. a apărea COMPREHENSION flow..= îngrămădire. în plus pancake. 2. Protons and electrons are made up of quarks. n. b. achievement impressive constituent void ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… . roi de stele hue.= clătită to arise.= Calea Lactee Answer the following questions: a. n. What was the nineteenth century conception regarding the atom? e. tentă heavens. Quantum mechanics is marked by uncertainty since we cannot identify the exact position of the electron. a clarifica (un mister.= termen impropriu furthermore. galaxies. ………………. n. n. people considered electricity to be the flow of microscopic particles.. n. n.= gol. Before 1897. c. n. Quarks are microscopic particles having no electrical charges.= a se înghesui misnomer. Does the Universe contain only stars? b. o enigmă) to swarm.= mai mult decât atât.= nuanţă. Can you define quarks? f.= cer blob. voids.= a dezlega.. Give synonyms to the following words extracted from the text: cluster uncertainty previously humanity ………………. strop quark. v. adv. n. What are the main characteristics of quantum mechanics? c. e. the Universe is thought to contain many various structures such as: stars. Why is the word “atom” considered to be a misnomer? d.. flux cluster.

philosophers thought that peoples’ actions were predetermined by using Newton classic laws. …………….  uncertainty …………………. …………….  The picture of the atom in the nineteen century is diferent from that of today. to swarm .  Before the developement of quantum mecanics.  to unravel …………………  discovered …………………  to charge …………………  regular ………………… 5. …………….  Thanks to the great achievments of the 20th century.  determined …………………. adjective. ADJECTIVE …………… impressive …………… …………… spiral …………… VERB ……………… ……………… to hypothesize ……………… ……………… to arrange ADVERB …………….amazingly . verb or adverb where possible: NOUN accelerator ……………. summary ……………. ……………. …………….. Fill in the blanks with the following words: . ……………. Spot the mistakes in the following sentences and write down their correct version:  The vizible part the universe contain fifty billions galaxyes.………………. we now have a reasonable view of the universe and know our place in these imense world. 4. Find the antonyms of the following words extracted from the text by paying attention to prefixes:  to increase …………………. Give the missing noun. hue shape - ……………… ……………… 3.………………. 6. ……………..

spherical light year millennium ellipsoidal

microscopic quark century

a. The beginning of the third ……………….. has brought many changes to the world climate as a consequence of the global heating. b. Einstein, one of the greatest physicists of the last ……………., became famous for his Theory of Relativity. c. The Andromeda Galaxy is the third nearest galaxy to the Milky Way at a distance of 1,000,000 ………………….. d. In the 20th century the physicists discovered the existence of the ……………. as elementary particles of matter. e. In the past, people believed that the planets, the stars and all the other heavenly bodies were set in ……………….. shells. f. Matter is made up of …………….. elements such as atoms that cannot be seen with the naked eye. g. The pupils were asked to draw a(n) ……………………. figure in order to pass the test. 7. Discover the word written down by solving the crossword puzzle: 1

2. a system of stars held together by

2 3

mutual gravitation 4 3. a group of elements 5 4. having a globular 6 form 7 5. an empty space 8 6. one of the two 9 characteristics of 10 quantum mechanics 11 7. everything that 12 exists in the world including the Earth and its creatures, the heavenly bodies and the space 8. one of the constituents of matter 9. a word that is not appropriate to designate a person or a thing 10. a synonym for ”sky” 11. a branch of mechanics 12. the boundless space 8. Translate into English:  În zilele noastre, termenul „atom” care înseamnă „indivizibil”, nu mai este reprezentativ deoarece s-a descoperit că acesta este format la rândul lui din alte particule microscopice.  Mecanica cuantică are mai degrabă implicaţii filozofice din cauza nesiguranţei pe care o presupune în determinarea exactă a poziţiei electronului dintr-un atom.  Secolul 20 a adus multe informaţii noi cu privire la dimensiunile şi structura universului.  Astronomii au descoperit existenţa galaxiilor în anul 1920 şi au observat că ele au forme neregulate, elipsoidale,etc.  Galaxia noastră a fost numită Calea Lactee şi poate fi observată cu ochiul liber în nopţile cu cer senin. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE THE INFINITIVE - is the basic form of the verb I Form - long infinitive – when preceded by the particle “to”

I want to eat this cake. - short infinitive – not preceded by the particle “to” He doesn’t know her. Active Voice – Simple Aspect – Present Infinitive – to write - Perfect infinitive - to have written - Continuous Aspect – Present Cont. Inf. – to be writing - Perfect Cont. Inf. – to have been writing Passive Voice - Present Passive Inf. – to be written - Perfect Passive Inf. – to have been written II. Infinitive Patterns a) Infinitive with Special Verbs without “to” They didn’t arrive yesterday. You can read this magazine. He must be in the hotel. She might miss the bus. b) Infinitive with “to” They ought to be on time. You’ll have to leave the town. He decided to buy a new house. Verbs followed by Infinitive with “to”: afford; agree; appear; ask; beg; care; decide; expect; forget; hope; learn; like; love; manage; need; offer; promise; refuse; regret; remember; seem; start; try; wait; want; wish; etc c) Verbs followed by a (pro)noun + an infinitive with “to” advise; allow; ask; beg; dare; encourage; expect; force; help; invite; need; order; permit; remind; teach; tell; want; warn; wish She advised me to buy a new camera. I expect you to come on time. d) Verbs followed by a (pro)noun + an infinitive without “to” Feel; hear; see; notice; watch; make; have; let; observe

difficult. The atom is not the most fundamental building block…. I’m not clever enough to find the solution. I’ll have him apply for the job. You’d better listen to his explanation. e) Infinitive with “too” and “enough” I am too old to climb the mountain. the second. silly + of + pronoun It was kind of you to come to my party. i) Short infinitive after: would rather. consider. it is worth enumerating the achievements of the 20th century…. easy. had better I’d rather go to the theatre. the last. know. impossible. g) Infinitive after the following verbs in the Passive Voice: believe. surprised. Given that 1999 is the last year of the second millennium. feel. glad. imagine. 2) to be + possible. suppose Shakespeare is considered to be one of the greatest writers. sad I’m glad to hear the news. happy. .I saw him get on the bus. think. PRACTICE 9. ! They may be followed by the long infinitive (exception “let”) when they are used in the Passive Voice: He was made to sell the car. hard. the only He was the last to eat the cake. 3) to be + kind. astonished. f) Infinitive after adjectives: 1) to be + sure. h) Infinitive after: the first. Recognize the grammar issues representative for the following sentences extracted from the text and discuss them: The concept of the atom had been hypothesized by Greeks ………… Quarks are microscopic entities with electric charges that are one third and two thirds of the charge of the electron. relieved. necessary + for + pronoun This exercise is too difficult for me to solve it..

