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CAREER

OPPORTUNITIES in

POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM


SECOND EDITION

CAREER
OPPORTUNITIES in

POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM


SECOND EDITION
JOAN AXELROD-CONTRADA
Foreword by Congressman

RICHARD E. NEAL

Career Opportunities in Politics, Government, and Activism, Second Edition Copyright 2008 by Joan Axelrod-Contrada All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Ferguson An imprint of Infobase Publishing 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Axelrod-Contrada, Joan. Career opportunities in politics, government, and activism / Joan Axelrod-Contrada ; foreword by Richard E. Neal. 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-7089-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-8160-7089-X (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Civil serviceUnited States. 2. Civil service positionsUnited States. 3. Public administrationUnited States. 4. United StatesOfficials and employees. I. Title. JK692.A94 2008 320.973023dc2 2007050775

Ferguson books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755. You can find Ferguson on the World Wide Web at http://ferguson.infobasepublishing.com Series design by Kerry Casey Cover design by Takeshi Takahashi Printed in the United States of America Bang H ermitage 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on acid-free paper.

CONTENTS
Foreword v ii Industry Outlook ix Acknowledgments xiii Introduction: How to Use This Book xv

Local Government
Local Political Aide 58 Assessor 6 0 Economic Developer 63 Election Official 66 Housing Specialist 68 Municipal Clerk 70 Recreation Supervisor 7 3 Town/City Manager 75 Urban and Regional Planner

PART IPOLITICS
Political Campaigns
Campaign Manager 4 Finance Director 7 Media Strategist 9 Opposition Researcher 11 Political Consultant 13 Political Party Staffer 16 Pollster 18

77

Local/State Specialists
Antidiscrimination Worker 80 Auditor 82 Emergency Manager 85 Employment Interviewer/Counselor 89 Environmental Specialist 91 Ethics Investigator 94 Human Services Director 96 Labor Relations Specialist 99 Public Health Professional 102 Victim Advocate 105

Political Ofce
School Board Member 22 City Councilor 25 Mayor 27 District Attorney 30 State Legislator 3 3 Governor 3 6 U.S. Representative 39 President of the United States

State/Federal Legislative Staff


41 Congressional Page 110 Legislative Correspondent 112 District Aide 114 Legislative Assistant 116 Research Analyst 119 Chief of Staff 122

PART IIGOVERNMENT
Local/StateGeneral Positions
Administrative Assistant 48 Management Analyst 50 Program Manager 52 Public Information Officer 54

Other State/Federal Positions


Paralegal 126 Government Lawyer 129

Policy Analyst 132 Press Secretary 135 Speechwriter 137

Service Programs

AmeriCorps Member 216 City Year Corps Member 219 Peace Corp Volunteer 222

International Affairs

United Nations Headquarters Intern 140 Foreign Service Officer 143 Intelligence Operative 146

APPENDIXES
I. Frequently Asked Questions about the Civil Service and Federal Employment 226 II. Federal Pay Scale and Federal Employment 228 III. Federal Government Agency Organizational Chart 229 IV. Federal Government Jobs 231 V. Employment Websites 233 VI. Graduate School Programs 235 . Public Affairs, Public Administration, Public Policy 235 Nonprofit Management 248 C. Urban and Regional Planning 250 . Political/Campaign Management 256 E. Political Science 257 . International Affairs 265 VII. Advocacy Groups 272 A. Political Parties and Government Reform 272 B. Environment and Consumer Advocacy 273 C. Community and Social Issues 273 D. Civil Rights and Liberties 274 E. Peace and International Affairs 275 VIII. How to Run for Political Office The Basics 276 IX. Trade Publications 278 X. Associations 279

PART IIIACTIVISM
Nonprot Advocacy and Administration
Program Assistant 152 Program Director 154 Director of Volunteers 156 Communications Director 158 Fund-raiser 160 Program Officer, Foundation 163 Webmaster 165 Founder, Nonprofit Organization 167 Executive Director 169

A B. D F

Public Interest

Canvasser 172 Consumer Activist 174 Environmental Activist 176 Government Reform Activist 1 79 Public Interest Lawyer 181

Community, Social, and International Issues


Community Development Associate Community Organizer 189 Conflict Resolution Specialist 191 Human Rights Advocate 194 Peace Worker 197 Womens Rights Activist 199 186

Lobbies, Unions, and Associations

Bibliography 284 Index 287

Labor Union Organizer 204 Lobbyist 207 Membership Director, Association 210 Political Action Committee (PAC) Professional 212

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

FOREWORD
By Congressman Richard E. Neal
Dr. M artin L uther K ing, J r. o nce p roclaimed, Everybody ca n b e gr eat, b ecause e verybody ca n serve. This profound notion fueled the civil rights movement, arguably t he most im portant advancement in Amer ican demo cracy in r ecent memo ry. During this era o f national unrest, many members of my generation answered the call b y running for elected o ffice, o rganizing rallies a nd ma rches, a nd participating in local , state, and national elections. They did s o f or t he co mmon g ood o f t heir f ellow Amer icans a nd t heir significant contributions greatly shaped our nation. In the years since Dr. Kings passing, many fear that the call to serve has become softer spoken and less frequently answered. Today, our country faces new c hallenges, b ut t he necessi ty f or indi viduals who a re in spired t o s erve t he p ublic r emains t he same. B y o utlining t he va rious wa ys in w hich people can become engaged in the cause of serving others, author Joan Axelrod-Contradas new edition of Career Opportunities in Politics, Government, and Activism p rovides a n in valuable s ervice i tself. Th e author under stands t hat Amer ica a nd t he vir tues of democracy depend upon active participation of the public and her b ook helps individuals see how they can become more active through service. Ms. Axelrod-Contrada offers, in her own words, a buffet, with jobs, lik e dishes, la id out on a t able, and I believe she has wr itten a wonderful tool for those who a re h ungry f or a f ulfilling a nd w orthwhile career. Not only does this book list co untless opportunities in t he world of public service but Ms. Ax elrod-Contrada also o ffers a tr easure chest of advice to help you find a position that fits your aspirations. The jobs she des cribes a re va ried acr oss different levels o f g overnment, p olitical, a nd ac tivist in stitutions. F rom w ork wi th grassr oots ca mpaigns t o running f or elec ted o ffice, t his b ook is filled with unique career opportunities, and p erhaps one will capture y our imagina tion. The f uture a nd w ellbeing o f o ur na tion will flourish wi th in telligent and passionate public servants, and I hope you will consider politics a noble calling. Participation in p ublic s ervice is a tradi tion deeply r ooted in Amer ican hist ory. Th e Founding Fathers ca me t ogether no t f or mer it, r ecognition, or monetary reward, but to serve the people of our young na tion. They w ere st atesmen a nd visio naries w ho hel ped sha pe t he b urgeoning Amer ican republic. As a mem ber of the United States House of Representatives, I tr y to follow their example in some small measure every day. While this has been an extremely rewarding and humbling experience, I a m als o v ery p roud t o ha ve had a nother ca reer educating young men and women as a teacher. During m y time as a s choolteacher in S pringfield, M assachusetts, I had t he o pportunity t o s ee firsthand t he c uriosity a nd asp irations o f ma ny students. A s a mem ber o f C ongress, I ha ve tr ied to f oster o pportunities t o hel p a mbitious st udents enter t he w orld o f p ublic s ervice. M any o f m y former st udents ha ve g one o n t o ca reers s erving others and it brings me great satisfaction to learn of their acco mplishments a nd co ntributions t o s ociety. S ome ha ve w orked f or p olitical o ffices, others for ac tivist gr oups, a nd ma ny ha ve sim ply v olunteered their time for good causes. But they were all in the arena. One of the great intangibles of public life is you never know what opportunities are on the horizon. When I began my career as a young mayors aide, a vii

future in the United States Congress seemed hard to imagine. After 19 y ears of representing the p eople of the Second Congressional District of Massachusetts in t hat historic institution, it has b een a tr uly rewarding experience. I am fortunate to have found such fulfillment in my public life. If you choose to enter t his exciting world, I wish you the same success. Take advantage

of t he ad vice t hat Ms. Ax elrod-Contrada o ffers in her great book and use its resources to your advantage. B e a pa rticipant in t he p ublic deba te ra ther than a spectator. The unique American tradition of public service is an honorable and worthy endeavor. And to quote Dr. Seuss, a fa vorite author from my hometown: Oh, the places youll go!

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

INDUSTRY OUTLOOK
Why lo ok f or a ca reer in p olitics, g overnment, o r activism? Just a bout e veryone o ffers t he s ame a nswer: t o make a difference. S omething dra ws p eople lik e radar to the pressing issues of our day. Whether they want t o im prove t heir o wn co mmunities, a nalyze policy initiatives, or advocate for social justice, they understand t he im portance o f p ublic in volvement. People in p olitics, g overnment, a nd ac tivism ha ve the s atisfaction o f kno wing a t t he end o f t he da y that something they said or wrote could improve the lives of thousands of people. Although p eople t oday ha ve m uch t he s ame desire to s erve as t heir p redecessors, t he p ublic realm i tself has c hanged dra matically o ver t he years. On the political front, the waning role of the old-time pa rty b osses has co ntributed t o t he b urgeoning growth of the relatively new political consulting ind ustry. M eanwhile, y ears o f do wnsizing and outsourcing have changed the old governmentcentered syst em t o a ne w o ne in w hich no nprofit and p rivate o rganizations p lay a p rominent r ole. Jobs once held b y government employees are now contracted out to think tanks, consulting firms, and nonprofit social-service organizations. In The N ew Pu blic S ervice, P aul Li ght, o f th e Brookings I nstitution, des cribes ho w t he lif er o f old has given way to the switcher of today. Instead of being lost f or good, many jobs have simply been reassigned t o o ther s ectors. S omeone w ho w orked as an analyst for a g overnment agency might, years later, do the same type of work for a think tank with a government contract. It is not uncommon for individuals to move back and forth between sectors. All this is g ood news for you, the job s eeker. As employment has b ecome mo re di versified, different sectors need t o compete more for talent. In the federal g overnment, ind ustry s ources s ay t hat t he upcoming retirement of thousands of baby boomers will create a need f or new talent. Some government agencies a re o ffering incen tives s uch as t he r epayment of student loans to appeal to a new generation of public-spirited ca ndidates als o co urted b y b usinesses and nonprofits. Yet, as has a ny ind ustry, p ublic s ervice has i ts drawbacks. G overnment em ployees face t he p ressure of tr ying t o g et t hings done w hile navigating bureaucracies and weighing public input. Nonprofit employees co pe wi th t he str ess o f f unding p ressures a nd sho estring b udgets. P rivate co nsultants contend with the challenges of balancing the public good wi th t he b ottom line . And all face lin gering misconceptions of politics, government, and activism among the very public they are trying to serve. Nevertheless, desp ite lin gering st ereotypes o f corrupt public officials, unimaginative bureaucrats, and wild-e yed ac tivists, obs ervers b elieve t hat a more appreciative view of the public sector may be taking hold. In the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, p eople w ho had lo ng vie wed government as a n in trusion ha ve co me t o s ee i t more as a necess ary p rotector. Pub lic o fficials showed leadership. Government rose to new challenges. And nonprofit organizations mobilized their volunteers. Volunteer ra tes in t he 21st cen tury a re a t a historic hig h, acco rding t o t he C orporation f or National and Community Service. A recent survey by the Council for Excellence in Government and the Gallup Organization showed the broad p opular appeal of ca reers in p ublic s ervice. When given the choice between a dream job in ix

public service and in the private sector, respondents favored the former in the following scenarios: Head of the National Endowment for the Arts (59 percent) or Broadway producer (41 percent) Federal j udge (73 p ercent) o r la w firm senior partner (27 percent) FBI agent (66 percent) or private investigator (34 percent) Within t he world of public s ervice, t he path to elected p olitical o ffice ca n b e pa rticularly difficult and precarious. Few o pportunities exist f or lo ng-term pa id careers. Many elected o fficials view their positions as a calling ra ther t han as a ca reer. S omeone passionate a bout co mmunity issues, f or in stance, might prefer to remain at the local level rather than mount a r isky and expensive bid for higher o ffice. Unlike a ppointed o fficials s uch as ci ty ma nagers who ca n c limb t he ca reer ladder b y mo ving t o progressively la rger co mmunities, elec ted o fficials generally o nly r un f or o ffice in t he j urisdiction where t hey have est ablished r esidency. Hence t he opportunities f or a lif etime ca reer as a n elec ted official are extremely rare. Career prospects appear brighter for the behindthe-scenes p rofessionals w ho de vise s trategy f or political ca mpaigns. The r elatively ne w p rofession of p olitical co nsulting has gr own b y le aps a nd bounds, as political candidates as well as businesses, interest groups, labor unions, and other organized bodies t urn t o p rofessionals t o p roduce st ate-ofthe-art ca mpaigns. The Amer ican A ssociation o f Political C onsultants estima tes t hat mo re t han a billion do llars is sp ent y early o n ca mpaign co mmunication. Political consultants travel in the same circles as lobbyists, political action committee (PAC) administrators, and other up-and-coming political professionals who tend to generate controversy wherever they g o. D epending o n o nes p oint o f vie w, t hese political professionals are either dedicated activists or unscrupulous opportunists. Is negative advertising a us eful de vice o r a dir ty tr ick? I s grassr oots lobbying a n exp ression o r a co rruption o f democratic ide als? Ar e P AC p rofessionals mob ilizing citizens o r hinder ing ca mpaign r eform? P olitical x

professionals wrestle with these kinds o f questions every day. The adr enaline-charged w orld o f p olitical ca mpaigns might, at times, s eem a w orld apart from the hard w ork o f g overning t hat f ollows. Bureaucrats, as g overnment em ployees ha ve b een called , ha ve changed the face of the world. As the National Association of Schools of Pub lic Affairs and Administration obs erves, b ureaucrats ha ve hel ped de velop t he Internet and put a man on the Moon. Although much has been written about government c utbacks, t he f ederal g overnment r emains the nations largest employer, according to the U.S. Department of Labors Occupational Outlook Handbook. F ederal ag encies o versee t he en vironment, education, emergency management, public he alth, and countless other is sues. They s et guidelines f or everything from the safety of meat to the amount of money Americans pay each year in income taxes. Many p ositionsprogram ma nager a nd ma nagement analyst, for examplecan be found at all levels o f g overnment, b ut st affers a t t he lo cal a nd state le vels a re c loser t o t he r esults o f t heir la bor than their counterparts in t he federal government. They s ee p otholes b eing fixed a nd ne w s chools being b uilt o n t heir wa y ho me f rom w ork. S tate government, w hich s erves as a link b etween t he local and t he federal, has assumed ne w regulatory powers as a result of the devolution of power from the federal government. Charitable no nprofits a re t he fast est gr owing sectorahead o f g overnment a nd p rivate ind ustryin t he na tion, acco rding t o t he I ndependent Sector, a no nprofit, no npartisan coali tion o f mo re than 700 na tional o rganizations, f oundations, a nd corporate p hilanthropy p rograms. Th e number of nonprofit o rganizations s oared f rom 739,000 in 1977 to 1.19 million in 1997. Typically, n onprofit organizations offer lower salaries t han g overnment o r t he p rivate s ector but p rovide t he b enefits o f a casual w orkplace where indi viduals ca n q uickly assume hig h le vels of r esponsibility, ind ustry s ources s ay. Often, i t is easier t o find positions in t he nonprofit arena than in government or business. In m any n onprofit o rganizations dedica ted t o social c hange, st affers s erve as jac k-of-all trades activists. A general rule of thumb is that the smaller

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

the o rganizationand ma ny a re smallt he mo re likely individuals are to take on a variety of responsibilities. A sin gle p erson mig ht r esearch issues, manage p rograms, f und-raise, o rganize grassr oots support, and educate the public. Most important, people must believe in the mission o f t heir o rganizations. I deas o nce co nsidered radicalenvironmental p rotection a nd w omens rights, for examplehave become widely accepted. Advocacy gr oups p ress f or s ocial c hange w hile nonprofit administrators manage programs to combat problems such as h unger and homelessness. A relatively small b ut hig hly influential netw ork o f research in stitutes (t hink t anks), me anwhile, p repare r eports o n issues suc h as ed ucation a nd t he economy. Policy experts use the term wicked problems to describe the difficult challenges ahead. Eradicating poverty. Managing global climate change. Address-

ing terrorism. These problems are so complex and intractable, t hey def y sim ple s olutions. T alented people are needed to tackle them. According to the National A ssociation o f S chools o f Pub lic Affairs and Administration, the employment demand for a new generation of professionals to provide leadership, financial ma nagement, p olicy a nalysis, a nd other skills has never been stronger. You, too, can be part of this world. Whether you want to work in Washington, D.C., or a small town in r ural Amer ica, t he opportunities are t here. You could design political polls, help victims of disaster, research legislation, or direct programs for a no nprofit advocacy organization. The list g oes on and on. As long as you have a zest for hard work, youll be able to find just the right niche for your talents and interests. This book is j ust the beginning. Th e possibilities are endless, s o go out there and make a difference!