10. d) I-am cerut să vină cu mine dar m-a refuzat. FUN TIME . n) Am insistat să angajăm pe cineva bine pregătit în acest domeniu. te rog. Translate into English using the words given in parentheses: a) Părinţii mei nu-şi pot permite să cheltuiască atât de mulţi bani în vacanţă. Quantum mechanics doesn’t provide information with regard to the position of an electron in an atom but the electron’s position is probabilistically determined. k) N-am putut să renunţ la ieşirile mele cu prietenii aşa că ne-am despărţit. Hai să căutăm alta. (succeed) f) Prietena mea m-a sfătuit să accept ajutorul părinţilor pentru că altfel voi pierde totul. dar în această seară voi face o excepţie. m) Îmi pare rău să aud că ţi-au interzis să mai conduci maşina după tot ce s-a întâmplat. (used to) h) Chris şi-a invitat toţi prietenii să vină la petrecerea de aniversare a zilei de naştere. să iau legătura cu directorul firmei. It was not until the 1920’s that it was realized that galaxies exist. i) Ne-a implorat să-l ajutăm să ajungă la spital pentru că nu-şi mai putea mişca picioarele. (advise) g) Nu sunt obişnuită să dansez toată noaptea. o) Se preface că nu ştie despre ce vorbim dar te asigur că a aflat totul înaintea noastră. WRITING Imagine that you are a scientist who makes an important discovery.(give up) l) Mai degrabă aş merge pe jos decât să iau autobuzul. scientists have been able to divide matter into smaller units. (afford) b) Aţi putea să-mi daţi informaţii cu privire la zborurile de luni către Paris? (mind) c) Această casă e prea scumpă ca s-o cumpărăm. e) Am reuşit să urc pe munte mai repede decât aş fi crezut. (beg) j) Aminteşte-mi.In summary.

a) What's the difference between an auto mechanic and a quantum mechanic? The quantum mechanic can get the car inside the garage without opening the door. c) The moon is more useful than the sun. whereas the sun shines during the day when you don't need it. we say they are crazy. b) When people run around and around in circles. When planets do it. we say they are orbiting. because the moon shines at night when you want the light. .

It . The destruction of a small amount of mass produces an enormous amount of energy. determines the dynamics of things traveling at high speeds. as developed by Einstein at the beginning of the 20 th century.000 kilometers per second). One effect that has become widely known is the equivalence of mass and energy as embodied in the famous equation E=mc².UNIT 13 A CENTURY OF DISCOVERIES IN PHYSICS II THE GERUND A CENTURY OF DISCOVERIES IN PHYSICS (II) (4) Special Relativity Special relativity. The effects of special relativity are only noticeable for objects moving at a reasonable fraction of the speed of light (300. Fast-moving bodies behave in ways that are completely counter-intuitive to us. This is the basis for atomic bombs.

But. the electroweak interactions and the strong nuclear force. two new fundamental interactions were discovered. the age of the Universe was thought to be several hundred million years. It turns that all magnetic fields are created by the motion of charge. Scientists now know that the Earth is 4. It also holds together the protons and neutrons in a nucleus.6 billion years old and that the first life forms emerged as primitive microscopic organisms 3 billion years ago. It provides deep insights into the nature of gravity. Nowadays. (7) The History of the Universe At the end of the 19th century. Thus. during the 20th century. the ideas of Darwin had begun to be accepted by a majority of people. which is called electromagnetism. The strong nuclear force binds three quarks to form the proton and neutron. (6) Subatomic Forces In the 18th century. (5) General Relativity Another great 20th century contribution of Einstein is the general theory of relativity. An object in such a curved spacetime no longer moves at a constant speed in a constant direction. In this theory. One interesting consequence of special relativity is the unification of time and space into a four-dimensional world. Two interesting consequences of general relativity are the black hole and the expansion of the universe. three fundamental forces were known: gravity. it is estimated to be about 15 billion years. massive bodies such as the Earth and Sun cause spacetime to curve. forces are things that create accelerations. the curvature is seen to be the source of gravitational force. By the end of the 19 th century. the fundamental forces are gravity. In 1899. in the same way as a bowling ball – when placed on a bed – depresses the bed’s surface. there were only two fundamental forces: the magnetic and electric forces were unified into one force. scientists thought that there were only two fundamental forces: gravity and electromagnetism. just like a marble. In 1899. the Sun. and charges are the source of the electric force. when thrown onto the bed with the bowling ball. Since. Today. magnetism and the electric force.is also the source of energy and light in a star including our star. The weak subnuclear force is responsible for certain radioactive decay of nuclei. the weak force and electromagnetism were unified. it accelerates. moves toward the bowling ball. They are subatomic. by definition. Today. the relations between the different life forms of the past have been mapped out with . meaning that they act at scales much smaller than an atom and inside the nucleus.

d. n. Mark the following sentences true (T) or false (F): a. adv. Objects that are placed in the curved spacetime created by the Earth and the Sun tend to move at a constant speed. meaning that the fabric of space stretched.impressive detail.= a (se) arcui. Eventually. v. a îndoi reprezenta expansion.= a apărea marble. vast decay. material was dispersed and the universe cooled.= bilă de granulat fabric. a (se) to embody. b. The universe started as an extremely hot concentration of mass and energy. a lega massive.= impresionant to stretch. = a concretiza. opus to curve. adj.= a (se) împrăştia COMPREHENSION Answer the following questions: a.= a face legătura. GENERAL VOCABULARY TECHNICAL VOCABULARY counter. v. As time advanced.= dezintegrare radioactivă to depress. The process of star formation through gravitational collapse continues today although at a slower rate. e. the universe expanded. gravity took hold of higher concentrations of matter causing them to collapse into galaxy clusters at larger scales and into stars at smaller scales. Through this stretching.= a (se) extinde to disperse.= extindere insight.= structură impressive. n. c. n. v. Does Einstein’s special theory of relativity affect all objects? Can you mention some consequences of general relativity? How many forces do the scientists recognize today? How old is our planet. n. v. . v.= cunoaştere to bind. the Earth? What was the Universe like at the beginning? PRACTICE 1. adj.= uriaş. v. v.= a apăsa to emerge. = contrar. n.

the discovery of energy quanta ? the discovery of the remarkable X rays ? the discovery of spontaneous radioactivity ? his fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics with important consequences for the physics of elementary particles  his services to Theoretical Physics and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect ?  his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect ?  the discovery of the neutron ?     4. d. Do you know who won the Nobel Prize for…………. the subnuclear one is weak leading to a radioactive decay of the nuclei. Discover the word written down by solving the crossword puzzle: 1 .b. Einstein’s famous equation E= mc² is used in the creation of atomic bombs. to emerge …………… fabric …………… 3. Forces are things that produce changes in the movement or shape of a body or system. later it cooled as a result of its expansion. e. Although the Universe started as a hot concentration of mass and energy. c. insight …………….. 2. Give synonyms to the following words extracted from the text: to disperse …………… collapse …………… to decay …………… to expand …………… to stretch ……………. Unlike the nuclear force which is strong indeed.

electrons are captured or lost. the forces and motions that characterize a system.the glow frequently 2 seen in the sky after 3 sunset 4 3. to change the 5 velocity of an 6 object 7 4. the plural form of the word “nucleus” 10. în general. Translate into English: a) Ideea de bază a teoriei relativităţii este că timpul şi distanţele unui eveniment măsurate de doi observatori au. 7.the branch of 8 astronomy that deals 9 with the structure 10 and evolution of the 11 universe 5. b) Relativitatea generală postulează că prezenţa de masă şi energie conduce la „curbura” spaţiului şi că această curbură influenţează . 6. consisting of a large mass 9. time and three dimensional space treated together as a single fourdimensional object 11. 8. forces that bind particles inside the atomic nucleus.to change spontaneously into one or more different nuclei in a process in which particles are emitted from the nucleus. is in essence a point in space where the curvature of the space-time is infinite. 5.2. valori diferite dar se supun întotdeauna aceloraşi legi fizice.

b) prepositional verbs: to agree on. to accuse of. can’t help. iar un roi mediu de galaxii include circa o mie de galaxii. to prevent from. to succeed in. e) expressions: can’t stand. to deny. e) Universul conţine circa un miliard de roiuri de galaxii. to be responsible for. to enjoy.traiectoria altor obiecte. to stop. it’s no good. it’s worth I can’t bear Tom leaving so soon. c) adjectives + preposition: to be afraid of. to suggest. to intend. to admit. objection (to). . to forgive. to mind You must avoid staying up till late. The gerund is used after: a) transitive verbs: to avoid. to believe in. în urma forţelor gravitaţionale. inclusiv a luminii. fuziunea şi fisiunea nucleelor şi poate fi detectată doar în imediata vecinătate a particulelor. astonishment (at) My brothers have difficulty in reading. c) Teoria Universului în expansiune reprezintă versiunea cea mai recentă care explică modul cum a luat naştere Universul: o sferă măruntă s-a aprins dintr-o dată şi a explodat dând naştere la sori. to keep. to rely on He succeeded in repairing the car. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE THE GERUND . to complain about/on. to be good at She is afraid of leaving him. ea este legată de comprimarea quarkurilor şi nucleonilor. to imagine.is formed by adding the “-ING” suffix to the verb . apology (for). reason (for). Galaxiile sunt considerate ca fiind atomii universului. to insist on. to excuse.expresses an action that is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb I enjoyed reading her book. d) Forţa tare nucleară asigură coeziunea nucleelor atomice. to aim at. to prefer. d) nouns + preposition: difficulty (in). it’s no use. planete şi galaxii luminoase. to be proud of.

to spend. (to dance) and (to swim). to observe. isn’t used to drink d. to waste He caught her reading his diary. doesn’t use to drink b. a. Would you mind passing me b. 2) causative verbs: to get. Do you mind to pass me d. (Aţi putea să-mi daţi) the sugar? a. to leave. to keep. 3) verbs such as: to catch. b) as adjective: the sleeping child. me to discuss .THE “ING” PARTICIPLE . g) I’m looking forward (to read) your first novel. 7. etc c) after: 1) verbs of perception: to hear. Put the verbs between brackets in the gerund: a) I don’t mind (to clean) the windows but I’d like to eat first. to smell He heard his father screaming loudly. PRACTICE 6. j) I enjoy (to travel).is formed by adding the suffix “-ING” to the verb The Present Participle is used : a) to form continuous tenses: She is reading now. isn’t used to drinking c. to discuss d. to have He had us all crying. doesn’t use to drinking 3. i) I got used (to write) my homework late in the evening. Choose the correct answer: 1. to find. that I discussed b. the rising temperature. h) He advised (to put) her toys in the children’s room. a. 4) after “to go”: She went shopping. I can’t remember (ca eu să fi discutat) this problem with Tom. discussing c. Do you mind passing me c. to see. c) I don’t feel like (to sleep) when I know that he is sad. b) He stopped (to cry) when he heard his mother’s voice. e) Is it worth (to pay) so much for this trip to England? f) I hate (to lie) to him but I have no other choice. George (nu obişnuieşte să bea) coffee for breakfast. to notice. d) She couldn’t help (to buy) those dresses. Would you mind to pass me 2.

It’s no use trying 8. We regret in informing you 6. I didn’t mean that I’ll eat d. a. that we’ll have a coffee break 9. Kempinski. Why do you object to buy c. te voi duce eu cu maşina. Ed. 1997) 8. It’s no use in trying d. We regret informing you d. Bucureşti. can’t help tell b. a. Why do you object that you buy (Pawlowska. can’t help telling 7. I didn’t mean to eat b. d) Aţi putea să-mi spuneţi unde pot să-l găsesc pe directorul băncii? e) Ei au terminat de scris compunerile pe la 10 dar încă le mai corectează. I didn’t mean eat 10. b) Nu pot să-mi permit să cumpăr toate aceste cărţi. having a coffee break c. Translate into English by using a gerund or a gerundial construction: a) Nu are rost să mergi pe jos. threw b. a. to throw c. The meeting had been going on for more than two hours when the chairman suggested (să se ia o pauză de cafea) a. thrown d. It’s no use to try b. Zbigniew. can’t help to tell d. (De ce te împotriveşti cumpărării) a new computer for our office? a. Teste de limba engleză. I didn’t mean eating c. can’t help from telling c. . Why do you object we buy d. He’s very stubborn.4. a. (E inutil să încerci) to make him change his mind. (Nu intenţionam să mănânc) anything but the cake looked so good that I couldn’t say “No”. Barbara. a. Jim’s wife is a teacher and she (nu se poate abţine să-I spună) her husband what to do. f) Sunt atât de obosită! Nu am chef să ies în oraş cu prietenii. Why do you object to buying b. throwing 5. (Ne pare rău să vă informăm) that we haven’t received your application yet. c) Mama a continuat să spere că Tom se va întoarce cândva acasă. Teora. We regret to inform you b. We regret to inform you c. It’s no use try c. to have a coffee break b. have a coffee break d. I’m sure that your mother saw you (aruncând) the bottle through the window.