INDUSTRY OUTLOOK

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Special Thanks
Before I ac knowledge the many professionals w ho contributed to the research of this new edition, Id like t o t hank a sp ecial gr oup o f p eople f or t heir incredible support. First, Id like to thank my husband, F reddy, a f ellow wr iter, f or under standing what its like to wade t hrough piles of information. Next, Id like to express my gratitude to my editors, James Cha mbers a nd Sa rah F ogarty, a t F acts On File, Inc., for their help. And, finally, Id like to give my most he artfelt thanks to Congressman Richard E. N eal a nd his st aff f or wr iting suc h a n in spirational foreword. In addition, my appreciation goes to the following p eople w ho g enerously assist ed me wi th t heir time and knowledge: Jerry Austin (Media Strategist, Cleveland, Ohio); Deborah Barak (National Organization for Victim Assistance); Julio Barreto (National Association o f H ousing a nd Rede velopment Officials); M eredith B ridgers (N ational Recr eation and P ark A ssociation); Dr. M artha B urk (N ational Council of Womens Organizations); Jason Chmura (Society f or N onprofit Or ganizations); S ebia Cla rk (International Ci ty/County M anagement A ssociation); L isa D aniels (I nternational A ssociation o f Assessing Officers); Erik Devereux (Association for Public P olicy Anal ysis a nd M anagement); W alter D avis (N ational Or ganizers Allia nce); Ro nald Deverman (National Association of Environmental Professionals); M onica Dig ham (Amer ican S ociety o f A ssociation Ex ecutives); D ouglas Duc kett (National Public Employer Labor Relations Association); James Duffy (Media Strategist, Strother-DuffyStrother); I rvin F oster (N ational A ssociation f or Community Mediation); Gail Garbrandt (University of Akr on); D ottie G ray (N ational S chool B roads Association); Jean Halloran (Consumer Policy Institute); Talib Hudson (American Economic Development Council); Katie Burnham Laverty (Society for Nonprofit Or ganizations); J eff Litchfield (Association of Local Government Auditors); Joshua Miller (Smith C ollege S chool o f S ocial W ork); An gela McMillen (Fundraising Consultant, AM Consulting LLC); Jim Melton (National Association of Environmental Professionals); Erika Peck (Finance Director, PRH Consulting Group, Inc.); Joyce Pratt (American Association o f Affirmative A ction); J ennifer Pug h (American League of Lobbyists); Douglas Robinson (NeighborWorks Amer ica); N icholas Ro per (C ongressman Ric hard E. N eal); G ene Ros e (N ational Conference o f S tate L egislatures); S herri Ro wland (National Association of State Auditors, C omptrollers, a nd Treasurers); K risti R udelius-Palmer (University of Minnesota Human Rights Center); Connie Schmidt (E lection C onsultant, S pring H ill, KS); Janice Shields (American Friends S ervice C ommittee); J ason S tanford (O pposition Res earcher, S tanford Research); Tim Storey (National Conference of State Legislatures); Scott Talan (National Association of S chools o f Pub lic Affairs and Administration); Carolyn T orma (Amer ican Pla nning A ssociation); William Tranghese (Congressman Richard E. Neal); Sean Twombly (American Political Science Association); B rian Weberg (N ational C onference o f S tate Legislatures).

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INTRODUCTION
How to Use This Book
Welcome t o a w orld o f p ossibilities. W hether y ou dream of running for political o ffice, planning cities, monitoring legislation, fighting for a ca use, or joining the Peace Corps, this book should help you get started. The possibilities are endless. You could start out as a congressional page and work your way up to president of the United States. This b ook was wr itten f or t he p ractical ide alist, someone who wants to know what it takes to make a difference. B eyond t hat, ho wever, t he jobs in t his book are widely varied, appealing to a variety of types of people: political junkies, public servants, program specialists, p olicy w onks, gr assroots ac tivists, s ocial entrepreneurs, and adventurers, to name a few. Industry professionals, including representatives of national associations and working professionals Association and employment websites Books, magazines, and newspaper articles College career centers When p eople s ay t hat t here is a n ass ociation for e verything, t hey a re r ight. And t hat is g ood news f or job s eekers. The w ebsites o f p rofessional associations a re v eritable g old mines o f inf ormation. Many p ost job listin gs, helpful career advice, and ne ws a bout u pcoming co nferences a nd o ther networking opportunities. The Internet also has given rise to broader-based employment w ebsites t hat s erve as vir tual ca reer counselors. N onprofit em ployment si tes suc h as Idealist.org allow viewers to punch in keywords like activism/organizing a nd a field like environmental and see job openings around the country. Yet, f or all t he w onders o f mo dern t echnology, there is no substi tute f or c urling u p o n t he co uch with a g ood boo k. The r esearch f or t his b ook involved co untless tr ips t o lib raries a nd s chool career centers.

Whats New in the Second Edition?


This s econd edi tion inc ludes five ho t ne w jobs. First, in t he Political C ampaigns s ection of Part I, are three new positions in the burgeoning world of political consulting: Opposition Researcher, Media Strategist, and Finance Director. Next, in t he Nonprofit Advocacy and Administration section of Part III, is W ebmaster, a p osition reflecting the growth of t he I nternet. F inally, in t he S ervice P rograms section of Part III is a p rofile of City Year Member. In addi tion, all ca reer inf ormation f rom t he first edition, including salaries and contact information, has b een u pdated. F inally, ne w r esources, suc h as Internet sites and distance learning programs, have been added for your convenience.

How This Book Is Organized


Career O pportunities i n P olitics, Go vernment, a nd Activism is o rganized in to t hree ma in ca tegories, even t hough r eal lif e defies suc h sim ple gr oupings. In reality, the three sectors o ften overlap. For instance, Lobbyist, which is in the Activism section of the book because of its links to nonprofit organizations and interest groups, could easily have been included in t he Politics s ection alo ngside Political Consultant. xv

Sources of Information
This b ook required extensive research in a va riety of s ources to capture t he depth and complexity of these jobs. Sources include

As a r esult, this book is a lo t like a b uffet, with jobs, lik e dishes, la id o ut o n a t ablethe t able of C ontents, t hat is. B e sur e t o b rowse all o f t he Contents so you dont miss a nything. If a job ti tle strikes y ou, c hances a re t hat y ou a re o n t he r ight track, no matter where in t he book the position is described.

employment prospects generally improve for newcomers. Also, expect same changes due to economic or political trends. However, do not despair if a job you are interested in has a rating of poor. Personal determination can help you get the job, even if t he going is not easy.

The Job Proles


Career Prole and Career Ladder Each job profile begins with a chart for easy browsing. The Career Profile on the left summarizes the main duties, alternate titles, salary ranges, employment p rospects, a nd p rerequisites o f ed ucation, experience, and special skills. The Career Ladder diagram on the right shows a typ ical ca reer p ath, inc luding t he p ositions above a nd b elow e ach job. I f a job is en try le vel, the positions of Student, Intern, or Volunteer often precede it. Position Description Every effort has been made to provide well-rounded descriptions t hat nei ther g lamorize no r denigra te jobs that are sometimes controversial, bureaucraticsounding, a nd p erplexing t o o utsiders. Th e Position D escription us es p lain a nd sim ple la nguage to a nswer q uestions suc h as W hats a typ ical da y like? What kinds of questions need to be answered? What types of projects are handled? Each job in this book in volves a mix o f r esponsibilities, w hich a re often bulleted for easy reading. Salaries Salary ra nges a re bas ed o n ei ther sur veys b y national ass ociations o r t he U .S. D epartment o f Labors B ureau o f L abor S tatistics o r es timates b y knowledgeable s ources. S ometimes, t hough, s alaries might rise or fall a bit in response to economic or political changes. Also, you might find jobs t hat fall b elow o r a bove t he g eneral ra nge, as s alaries vary f rom o ne em ployer a nd g eographic lo cation to the next. Employment Prospects Employment p rospects f or job s eekers a re ra nked on a s cale f rom p oor t o fa ir, g ood, o r ex cellent. When em ployees r etire o r ne w jobs a re cr eated,
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Advancement Prospects Advancement prospects deal with your chances of moving up once you get the job. Often, job holders can move in a variety of directionsprivate, public, and no nprofitgood ne ws f or a nyone wi th a fa ir amount of ambition or wanderlust. Education, Experience, Personality Traits For s ome p ositions, grad uate degr ees a re im portant, whereas for others experience is k ey. Because civil service exams are not required by most federal jobs and vary so much from one municipality and state to the next, t hey are rarely mentioned in t his section. Instead, t his topic is addr essed in A ppendix I: F requently Asked Questions about t he Civil Service. On a mo re p ersonal le vel, dedica tion, co mmitment, a nd ha rd w ork count f or a gr eat de al in this field. If you are looking for an easy, uncomplicated job, you are in t he wrong place. The jobs in this b ook a re men tally a nd emo tionally c hallenging. Em ployers wa nt p eople dedica ted eno ugh t o weather t he ine vitable s etbacks t hat c haracterize working for the public good. Unions and Associations Professional ass ociations (a nd s ome unio ns) p rovide valuable information and services to job seekers, including job p ostings, conferences, and other networking p ossibilities. I n addi tion, ass ociations such as t he N ational A ssociation o f S chools o f Public Affairs and Administration link colleges and universities in particular fields of study. Tips for Entry This section provides valuable advice on ways to get your foot in t he door, find jobs, and locate sources for addi tional inf ormation. S ources r epeatedly mention t he im portance o f v olunteer exp erience, whether i t is co mmunity s ervice, a n in ternship, participation in a p olitical pa rty, hel p o n a p olitical campaign, grassroots organizing, or something

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

else. The opportunities abound, s o get involved in whatever way most suits your interests.

The Internet
The I nternet has r evolutionized t he w orld o f jobhunting. You ca n g o o n-line f rom y our co mputer at ho meor in a s chool o r p ublic lib raryand find professional associations, surf library catalogs, and browse job ads. All t he websites mentioned in this book were accessible when it was b eing written. H owever, s ometimes w eb addr esses c hange, so if you find one that does not work, try scanning the home page for a new location. Another option is t o enter k eywords into a s earch en gine suc h as Google.com.

Appendixes
The A ppendixes a re g eared t o hel ping y ou lo cate the inf ormation y ou mig ht wa nt b ut do nt kno w how t o find. How t o Run f or Political Officethe Basics is a st ep-by-step guide t o w hat is r equired to get your name on the ballot and your campaign headed f or vic tory. The s ection F requently A sked Questions a bout t he Ci vil S ervice dem ystifies the process of applying for government jobs. Other A ppendixes p rovide inf ormation a bout the f ederal g overnments pa y s cale, em ployment offices, and organizational structure. Th e Graduate School Programs Appendix lists na mes, addresses, phone numbers, and websites of hig her-education programs, inc luding t hose in p ublic a ffairs, public administration, a nd p ublic p olicy. Ot her A ppendixes outline Professional associations Employment websites Advocacy organizations, including political parties Trade publications

This Book Is Yours


By picking up this book, you already have taken the first st ep t oward finding a r ewarding ca reer. C url up on the couch and have fun reading it. Youll be surfing the Net and pounding the pavement before long, I promise. The jobs in t his book will allow you to use your mind a nd s atisfy y our s oul. S o k eep o n r eading. And get involved in something to make the world a better place. The job of your dreams will follow. Good luck!

INTRODUCTION

xvii

PART I

POLITICS

POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS

CAMPAIGN MANAGER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Resp onsible f or o verall ca mpaign ma nagement, inc luding dra fting t he ca mpaign p lan, p rioritizing st aff ac tivities, a nd o verseeing ca mpaign operations Alternate T itle(s): Ca mpaign C oordinator, Ca mpaign Director Salary R ange: $0 t o $8,000/mo nth f or a pproximately six months Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): Campaigns for state or national office Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree or higher preferred

CAREER LADDER
Position in Candidates Administration Campaign Manager Campaign Staffer

ExperienceTwo to 10 years Special S kills and P ersonality T raitsAble t o work well with the candidate; politically savvy; well organized; ener getic; o ptimistic; g oal-oriented; ethical

Position Description
Campaign M anagers p rovide t he o verall co ordination and direction needed to take their candidates to victory on E lection D ay. Al though ca ndidates ma y ha ve v eto power o ver s ome k ey decisio ns, C ampaign M anagers usually have authority over everything else. Campaign Managers he ad u p t he va rious elemen ts o f t he ca mpaignfund-raising, f ield o perations, a nd ad vertising, a mong t hemallowing st aff a nd k ey v olunteers to make their own decisions about details of operation. Campaign Managers work to ensure that all t hese different elements mesh smoothly and on time. Sometimes, p olitical co nsultants do uble as C ampaign Managers. In general, though, Campaign Managers work intensively on one campaign at a time whereas political co nsultants j uggle a va riety o f ca mpaigns a t once. Sometimes, too, Campaign Managers hire political consultants for sp ecialized t asks such as f und-raising o r ad vertising. Ano ther p ossibility is f or t he tw o to w ork side b y side o n t he s ame ca mpaign, as p olitical co nsultants p rovide s easoned ad vice t o C ampaign Managers c hosen f or t heir ties t o t he distr ict a nd t he candidate. Because the position of Campaign Manager requires considerable experience, most individuals have worked their wa y u p t o i t, st arting o ut as v olunteers o r lo wlevel staffers. From there, they assume more responsible

positions, including field coordinator, finance director, and assistant campaign manager. The typ ical ca mpaign s eason r uns f rom A pril t o November, wi th t he C ampaign M anager o n call 24 hours a da y. On as suming the position, the Campaign Manager usually helps the candidate draft a ca mpaign plan, a b lueprint for the next s everal months. Over the course of t he campaign, t he C ampaign Managers role shifts f rom t hinker t o do er, as he o r she mo ves f rom drafting to implementing the plan. Days a re usuall y pac ked wi th ac tivity, as t he C ampaign M anager tra vels wi th t he ca ndidate t o en sure that everything runs smoothly. If, for instance, the candidate needs talking p oints o n eco nomic p olicy, t he Campaign Manager should be able instantly to produce the necessary piece of paper. A typ ical day might start at 6 a.m. with a trip to the coffee shop or a morning talk show. Af ter a n e vent, t he C ampaign M anager mig ht coach the candidate, offering advice like Youre speaking too loudly or Slow down and take a deep breath. Because da ys a re s o f ull, t he nig httime ho urs p rovide t he o pportunity f or stra tegizing a nd ca tching u p on odds and ends. I n the middle o f the night, the candidate might call with a new plan for mobilizing voters or a quick reminder that a lo cal family of supporters is expecting a lawn sign.

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Back in t he office, t he C ampaign Manager recruits supporters a nd ca mpaign st aff a nd ex ecutes t he ca mpaign plan. The plan, for instance, might call for a set of newspaper ads in August. By then, the Campaign Manager should already know how much t he ads will cos t and what they are going to say. In addition, Campaign Managers orchestrate quick responses to changing conditions, ensure that all campaign work is done properly and o n time , a nd mo nitor f inances t o st ay wi thin t he campaigns budget.

training b ecome p olitical consultants. S ometimes, too, Campaign Managers decide to run for office. They also might la nd a k ey p osition in t he winnin g ca ndidates administration or meet inf luential people on the campaign trail who can help them advance their careers.

Education and Training


Although ha nds-on exp erience is vi tal, in siders agr ee that a bac kground in cer tain academic a reas ca n b e helpful. C ostas P anagopoulos, ex ecutive dir ector o f the Political C ampaign M anagement P rogram a t N ew York University, recommends that undergraduates take courses in political science, communications, and marketing. As p olitical ca mpaigns ha ve b ecome incr easingly complex, ne w degr ee-granting p rograms a nd sho rter intensives ha ve sp routed u p in t he f ield o f p olitical management. P rograms a re o ffered t hrough uni versities, ind ustry o rganizations suc h as Campaigns & Elections M agazine a nd t he Amer ican A ssociation o f Political Consultants, and the national and state political parties.

Salaries
Industry specialists say that salaries vary by the level of office s ought b y t he ca ndidatethe hig her t he o ffice, the hig her t he s alary of t he C ampaign Manager. Most campaigns r un f rom A pril t o N ovember, al though presidential campaigns are generally considerably longerabout 18 months. Whereas many Campaign Managers at the local level are un paid, t hose w orking f or st ate legisla tive ca ndidates generally earn between $500 and $2,000 a month, although ca ndidates in la rger st ates mig ht pa y mo re. Campaign M anagers f or U .S. H ouse races g enerally earn about $5,000 a mo nth or $30,000 f or a six-mo nth cycle; t hose f or S enate a nd gub ernatorial ca mpaigns generally earn about $6,000 or $7,000 a month, according t o C ostas P anagopoulos, ex ecutive dir ector o f t he Political Campaign Management Program at New York University.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Campaign exp erience is cr ucial, as C ampaign Managers perform the role of generals heading up an army of campaign workers and volunteers. Although the Campaign Manager need no t be an expert in all asp ects of the campaign, he or she should be familiar enough with each o f t he va rious elemen ts t o mak e inf ormed decisions. Most C ampaign M anagers ha ve w orked in a p osition of responsibility in a t least one or two campaigns, although they need not have held t he top position. For instance, someone might go from being finance director of a U.S. Senators campaign to becoming Campaign Manager for a candidate for U.S. Representative. On a personal level, the Campaign Manager must be able to work well with the candidate. Insiders say that candidates generally spend more time with their Campaign Manager than with their spouse. The C ampaign Manager should have the candidates total trust. Campaign Managers also should be politically savvy, well o rganized, ener getic, a nd g oal-oriented. Their number one goal: winning the election. However, they should not compromise their strong s ense of ethics in the process. S ome Campaign Managers have lost t heir membership in p rofessional ass ociations b y en gaging in unet hical ac tivities s uch as sp ying o n t he o pposition. In addition, Campaign Managers should be able to

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are fair because Campaign Managers must compete for a limi ted number of p ositions, some o f w hich mig ht g o t o t heir mo re s easoned p eers in the political consulting industry. Typically, Campaign Managers head up three to five campaigns before choosing a more steady line of work, insiders say. Some Campaign Managers land high-level positions in government such as c hief of staff or press secretary. Others become political pa rty o peratives o r p olitical co nsultants. S till others r eturn t o t heir o riginal line o f w ork, w hether i t is law, education, or something else. Rarely does a Campaign Manager spend 20 to 30 years in the field.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good because a solid record of winnin g elec tions o pens u p do ors. A s uccessful Campaign Manager can advance to larger, more influential races o r la nd a p osition in W ashington, D .C., or t he st ate ho use. S ometimes C ampaign M anagers who have handled s everal races a nd/or had addi tional

POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS

delegate r esponsibilities a nd mo tivate st aff e ven w hen prospects for the candidate look grim. The n umber o ne f law o f C ampaign M anagers is that they try to do t oo much, said Costas Panagopoulos, executive director of the Political Campaign Management Program at New York University. They need to be able to delegate to competent team players.