g) Merită să-ţi petreci vacanţa pe litoral în această perioadă a anului. h) Am sugerat să dăm o petrecere pentru a sărbători cel mai important eveniment din viaţa lui. i) Ea este obişnuită să vorbească ore întregi fără să obosească. j) El preferă să se plimbe cu bicicleta decât să-şi facă temele. k) Nu-mi place să iau micul dejun atât de devreme. l) A renunţat să fumeze când a aflat că era grav bolnavă. m) Regret că i-am spus adevărul despre moartea tatălui ei. n) Îmi amintesc că am auzit un zgomot în camera de alături în timp ce vorbeam la telefon. o) M-am săturat să-i explic adevăratele motive ale demisiei mele. p) Mary se plânge că nu are suficiente probe ca să-l bage la închisoare. q) Am evitat să-i răspund la telefoane atunci când m-am mutat în alt oraş. r) Riscăm să ne pierdem toţi banii dacă continuăm să pariem la cursele de cai. s) Este mândru să joace alături de cei mai talentaţi actori ai teatrului din Bucureşti. t) Nu sunt responsabilă de plecarea lui la Paris. 9. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:  When I caught him (steal) money from the drawer, he begged me (not tell) his family about it.  He admitted (commit) the crime but he refused (talk) to a lawyer.  It’s no use (ask) Mary (take care) of your pets. She dislikes (feed) them.  He made me (pay) a fine for (drive) fast.  After (get on) the train he realized that he didn’t really enjoy (travel) and began (think) of a way (return) home.  They offered (lend) me money and suggested (take) a short vacation.  He’d better (learn) the rules by heart because teachers don’t tolerate (cheat) during an examination.  It’s difficult for me (argue) with the boss because I’m afraid of (lose) my job.  He was expected (arrive) at 6 o’clock but he came later and apologized for (keep) us (wait).

 He allowed us (watch) the film in his room although he was too tired (stay up) at that hour. FUN TIME A theory is something nobody believes, except the person who made it. An experiment is something everybody believes, except the person who made it.

UNIT 14 THE CONTRIBUTION OF PHYSICS TO THE INFORMATION AGE (I) THE ARTICLE

THE CONTRIBUTION OF PHYSICS TO THE INFORMATION AGE (I)

Some people may believe that 20th and 21st century physics research has less of a direct impact on their daily lives than biology, chemistry, engineering, and other fields. Perhaps they think of physics as an abstract, enigmatic, or purely academic endeavor. Nearly everyone would agree that the computer, the transistor, and the World Wide Web are among the greatest inventions of the 20th century. Economists and laymen alike know that today's entire world economy is inextricably linked to these technologies. The daily lives of a large fraction of Earth's inhabitants would be substantially different were it not for their inventions. Most would agree that America's preeminence in computer and information technology is at least partly responsible for its status as an "economic superpower." The wealth of other nations such as Japan, Taiwan, countries in Western Europe, and others is also due, in part, to their embracement of and contributions to the information age. The electronic digital computer, the transistor, the laser, and even the World Wide Web were all invented by physicists. These inventions make up the foundation of modern technology. Computers The first electronic digital computer was built in the basement of the physics department at Iowa State University in 1939 by Professor John Atanasoff, who had a Ph.D. in theoretical physics and his physics graduate student Clifford Berry. It is amazing to think that the computer industry, now worth in the hundreds of billions of dollars, owes its existence to a brilliant physics professor and his talented

= intrare/ieşire slab. capacitors to store binary data and punched cards to communicate input/output. to a supercomputer). a preeminence.= tub electronic layman.graduate student. adv. n. Some consider its invention to have marked the beginning of the field of solid state physics one of the most active and important areas of physics research today. n. The transistor is thought by many to be the most important invention of the 20th century. Microprocessors for modern personal computers contain around 55 million transistors each. n. n. v.in other words.= adoptare punch card. v. n. to a cell phone. Unlike the old mechanical adding machines which used direct counting. n. Their computer used 300 vacuum tubes to perform calculations.= întâietate înregistra embracement. which opened the way to the telecommunications revolution and the information age.= foaie to wire up. strădanie vacuum tube n.= în aşa fel că capacitor.= cartelă perforată. mijloc învechit de introducere a to owe.= a conecta . n. GENERAL VOCABULARY TECHNICAL VOCABULARY endeavor.= efort.= nespecialist cu vid inextricably.= condensator nu se poate descurca to store. v. TheTransistor In 1947. by wiring up some electronics. n. n.= a memora. Walter Brattain and William Shockley had invented the transistor.= a datora datelor în calculator input/output. to a coffee maker. young physicists at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey inserted two gold contacts 1/64th of an inch apart from each other into a slab of germanium and. basement.= subsol. the new computer utilized logical operations to perform addition and subtraction. they had achieved amplification! The physicists—John Bardeen. discovered that the signal coming out of this semiconductor had at least 18 times the power of the signal going in -. The transistor is the building block of all modern electronics and computers (everything from a battery operated watch.

the transistor has become an essential component of all modern electronics and computers.= element de bază. The first computer could perform calculations using logical operations. 2. Some countries are considered to be “economic superpowers” due to their contributions to the information age. d. Since its discovery. How would our lives be without the invention of the electronic digital computer? b. b. Modern computers still use vacuum tubes in order to perform math operations. c. element constitutiv COMPREHENSION Answer the following questions: a. What were the three basic component elements of the first computer? d. How did the discovery of the transistor influence communications? e. n.building block. Mark the following sentences true (T) or false (F): a. Who invented the electronic digital computer? c. A microprocessor contains around 55 billion transistors. Use the words below to form sentences: . How did the three young physicists achieve amplification? PRACTICE 1. e.

 component/had/particular/bugs/very/inoperative/electronic/co mputer/because/many/failure/frequently/in/was/early/it/and/the (2 times)/of (2 times)  cards(2times)/had/out/no(2times)/fed/and(3times)/printer/by/ first/in/computer/it/was/the. components/ process/ them/ are/ with/ ability/ from/ to/ endow/ the/ made/ computers/ information/ that. Discover the word written down by solving the crossword puzzle: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 6.  Eniac/tons/occupied/operators/function/entire/that/successfully /was/ and/rooms/to/device/many/huge/a/the/required/weighed.  problem/into/most/system/rendering/translated/relevant/binary/ mathematical/computers/terms/information/all/by/numeral/first /in/into/is/the (2 times)  computers/could/so/science/identified/Turing/computer/mathe matical/founded/by/in/and/problems/that/be/theoretical/not/sol ved/doing/he.