Tips for Entry

Unions and Associations


There a re no unio ns o r ass ociations sp ecifically f or Campaign M anagers, al though s tate po litical pa rties provide im portant tra ining a nd netw orking o pportunities. S ome C ampaign M anagers als o b elong t o t he American Association of Political Consultants.

1. Volunteer for a candidates campaign. 2. Become active in local organizations and/or your political party. 3. Network: in t his, as in ma ny p olitical p ositions, jobs are rarely advertised. 4. Read more about jobs in ca mpaign management by b rowsing t he P olitical Res ources On-L ine jobs b oard (h ttp://www.politicalresources.com), checking ou t Campaigns & Ele ctions M agazine, and/or reading The Campaign Manager by Catherine Golden or other books cataloged under the keyword campaign.

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

FINANCE DIRECTOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Researching potential donors, soliciting funds, planning f und-raising e vents, k eeping r ecords o f campaign contributions Alternate Title(s): Fund-raiser Salary Range: $1,000 to $5,000 a month Employment Prospects: Excellent Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best G eographical L ocation(s): W ashington D .C., state capitals Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree or higher ExperienceOne year Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsDetail-oriented, well-organized, and tenacious

CAREER LADDER
Political Appointment or Independent Consultant Finance Director for Candidate Intern, Volunteer Fund-raiser, Campaign Worker

Position Description
Finance Directors raise the funds needed to keep campaigns r unning. Without t heir ha rd w ork, ma ny ca mpaigns would come to a grinding halt. Often, Finance Directors start out working on lowlevel races. Many candidates contact a fund-raising consulting firm, which in turn, chooses a Finance Director for t he c lient. Firms often hire ne w Finance Directors on a temporary basis. If the individual does a good job, he o r she mig ht b e ask ed t o st ay wi th t he co nsulting firm or join the winning candidates administration. Although the idea of asking people for money makes many individuals nervous, Finance Directors rarely do cold calling. Instead, they work from campaign finance lists furnished by the Secretary of States office. If for example, a ne w Republican candidate is r unning for State Representative, the Finance Director will get records f rom the S ecretary of State of contributors from t he p revious ca ndidate. Als o, F inance Dir ectors solicit mem bers o f ind ustry gr oups a ffected b y p olitical p olicy as p ersonal acq uaintances, s uch as co llege friends, of the client. Finance Dir ectors r esearch p otential do nors b efore they solicit them. By surfing the Internet, for instance, the F inance Dir ector mig ht f ind t hat a p rospective donor has pa rticipated in a lo cal c harity. S uccessful Finance Directors find ways to link the donors interests to t he candidates concerns, s o t hat money rolls in f or the ca mpaign. The y w ork c losely wi th t he ca ndidates

campaign ma nager t o meet f und-raising g oals. F or instance, the campaign manager might let t he Finance Director know about t he cost o f a s eries of T V ads t o increase the candidates public exposure. On a typ ical da y, F inance Dir ectors sp end a fa ir amount of time o n t he p hone, selling t he candidate. Since t heyre o ften callin g p revious co ntributors, t hey might b egin with w ords along t he lines o f, Id lik e t o thank y ou f or y our past su pport. F inance Dir ectors need t o b e w ell-versed in t he ca ndidates bac kground and views on the issues. Usually, in t he partisan world of p olitics, F inance Dir ectors w ork f or ei ther D emocratic o r Rep ublican ca ndidates. E very mo nth, t he Finance Dir ector needs t o f ile r eports wi th t he S ecretary of States office. Finance Dir ectors s olicit dif ferent typ es o f do nors differently. F or lo w-level do nors, a ma il s olicitation often works well. Mid-level donors, on the other hand, like to be invited to events. Organizing a big fund-raising e vent is lik e planning a w edding. Myriad arrangements need to be made: the venue rented, refreshments ordered, and invitations sent out. The ca ndidate is t he guest of honor. Af ter t he e vent, t hank-you notes need to be mailed. While f und-raising e vents a ttract ma ny mid-le vel donors, high-end donors often like to meet individually with t he candidate. For instance, t he Finance Director might take the prospective donor and candidate out to dinner. Dur ing t he conversation, t he Finance Director

POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS

can mak e k ey p oints s o t hat t he ca ndidate need no t come across as immodest. Finance Dir ectors w ork lo ng ho urs in t he mo nths before a n e lection. Da tabases n eed t o be co nstantly updated and checks deposited. The ultimate reward for the Finance Directors hard work is a vic tory on E lection Day.

Education and Training


A college degree is generally required for this position. Although a ma jor in eco nomics o r p olitical s cience is not necess ary, suc h co urses ca n b e hel pful. A va riety of groupsincluding the Secretary of States office, the Democratic and Republican parties, and universities offer seminars and other training programs for people interested in careers in political campaigns.

Salaries
Salaries va ry f rom a bout $1,000 t o $5,000 a mo nth, with ca mpaigns f or hig her-level o ffice g enerally pa ying mo re t han t hose f or lo wer-level races. T ypically, Finance Dir ectors a re co ntracted t o w ork f rom a bout July 1 to November 8. Of ten, Finance Directors will b e awarded a bonus if the candidate wins.

Experience, Skill, and Personality Traits


Many F inance Dir ectors st art o ut as ca mpaign w orkers, in terns, o r assist ant f inance dir ectors. A y ear o f campaign experience usually qualifies an individual for a p osition as a F inance Dir ector f or a lo w-level ca mpaign or as an assistant finance director for a larger one. The larger the race, the more experience the individual needs to assume the role of Finance Director. Finance Directors need to be well-organized, detailoriented, and tenacious. Even when fund-raising prospects appear dim, they must keep on going, refusing to quit.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are excellent because candidates need F inance Dir ectors t o ra ise mo ney f or t heir ca mpaigns. Many Finance Directors land political appointments o r grad uate t o la rger ca mpaigns, t hus cr eating new o penings f or job s eekers. F inance Dir ectors w ho prove themselves in lo w-level races a re often hired for permanent positions with consulting firms.

Unions and Associations


Finance Directors might belong to the American Association of Political Consultants, the International Association of Political Consultants, and/or the Association of Fundraising Professionals.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are excellent because successful Finance Directors are in hig h demand. Finance Directors typ ically w ork t heir wa y u p f rom small t o la rger campaigns, wi th co ntracts b ecoming mo re l ucrative along t he wa y. M any ca ndidates als o o ffer a f inancial bonus for winning. Another possible bonus is a job in t he winning candidates administra tion. A F inance Dir ector f or a successful candidate might be hired as chief of staff for the new administra tion. H owever, suc h p olitical a ppointments carry little long-term security. Many Finance Directors become independent fundraising consultants. Whether working solo or starting a sizeable firm, they typically earn a p ercentage (e.g., 25 percent) o f t he mo ney t hey ra ise. M any f und-raising consultants offer a va riety of services (e.g., grant-writing) for nonprofits and special interest groups as well as for political campaigns.

Tips for Entry:

1. Become familiar with database software. Because Finance Directors us e computers to keep donor records, learning this skill will gi ve you a leg u p in this field. 2. Get an internship with the highest-profile political campaign you can. 3. L ook f or tra ining c lasses o r w orkshops o ffered by y our S ecretary o f S tates o ffice o r p olitical party. In addition, Campaigns & Elections magazine offers classes every summer in Washington, D.C. 4. Familiarize y ourself wi th t he ca mpaign la ws posted on your Secretary of States website. 5. Browse em ployment w ebsites, usin g t he k eywords political campaign jobs.

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

MEDIA STRATEGIST
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Creating and producing campaign ads, helping the candidate hone his o r her mess age and prepare for debates, buying and coordinating ad spots, soliciting new clients Alternate T itle(s): M edia C onsultant, A ssociate, Account Representative Salary Range: $75,000 to $150,000 Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Fair Best G eographical L ocation(s): W ashington, D .C., major cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingCollege degree or higher ExperienceSeveral y ears o f exp erience in volving p olitical ca mpaigns, T V p roduction, a nd/or journalism

CAREER LADDER
Partner or Founder of Media Consulting Firm Media Strategist Campaign Staffer, Journalist, TV/Film Production Worker

Special Skills and Personality TraitsGood communication skills, strong political instincts, ability to translate messages into visual images, willingness to work long hours

Position Description
Media S trategists de velop T V ads a nd o ther f orms o f communication for political campaigns. In t he b road f ield o f p olitical co nsulting, M edia Strategists are t he communication exp erts. The y work in a highly collaborative environment to craft the campaigns messages and bring them to the public. Producing a political ad is no simple matter. Often, the process begins with a s eries of conference calls. W hat do t he ca ndidate, ca mpaign ma nager, a nd pollster want the TV, radio, and print ads to accomplish? Should o ne o f t he ads hig hlight t he ca ndidates f olksy background, another describe plans to reform education, and yet another feature testimonials from the public? Or should everything revolve around one theme? With such questions in mind , t he Media Strategist comes up with a concept for three or four ads. I ndividuals in t his field create ads f or all f orms of mediaT V, radio, print, and direct-mailbut TV ads generally take the most time. Media Strategists send their ideas of ads to the client and key personnel for review. The reviewers write comments and send the ideas back for revision. The Media Strategist t hen r evises t hem un til t hey win a pproval. In the case of a T V ad, this process takes the form of a concept script, which shows how ideas will b e developed visually.

The next st ep is t o b egin p lanning f or t he ac tual shoot. Usually, t his me ans lining up a f ilm crew to do the camera work as well as arranging for the candidate and others to be available at various times for the shoot. Like a movie being shot on location, TV campaign ads require a great deal of advanced planning. Take, for example, a testimonial ad in w hich citizens say why they support a particular candidate. In the case of an ad that focuses on the candidates support of public hig her ed ucation, t he M edia S trategist w ould want t o f ind st udents willin g t o v oice t heir su pport. The Media Strategist would then interview several college students to see what they had to say. After picking the best students for the ad, the Media Strategist would decide on a va riety of lo cationsperhaps on t he athletic field, in a dorm room, and at the engineering lab. In t he cas e o f o utdoor lo cations, t he Media S trategist would need to factor in the possibility of rain. Often media f irms have their own in-house editors to hel p wi th t he f inal st ages o f t he ad . Once t he ad is completed, t he M edia S trategist s ends i t t o t he c lient and/or key campaign st aff for approval. The ad mig ht need to be tweaked. Finally, when everyone is satisfied, the Media Strategist works on t he ac tual placement of the spot. The individual tries to arrange for the ad to air when it can win over targeted groups of voters.

POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS

Media S trategists als o write sp eeches, hel p ca ndidates ho ne t heir mess ages, a nd p repare t hem f or debates. Dur ing no nelection y ears, a M edia S trategist is apt to be work on campaigns for corporations, associations, and other interest groups. Media Strategists als o us e t heir slow times t o recruit ne w clients. Usually, p otential c lients wa nt t o s ee s amples o f t he Media S trategists w ork. The w ork sp eaks f or i tself, and, if successf ul, t he M edia S trategist la nds a ne w account.

Education and Training


With t he r ise of graduate s chools in p olitical management, a n incr easing n umber o f M edia S trategists a re entering the field with masters degrees. However, experience and talent can be as us eful as advanced degrees. Employers lo ok f or exp erience in f ilm p roduction, political campaigns, and/or journalism. Ideally a candidate will have experience in two or three of these fields.

Experience, Skill, and Personality Traits


Media Strategist generally have backgrounds in p olitical ca mpaigns, T V a nd f ilm p roduction, a nd/or jo urnalism. Firms look for political junkies who can think visually and communicate well. Media S trategists need t o sell t hemselves t o g et accounts. They should be able to develop a rapport with prospective c lients a nd, o nce hir ed, q uickly ga in t heir trust. M edia S trategists sho uld b e t he typ e o f p eople who stay calm w hen problems arise, as t hey inevitable will. A thick skin also comes in handy as Media Strategists are often blamed if a ca ndidates p opularity f lags. During election years, long hours are the norm.

Salaries
Salaries va ry according t o exp erience a nd t he a mount of b usiness t he f irm g enerates. B ig, p restigious f irms generally pay the highest salaries. Because work is done on a contract basis, Media Strategists who have worked in campaigns can bring in b usiness with them. Generally, Media S trategists in W ashington, D.C. a nd major cities make hig her s alaries t han t hose in mo re out-ofthe-way locales.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are fair because there are a relatively small n umber o f media co nsulting f irms. One good way to break into consulting is t o first work as a press secretary or communications director for a political campaign. Since many political junkies meet on the campaign tra il, a p ress s ecretary o r co mmunications director is a pt to come into contact with a media co nsulting firm that might eventually have an opening.

Unions and Associations


Many Media Strategists belong to the American Association of Political Consultants and/or the International Association of Political Consultants.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re fa ir b ecause o f t he co mpetitive nature of the field. Media Strategists rise or fall based o n t he q uality o f t heir w ork. S uccessful M edia Strategists generally become partners or start their own firms.

1. Get p olitical ca mpaign exp erience, ide ally as a press secretary. 2. Seek a n in ternship wi th a p olitical co nsulting firm or TV/firm production company. 3. Watch TV news and talk shows that feature political guests to see how candidates handle the media. 4. Keep abreast of new developments in communication such as podcasts.

10

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

OPPOSITION RESEARCHER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Conducting research on the candidate and opponent via the Internet, library, public records, and other methods; wr iting co mprehensive r eports; p roviding research f or ra pid r esponse t o a ttacks o n ca ndidate; and responding to campaign staff s calls for research Alternate T itle(s): Pub lic Reco rds Anal yst, Res earch Director Salary Range: $30,000 to $250,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): Washington, D.C. Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree or above

CAREER LADDER
President of Own Company, Campaign Manager Opposition Researcher Journalist, Campaign Worker, Intern

ExperienceA year or two Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsGood w riting a nd o rganizing skills, a n ag gressive s ense o f curiosity, top-notch political instincts, discretion

Position Description
Some p eople call t hem dirt dig gers. Or mud slin gers. Or e ven character ass assinators. N evertheless, Opposition Researchers are finding increasingly fertile ground in the political landscape. Some o f t he incr ease co mes f rom ne w a ttempts t o professionalize t he ind ustry. The o ld a mateurs w ho traded in r umor and intrigue have given way to modern-day Op position Res earchers w ho ha ve mo re in common with librarians than spies. They sp end much of t heir time dig ging t hrough p ublic r ecords, do cumenting facts. Although politicians can be hurt by the perception of going negative, Opposition Researchers can a void t ainting t heir c lients b y r eleasing inf ormation to t he media, w hich has mo re of a r eputation for neutrality. S ome media o utlets lac k t he r esources f or their own investigative reporters and s o welcome outside research. The term Opposition Researcher is somewhat of a misnomer, as individuals conduct extensive research on their own clients as well as the opposition. If candidates do not reveal t heir own dirt, t hey can b e caught offguard w hen t he o pposition do es. F ending o ff a ttacks can be deadly in the heat of a campaign. Many Op position Res earchers b egin t heir w ork by si tting do wn wi th t he c lient a nd askin g a q uestion such as, What kind of nasty things might someone say against y ou? Then t hey do t heir o wn dig ging, w hich usually begins with a co uple days of Internet research.

Armed wi th le ads f rom t he Web, t hey mig ht lo ok f or more information in a variety of places, including: Di vorce files Probate court records V oting records F inancial disclosure statements Much of this research involves public documents not easily understood by lay p eople. A v ote to c ut teacher pay, f or in stance, mig ht b e em bedded in a co mplexly worded document. Often opposition research involves lo oking for differences b etween w hat o pponents s ay a nd w hat t hey do. For instance, has the opposing candidate taken contributions f rom p eople o r co mpanies at o dds wi th his or her issue p ositions? Has he o r she c hanged or f lipflopped on positions? On b igger ca mpaigns, Op position Res earchers also are involved in ra pid response. If t heir clients are attacked, they find out if t he charges are factually correct or incorrect. They might truth test an opponents words f rom a deba te. The b igger t he ca mpaign, t he more likely the need is for daily research. Opposition Researchers often work closely with the candidates ca mpaign ma nager o r p ress o ffice. W ork gets pa rticularly hec tic in t he mo nths le ading u p t o a N ovember elec tion, wi th Op position Res earchers putting in lo ng ho urs. I n no n-election y ears, t he pace is slo wer, wi th t he Op position Res earcher a pt t o b e

POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS

11

providing research for trade ass ociations and soliciting future clients.

Salaries
Salaries ra nge f rom $30,000 t o $250,000, dep ending on exp erience. The r oad t o t he t op is r elatively sho rt, compared to, say, a stockbroker whose growth potential is much greater.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood b ecause ca ndidates are incr easingly t urning t o Op position Res earchers. Most new hires are young. Many land jobs after proving themselves as interns.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement Prospects are good b ecause p eople w ho prove themselves rise up the hierarchy quickly.

didates locale to track down public records. Travel is a big part of the job, with Opposition Researchers often spending long hours alone, poring over documents. After co llecting v oluminous a mounts o f inf ormation, they need t o organize it into a c lear and comprehensive r eport. G ood wr iting skills a re a m ust. S ince Opposition Researchers delve into the backgrounds of their c lients, t hey need a str ong s ense o f dis cretion. They sho uld ha ve a str ong eno ugh s ense o f et hics t o refrain from engaging in q uestionable (and sometimes illegal) p ractices s uch as tr espassing o n p rivate p roperty or posing as political science students to get information f rom t he o pponents ca mpaign. M uch o f t he work of legitimate Opposition Researchers goes unheralded, making this line of work a poor choice for glory hounds.

Unions and Associations


Opposition Researchers might belong to the American Association of Political Consultants and/or the International Association of Political Consultants.

Education and Training


Anyone interested in Op position Research should take college co urses t hat ho ne str ong r esearch a nd wr iting skills. D ebate c lubs als o p rovide hel pful tra ining, enabling students to understand what goes into making a convincing argument.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many indi viduals en ter t he f ield a fter w orking o n a political ca mpaign o r in terning f or a n exp erienced Opposition Res earcher. Intellectually ag gressive young people do b est in t his field. Instead of taking anything at face val ue, t hey kno w t o dog gedly dig b eneath t he surface. Opposition Researchers often travel to the can-

1. Join a debate team to hone your rhetorical skills. 2. Take courses that require extensive research and writing. 3. Work on a political campaign. 4. Call your st ate D emocratic or Republican party office t o f ind o ut t he na mes o f o pposition research firms in your area. 5. Seek a n in ternship wi th a n o pposition r esearch firm.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

POLITICAL CONSULTANT
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Providing advice on overall campaign strategy and/or specialized services such as polling, advertising, or direct mail for political candidates and other clients Salary Range: $30,000 to $270,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): W ashington, D .C.; state capitals; major cities Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingBachelors degr ee o r higher ExperienceSeveral y ears o f ca mpaign exp erience

CAREER LADDER
Senior Associate or Related Profession (e.g., public relations, lobbying) Political Consultant Campaign Worker or Intern

Special Skills and Personality TraitsCompetitive; diplomatic; q uick-thinking; a nalytical; co mfortable in r ough-and-tumble w orld o f p olitics; willin g t o work long hours and travel

Position Description
Political Consultants are the hired guns of candidate and issue ca mpaigns. I n t he pas t f ew decades, ind ustry s ources s ay, t he n umber o f P olitical C onsultants has gr own eno rmously, as ca mpaigns t hat o nce r elied on p olitical pa rties a nd v olunteers f or su pport ha ve increasingly t urned t o hig h-powered p rofessionals f or their t echnological exp ertise. W ith a c lick o f a co mputer mo use, P olitical C onsultants ca n p redict v otes, touch u p p hotos, a nd dig u p t he dir t o n t he ca ndidates opponent. Increasingly, Political Consultants represent not only political ca ndidates b ut als o r eferendum co mmittees, interest gr oups, no nprofits, co rporations, a nd international concerns. A labor union, for example, might hire a Political Consultant to advise someone running for a leadership position or identify and mobilize support for a grassroots campaign. Unlike a C ampaign M anager, w ho w orks o n o ne campaign at a time, Political Consultants juggle a number o f dif ferent c lients, hel ping t hem win w hatever campaign they are waging. S ome Political C onsultants double as lobbyists. Political C onsultants ca n ei ther p rovide o verall advice or specialize in a particular service such as polling, media ad vertising, o r dir ect-mail/fund-raising. Many f irms k eep t heir size small b y sub contracting out to specialists. A Political Consultant specializing in media strategy, for example, might hire a crew to shoot

an ad. Other firms, known as A Z shops, have full inhouse production staffs. In addition to polling, advertising, and fund-raising, Political C onsultants pa rticipate in a gr owing number of specialties, including Signature gathering for initiatives and referendums Media buying and placement Press relations and events Opposition and candidate research Website consulting

By the time s omeone becomes a Political Consultant, he o r she has usu ally wo rked in n umerous c ampaigns. Many start as v olunteer or low-paid worker bees, then move u p to ma nagement p ositions w ith c ampaigns and/or p olitical pa rties. The y ha ve s een cer tain pa tterns repeating themselves. Voters, they discover, can be divided into three basic gr oups: the candidates supporters, the opponents supporters, and the undecided. Political C onsultants dir ect t he ca mpaigns mess age, mo ney, time, and efforts toward building a coalition of supporters and persuadable voters large enough to assure victory. In a typ ical ca mpaign, t he P olitical C onsultant is hired well before the client makes a f ormal announcement of candidacy. Early in t he campaign the Political Consultant de velops stra tegy a nd lo oks f or s upport. Can the candidate count on key figures in t he political party for financial support? How much money a month

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13

must t he ca mpaign ra ise in o rder t o s urvive? W hich events are most important for the candidate to attend? Political C onsultants als o co nduct r esearch, o ften with t he hel p o f sub contractors, o n t he r ecord o f t he candidate a nd t he o pponent, t he mo od o f t he electorate, a nd v oters ass essments o f t he ca ndidates. I f the ca mpaign p rogresses t o t he next le vel, t he P olitical Consultant is lik ely to make elaborate preparations for a nnouncement da y, p lanning p ress pac kets a nd endorsements for each stop. As the campaign progresses, the Political Consultant might work on matters like how to get free publicity to increase the candidates name recognition and whether or no t t o r espond dir ectly t o a ttacks f rom t he o pponent. The f inal two weeks of the campaign is a time o f feverish ac tivity. C ampaign ads f ill t he a irwaves, a nd the candidate attends a nonstop array of events. Phone banks swing into high gear to get out the vote. On election day, Political Consultants wait anxiously for preliminary, then final, results. Political Consultants celebrate wi th t he winner s a nd co mmiserate wi th t he losers. Before folding up shop, the Political Consultant might a rrange f und-raisers t o hel p a losin g ca ndidate recoup some of the campaign debt.

American Democracy by Dennis Johanson. Many Political Consultants keep their operations small by subcontracting out to specialists when needed. Although la unching a b usiness mig ht b e r elatively simple, keeping it going is co nsiderably more difficult. Competition for clients is fierce. Disagreements among partners can lead to acrimonious breakups.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good because junior associates can work t heir way up to s enior partner or launch their own business. Political Consultants also can move into p ositions in r elated f ields suc h as p ublic r elations or lobb ying. B ecause o f t he co mpetitive na ture o f t he business, some Political Consultants leave the field after experiencing financial setbacks. Others, though, become big-name Political Consultants, basking in t he spotlight. They serve as consultants for TV shows such as The West Wing or provide political commentary on news shows.

Education and Training


Insiders s ay t he most val uable ed ucation a nd tra ining are gained through trial-by-fire on the campaign trail. Academic courses can also be useful in honing the writing, a nalytical, a nd cr itical-thinking skills needed f or the job. S ome 40 p ercent of Political C onsultants hold graduate degr ees, acco rding t o a sur vey b y t he P ew Center f or t he P eople a nd t he P ress. W ithin t he past few decades, t he ne w academic f ield of p olitical management has sp rung u p sp ecifically in r esponse t o t he growing complexity of political campaigns. Programs in p olitical ma nagement fall in to tw o basic typ es: degr ee-granting a nd sho rt-term in tensive training. Georgetown University and the University of Florida, f or exa mple, o ffer mast ers degr ee p rograms. Some shorter programs are affiliated with universities, such as Amer ican University a nd Yale, a nd o thers a re offered through members of the industry such as Campaigns & Elections magazine and the American Association of Political Consultants. The national committees of t he D emocratic a nd Rep ublican P arties als o o ffer training programs. Before becoming a Political Consultant, an individual might have worked as a campaign manager, political party operative, or press secretary.

Salaries
Salaries vary, depending on the firm and ones position in i t. I n t he hiera rchy o f p olitical co nsulting, j unior associates ca n exp ect st arting s alaries o f $35,000 t o $45,000, compared to about $105,000, t he mean salary for principal partners, according to industry sources. Political Consultants charge clients fees for their services. F ees va ry b y t he le vel o f t he race , wi th j unior associates working on minor races e arning less mo ney than those working on major races. S ometimes clients write in to t he co ntract a b onus f or winnin g. To p rotect against sharp drops in s alaries during nonelection years, most firms take a variety of clients. Political Consultants also might screen clients to make sure they will be a ble t o pa y f or t heir s ervices. I n addi tion t o c lient fees, ma ny P olitical C onsultants r eceive siza ble co mmissions from advertising.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good because political consulting is a ne w and rapidly growing industry. Insiders say one needs only a home office equipped with phone lines, co mputers, fax es, a nd I nternet access t o s et u p shop as a P olitical C onsultant. M ost o f t he estima ted 3,000 f irms t hat sp ecialize in ca mpaigns and elec tions have 10 o r f ewer st affers, acco rding t o No Pl ace for Amateurs: H ow P olitical Co nsultants A re Re shaping

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Most individuals in this field are political junkies drawn to t he t hrill o f co mpetition. This fac torthe t hrill o f competitionranked as the primary motivator of Political C onsultants (outweighing p olitical b eliefs, money, and p olitical p ower) in a s urvey b y t he Pew Res earch

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Center f or t he People a nd t he P ress. As Campaigns & Elections magazine obs erved, ma ny P olitical C onsultants see themselves as the last of the gunslingers. Political co nsulting a ttracts p eople w ho t hrive in the fast-paced , co mpetitive, r ough-and-tumble w orld of p olitics. People w ho g o in to s ocial w ork w ould not b e co mfortable in p olitical wa rs, Campaigns & Elections magazine observed. In the competitive world of p olitical co nsulting, indi viduals str uggle t o ma intain hig h vic tory-loss ra tios. A di plomatic ma nner is important, as P olitical C onsultants o ften ha ve t o gi ve candidates ad vice t hey mig ht not want t o he ar. Many candidates ha ve b ig eg os, s o cr iticism a bout ma tters such as t he clients dress or speaking style needs t o be handled delicately. Whether o r no t winnin g t akes p recedence o ver high et hical st andards, ho wever, is a ma tter o f m uch debate. The Amer ican Association of Political Consultants, which requires members to sign an ethics pledge, allows for negative campaigning as lo ng as t he attacks on t he o pponent a re no t fals e o r misle ading. I nsiders say t hat P olitical C onsultants us e nega tive ca mpaigning because it works. Some Political Consultants blame the media f or gi ving ino rdinate a ttention t o nega tive campaigning and delving into the private lives of can-

didates, t hus dr iving a way s ome t alented indi viduals. Will the publics concerns about negative campaigning and rising campaign costs change the face of the industry? Such questions await a ne w generation of Political Consultants.

Unions and Associations


Two professional associationsthe American Association of Political Consultants and the International Association of Political Consultantsrepresent members of this relatively new profession. Political Consultants also might be members of other groups such as t he American Political Science Association.

Tips for Entry

1. Volunteer to work on a political campaign. 2. Get involved in the political party of your choice. 3. Develop a netw ork of p eople involved in p olitical matters. B ecause jobs in t his f ield a re ra rely advertised, netw orking hel ps indi viduals b reak in and move up. 4. Ch eck out Campaigns & Ele ctions magazine (http://www.campaignsandelections.com). The annual March issue, known as the Political Pages, lists Political Consultants by category.

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POLITICAL PARTY STAFFER


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Recr uiting a nd tra ining ca ndidates; p reparing for co nventions; p lanning e vents a nd f und-raisers; supporting candidates and elected officials Alternate T itle(s): F ield Dir ector, C ommunications Director, Finance Director, Political Director, Executive Director Salary Range: $30,000 to $150,000 Employment Prospects: Fair Employment Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): St ate c apitals, Washington, D.C. Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree

CAREER LADDER
Political Consultant Political Party Staffer Intern or Campaign Worker

ExperienceOne to three years Special S kills and P ersonality T raitsEnergetic; skillful in co mmunication; well organized; passionate about the party and its issues

Position Description
Political P arty S taffers w ork t o ad vance t heir pa rtys candidates and agendas. The pa rty system gives voters a labela sort of political brand nameto help them decide which candidates are most in line with their own interests. B ecause t he two-party system dominates t he political landscape, the vast majority of jobs for Political Party S taffers a re wi th t he D emocratic o r Rep ublican Parties. Both the Democratic and Republican Parties maintain full-time staffs at the national and state levels. Political Party Staffers craft broad messages and supplement the s ervices ca ndidates g et f rom p olitical co nsultants and ca mpaign ma nagers. The y w ork under t he dir ection of an elected chairman or chairwoman. On t he na tional f ront, t he Rep ublican N ational Committee a nd D emocratic N ational C ommittee hir e individuals for a variety of functions, including communications, f und-raising, a nd p olitical o perations. E ach party also has a Senatorial and Congressional Campaign Committee involved in recruiting, training, and financing candidates for the U.S. House and Senate. At t he st ate le vel, p olitical pa rties ha ve est ablished permanent he adquarters a nd b eefed u p t heir st affs in recent decades. Much as t heir counterparts have at the national level, state parties, too, have separate legislative and cen tral co mmittees. C ommon p ositions in st ate parties include staff assistant, communication director, finance director, political director, and executive direc-

tor. An en try-level st aff assistant mig ht b e involved in updating the partys databases while more senior staffers dir ect t he pa rtys o perations. The st ate pa rty, f or instance, might kick off a new drive to recruit women. Much of the work of Political Party Staffers follows the election c ycle, which typically begins with recruiting candidates for office. Frequently this involves contacting lo cal pa rty le aders f or r eferrals a nd t alking t o prospective ca ndidates. P olitical P arty S taffers t hen provide training for these new recruits in t he nuts and bolts of running for office, including techniques to raise funds and make effective speeches. Before t he st ate pa rty co nventions, P olitical P arty Staffers s end inf ormation t o delega tes a nd co ordinate logistics. Endorsed candidates can buy the partys coordinated ca mpaign s ervices, w hich typ ically inc lude voter f iles, p hone ba nks, radio ads, a nd f ield st affers. Political P arty S taffers hir e t he t emporary f ield hel p, contract wi th p hone v endors a nd media co nsultants, and coordinate events for all statewide candidates. After t he elec tions, P olitical P arty S taffers p rovide support t o elec ted o fficials. I f, f or in stance, t here is an argument between party members, a P olitical Party Staffer might b e called in t o mediate. Or, p erhaps, the mayor of a city wants help in getting more media exposure, so the Political Party Staffer arranges for the mayor to sp eak a t a n u pcoming e vent. A s t he de adlines f or the next election approach, Political Party Staffers start recruiting and training the next crop of candidates.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Salaries
Salaries vary according to the level of the position and the size o f the political party organization. The ex ecutive director of a la rge st ate p olitical party mig ht e arn more than his o r her co unterpart at the national level, according to Dr. James A. Thurber, director of the Center for Congressional and Presidential Studies at American U niversity. I n g eneral P olitical P arty S taffers ca n expect t o e arn b etween $30,000 a nd $150,000 a y ear, depending on their experience, their level of responsibility, and the resources of their party.

have worked on a few political campaigns and interned for a legislator. Political Party Staffers should b elieve in t he partys message a nd b e a ble t o co mmunicate i t ef fectively. As do many political workers, Political Party Staffers tend to eat and breathe p olitics. The y le ad t he fast-paced, adrenaline-charged li ves o f political j unkies. This is not a nine t o five job, insiders say: Political Party Staffers frequently work nights and weekends.

Unions and Associations


Both ma jor pa rties ha ve st ate a nd na tional o rganizations of young people: Young Democrats, Young Republicans, C ollege D emocrats, a nd C ollege Rep ublicans. Each na tional a nd st ate p olitical pa rty o rganization handles its own hiring. The Democratic and Republican National Committees have their own personnel offices. Minor pa rties s ometimes w ork t ogether in o rganizations de voted to improving ballot access o r f urthering conservative or progressive agendas.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are fair because much of the work of political parties is done by grassroots volunteers. Most minor pa rties r ely ex clusively o n v olunteers, al though a few occasionally hire organizers or other staffers. Industry sources report that the Republican Party generally raises more money than the Democratic Party and so can hire more Political Party Staffers. Most jobs in political parties are filled through word of mouth rather than job ads.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause P olitical Party Staffers frequently have contact with people who can help advance their careers. In the world of politics, personal contacts often open t he do ors to ne w career possibilities. P olitical P arty S taffers co mmonly r efer candidates t o p olitical co nsultants a nd o ften b ecome political consultants themselves. They might also land staff positions for elected officials or become lobbyists.

Education and Training


Insiders observe that the most important education and training result from being out in t he field. As one state party executive director put it, Someone can graduate with a 4.0 in p olitical s cience a nd b e t errible wi thout the experience. Nevertheless, a co llege ed ucation ca n hel p de velop important writing, communication, and analytical skills. New academic p rograms a nd tra ining s eminars in t he field of political management have sprung up in response to the growing complexity of political campaigns.