. a handheld pointing device for computers 7. IT ............... www .......................... each containing 1600 _ _ _ a _ _ _ _ _ _ ............... DVD ................................. CD-ROM ..... HTTP ... 3...... a device that stores energy in the electric field 8............ Complete the missing words in the paragraph using vocabulary items from the text studied above: The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)................. a device used to amplify or modify a signal 10............... a machine for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms........ HTML .... Because of its innovative use ............................ constructed in the _ _ _ _ m _ _ _ of the Physics Building at Iowa State University took over two years to complete due to lack of funds.. URL . contained 1.............. RAM .. 6..... Find the meaning of the following computer abbreviation: PC ... USB .... to deduct 4......... one of the input devices 12............... IBM .... DOS ............ to handle papers or records by systematically organizing them 9...............10 11 12 2.... a computer file or data stream interpreted as a sequence of encoded numerical values............. The computer weighed more than 320 kg............................ one of the output devices 11.......... The memory of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer was a pair of drums... the primary medium for data storage and processing 5............ 6.............. a data storage device that stores data on a magnetic surface 5.....The machine used _ i _ _ _ _ digits to represent all numbers and data and performed calculations using _ _ _ c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ..6 km of _ _ _ _ and 280 dual-triode _ _ _ u_ _ _ _ b_ _ ........

prăjitura nu a ieşit aşa cum trebuia. impact ……………………… endeavor …………………… subtraction ………………… 8. to transform to make for = to go forward. capacitor ……………………. Pay attention to the following phrasal verb extracted from the text studied above: TO MAKE to make away with = to get rid of. ………………. 7..of electronics for arithmetical calculation. to interpret to be made up of = to be composed 9. Translate the following sentences into English using “make” as a phrasal verb:  Bătrânul doctor a donat toate bunurile sale orfelinatului din oraşul său natal.  Procurorul a distrus toate dovezile care-l incriminau pe nepotul său. to destroy.  S-a opri să vorbească cu mine apoi s-a îndreptat direct spre Universitate pentru a vedea rezultatele examenului. ………………. to give. to make out = to understand. to communicate ……………..  Ştiu că este urât dar are alte calităţi care compensează defectele fizice. . to imply.. to make good to make of = to understand. to approach to make up = to prepare to make up for = to compensate for. Give synonyms to the following words extracted from the text: computer to insert signal talented modern ………………… ………………… ………………. it has been described as the first electronic _ _ _ _ _a _ computer. to suggest to make over = to transfer.  Deşi amestecul a fost preparat conform indicaţiilor bucătarului..  Moleculele sunt formate din particule mai mici numite atomi.  Niciodată nu pot să înţeleg ce-mi scrie doctorul pe reţetă.

recognising his flaws.  A tipical personal computer include input and output devices. e) Trebuie să facem o distincţie clară între computer şi alte dispozitive electronice cum ar fi calculatoarele de buzunar care pot executa numai câteva operaţii matematice. b) Un computer este format din partea de hardware şi cea de software. more faster and more reliable. Hardware-ul cuprinde toate elementele ce compun un computer. dispozitive de stocare şi modem. came out with a more flexible and elegant design which is the basis from which all modern computers were derived. c) Parte de software se referă la toate programele şi datele utilizate de computer. scanner). Spot the mistakes in the following sentences and write down their correct version:  The basic distinction among modern computers and early mechanic devices is that this devices could only be used to make a limited number of tasks. dispozitive de ieşire (monitor. Translate into English: a) Computerul modern este un sistem electronic de prelucrare a informaţiilor pe baza unor operaţii complexe. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE THE ARTICLE .  Modern electronic computers have enormous speed and capacity for informations procesing. adică circuitele care leagă între ele tranzistoare. d) Hardware-ul este alcătuit dintr-o unitate centrală. din dispozitive de intrare (tastatură.  Computers designed during the 1950’s were eventualy replaced with transistor-based computers which were smaler. imprimantă). 11. f) Cel dintâi computer electronic ABC a avut probleme în special la sistemul de alimentare cu cartele perforate. mouse.10.  The team who developped ENIAC.

trains. rivers. with proper nouns denoting a whole family 8. the second the Browns the United States. in expressions of measurement 5. with nouns considered unique 3. a relative clause. islands. the Bahamas.with nouns followed by a prepositional phrase. 2. I’ve bought a book and five pencils. with nouns converted from adjectives. oceans. with proper nouns denoting countries. the middle class the first. with nouns denoting a profession. by the way. A baby requires special care. Tom. the Black Sea. the Thames. is used before ordinal numerals 7. the Alps. 10$ a kilo. magazines 9. the woman who gave me the newspaper. the postman. the Time The letter from London. To tell the time. deserts. class There is a mistake in your exercise. three times a week He is a teacher. or an apposition 10. with nouns mentioned or known 2. the Pacific Ocean. She is a Christian. religion. The monkey is a funny creature. The car is big and red. is used before superlatives 5. seas. the French. newspapers. He should obey the rich. instead of the numeral “one” 3. nationality and group nouns 6.The Definite Article Uses 1. with nouns used in their most general sense 4. with nouns used in their most general sense 4. to introduce a new piece of information. The Earth moves round the Sun. the Sahara. on the whole The Indefinite Article 1. the Orient Express. chains of mountains. . in phrases Examples My brother has a new car. He is the most handsome boy in the class.

with numerals 6. She goes to school. with proper nouns denoting an unknown person or a person with certain characteristics 7. languages PRACTICE A Mr.. with uncountable nouns or plural nouns used in the general sense 2. !! Father goes to the school every week to talk to my teachers. bridges. lakes. month but if you want to live in ……. church. Newsweek. England. theatre. my parents generally have ……… breakfast early in ……. He is a Don Juan. with proper nouns denoting: continents. countries. prison when they are used for their primary purpose Exceptions: cathedral. Europe. Oxford Street. buildings.6. towns mountains. as a matter of fact. in phrases The Zero Article Uses 1. with nouns denoting meals. January. once in a while. all of a sudden. . Mount Everest. Smith came to see you. the days of the week. office. city the rooms are much more expensive.(to learn). chapter 11 I have breakfast at ten. indefinite numeric function 4. periodicals. with nouns like: school. Covent Garden. Lake Superior. French 12. lunch. magazines. indefinite or zero articles:  Your sister is ……. excellent teacher. etc Examples Oil is lighter than water. seasons 7. Winter is my favorite season. I’ll ask her to help me understand ……. Listen John! They ate bananas. the months of the year. before vocatives 3. center of ……. streets. Insert definite.  Our rent is 150$ ……. rules. cinema 5. morning in order not to be late to work.  On Mondays. hospital. Page7..

indefinite or zero articles: a) Out of ignorance he made ………. Chinese language is totally unlike Japanese. ……… most people pay by check when they buy ……. coast.. day and ………. oldest building in ……. Didactică şi Pedagogică.. table in ……. Limba engleză – exerciţii pentru admiterea în învăţământul superior. publication in Britain in February. fog. Translate into English: . e) She settled down to sip ………. Bucureşti. Insert definite. battle. We made …….. couple of days in ……. on Sundays. mistake after ……… mistake. terrible car accident last week because of ……. cup. exact day of his anniversary but I think it’s in …….. I can’t tell you ……. When ……… increase. j) She is on …………... c) I thought about it ………. 13. …… people usually went to ……. January.. Straits of Magellan. ……… money you gave me last week is on ……. Ed. car. h) The novel created …………. He had …….. night.. In the past.. 1978) 14. church and pray for their fellow men. market in France is due for ……….. just on ………. f) …………. singing. The manager left for ……. (***. b) They sailed through ………. He invited me to spend a whole week in ……… England and hire a boat to go for a trip along ………. tea from ……….. I need …… orange and two apples to make a juice. vacation in ……… Hebrides. living-room.. g) His second book . to ………. terrible mistake when we talked to his lawyer. London. great sensation. i) He was killed in ………. The shop you are looking for is just at …… corner of …….            I’d like to go to …… United States but I don’t have enough money to buy ……. ……... airplane ticket.. d) I went from ………. poor are always suffering. Europe to consult with his partner on …… company’s advertising campaign.

a) A venit la mine acasă şi m-a rugat să-l ajut. o) Au discutat toate problemele şi în cele din urmă s-au împăcat şi şi-au dat mâna. m) Cel mai ambiţios băiat din clasă este foarte timid şi nuşi face prea mulţi prieteni. k) Un anume domn Smith te-a căutat ieri pe la 5 dupăamiază şi ţi-a lăsat acest bilet. Sunt grăbită să ajung la gară. i) Dintr-o dată l-am auzit ţipând în camera de alături. Ştii bine că totul se va afla mai devreme sau mai târziu. e) Luni seara sunt invitată să iau cina la familia Brown. j) Mă doare capul îngrozitor din cauza vremii. h) Calul este un animal frumos şi folositor dar şi periculos. ştii unde pot să găsesc un mecanic bun care să-mi repare maşina? d) N-am timp să mă cert cu tine acum. f) August este luna mea favorită din an când plec la mare cu prietenii. b) Pe de o parte aş vrea să rămân în România alături de familia mea dar pe de altă parte Franţa îmi oferă mai multe posibilităţi de a-mi găsi o slujbă bine plătită. Nu sunt obişnuită să plouă tot timpul. l) Am luat o altă valiză din greşeală şi nu ştiu cum să i-o returnez posesorului. c) Apropo. n) Ei ar pleca în excursie dacă vremea ar fi frumoasă. UNIT 15 . g) Nu face pe prostul cu mine. aşa că l-am poftit să ia loc şi să-mi spună despre ce este vorba.

THE CONTRIBUTION OF PHYSICS TO THE INFORMATION AGE (II) DIRECT SPEECH/ INDIRECT (REPORTED) SPEECH THE CONTRIBUTION OF PHYSICS TO THE INFORMATION AGE ( II ) Before the invention of the transistor. the smallest of which today are only 80 atoms wide. Computers using vacuum tubes filled huge rooms. proposed by and developed in part by physicist John Mauchly who borrowed many of the ideas and design .S. In 1945 the U. It took one of these large vacuum tubes to do the same job as a transistor. but were not powerful by today's standards. computers used vacuum tubes. Army built a vacuum tube computer called the Eniac.

today's personal computers can pack all their computational power into a tiny microchip the size of cracker that costs only a couple hundreds bucks and uses very little electricity. took up a room the size of a suburban home. If a modern notebook computer were made using vacuum tubes. they attracted moths and other bugs. with acronyms like URL and HTTP. the tubes. Vacuum tubes were not only big. they were also unreliable and would burn out frequently. Thanks to transistors. the vacuum tube-based ENIAC was only capable of about 1000 math operations per second. small size. In 1993 it began to spread to the rest of the world.from physicist John Atanasoff. compared to around 1 billion operations per second for today's transistor-based computers. used 18. the thousands of physicists at CERN Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva needed a better way to exchange information with their colleagues working in different universities all over the world. The ENIAC cost about $500." which literally meant shutting down the computer and cleaning out the dead bugs. expensive. and hot. The vacuum tubes and cooling system used huge amounts of electric power.000. (As you may know. Scientists would have to periodically "debug. The information age as we know it simply would not exist. The World Wide Web In the 1980s. and now already the majority of Americans surf the Web.000 vacuum tubes and was the fastest computer of its time. invented the World Wide Web in 1990 to meet this demand. and power of modern computers and electronics would never have been achieved without the invention of the transistor. he developed the software conventions that are keys to the Web's usefulness. the Web was mostly used by scientists to collaborate their research. Between 1990 and 1993. a graduate from Oxford University in Physics. But despite its size and cost. which caused short circuits. power system. The affordability. wiring and cooling equipment would fill an entire skyscraper! It has also been calculated that a cell phone would be the size of the George Washington monument. Now over a trillion dollars worth of commerce takes place over the Internet every year! Much of this e-commerce is done over the World Wide Web. Tim Berners. the terms Web and . The number of websites has grown from just 130 in June 1993 to around 9 million in 2002. Because the tubes actually glowed and gave off heat. Along with creating the first web browser and web server.

but it did exist.= aplicaţie care permite unui utilizator să vizualizeze documentele din “world wide web” web server. n. adj.= server ce utilizează HTTP pt. What began as a better way for physicists to manage information and communicate--the World Wide Web--is now a vast "global information superhighway.2 million.Internet do not mean the same thing.= a închide un program sau sistem de operare web browser. n. Why did ENIAC cost so much? What were the main disadvantages of vacuum tubes? Was the World Wide Web a necessary invention? Why? Why did the first computers need to be periodically debugged? Are the internet and the web one and the same thing? .= recunoaştere outstanding. In 1999 Time magazine dubbed Berners-Lee one of the 100 greatest minds of the century.= zgârie-nori unreliable. v.= a depune mai multe informaţii în aceeaşi unitate de stocare to debug. Before the invention of the Web.= insectă acknowledgement. v. few people in the general population used the Internet. v." accessible to all. n.= a detecta erorile unei componente hardware to shut down.= molie bug. d. n.n. b. GENERAL VOCABULARY to borrow. n. n." with an award of $1.= nesigur moth. n. a livra documente şi fişiere atunci când este solicitat acronym. In 2004. v. The Web uses the Internet but is not the only communication service on it. an "international acknowledgement of outstanding technological innovation that directly promotes people's quality of life.= remarcabil TECHNICAL VOCABULARY to pack. e. c.= a împrumuta cracker.= prescurtare computational power = putere de calcul COMPREHENSION Answer the following questions: a. he won the first annual Millennium Technology Prize.= biscuit skyscraper. adj.

2.PRACTICE 1. to provide lodging for. to leave the ground (as an airplane). Pay attention to the following phrasal verb extracted from the text studied above: TO TAKE to take after = to resemble to take back = to return something to take down = to write down to take for = to assume to be to take from = to subtract to take in = to accept. c. to employ. It was the discovery of the transistor that led to the development of modern computers. b. to undertake/to assume responsibilities to take out = to withdraw/ to remove (a handkerchief)/ to invite somebody for a walk to take up = to occupy oneself with the study of smth. The World Wide Web was created as a necessity of scientists to communicate. The ENIAC was really efficient using small amounts of electric power. to observe to take off = to remove. The ENIAC was built during the World War II being inspired by Atanasoff’s computer. Mark the following sentences true (T) or false (F): a. to occupy (space/time) . to withdraw from service to take on = to hire. d.. e. Read the text and find synonyms for the following words: WORD to cooperate recognition remarkable to assign SYNONYM …………… …………… …………… …………… WORD high-priced biscuit to suggest abbreviation SYNONYM …………… …………… …………… …………… 3. to deceive. The Web has become an accessible source of information all over the world.