1. Work on a political campaign. 2. Seek a n in ternship wi th y our st ate o r na tional political party. 3. Look in to in ternships a nd pa id p ositions wi th elected officials. 4. Consider w orking pa rt-time o r o n a t emporary basis t o b reak in. Dur ing p residential elec tion years, b oth ma jor pa rties enla rge t heir st affs considerably wi th t emporary a nd pa rt-time employees. P olitical pa rties als o hir e pa rt-time fund-raisers and temporary field organizers. 5. Search political employment websites for a va riety o f p olitical p ositions ra ther t han f or jobs specifically wi th p olitical pa rties. H elpful si tes include GO Pjob.com (h ttp://www.gopjob.com), DEMjob.com (h ttp://www.demjob.com), t he Politix G roup (h ttp://www.politixgroup.com), and P olitical Res ources (h ttp://www.politicalresources.com). 6. Use t he k eywords third pa rty t o f ind listin gs o f minor political parties.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Most Political Party Staffers have campaign and/or legislative st aff exp erience. S omeone, f or in stance, mig ht

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POLLSTER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Researching political campaigns; designing poll questions; supervising interviewers; analyzing data; writing reports Alternate Title(s): Polling Analyst, Project Director Salary Range: $30,000 to $500,000+ Employment Prospects: Good to excellent Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): W ashington, D .C., state capitals, major cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingMasters degree preferred ExperienceCampaign experience

CAREER LADDER
Senior Associate Pollster Graduate Student or Campaign Worker

Special S kills and P ersonality TraitsPassion f or politics; understanding of statistical methods; ability to ad vise c lient o n t he most p ersuasive mess age(s) and targeting for campaign

Position Description
Pollsters measure and analyze public opinion, acting as doctors of sorts for political campaigns. They take the pulse of the electorate to diagnose the clients strengths and weaknesses and prescribe winning strategies. As other political consultants do, Pollsters, who are also called p olling analysts, typically work for a variety of clients, including interest groups, referendum committees, government agencies, and private corporations, as w ell as p olitical ca ndidates. C ampaign p olling has grown by le aps and b ounds, as all le vels of campaigns are turning to professional Pollsters to determine which issues t o p lay u p, w here t o f ocus t heir ener gies, a nd whether or not their strategies are working. Pollsters are increasingly expanding their repertoire beyond tradi tional p olls t o inc lude ne w t ools suc h as focus gr oups a nd t o sur vey sp ecific gr oups o f individuals. I n t he elec tronic f ocus gr oup, o r dialmet er, participants us e a ha nd-held de vice t o signal degr ees of agr eement o r dis agreement wi th w hat is s aid o n a television screen. Pollsters may conduct a variety of polls in the course of any given campaign. The benchmark survey, the first major poll of the campaign, is often followed by trend surveys and tracking polls. Each poll involves a number of steps. Pollsters Determine the purpose of the poll Select the sample Design questions Supervise interviewers

Analyze data Write reports Before drawing up the questions, Pollsters research the campaign, often consulting at length with strategists and in-ho use a nalysts. The y det ermine t he p urpose of e ach p oll b efore wr iting t he q uestions. F or exa mple, a p oll to gain an understanding of t he candidates strengths and weaknesses has a dif ferent purpose than one that looks into the general concerns of the electorate. Pollsters us e census trac ts and other tools to s elect random s amples for sur veys, w hich are generally conducted by phone. The la rger the sample, the lower the margin of error, but also the more expensive the poll. Many q uestions ha ve b ecome st andard, t he exac t wording de vised a nd t ested over time f or i ts ob jectivity. On ma ny public issues, p eople have no o pinion at all, s o q uestions sho uld b e w orded in s uch a wa y as not t o ma nufacture o ne. Most p olls f ollow a s tandard sequence, beginning with an authoritative introduction and moving into screening questions to determine the respondents likeliness to vote. Screening questions are tricky b ecause s ome r espondents, wa nting t o s eem t o be good citizens, say they will v ote in t he elec tion but ultimately do nt. The p oll t hen mo ves in to subst antive questions about the campaign and concludes with demographic q uestions p roviding inf ormation a bout the r espondents t elevision-viewing, radio-list ening, and newspaper-reading habits as well as personal characteristics such as age, ethnic group, race, and income.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Pollsters ca n ei ther co ntract o ut in terviewing (e .g., to telemarketing phone banks or campaign volunteers) or he ad u p t heir o wn in terviewing o perations, o ften with the help of an in-house field director. Interviewers are trained to stick to the script and avoid biased phrasing. S upervisors us e p lug-in mo nitors a nd call bac k respondents to check for accuracy. New techniques in analysis have revolutionized polling. Whereas in the old days Pollsters could only correlate tw o fac tors sim ultaneously a nd needed w eeks t o complete polls, now they can analyze multiple responses at once and use rolling average techniques for continuous tracking. As k ey stra tegists, P ollsters p repare r eports bas ed on the data for the client. For example, a Pollster might recommend that a ca ndidate air TV ads a round sports shows watched by a la rge share of undecided v oters to shore up soft support. Yet, for all the new techniques, polling is no t an exact science. Polling is co ntroversial, faulted for driving up campaign costs, prompting candidates to pander to public opinion, and inc ulcating a horse race men tality o f p olitics. S upporters, t hough, say p olling gives candidates important feedback about the concerns of the public.

their own client bases and start their own businesses or become senior partners in their polling firm.

Education and Training


Because P ollsters p erform s pecialized q uantitative analysis, grad uate-school tra ining t ends t o b e mo re important f or t hem t han f or o ther typ es o f p olitical consultants. I nsiders r ecommend a mast ers degr ee for indi viduals lo oking t o b ecome ass ociates in p olling firms. Levels of education vary among Pollsters, as some hold Ph.D.s and others learn through fieldwork. Masters p rograms in p olitical s cience o r r elated fields p rovide tra ining in q uantitative-research t echniques, wi th ne w p rograms in p olitical ma nagement dealing specifically with polling. Internship opportunities provide important hands-on experience.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Insiders em phasize t he need f or ha nds-on exp erience in p olitical ca mpaigns as w ell as fa miliarity wi th st atistical methods. Pollsters must be able to perform two roles: objective analyst and campaign strategist. Thos e who s ee t he tw o r oles as co mplementary s ay t hey us e objective analysis to help the candidates they like win. Maintaining high methodological standards in the heat of campaign battle, however, can be challenging, particularly if t he firm has t aken on too many clients. Many firms pair senior Pollsters with junior associates to give clients adeq uate acces s. P ollsters g enerally c hoose t o represent either Democratic or Republican clients. Pollsters must earn the trust of clients to be treated as full members of the strategy team even if t he numbers a re dis appointing. B ecause ca mpaigns in volve teamwork, a good relationship between the Pollster and other members of the team can keep a lid o n bickering and time-consuming arguments. Polling analysts who work primarily on campaigns, as o pposed t o ma rket r esearch, sho uld ha ve a passion f or p olitics. The y t ap in to t heir o wn co mpetitive instincts t o hel p t heir ca ndidates win. H igh p ressure and frequent travel are integral parts of this job.

Salaries
Salaries t end t o b e hig her f or P ollsters t han f or o ther Political C onsultants b ecause o f t he mo re sp ecialized nature o f t he w ork. M ost b eginning P ollsters ha ve salaries in t he $40,000 t o $50,000 ra nge, acco rding t o industry sources. In response to increased competition, some Pollsters are offering lower fees and less extensive polls to boost business.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent f or individuals with the right training. Polling firms are looking for indi viduals wi th exp erience in p olitical ca mpaigns and a bac kground in q uantitative analysis to hold professional-track positions in t his rapidly growing industry. A p olling f irm may ha ndle no npolitical as w ell as political clients.

Unions and Associations


Many P ollsters b elong t o t he Amer ican A ssociation of Political C onsultants (AAPC) a nd/or t he Amer ican Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR).

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good because new analysts, who are generally paired with more experienced members of the team, can acquire more responsibility with time. Individuals on a career track as Pollsters generally start out as P olling Analysts. A j unior analyst who has the right education and training can move up to a more senior p osition. F rom t here, indi viduals ca n b uild u p

Tips for Entry

1. Work on a p olitical campaign. B ecause Pollsters are k ey mem bers o f t he stra tegic t eam, t hey should have an understanding of how campaigns work.

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2. Look in to ed ucational p rograms in p olitical management, p olitical s cience, st atistics, a nd/ or related f ields, as fa miliarity with quantitative analysis is im portant in t his f ield. M any p rograms offer valuable internship opportunities. 3. Read about p olling. Newspapers commonly r un articles detailing the results of various polls, and books o n p olitical co nsulting p rovide inf ormation about polling. 4. Browse t he w ebpages o f t he Amer ican A ssociation o f P olitical C onsultants (h ttp://www.

theaapc.org) a nd t he Amer ican A ssociation f or Public Opinion Research (http://www.aapor.org) for inf ormation a bout co nferences a nd ca reer development. 5. Determine your party affiliation carefully because polling firms tend to be partisan. Become active in the political party of your choice to take advantage of important networking opportunities.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

POLITICAL OFFICE

SCHOOL BOARD MEMBER


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Rep resent co nstituents a nd ex ercise p ublic control of schools by setting policy, approving budgets, hiring and evaluating the superintendent, and responding t o co ncerns o f co nstituents; assumin g other leadership responsibilities Alternate Title(s): School Committee Member, Trustee Salary Range: $0 to $40,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): S mall co mmunities are generally less competitive. Prerequisites: Education o r TrainingNo f ormal r equirements; training offered by professional associations for new School Board Members ExperienceVolunteer exp erience de aling wi th school and/or community issues

CAREER LADDER
School Board President, City Councilor, or Other Volunteer Position School Board Member Community/School Volunteer

Special Sk ills a nd P ersonality T raitsArticulate; well prepared and organized; committed to providing excellent education for all children; able to work well with others

Position Description
School Board Members strive to improve the quality of public education in their communities, sometimes with an eye toward running for higher political office. Although ma ny mem bers o f C ongress b egan t heir political ca reers o n t he s chool b oard, t he ma jority o f School B oard Members lack such lofty p olitical ambitions. The y sim ply wa nt t o s erve t heir co mmunities. School B oard M embers p rovide cr itical linkin g o f schools, parents, and the community, confronting such challenges of the 21st century as youth violence, educational testing, and changing demographics. Most S chool B oard M embers s ee t heir s ervice as a callin g ra ther t han a ca reer. A pproximately 90 p ercent o f S chool B oard M embers r eceive li ttle, if a ny, compensation, according to the National School Boards Association. Most e arn t heir primary income in o ther occupations. The National Association of School Boards reports that 43 p ercent of School Board Members hold professional or managerial posts, 12 p ercent own businesses, and 12 percent are retired. School Board Members do mo re than attend meetings: They must also prepare for them, often by making phone calls a nd p oring o ver mo unds o f pa perwork. First, School Board Members set educational policy for the community. Most boards create a vision statement

for the district. In addition, School Board Members set policies on a va riety of matters such as I nternet us age for students, safety in the schools, and school uniforms. School B oard M embers co mmonly co mpile a p olicy manual, w hich p rovides guida nce f or administra tors and others in the district. School B oard Members are responsible for the hiring and evaluation of the chief executive officer, usually called the superintendent. The relationship between the board and the superintendent can be a prickly one, particularly if the two do not understand and respect each others responsibilities: t he lay b oard f or setting p olicy and t he s uperintendent, as p rofessional administra tor, for implementing it. School B oard M embers assume r esponsibility f or educational planning, goal s etting, and appraisal, with the p rimary f ocus o f all b oard decisio ns o n st udent achievement. F or in stance, a s chool dis trict mig ht s et the g oal o f e very c hilds a ttaining a s pecified r eading level by the end of the third grade. What kind of professional de velopment w ould ena ble t eachers t o ac hieve this g oal? D o s ome r eading syst ems w ork b etter f or some students t han others? If s o, how can t he s chools best help students with special needs? School B oard M embers a re als o r esponsible f or setting t he o verall b udget, w hich is de veloped b y t he

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

superintendent. About 95 percent of the average school district budget is e armarked for wages, benefits, transportation, a nd o ther i tems, acco rding t o t he N ational School B oards A ssociation. B ecause t he b udgeting process involves s everal steps, s avvy s chool b oards s et deadlines when A t entative b udget will b e co mpleted a nd p resented to the board The administration will p resent st aff requests t o t he board The superintendent will make the first formal budget request to the board Public hearings will be held The b udget will b e p resented t o m unicipal o r st ate officials The board will have its final discussion of the budget and adopt it School B oard M embers co mmunicate wi th va rious co nstituencies. The y r espond t o q uestions f rom the media; maintain ongoing, two-way communication with s chool st aff, s tudents, a nd mem bers o f t he co mmunity; and build collaborative relations with political and business leaders to develop a consensus for student success. School B oard M embers he ar a ppeals f rom s chool staff members or students on issues t hat involve policy implementation. For in stance, if pa rents a re una ble t o resolve a dispute over discipline with their childs principal, they may take the matter to the school board. Finally, S chool B oard M embers a re in volved in a variety of other activities, including electing board officers, approving the annual school calendar, and establishing a ttendance zo nes f or t he s chool distr ict. The y also m ust r ead len gthy r eports, s erve o n co mmittees, and respond to the concerns of constituents.

first try sometimes run again and win, benefiting from increased name recognition. Running a n ef fective ca mpaign f or s chool b oard is generally less exp ensive in small co mmunities t han in large urban districts. Overall, candidates in 75.6 percent of all distr icts spend less t han $1,000 t o run for school board, according to the National School Boards Association. Most candidates use a co mbination of their own money and support from friends or family. Less than a third receive contributions from outside sources. Some candidates in large districts, however, spend $10,000 to $25,000 or more to run for school board. School boards average five or seven people, although board size varies from as few as three to as many as 15. Almost all school boards are elected (fewer than 3 percent a re a ppointed). A s wi th o ther elec ted p ositions, school b oard candidates must b e able to connect with voters t o win elec tions. C andidates w ho ca n r un o n a solid record of accomplishment, often as v olunteers in the school or community, have an edge. Insiders say it also helps for candidates to know people in the business and school community.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects depend on ones goals. Within the b oard i tself, mem bers ca n r ise t o le adership p ositions suc h as s chool b oard p resident. S ome S chool Board M embers p ursue o ther co mmunity ende avors such as becoming head of the United Way, finding that their school board service opens up doors. Others run for hig her p olitical o ffice suc h as ci ty co uncil, wi th prospects t hat dep end o n t he size o f t he co mmunity and whether or not the race is contested.

Education and Training


Most S chool B oard M embers a re co llege-educated, although a bac helors degree is no t required. Eligibility laws dif fer f rom st ate t o st ate, b ut most st ates r equire candidates for s chool b oard to b e at le ast 21 y ears old and registered to vote in the district they want to represent, according to the National School Boards Association. Nearly half of School Board Members are between the ag es o f 41 a nd 50. H owever, y ounger p eople a re often cr edited wi th in troducing f resh in sights (ha ving recently been students themselves) to school boards. Training for new School B oard Members is o ffered at t he distr ict, st ate, a nd na tional le vels. On a n inf ormal basis, exp erienced S chool B oard M embers o ften provide information, encouragement, and guidance to their new colleagues. The distr ict also may have a f ormal o rientation a nd de velopment p rogram f or S chool Board Members.

Salaries
The vast ma jority o f S chool B oard M embers r eceive little o r no co mpensation f or t heir s ervice. I n s ome communities, School Board Members are compensated on a p er-diem o r p er-meeting basis. On t he hig h end of the range, some large districts offer compensation in the $25,000 to $40,000 range.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g enerally g ood, al though School B oard Members face s tiff competition for election in s ome co mmunities, pa rticularly la rge urba n districts. In other communities, candidates run uncontested. I n co ntested races, ca ndidates w ho los e o n t he

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National a nd st ate s chool b oard ass ociations, t oo, play an active role in educating School Board Members. State s chool b oard ass ociations provide workshops for new S chool B oard M embers a nd/or p eople in terested in running for a s eat. Both the National School Boards Association a nd st ate ass ociations s ponsor w orkshops and co nferences o n sp ecific issues suc h as t echnology and parliamentary procedure.

Tips for Entry


1. Volunteer t o w ork f or a n o rganization in volved in school and/or community issues. 2. Attend a school board meeting. Most are open to the public. 3. Ask y ourself w hether y ou ha ve w hat i t t akes t o succeed. Are you willing to work long hours for little or no pa y? How well can you handle being in t he p ublic e ye? Will y ou b e a ble t o co mpromise with other board members? 4. Look in to ca ndidacy r equirements. F ind o ut whether your school board is elected in November o r in A pril (o r s ome o ther mo nth) a nd whether b oard mem bers a re elec ted a t la rge and/or from certain geographical areas. State law often requires all ca ndidates for public office to file financial disclosure statements and to present a no minating p etition signed b y a cer tain p ercentage of registered voters. 5. Participate in w orkshops and conferences sponsored by state school boards associations and the National School Boards Association. Some local districts also conduct sessions of their own. 6. Remember to factor in the possible costs of running f or o ffice. Al though ma ny s chool b oard campaigns a re r elatively lo w b udget (limi ted to suc h o ld-fashioned costs as b rochures, p rint advertisements, and bumper stickers), some races are becoming more costly and sophisticated.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


School B oard M embers typ ically ha ve exp erience as v olunteers in t he s chool o r co mmunity. S omeone involved in t he Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), for instance, mig ht decide t o r un f or t he s chool b oard. A former teacher, too, might decide to run for the board. Although many S chool B oard Members are parents of school-aged children, some candidates in their 20s also win seats on the board. Many S chool B oard M embers f ind t he wo rk mo re difficult a nd time-co nsuming t han t hey exp ected. To prevent the problems of divided boards, S chool B oard Members should be able to work well with others. Good team p layers de al wi th fac ts ra ther t han p ersonalities, are willing to compromise, and do their homework.