10. his father. Most of these failures occurred during the _ a_ _ up and _ o_ _ down periods. the failure rate was remarkably low and stands as a tribute to the precise engineering of ENIAC. I don’t think John takes ……….000 _ _ _ a_ _ _ _ _ _ and consumed 160 kw of _ _ _ e_. I can’t do that! Do you take me ……… a fool? 5. He doesn’t want to have a child because he doesn’t like to take …………. The first problems run on the ENIAC were related to the use of vacuum tubes. from time to time but she always refuses my invitation. she took the book ………to the library. Given to the _ e_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ available at the time. Complete the missing words in the paragraph using vocabulary items from the text studied above: ENIAC was the first electronic _ _ _ _u_ _ _ capable of solving a full range of computing problems. She took the girl’s testimony ………… in shorthand. My job takes ……… too much time so I can’t visit you too often. It is difficult for a seven-year old child to take six ……… twelve. However. it contained 17. 6. ENIAC was a monster. Fill in the blanks using “take” as a phrasal verb:            I’d like to take your sister ………. physically.4. leaving the computer nonfunctional about half the time. responsibilities. Spot the mistakes in the following sentences and write down their correct version: .. They _ u_ _ _ _ out almost every day. As she didn’t like the author. The plane will take ………… in half an hour. He took out a small ring and gave it to his little sister. It was _ e_ _ _ _ _ _ _ and built by Mauchly in May 1943. The longest continuous period of operation without a failure was close to five days.468 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.. I must take ……… French again if I want to go to France.

schools. it includes a clock.     ENIAC .was a monument of enginering. The more important effect of ENIAC on scientifical users were its fostering the grow of computation sollutions to scientific problems. ENIAC’s main drawback was that its programing took two days by esentialy rewireing it with punch cards. 7. a simple calculator and a memo pad . etc e) a computer that is usually held in one hand and operated with the other. Match the following words with their descriptions: desktop computer laptop palmtop pocket computer wearable computer personal digital assistant a) this is a small portable computer designed to be worn on the body during use under the form of a wristwatch or a hands free cell phone b) a computer that is larger than a personal digital assistant (PDA) but smaller than a laptop c) a small mobile computer that has a flat panel display and keyboard requiring a seated position and both hands d) the most affordable and common computers used by businesses. address. date book. ENIAC was complete in 1945 being up to a thousands times faster then its predecesors in executing aditions.Electronical Numeric Integrator Analyser and Computer . multiplications and divisions. ENIAC operated only 70% of the time because engineers turned the computer out at least one time in a week and these tended to cause tubes to blow.

f) a small calculator-sized computer programmable in Basic and mostly used in the 1980’s. Tense Changes Direct Speech Indirect Speech . Use the words below to form sentences:  vacuum/signal/invented/as/regulator/three/replaced/Lab oratories/scientists/in/an/transistor/at/electronic/tube/ra pidly/1947/Bell/the (3 times) power/of/vacuumtubes/require/supplies/they/include/bu lky/disadvantages/that/major/fact/the (2 times) semiconductor/consists/of(3times)/material/each/carryi ng/layers/capable/current/three/transistor/a (3 times) integrated/circuitry/consist/elements/interconnected/wh ich/basic/number/of(2times)/large/circuits/very/in/are/t he/with/transistors (2times) current/designed/as/resistor/device/electronic/to/control ling/and/was/a/transmitter/first/both/act/transistor/the (2 times)     9. Translate into English: a) Descoperirea transistorului este considerată una dintre cele mai mari descoperiri ale erei moderne fiind folosit pentru a amplifica. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE DIRECT / REPORTED (INDIRECT) SPEECH I. 8. b) Webul este un sistem hipertext ce operează pe internet şi care este vizualizat cu ajutorul unui program numit browser. comuta. stabiliza şi modula diverse semnale. d) HTML ul ajută la prezentarea documentelor text pe o singură pagină. c) Protocolul HTTP este cea mai folosită metodă de accesare a informaţiilor. e) Computerele ies relativ repede din actualitate datorită apariţiei unor tehnologii noi ce oferă posibilitatea de a mări puterea unor computere de dimensiuni mici. folosind browserul web.

g. a universal assertion. She said she wanted to read) Past Continuous (e. an eternal truth The teacher told them that English is an analytic language.g.g. Changes of can modal verbs may shall will These rules are not observed in certain cases: 1.g.g.g. Other changes Direct Speech 1. She said she was reading) Past Perfect (e. I Past Perfect Continuous ( She had been reading a lot) said she had been reading a lot) Future (e.g.g. I have just eaten) Present Perfect Continuous ( e. the day before two days before the previous night/week the next day/the following day then there before could might should would . She said she would read a book) II. I am reading) Present Perfect Simple (e. Changes of today adverbs yesterday the day before yesterday last night/week tomorrow now here ago 3.g. Imperative (e. I want to read) Present Continuous ( e. She said she had been studying for 3 hours) Past Perfect (e.g.Present Simple (e. I watched TV) Past Simple (e.g.g.g. She said she had watched TV) Past Perfect Continuous (e. I’ll read a book) Future in the Past (e. When the statement in the reported clause contains a natural law.g. Indirect Speech Infinitive (e. I have been studying for 3 hours) Past Simple (e. Watch TV!) 2. She told me to watch TV) that day the previous day. She said she had just eaten) Past Perfect Continuous (e.g.

“must”. e) “Your licence is out of date.” said Peter. “used (to)”. “but I have applied for a new one.” said the barman. said my mother. Indirect speech: mixed types a) “Don’t worry about a few mistakes. “He doesn’t like strangers”.” I said. 3. “You must try to be quieter tonight”. “Why do I never have hot soup?” “Because the kitchen is so far from the dining room. “We will.” I said. “should”.” complained Mr. c) “You woke everyone up last night”.” he said sadly. “Or do you keep making the same ones?” b) “I’m looking for a man called Albert. “Because I’ve just asked Ann to marry me and she’s refused. but I’ll go out and get you some if you like. “need” do not change.” I promised.” explained his wife.” I admitted.” j) “What shall I do with my wet shoes? said the boy.” said the policeman.” I said “Did you sleep well last night?” “Yes. “Have you got any?” “No.” f) “It’s your turn to baby-sit tonight. “It can’t be!” said Ann indignantly. i) “Are you ill? He said coldly “No. “I make mistakes all the time”.2. Jack?” I said.” I said.” said my father. Jones. . “I should keep away from Albert if I were you. In conditional clauses PRACTICE 10. “ought (to)”. h) “Why are you looking so depressed. “It is. “Then why are you sitting about when all the others are working? Go out at once and give them a hand. “I baby-sat last night! And the night before!” g) “I’ve run out of stamps. d) “The soup is cold again.” they told Ann. I advised her that she should be more careful. who drinks in this bar. “Would”. “Do you learn from your mistakes?” I asked.