Unions and Associations


The N ational S chool B oards A ssociation is a na tional organization dedicated to fostering excellence in public education through local school board leadership.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

CITY COUNCILOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Cr eating la ws, ado pting p olicies, a nd p roviding inspiration and motivation to improve the community Alternate T itle(s): S electboard M ember, Alder man/ Alderwoman, County Commissioner Salary Range: $0 to $90,000 Employment Prospects: Fair to poor Advancement Prospects: Poor Best Geographical Location(s): Municipalities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingNo formal requirements ExperienceNo formal requirements Special S kills a nd P ersonality T raitsCommitment t o t he co mmunity; p ublic sp eaking exp erience; endurance; consensus-building skills

CAREER LADDER
Mayor City Councilor School Committee Member or Citizen Activist

Position Description
City C ouncilors are legislators, much like members of Congress. B oth gr oups dra ft b ills, de al wi th co nstituents, and vote on budgets. But, compared to their counterparts o n C apitol H ill, Ci ty C ouncilors w ork o n a much smaller scale. A City Councilor might consider a plan for a m ultithousand- or multimillion-dollar project t o b uild a t urn la ne a t a b usy in tersection. A U .S. Senator, on the other hand, would be concerned with a multibillion-dollar interstate highway system. City Councilors work at the street level, dealing with the ni tty-gritty det ails o f co mmunity lif e suc h as p otholes, crime, and property taxes. One o f the advantages of w orking a t t he lo cal le vel is t hat r esults a re e asy t o see. A Ci ty C ouncilor w ho ad vocated co nstruction o f an addi tional s chool, f or in stance, mig ht pass t he ne w facility every day on the way to work. However, victories like this o ccur after months, if no t years, of hard work. City C ouncilors a re al ways linin g u p v otes, v ying f or a majority, o r w orking t o b uild a co nsensus. I n a w orld where fac tionalism a nd inf ighting a re leg endary, t his is no easy task. The vast majority of City Councilors are part-time. They balance their political responsibilities with another occupation, such as la w or business. Many City Councilors emerge from the ranks of the school committee, a natural progression, considering t hat s chools form a large part of the city councils budget. City C ouncilors fall into two basic groups:

Districtrepresenting a particular part of the city At-largeelected citywide These two groups differ somewhat in f ocus. A Ci ty Councilor for a district acts as an advocate for a particular neighborhood, asking questions like, What are the needs of different ethnic groups? and How can a certain program benefit the neighborhood? The at-large Councilor needs to juggle the concerns of a broader group of constituents. Whether elected at large or districtwide, City Councilors need t o b e g eneralists t o de al wi th e verything from economic development to public safety, social services, and whatever happens to be hot at the moment. If, f or in stance, co nstituents a re p ushing f or mo re affordable ho using, a Ci ty C ouncilor mig ht cr eate a plan for increased funding. The ma yor, though, might reject t he p lan. S hould t he Ci ty C ouncilor c hampion an ini tiative t o g et p ermission f rom t he st ate t o f loat a bond? Or sho uld the City C ouncilor work on a ne w housing p roposal t hat co uld win t he ma yors su pport? S uch t actical decisio ns ca n det ermine w hether or no t Ci ty C ouncilors a re successf ul in ca rrying o ut their ag endas. The in tensity of w ork f or a Ci ty C ouncilor dep ends largely on t he nature of t he community. Whereas a n indi vidual in a small co mmunity mig ht take home a few hours of work and attend two or three night meetings a week, the City Councilor of a large city

POLITICAL OFFICE

25

might work considerably longer hours to deal with the more complex problems at hand. A City Councilors schedule varies from day to day, but time is g enerally sp ent a t meetin gs, suc h as Ci ty Council or committee meetings; in t he office, working on co rrespondence, r esearch, b udgets, o r p lanning; o r out in t he co mmunity, meetin g wi th dif ferent gr oups and participating in community events. In t owns a nd co unties, s electboard mem bers a nd county co mmissioners p erform ma ny o f t he s ame duties as Ci ty C ouncilors. Al though a co unty mig ht oversee t he co urts, co rrections, t ax ass essments, a nd/ or o ther a reas o f s ervice, i t mig ht lac k a c harter f rom the state and so have less a uthority than a ci ty. A Ci ty Councilor mig ht ha ve a hig her p rofile t han a co unty commissioner. As a local celebrity of sorts, the City Councilor may receive n umerous in vitations t o gr ound-breakings, parades, wak es, c hristenings, a nd w eddings. I n t he case of a blizzard, a City Councilor might be awakened at 3:30 a.m. a nd w ork no nstop un til 10:00 p .m. Yet, compared t o t he ma yor, a Ci ty C ouncilor w orks r elatively sho rt ho urs. A Ci ty C ouncilor is o ne o f s everal members of a boarda group player rather than a solo performer. A City Councilor might work 15 hours compared to a mayors 60 hours a week.

Education and Training


City C ouncilors come from all walks o f life. There are no f ormal r equirements f or t his p osition. C andidates need to sell their ideas to voters, who, in turn, decide who is most qualified for the position.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many Ci ty C ouncilors ha ve p rior exp erience o n a community b oard suc h as a ci vic as sociation, P arentTeacher A ssociation (PT A), o r s chool co mmittee. A s board members, they develop their consensus-building and problem-solving skills. City Councilors must look at both sides o f an issue in order to be fair. Still, they should have the courage of their own convictions. Dedication counts for a gr eat deal in t his field. Few City C ouncilors a re a ttracted t o t he job b y t he s alary. Candidates choose to run for office because they want to improve their communities.

Unions and Associations


Although no unio n o r ass ociation de als ex clusively with City C ouncilors, indi viduals mig ht b elong t o t he National League of Cities, state municipal associations, or other groups dealing with municipal issues.

Salaries
Because City Councilor is generally a part-time position, salaries tend to be low. Some communities pay nothing at all. Only a few large cities pay City Councilors in the $50,000 to $90,000 range. More common are salaries in the $10,000 to $30,000 or $0 to $10,000 range.

Tips for Entry


1. Look in to in ternships a nd sp ecial o pportunities such as city youth councils. 2. Follow the news; keep up with issues of key concern. 3. Attend city council and other community meetings. 4. Carve out a p rimary occupation with some flexibility. B ecause most ci ty co uncil p ositions a re part-time, indi viduals generally ne ed ano ther source of income. 5. Seek a p osition o n a nother co mmunity b oard such as a ci vic association, PTA, or school committee. Memberships on these boards often serve as springboards to City Councilor. 6. Become in volved in t he p olitical pa rty o f y our choice to take advantage of important networking opportunities. 7. Ask yourself whether you have a large enough network o f f riends a nd su pporters t o la unch a successful campaign. Usually, its easier to win a race when not running against a popular incumbent.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir t o p oor b ecause t here are a limited number of slots for City Councilors. Generally speaking, competition is higher in big cities than in smaller communities. Thus a bid for City Council in a smaller community might be more successful.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are p oor b ecause t he p osition of mayor, the next logical step on the political hierarchy, is generally difficult to reach. Since most City Councilors a re pa rt-time, indi viduals typ ically r eturn t o t heir primary line of work. Some City Councilors are retired adults o r s econdary b readwinners. Ot hers w ork p rimarily in another occupation such as business or law.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

MAYOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Providing overall leadership for the community; setting p olicy; r ecommending b udgets; a ppointing members o f t he lo cal g overnment; bala ncing o ut different interests; under standing t he needs o f citizens; speaking for the municipality Salary Range: $0 to $130,000 Employment Prospects: Poor Advancement Prospects: Fair Best Geographical Location(s): Cities, towns Prerequisites: Education or TrainingNo formal requirements ExperienceNo formal requirements

CAREER LADDER
State or Federal Elected Office or Various Other Positions Mayor City Councilor

Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsStrong le adership a nd co mmunication skills; dedica tion t o t he community; honesty; willingness to work long hours

Position Description
Mayors steer the course of their communities. Some such as Fiorello LaGuardia and Rudolph Giulianihave become leg endary f igures na tionwide. O ver t he y ears, Mayors have carved out reputations as f iery eccentrics, cool-headed ma nagers, p opulists, p rogressives, p ower brokers, and visionaries. As c hief ex ecutive, t he M ayor s erves as t he lo cal equivalent o f p resident o f t he U nited S tates. M ayors have the most powerful single voice in their communities. The y s et p olicy, make appointments, recommend budgets, and speak for their cities. Mayors are credited for the good times and blamed for the bad times. S uch power ca rries a n elemen t o f g lamour. N evertheless, many Mayors toil for little or no money. They consider the position a calling rather than a career. The hours are s o lo ng a nd t he pa y s o lo w t hat o nly o ne mo tive justifies wanting to be Mayor: the desire to serve ones community. Some M ayors ha ve co nsiderably mo re p ower t han others. Generally speaking, those elected by the public have mo re c lout t han t hose c hosen b y a ci ty co uncil. Also, big-city Mayors tend to be more well-known than their counterparts in small ci ties, many of whom work part-time. A town, too, can have a Mayor, if the charter calls for one. The position of Mayor defies easy categorization, as v eto powers, term limits, and personalities vary f rom co mmunity t o co mmunity. A str ong le ader can emerge from a ci ty chartered for a w eak Mayor by virtue of his or her powers of persuasion.

Citizens look to the Mayor for a sense of vision. Over the y ears, as f ederal gra nts ha ve b ecome mo re s carce, the M ayor has assumed a mo re en trepreneurial r ole. In small communities, education typically accounts for more than 50 p ercent of the budget. Mayors often play an im portant r ole in t he s chools as w ell as in m yriad other community concerns. Each day is a juggling act: how to balance the needs of different groups, different types of projects, and different time co nstraints. M ayors a ttend neig hborhood and co mmunity meetin gs, co nfer wi th o ther g overnment officials, serve on state and national committees, initiate and answer correspondence, and set policy priorities and initiatives. A M ayor mig ht a ppoint a t ask f orce t o lo ok in to a cer tain issue o f co ncern. A w elfare t ask f orce, f or instance, mig ht in terview ci tizens t o s ee ho w w elfare reform is w orking in t he community, then report their recommendations. The M ayor w ould t hen b ecome a n advocate for a plan of action. As do o ther elec ted o fficials, M ayors need t o de al with t heir co lleagues p ersonalities a nd eg os. N eighborhood r epresentatives, f or in stance, mig ht dema nd certain spoils in ex change f or su pport o n a pa rticular de velopment p roject. I f t he M ayor r ejects t hose demands, the project might be held u p indefinitely. If, on the other hand, the Mayor agrees to them, he or she might be accused of favoritism. Mayors constantly need to balance advocacy for issues close to their hearts with a sense of fairness to all.

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Mayors a re under co nstant s crutiny. N ewspaper articles a nalyze t he M ayors le adership sty le. I s t he Mayor an old-fashioned boss or a modern-day consensus maker? How has t he Mayor done on basic s ervices like snow plowing, street cleaning, and trash collection? Has t he Mayor initiated a ny programs t o enha nce t he livability of the city? Does the Mayor have a clear vision for the future? Mayors p rovide le adership o n ma tters o f k ey co ncern, such as p ublic safety, jobs, ho using, and the arts. Since the 9/11 t errorist attacks, homeland security has become a n im portant p riority f or M ayors a round t he nation. Mayors have channeled resources into improving emergency response systems, protecting water supplies, a nd b olstering s ecurity in p ublic tra nsportation and o ther k ey sp ots. The y a pply f or st ate a nd f ederal funds to supplement their own resources. Having a s et of priorities is important because Mayors can find their efforts scattered in different directions. This job is literally endless. Although all Mayors believe they a re q ualified b y vir tue o f b eing elec ted, s ome a re better prepared and more hardworking than others. The pace o f the work depends on the complexity of the community. In most di verse, large cities, the workload is intense. Mayors are expected not only to perform ceremonial duties, such as welcoming visitors and leading celebrations, but als o t o b e on call 24 ho urs a da y. Despite the extreme pressures, many Mayors find great satisfaction in being the top dog in their communities.

In t he r ough-and-tumble w orld o f p olitics, nega tive campaigns are common. Success f or a ca ndidate dep ends o n b eing a ble t o communicate ones ideas effectively to voters. Although the path to Mayor can be a difficult one, the position is open to anyone who is willing to seek it.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re fa ir. Al though s erving as Mayor ca n o pen u p cer tain do ors, indi viduals typ ically move on rather than up. Many Mayors return to t heir f ormer line o f w ork, f or exa mple, b usiness o r law, because it is lik ely to be more lucrative than public o ffice. Af ter s erving as t he co mmunitys top dog, a M ayor mig ht f ind t he p rospect o f b ecoming o ne o f many state or federal legislators unappealing.

Education and Training


There a re no f ormal ed ucational r equirements f or Mayor. A ca ndidate w ho is la rgely s elf-taught mig ht easily trounce someone with a Ph.D. Voters decide who is mo re q ualified. S pecific requirements f or eligib ility may vary among cities and towns.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many M ayors ha ve s erved f irst o n t he ci ty co uncil, where t heyve had a c hance t o de velop t heir co mmunications skills. The Mayor needs to be a good communicator to get across his o r her mess age to t he p eople. Communication styles, though, can vary widely. Some Mayors a re f iery o rators. Ot hers ha ve mo re o f a lo wkey, conversational style. Messages o ften need t o b e r epeated o ver a nd o ver again to lay the proper groundwork for a ne w agenda. Seasoned M ayors kno w ho w t o r estate a mess age s o the speech doesnt sound canned. They become adept at u sing t he bully pu lpit t o m otivate ot hers. Ma yors need t o ha ve g ood in terpersonal skills, s trong le adership abilities, an abiding interest in t heir communities, and the ability to withstand pressure.

Salaries
Salaries range from $0 t o about $130,000, acco rding to the National League of Cities. Salaries vary so much that a city with a p opulation of 500,000 mig ht pay a M ayor either $28,000 or $113,000. It all depends on the city. A p osition mig ht b e o fficially designa ted as pa rttime even though the Mayor essentially works full-time. Some la rge ci tiesDallas, Texas, f or in stancehave a Mayor designa ted as pa rt-time. An indi vidual w ho is retired may be able to devote all his o r her time t o the position whereas someone else would have to juggle the responsibilities of Mayor with another job. A small city with a part-time Mayor might rely on someone like the municipal clerk to run the government. Some part-time positions are unpaid.

Unions and Associations


The U nited S tates C onference o f M ayors r epresents Mayors of cities with populations of more than 30,000.

Tips for Entry Employment Prospects


Employment prospects are poor because each community h as on ly on e May or. Ma ny May ors ro se f rom t he ranks of City Councilors. Rising to Mayor, however, can be a dif ficultand expensivetask. Even in small ci ties, campaigning for Mayor can cost $25,000 o r more.

1. Follow the news and talk to people in lo cal government to familiarize yourself with the position of Mayor. 2. Get a foot in the door by volunteering on a political ca mpaign o r f or s omeone alr eady in o ffice. Internships, too, can be good opportunities.

28

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

3. Serve the community by volunteering on boards or co mmissions. A ttend co mmunity meetin gs open to the public. 4. Seek a s table job t hat has s ome f lexibility. Most elected jobs a t the local level are part-time, thus requiring o fficeholders t o est ablish t hemselves first in another line of work. 5. Take s tock o f y our o wn p riorities f or t he co mmunity and ask yourself whether these are broad

enough to attract a multitude of supporters. Can you s ell y ourself as a n ef fective ca ndidate? D o you have a netw ork of f riends a nd lik e-minded members of the community? 6. Bear in mind t hat its e asier to r un for Mayor if the race lac ks a p opular inc umbent. In p olitics, timing is crucial.

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DISTRICT ATTORNEY
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: A dvocating f or t he p ublic in cr iminal-justice matters; overseeing and/or trying cases, administering office policies and procedures Alternate Title(s): Prosecuting Attorney, County Attorney, States Attorney, Commonwealth Attorney Salary Range: $36,000 to $115,000 Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Good to excellent Best Geo graphical L ocation: Distr icts wi th o pen seats Prerequisites: Education or TrainingLaw degree ExperienceProsecution exp erience p referred; extensive trial experience

CAREER LADDER
Judge or Higher Office or Private Practice District Attorney Assistant District Attorney

Special Sk ills a nd P ersonality T raitsCommand of the courtroom; sense of fairness; ability to grasp complex issues; willin gness to work long hours in a fast-paced environment

Position Description
District A ttorneys co mbine kno wledge o f t he la w with co ncern a bout p ublic s afety. A s t he Chief P rosecutor, t hey o versee a nd s ometimes tr y hig h-profile cases, including homicides. They serve as t he top lawenforcement o fficial f or t he distr ict, w orking c losely with the police to protect the safety of citizens. District Attorneys als o s et o ffice p olicy, o versee legal ma tters, and speak out on criminal-justice issues. The vast ma jority95 p ercentof Distr ict A ttorneys a re c hosen in p opular elec tions; t he r est a re appointed, according to the United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Typically, a District Attorney f irst works as a n assist ant distr ict attorney, a n a ppointed p osition. U nlike ca ndidates f or t he legislature o r o ther p olitical o ffice, Distr ict A ttorneys must b e la wyers, a q ualification limi ting t he p ool o f candidates. Often, an assistant district attorney runs for an office being vacated by his or her boss. Candidates ma y ha ve dif ferent no tions o f w hat i t means t o b e tough o n cr ime. F or o ne, i t ma y me an providing mo re co mmunity s ervices. F or a nother, i t may mean stiffer sentencing. Many indi viduals b ecome p rosecutors b ecause they a re dra wn t o t he dra ma o f t he co urtroom. L aw school graduates typically set out for positions in t he prosecutors o ffice t o ga in val uable tr ial exp erience. Assistant dist rict a ttorneys f resh o ut o f la w s chool

typically st art wi th lo w-profile cas es, suc h as tra ffic violations, vandalism, or forged checks. After a while, they move up from misdemeanors to felonies. District Attorneys p rovide guida nce g leaned f rom t heir y ears of experience. As t he c hief p rosecutor, t he Distr ict A ttorney decides who is charged with which crimes. Insiders say that most def endants a re no t evil p eople w ho p ose an unq uestionable da nger t o s ociety b ut, ra ther, individuals with s ome weakness of character. One susp ect might have committed a robbery when drunk. Another might have had a conflict with a girlfriend and smashed her ca r. Yet a nother mig ht ha ve a dr ug addic tion. I n the course of a gi ven day, prosecutors make numerous judgment calls. S hould t he susp ect b e c harged? I f s o, with w hat cr ime? S hould t he cas e b e p lea-bargained or brought to trial? Should the defendant be tried as a juvenile or as an adult? Most prosecutors offices are divided into divisions: criminal, s ex o ffender, j uvenile, a nd s o o n. A ssistant district a ttorneys mak e u p a bout a t hird o f t he st aff; paralegals, investigators, victim advocates, and support staff constitute the rest. Because they head up the office, District Attorneys can launch new programs if they see a need . For exa mple, t hey mig ht g et a gra nt t o st art a mediation program or a child abuse unit. Caseloads in p rosecutors offices tend to be heavy. No s ooner is o ne cas e s olved t hrough tr ial o r p lea

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

bargain than a new set of cases piles up on the docket. District A ttorneys co mmonly des cribe t heir w ork as some va riation o f shoveling s and aga inst t he tides, writes Mark B aker in D.A.: Prosecutors in Their O wn Words. Election y ears o ften g enerate r enewed a ttention t o criminal-justice issues. I f, f or exa mple, a r eferendum on th e ballo t call s f or a c hange in drug po licy, Di strict Attorneys might express their point of view to the media. Prosecutors often can be seen on the TV news, responding t o v erdicts a nd exp ressing o pinions a bout law-enforcement policies. Although t he p osition va ries f rom st ate t o st ate, common responsibilities of District Attorneys include Overseeing the local police Monitoring a buses o f t he co nstitutional r ights o f citizens Preparing budgets Dealing with personnel issues (e.g., recruiting minority assistant district attorneys) Assigning cases Participating on community task forces dealing with issues such as juvenile crime and sentencing Incorporating ne w t echnology suc h as deo xyribonucleic acid (DNA) testing

Many seek judgeships, although these positions can be hard to come by and highly political. Others may seek higher office such as that of attorney general or lieutenant governor. Still others move into higher-paying positions in government or private practice.

Education and Training


Law s chool a nd a la w degr ee a re r equired f or Dis trict Attorneys in o rder t o qualify for office. Assistant District A ttorneys a re als o la wyers. A bac helors degr ee, though, ma y b e suf ficient f or o ther p ositions wi thin the office, including investigator, paralegal, and victim advocate. Law-school students have a va riety of undergraduate majorsincluding political science, criminal justice, and English. Once in la w school, individuals interested in becoming prosecutors should take courses in cr iminal law.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Most District Attorneys have extensive trial experience. As the chief prosecutor, the District Attorney must have excellent j udgment in decidin g w ho is c harged wi th which crimes. Pressures t o k eep co nviction ra tes c limbing f rom one p olitical s eason t o t he next ca n b e in tense. District Attorneys m ust bala nce p olitical exp ediency wi th political j ustice, t oughness wi th co mpassion. People want you to be tough on crime unless its their nephew, observed one District Attorney. Then they want you to be reasonable. Seeing h uman na ture a t i ts w orst ca n ha ve a p rofound im pact o n p rosecutors. C ynicism a nd pa ranoia may set in. Insiders say that the best District Attorneys manage t o r etain t heir fa ith in h umanity, alb eit o ne tarnished b y t heir gr itty exp osure t o cr ime. Distr ict Attorneys assume an enormous responsibility for dealing with the wrongs committed in society. They should believe in doing t he r ight t hing. A s p ublic o fficials, they must be able to communicate effectively with the public.

Salaries
Salaries va ry acco rding t o t he size o f t he o ffice a nd whether the position is f ull time o r part time. In small areas, many District Attorneys are part-time employees, earning about $36,000 a year, according to the National District Attorneys Association. Full-time District Attorneys e arn a pproximately $97,000 a y ear in medi umsized offices and $115,000 in large jurisdictions.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir b ecause, al though t he number o f p ositions is r elatively small , s o, t oo, is t he number o f q ualified ca ndidates w ho s eek t hem. E lections f or Distr ict A ttorney dif fer gr eatly f rom o ther contests in t hat candidates must be lawyers, preferably with a bac kground in p rosecution. W hen a Distr ict Attorney decides no t t o s eek r eelection, a n assist ant district a ttorney typ ically r uns f or t he p osition. The median len gth o f s ervice f or Dis trict A ttorneys is six years, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Unions and Associations


The National District Attorneys Association represents individuals in t he field, as do st ate associations of District Attorneys.

Tips for Entry Advancement Prospects


Advancement p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent b ecause District Attorneys can move in a va riety of directions.

1. Seek an internship in a prosecutors office. 2. Plan o n a ttending la w s chool if y ou wa nt t o b e a District Attorney or assistant district attorney.

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While in la w school, seek a c lerkship in a p rosecutors office and participate in mo ot court, in which students prepare and argue a brief in front of a panel of judges.

3. Browse the Internet, using the keywords prosecutor and/or district attorney. 4. Follow the news to get a sense of the kind of work done by District Attorneys.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

STATE LEGISLATOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Sponsoring bills; deciding on legislation; representing co nstituents; s erving o n co mmittees; making policy Alternate T itle(s): S enator, Rep resentative, A ssembly Member, Lawmaker Salary Range: $15,000 to $60,000+ Employment Prospects: Fair to poor Advancement Prospects: Fair Best Geographical Location(s): Varies Prerequisites: Education or TrainingNo formal requirements ExperienceNo formal requirements Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsKeen interest in issues a nd t he p olitical p rocess; co nsensusmaking skills; leadership; dedication and stamina

CAREER LADDER
U.S. Congress or Statewide Office or Other Career State Legislator Local Political Office or Other Career

Position Description
State Legislators view their role as midle vel lawmakers in a va riety o f wa ys. S ome a re co ntent t o s tay w here they a re, a t le ast f or t he time b eing. Ot hers wa nt t o move up within the state legislature, perhaps from the House of Representatives to the more prestigious Senate. S till o thers s ee th eir p osition a s a s pringboard t o higher office, as a mem ber of Congress, governor, or a state auditor or treasurer or as secretary of state. Fifty p ercent o f t he mem bers o f C ongress a nd 64 percent o f t he na tions g overnors s erved p reviously as State Legislators, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. State Legislators can also move up to st atewide o ffices suc h as st ate tr easurer o r a uditor. Like mem bers o f C ongress, S tate L egislators b ecome well-versed in the two-house, two-party system of governing. The y sp onsor b ills, mak e f loor sp eeches, v ote on legisla tion, r epresent co nstituents, det ermine b udgets, and sit on committees. Over t he y ears st ate legisla tures ha ve b ecome increasingly full-time and professional. The o ld slowwitted, ciga r-smoking p olitician has gi ven wa y t o a younger, mo re ed ucated b reed o f legisla tor, acco rding to Legislative Life author Alan Rosenthal. No longer are these b odies inha bited s olely b y w hite men. W omen and minorities have joined their ranks. States, meanwhile, have assumed greater importance in t he p olicy-making a rena, wi th la rger p rofessional

staffs helping busy legislators do their jobs. Such developments no twithstanding, ma ny ci tizens co ntinue t o hold State Legislators (and politicians in general) in low esteem. I ronically, ma ny indi viduals still wa nt t o r un for public office, including that as State Legislator. They want the power, the attention, the stimulation, and the chance t o mak e a dif ference. F or ma ny, p olitics o ffers the excitement of a sport for grown-ups. The decisio n t o r un f or o ffice ra rely is sudden. Instead, i t usuall y is de veloped o ver time . M any S tate Legislators grew up in politically involved families, participated in school government, and served at the local level. New opportunities have opened up as a r esult of the breakdown of the political machine. Often, S tate L egislators w ork f ull time o n g overnment b usiness w hen t he legisla ture is in s ession a nd part-time the rest of the year. Many juggle their legislative duties with another line o f work. About 16 p ercent of State Legislators are lawyers, according to the National Conference o f S tate L egislatures. F ifteen p ercent identify t hemselves as f ull-time legisla tors, a n umber t hat has grown over t he years. Ot her common o ccupations include those of entrepreneur and educator. Legislative s chedules va ry f rom st ate t o s tate. I n some s tates t he legisla ture meets f or o nly a co uple o f months a y ear, whereas in o thers it is f ull-time. When legislatures a re in s ession, S tate L egislators co mmonly work from early in the morning until late at night.

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A typ ical da y f or a S tate L egislator is ja m-packed with listening, negotiating, debating, and voting. Business is dis cussed o ver b reakfast, l unch, a nd dinner . Common responsibilities include Conferring with staff Meeting with lobbyists Talking to reporters Attending committee and subcommittee meetings Returning phone calls Exploring policy issues Introducing b ills a nd/or p ersuading co lleagues t o cosponsor or support them Debating with colleagues Voting on legislation State L egislators v oice t heir o wn p olitical visio n largely t hrough t he legisla tion t hey sp onsor. S enators and representatives have their own pet issues, related to t he a rts, t he en vironment, he alth ca re, o r p ublic safety. Sometimes, too, State Legislators sponsor bills to please their constituents. without expecting the legislation to get passed. After b ills a re dra fted a nd in troduced, t hey a re referred to committees. S ome bills simply die in co mmittee. Others are referred to subcommittees or scheduled for hearings. Once a bill is reviewed, the committee schedules it for debate on t he f loor. Bills may t hen b e approved, amended, referred back to committee, postponed, defeated, or reconsidered. If approved, the bill is considered by the second house. The second house either concurs, allowing for the bill to pass, o r r equests c hanges. The tw o ho uses t hen tr y t o reach an agreement, or the bill is defeated. Bills approved by both houses then go to the governor for a signature or a veto, which the legislature might then override. State L egislators v ote o n h undreds o f b ills a y ear. Deciding o n co mplex issues wi th a sim ple yea o r nay can be especially difficult, insiders say. Party alliances and recommendations from interest groups often help with the decision making. As t he legislative s ession winds t o a c lose, pressure intensifies. B ills p ile u p, wa iting f or de cisions. Then, after t he f inal v otes ha ve b een cast, S tate L egislators take stock of the session. How productive was it? What were the ups and downs? How many of their own bills were passed? During t he in terim, S tate L egislators sp end mo re time in the district, attending events and talking to people. Insiders say that constituents want a good man or good w oman w ho ca res eno ugh a bout them to s eek them out and talk to them personally.

Unlike members of Congress, most State Legislators live in t heir distr icts, a ffording t hem t he o pportunity to stay in c lose touch with their constituents. Working on the state level can be rewarding, as the scale is small enough to allow them to see results. But, for some State Legislators, the chance to move up to the national level is impossible to resist. Instead of running again for State Legislator, these individuals scope out possible seats in Congress.

Salaries
Salaries vary greatly from state to state, according to the National C onference o f S tate L egislatures. S tate L egislators in N ew Hampshire make $200 f or a tw o-year term; those in C alifornia e arn a bout $110,000 a y ear. S ome state legislatures, such as Alabama, pay by the day and/or offer allowances for daily expenses. Pay raises are hard to obtain because they are politically unpopular with voters.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects a re fa ir t o p oor, dep ending on the state. Competition is st iffest in la rge, full-time legislatures without term limits. Seats open up much more quickly in small states with term limits. If an incumbent decides not to seek reelection, a ne wcomer might have a better chance of winning the seat.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re fa ir. An indi vidual mig ht fail t o win r eelection, t hus limi ting his o r her p ossibilities f or ad vancement, t emporarily a nyway. Amo ng those reelected, levels of ambition vary from one State Legislator to the next. Some indi viduals wa nt t o r eturn t o t heir p revious careers, w hich a re o ften mo re l ucrative t han s erving in the legislatures. Others want to move up within the state legislature, either to le adership p ositions or f rom the House of Representatives to the Senate (sometimes called th e u pper h ouse). S till o thers s eek a ppointed positions or higher office such as g overnor or member of the U.S. Congress. Ascending the political ladder can be extremely difficult. The n umber o f p ositions decr eases as o ne r ises to t he next le vel. C ompared t o a t otal o f 7,400 S tate Legislators, there are only 435 U.S. representatives, 100 senators, a nd 50 g overnors, acco rding t o t he National Conference of State Legislatures.

Education and Training


Although a nyone, r egardless o f bac kground, ca n r un for t he st ate legislature, ma ny S enators a nd Rep resentatives ha ve ad vanced degr ees. S tates det ermine t heir

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own eligibility requirements for office, requiring candidates to live in the district and be a certain age. In many states, the minimum age is 21 for the House and 25 for the Senate.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


State L egislators ha ve a va riety o f bac kgrounds (e .g., law, ed ucation, a nd b usiness) b ut sha re a n in terest in and often a passion for the political process. All need to campaign for office. Fund-raising, public speaking, and problem-solving skills help on the campaign trail. Both on the campaign trail and in office, they must be able to inspire and motivate their constituents and staff. Being a s uccessful State Legislator depends in la rge part o n ha ving str ong co nsensus-making skills. S ome legislatures a re kno wn f or t heir in tense fac tionalism. State L egislators must kno w ho w t o co mpromise wi th their co lleagues a nd s atisfy t he co nflicting dema nds of their constituents. As do ma ny positions in p olitics, the job o f State Legislator requires massive amounts of energy and stamina.

1. Develop an interest in p olitics and an awareness of the issues of your own community. 2. Get involved in a p olitical campaign for a candidate or an issue. 3. Participate in p olitical pa rty ac tivities. C olleges often have groups affiliated with various political parties. 4. Visit the legislature. 5. Intern or work as a legislative staffer. Some legislators began their careers as legislative assistants or other staffers. 6. Ask yourself whether you would have the stamina and flexibility for this kind of work. 7. Realize t hat s ome s eats a re mo re co mpetitive than others. A small s eat vacated by an inc umbent is usuall y easier to win t han a b ig one held by a popular legislator. The House of Representatives has more seats than the Senate, thus making it the less competitive of the two bodies.

Unions and Associations


The National Conference of State Legislatures provides professional a ssistance t o St ate L egislators an d t heir staffs.