you must wait for Tom because he wants to tell you something important” said Jane.. how many hackers does it take?" A: "One. A.“You’d better put them near the fire!” (Thomson. j) The teacher asked him “Why didn’t you bring me your test paper?” FUN TIME Q: "How many computer scientists does it take to change a light bulb?" A: "Five." LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS . Martinet. one to prove their validity and two to implement it. It’s obvious that you have been crying again” said John. But. A. f) “I’ll buy you this car. A Practical English Grammar. it’s too deep and you might get drowned”. g) “You’ve completely changed since the last time I saw you” Mary exclaimed with delight. 1986) 11.. I promise” my father said to me.V. Exercises 1.J. Two write the specifications. I’ll sell the car” said John. Change the following from Direct to Indirect Speech using some of the reporting verbs at the head of the exercise: threatened asked accepted agreed promised advised apologized complained suggested wondered told admitted exclaimed invited claimed a) My sister said “Don’t swim in the river. e) “You are five minutes late and your eyes are red. 2 Oxford University Press." Q: "Well. c) “If you don’t give me money. h) My father asked me “What are you doing with this hammer?” i) My elder sister said “I’ve been watching TV the whole afternoon”. d) “Let’s go out and have some fun” said Mary. hackers don't turn on the lights. b) “Come in and take a seat. Oxford.

Infinitive be beat become begin bend bind bite bleed blow break bring build burn Past Tense was / were beat became began bent bound bit bled blew broke brought built burned burnt Past Participle been beaten become begun bent bound bitten bled blown broken brought built burned burnt Traducere a fi a bate a deveni a începe a se îndoi a lega a musca a sângera a sufla. a bate a sparge a aduce a construi a arde .

burst buy cast catch choose come cost cut deal dig do draw dream burst bought cast caught chose came cost cut dealt dug did drew dreamed dreamt drank burst bought cast caught chosen come cost cut dealt dug done drawn dreamed dreamt drunk a izbucni a cumpăra a arunca a prinde a alege a veni a costa a tăia a se ocupa de a săpa a face a trage. a desena a visa drink a bea .

drive eat fall feed feel fight find fit fly forbid forget forgive freeze get drove ate fell fed felt fought found fit flew forbade forgot forgave froze got driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found fit flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen gotten a conduce maşina a mânca a cădea a hrăni a (se) simti a (se) lupta a găsi a se potrivi a zbura a interzice a uita a ierta a îngheta a primi. .

a păstra a sti. a răni. a cunoaşte a pune.give go grow have hear hide hit hold hurt gave went grew had heard hid hit held hurt given gone grown had heard hidden hit held hurt a da a merge a creste a avea a auzi a (se) ascunde a lovi a tine a lovi. a durea a tine. a aseza a conduce a învăta keep know lay lead learn kept knew laid led learned kept known laid led learned .

a permite a zăcea. a se afla a aprinde lose make mean meet mistake a pierde a face a însemna a (se) întâlni a gresi a întelege gresit a plăti a pune a citi misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood pay put read paid put read paid put read .learnt leave lend let lie light left lent let lay lit lighted lost made meant met mistook learnt left lent let lain lit lighted lost made meant met mistaken a pleca. a lăsa a da cu împrumut a lăsa.

ride ring rise run say see seek sell send set shake rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set shook ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set shaken a călări a suna a răsări. a tremura a împusca a arăta a închide shoot show shut shot showed shut shot shown shut . a se ridica a fugi a spune a vedea a căuta a vinde a trimite a pune a scutura.

a petrece a (se) întinde a sta (în picioare) a fura. a se furisa a lipi .sing sink sang sank sunk sat slept smelled smelt spoke sped speeded spelled spelt spent spread stood stole stuck sung sunk a cânta a (se) scufunda sit sleep smell sat slept smelled smelt spoken sped speeded spelled spelt spent spread stood stolen stuck a sedea a dormi a mirosi speak speed a vorbi a grăbi. a accelera spell a ortografia spend spread stand steal stick a cheltui.

a sfâsia a spune.sting strike swear swim take teach tear tell think throw wake stung struck swore swam took taught tore told thought threw woke waked wore won withdrew stung struck sworn swum taken taught torn told thought thrown woken waked worn won withdrawn a înţepa a lovi a jura. a povesti a (se) gândi a arunca a se trezi wear win withdraw a purta a câstiga a (se) retrage . a înjura a înota a lua a preda a rupe.

Tudor. Georgiana. 1967 6. Bucureşti. 1996 4. Bucureşti. Bucureşti... Mihaela. Limba şi literatura engleză. Rodica. Evelyn. Robert. Mouton and Co. Ed.write wrote written a scrie BIBLIOGRAFIE 1. Amarcord. Paidos. Engleza pentru ingineri şi tehnicieni . Dănilă. 2001 5. Vîlceanu-Ionescu. Irina. Andrei. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Ed. Proficiency in English. Porţeanu. Gălăţeanu. a Guide to Word Combinations. Amsterdam. Didactică şi pedagogică. Georgiana. The New Age in Physics. Hassey H. Ed. Gramatica limbii engleze pentru uz şcolar. Ciobanu. Viorica. Universitatea din Timişoara. Georgeta. timpurile verbale. 1979 7. Catedra de limbă şi literatură engleză. 1991 3. Florin M. 1982 8. Didactică şi Pedagogică. Benson. Timişoara. 1960 . Ed. The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English. Exerciţii de gramatică engleză. Ecaterina. Ilson. Institutul European. Tehnică. Albatros. Bejan Nicolae. 1981 2. Ed. Constantin. Gălăţeanu. Morton. Sinteze şi exerciţii pentru examenele de bacalureat şi admitere. Chilărescu. S. Benson. Comişel. Bantaş. Bucureşti. Limba engleză pentru ştiinţă şi tehnică. London Ed.

R.9. http://www. Manning K.physics. Ed. 1996 14. Mc.uk/physics/index 19. Martinet. New York. http http://en.com . 1986 11. 1978 13. Pawlowska. Teora.juliatrubin.. Didactică şi Pedagogică.demon. http://www. A Practical English Grammar...wikipedia. 2 Oxford University Press. Limba engleză – exerciţii pentru admiterea în învăţământul superior.com 16. New York. Exercises 1.. A. http://www.edu/~ianb/history 17.. Webber. 1997 10. Physics for Science and Engineering. Gramercy Books.V. Teste de limba engleză. Bucureşti. Kempinski.weburbia. 1957 12. Graw-Hill Book Company. Zbigniew. ***.workjoke. Oxford. Barbara. A. Thomson. Ed. Ed. Bucureşti.J.nobel-winners.com/physicsjokes. White M. Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. http://www.org 18. http://www.html 15. ***.co.ucla.