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GOVERNOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Serving as top government leader for the state; recommending b udgets a nd p rograms t o t he legislature; assuming special judicial powers such as t he granting of pardons Salary Range: $65,000 to $179,000 Employment Prospects: Poor Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): None Prerequisites: Education or TrainingNo formal requirements ExperienceResidency and age requirements varying by state

CAREER LADDER
Federal Office or Other Career Governor Other Political Office or Career

Special S kills and P ersonality TraitsPersuasiveness; sha rp p olitical in stincts; st amina; willin gness to listen; commitment; ability to command respect

Position Description
Governors are the states equivalent of the president of the United S tates. L ike t he p resident, t he G overnor is the chief executive, s etting p olicy, de veloping budgets, appointing k ey p ersonnel, a nd ex ercising v eto p ower. Four out of f ive of the latest presidents have served as Governor: Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush. Governors d eal wi th m any o f th e sa me i ssues a s presidents b ecause s tates ha ve as sumed r esponsibilities o nce held b y t he f ederal g overnment. Distr ust o f Washington in siders has ele vated t he na tions G overnors to new status over the other two main paths to the presidency: t he vice p residency a nd t he U .S. S enate. Whereas Governors used to become U.S. senators, but not vice v ersa, now some U.S. senators are leaving the comfort of their posts to run for Governor. As they see it, b eing G overnor o ffers a n o pportunity t o g et mo re done because they need not vie for power with 99 other legislators a nd wa it y ears f or k ey a ppointments. G overnors can us e ex ecutive p ower t o push t hrough t heir own initiatives. Much has c hanged o ver t he y ears f or U.S. G overnors. W hereas G overnors in co lonial times assumed nearly total control in the name of the Crown, those in the new republic had limited power as a r esult of short terms and the primacy of the legislature. But, over the years, the rules have changed. In Goodbye t o Good-T ime Ch arlie: Th e A merican Governorship Transformed, t he p olitical s cientist L arry Sabato des cribes ho w t he r ole o f G overnor shif ted

during t he s econd half o f t he 20t h century f rom s ociety da rling t o p ower b roker. A s st ates assumed mo re responsibility for social issues, the once largely ceremonial post of Governor metamorphosed into a p owerful vehicle f or addr essing ma jor co ncerns s uch as ed ucation a nd w elfare r eform. S tates b estowed ne w p owers on G overnors, inc luding lo nger t enure, co ntrol o f t he budgetary process, appointments of key personnel, and staggered elec tions t o p revent gub ernatorial co ntests from b eing ec lipsed b y p residential races. M inorities and w omen b egan makin g inroads into t he g overnorship. The job of Governor can be broken down into three main a reas: p olicy s etting, p ublic r elations, a nd g overnment ma nagement. G overnors s et f orth t heir o wn policy ob jectives, w hether lo wering t axes, r evamping education, or generating jobs, but, in the process, must deal with the conflicting demands of taxpayers, interest groups, a nd legisla tors. Tensions t end t o es calate o ver the budget, particularly if t he opposing party controls the legislature. To assure success in the legislature, some Governors us e arm twistin g t echniques suc h as t he threat of a veto or the promise of a future appointment to the bench in exchange for a favorable vote. Often Governors take their policy objectives directly to the people. A Governors schedule consists of a dizzying array of public appearances, meetings, phone calls, press conferences, and excursions throughout the state. The Governor might visit an elementary school, attend a housing conference, preside over awards for firefighters, a nd a ttend t he o pening o f a s tate fa ir. E very y ear

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

the Governor lays out his or her agenda in a State of the State Address. In t heir r oles as g overnment ma nagers, G overnors meet wi th depa rtment he ads, b oard o r co mmission members, a nd st aff mem bers. G overnors ac t as c hief executive o fficers f or t he st ate, p residing o ver o rganizations simila r in s cope t o F ortune 500 co mpanies. I f a cr isis such as a h urricane str ikes, t he G overnor harnesses the power of the state to address it. Yet, for all i ts new luster, the role of G overnor still depends largely on the quality of the individual. Just as powerful G overnors l ike Woodrow Wilson ro se ab ove the institutional constraints of t he office, s o, too, have contemporary ex ecutives s quandered o r a bused t heir power. Some Governors have left office in disgrace f or selling pa rdons o r accep ting kic kbacks. Ot hers ha ve failed to act decisively or acted decisively in ways, such as raising taxes, anathema to the people. Whatever t he si tuation, t he G overnor is b ound t o be in t he sp otlight. The p ollster L ouis Harris reported that Amer ican ci tizens a re mo re lik ely t o iden tify t he Governor o f t heir st ate co rrectly t han o ne o f t he tw o U.S. senators. Such name recognition was s econd only to that of the president of the United States.

husbands s eats. I n 1975, E lla G rasso o f C onnecticut became t he f irst f emale G overnor elec ted in her o wn right. Since then, 15 w omen have been elected Governor, according to the National Governors Association. Elections are sometimes contested, then decided b y the legislature. In 1899, the Governor-elect of Kentucky was assassinated, prompting his o pponent to leave the state to avoid implication in the crime.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good because the governorship opens up a variety of doors. In addition to going on to the presidency, Governors have become ambassadors, cabinet members, and U.S. senators as well as university presidents, judges, and political party officers. Seventeen G overnors ha ve b ecome p resident: Thomas J efferson, J ames M onroe, M artin Van B uren, John Tyler, James Polk, Andrew Johnson, Rutherford B. Hayes, Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, C alvin C oolidge, Franklin D . Ro osevelt, J immy C arter, Ro nald Re agan, B ill Clinton, and George W. Bush. The lis t gr ows t o 19 if o ne inc ludes G overnors o f territories not yet incorporated as st ates at the time o f the g overnorship: W illiam H enry H arrison (I ndiana) and Andrew Jackson (Florida). Like presidents, Governors can be impeached and removed from office by the legislature.

Salaries
According t o t he U.S. D epartment o f L abors Occupational Outlook Handbook, annual salaries for Governors range f rom a lo w of $65,000 in N ebraska t o a hig h of $179,000 in N ew Y ork. I n addi tion t o t heir s alaries, most Governors receive benefits such as transportation and an official residence. Salaries f or G overnors ha ve r isen in t he past f ew decades, a tr end a nalysts s ee as signif icant. I f s alaries are t oo lo w, t hey a rgue, G overnors mig ht b e t empted to e arn mo ney t hrough illegal me ans. On t he o ther hand, if salaries are too high, the position might attract candidates less s erious about public service than about financial gain.

Education and Training


States s et t heir o wn minim um a ge a nd r esidency requirements b ut sp ecify no f ormal cr iteria f or ed ucation a nd tra ining. A pproximately half o f G overnors have la w degr ees, a n ass et since g overnment is b uilt upon law. Also helpful is a background in the state legislature o r st atewide o ffice. S ome G overnors, t hough, have backgrounds unrelated to political office.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Mostbut not allGovernors have held prior political office. M any a re f ormer st ate legisla tors o r ha ve held statewide p ositions suc h as a ttorney general, s ecretary of state, or state treasurer. Some have carved out names for themselves in o ther fields. Californias Ronald Reagan st arred in H ollywood mo vies; L ouisianas co untry singer J immie D avis p opularized t he s ong You Ar e My S unshine; a nd M innesotas J esse V entura was a professional wrestler for 11 y ears. O ver the years, several medical do ctors have become Governor, as ha ve a florist and a trucker. Such seemingly unrelated positions might help prepare a Governor for the acting, fighting, arranging, and

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are poor because of the scarcity of p ositions: o nly 50 wi thin t he U nited S tates, unless one als o inc ludes t he co mmonwealths a nd t erritories. Although t echnically almost a nyone can r un for G overnor, t he hig h cos t o f ca mpaigning ca n b e a ma jor obstacle. I nsiders s ay t hat gub ernatorial ca mpaigns commonly cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Many Governors over the years have been members of w ell-known p olitical fa milies, lik e t he Ro ckefellers and B ushes, gi ving t hem b uilt-in na me r ecognition. Some wido ws o f G overnors ha ve t aken o ver t heir

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hard-driving endurance needed for the position. As the most p owerful o fficial in a s tate, t he G overnor s erves as t he em bodiment o f t hat st ate. G overnors sp eak f or all the people and so need to be able both to listen and to mob ilize su pport. The G overnor needs t o b e pa rt visionary, pa rt ma nager. G overnors m ust s et f orth a n agenda and persuade people to follow it.

Tips for Entry

Unions and Associations


Two key associations represent Governors: the National Governors Association and t he C ouncil of State G overnments.

1. Read b ooks a bout G overnors, inc luding b iographies of well-known leaders. 2. Become p olitically ac tive t hrough st udent g overnment a nd/or mem bership in t he p olitical party of your choice. 3. Volunteer or intern at the Governors office. 4. Identify y our o wn t op p olicy ob jectives. M ost new G overnors p resent a f ew k ey issues t o t he legislature.

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U.S. REPRESENTATIVE
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: C ampaign f or o ffice; a ttend e vents a nd meetings in the district; study staff reports and hear testimony on issues of concern; introduce, examine, and vote on bills; represent constituents Alternate T itle(s): M ember, C ongressman, C ongresswoman Salary Range: $162,100 to $180,100 Employment Prospects: Poor Advancement Prospects: Poor Best G eographical L ocation(s): Distr icts wi thout incumbents Prerequisites: Education or TrainingNo formal requirements ExperienceMust b e 25 y ears o f ag e a nd a legal resident of the state in which elected

CAREER LADDER
U.S. Senator U.S. Representative Other Elected Office or Political Position

Special Sk ills a nd P ersonality T raitsEffective political campaigning skills; strong decision-making abilities; a bility t o mo tivate co nstituents a nd st aff; massive amounts of energy and stamina

Position Description
Members o f t he U.S. H ouse o f Rep resentatives li ve in two different worlds: their home districts and the District of Columbia. As a r esult, t hey a re al ways bala ncing t heir r ole as district representatives with their function as la wmakers, according to Karen OConnor and Larry J. Sabato, authors o f The Es sentials o f A merican Go vernment: Continuity and Change. U.S. Representatives spend full days in their home districts, holding town meetings and other forums to keep in t ouch with constituents, t hen return to Washington, D.C., where they meet with party leaders, colleagues, and lobbyists. U.S. Rep resentatives dif fer f rom t heir co unterparts in the U.S. Senate in several ways. First, unlike U.S. Senators, who serve six-year terms, U.S. Representatives are elected every two years. Next, the House of Representatives is a much larger body, with four times more members than the Senate435 Representatives compared to 100 S enators. E ach st ate elec ts tw o S enators, w hereas the number of U.S. Representatives is bas ed on p opulation. E very 10 y ears distr icts a re r edrawn t o r eflect population shifts indicated by U.S. Census figures. The U .S. C onstitution gi ves la wmaking p owers t o both houses. All revenue bills originate in the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives also has the power to initiate impeachment, although the Senate is responsible for trying impeached officials.

Because of its larger size, the House of Representatives is mo re tig htly o rganized, ela borately s tructured, and strictly governed than the U.S. Senate. The Speaker of t he H ouse w ields eno rmous p ower. M uch o f t he work o f C ongress is do ne in co mmittees. U.S. Rep resentatives s erve on at le ast one committee and s everal subcommittees. Many seek committee assignments that offer a chance to bring home the bacon or build their power and influence within the chamber. U.S. Representatives use their staffs to research issues and k eep in t ouch wi th co nstituents. I n la rge distr icts, the Representatives caseworkers may ride the circuit, taking t he hel ping ha nd o f t he co ngressional o ffice t o various stops along the way. When U.S. Representatives visit the district, they often attend fund-raisers and civic events. Insiders say that, because of their two-year terms, U.S. Representatives are constantly running for office. In W ashington, D .C., U .S. Rep resentatives cast their votes on proposed legislation. Often, if a b ill is of great in terest t o co nstituents, t he Rep resentative v otes accordingly. In other cases, U.S. Representatives turn to their co lleagues, p olitical pa rties, in terest gr oups, a nd staff/support agencies for advice. A typical day for a U .S. Representative b egins with a morning committee meeting at 8 a.m. a nd runs well into t he e vening. Yet, f or all t he lo ng ho urs a nd ha rd work, thousands of Americans each year seek a s eat in Congress.

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Salaries
U.S. Representatives recently earned $162,100 a y ear the same salary as U.S. Senators, according to the U.S. Department of L abors Occupational O utlook H andbook. The S enate a nd H ouse M ajority a nd M inority Leaders earned $180,100.

tute 49 p ercent o f all H ouse mem bers. B usiness p rofessionals, e ducators (pa rticularly co llege p rofessors), entertainers, a nd w hite-collar p rofessionals als o a re fairly well represented in Congress.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Members of the U.S. House of Representative must be at least 25 years of age; have resided in the United States for a t le ast s even y ears; a nd b e legal r esidents o f t he states w here t hey a re elec ted. Al though t hose a re t he only f ormal r equirements f or o ffice, mos t U.S. Rep resentatives have considerable experience in politics. Almost 90 percent of recently elected House Members had p reviously held a nother public office, served as a pa rty o fficial, w orked as a p olitical a ide o r co nsultant, o r r un f or C ongress a t le ast o nce b efore g etting elec ted, acco rding t o P aul H errnson, a uthor o f Congressional E lections: C ampaigning a t Home a nd in Washington. Running f or o ffice r equires massi ve ener gy a nd stamina. B ecause U .S. Rep resentatives s erve tw o-year terms, those who plan to seek reelection are constantly campaigning for office. They must have the fund-raising, b udgeting, p ublic sp eaking, a nd p roblem-solving skills needed to run an effective campaign. Once in o ffice, U .S. Rep resentatives m ust b e a ble to lead by motivating and inspiring others. They need to mak e decisio ns q uickly, s ometimes o n t he basis o f limited or contradictory information. They should also know ho w t o r each co mpromises a nd s atisfy dif ferent constituencies. I n addi tion, U.S. Rep resentatives m ust be able to tackle hard issues and withstand the glare of intense media scrutiny.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re p oor b ecause o f t he limited number of positions435 nationwide. Incumbents have cer tain ad vantages o ver t heir c hallengers, inc luding name recognition, access to media, and fund-raising clout. In 1998, 97 p ercent of the incumbents in the U.S. Congress who sought reelection won their primary and general elec tion races, acco rding t o t he p olitical s cientists K aren O Connor a nd L arry J . Sa bato. V oluntary retirements, r egular distr ict c hanges, a nd o ccasional defeats, ho wever, allo w ne wcomers t o win elec tion t o the U.S. House of Representatives. Compared to that in the U.S. Senate, turnover in the House is relatively high.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects f or U .S. Rep resentatives a re poor because there are few higher offices to go around, according to Paul S. Herrnson, author of Congressional Elections: C ampaigning a t H ome an d in W ashington. Terms are longer (six years) and turnover is lower in the U.S. Senate than in t he House of Representatives, thus making it dif ficult for Members of t he lower house to move u p t o t he u pper ho use o f C ongress. U.S. Rep resentatives, however, can f ind opportunities for growth within t he H ouse i tself. M any U .S. Rep resentatives become sub committee or committee chairs, and a f ew rise to top leadership positions, which include speaker of the house, majority leader, minority leader, majority whip, and minority whip.

Unions and Associations


Political parties, such as t he D emocratic and Republican Parties, provide support to U.S. Representatives.

Education and Training


Although no formal education and training are required for public office, many U.S. Representatives have considerable bac kgrounds in p olitics o r r elated f ields. I n Congressional Ele ctions: Ca mpaigning a t H ome a nd i n Washington, P aul H errnson obs erves t hat indi viduals w ho claim law, p olitics, or public s ervice (many of whom have legal tra ining) as t heir p rofessions co nsti-

Tips for Entry

1. Seek a n in ternship in t he U.S. H ouse o f Rep resentatives. 2. Work on a candidates campaign. 3. Become familiar with the issues of your district. 4. Get experience in a lo wer elected office or other political position.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Serving as chief executive, commander in chief, foreign policy director, and all-around leader of the American people Alternate T itle(s): H ead o f S tate, Chief Ex ecutive, Commander in Chief Salary Range: $400,000 a year plus expenses Employment Prospects: Poor Advancement Prospects: Poor Best Geographical L ocation(s): Helpful to reside in a large state Prerequisites: Education or TrainingNo formal requirements ExperienceMust b e na tural-born U.S. ci tizen; a t least 35 y ears o ld; r esident o f U nited S tates f or a t least 14 years

CAREER LADDER
Retirement (e.g., lecturing, writing, charitable work) Presidency High Political Office (e.g., Governor, Senator, or Vice President)

Special S kills and P ersonality TraitsPersuasive; ambitious; politically savvy leader with stamina and grit

Position Description
Many p eople dr eam o f b eing P resident o f t he U nited States, b ut f ew e ver a pproach t he dizzyin g heig hts o f power that mark this position. Hailed as the most powerful leader in the world, the President can trigger war, inspire peace, and alter the course of history. The President is a sym bolic le ader, drawing together t he hopes, fears, asp irations, a nd dis appointments o f t he Amer ican p eople. I n t erms o f sheer na me r ecognition, t he President is the best known person in America. George C. Ed wards III, edi tor o f t he Presidential Quarterly, describes the presidency as the most odd and unique job in America. The position entails unrelenting responsibility a nd unimagina ble a uthority, t he heig hts of glory and the depths of despair. Despite some notable failures and scandals, the presidency has endured, shaping itself to the demands of changing times. George W ashington, a fter al l, p resided o ver o nly 13 st ates, no t 50, a nd had b ut o ne a ide, his nep hew, whom he pa id o ut o f his o wn p ocketa fa r cr y f rom the ex ecutive b ureaucracy o f t he 21st cen tury. Today every p ersonal a ppearance, u tterance, a nd mo vement of the President is held up to public scrutiny. Reporters interview Presidents about the most intimate details of their private lives. Comedians lampoon the Oval Office on late-night TV. Such de velopments no twithstanding, t he Founding Fathers established the loose outlines of the office when

they dra fted t he C onstitution. A ccording t o Clin ton Rossiter, author of The American Presidency, t he C onstitution assigns to the President the following roles: Chief of Stateacting as figurehead Chief Executiverunning the government Commander in Chiefco mmanding t he a rmed forces Chief Diplomatmaking foreign policy Chief Legislatorinitiating and vetoing legislation As the nations top leader, the President of the United States helps people make sense of the political process. Instead o f wadin g t hrough co ngressional co mmittees and ex ecutive ag encies, ci tizens ca n t urn t o o ne p ersonthe P residentto t ake c harge. O ver t he y ears, Presidents ha ve in terpreted t he C onstitution in wa ys that have expanded rather than limited the position. Abraham L incoln, widel y r egarded as t he gr eatest American President, used unprecedented power to hold the nation t ogether d uring i ts da rkest ho urthe Ci vil War. F ranklin D elano Ro osevelt p ioneered w hat has become known as the modern presidency by expanding the f ederal g overnment in to f ormerly unc harted a reas of social welfare during the Great Depression. Presidents earn much of their authority through the power of persuasion, often known as the the bully pulpit. Franklin Roosevelt communicated via radio, using

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41

his fireside chats. President Ronald Reagan, a f ormer actor, won the nickname of the Great Communicator. Whereas s ome P residents o f t he U nited S tates Franklin Ro osevelt inc ludedhave b een a ble t o p ush legislation through Congress, others have encountered gridlock, pa rticularly w hen t he o pposition pa rty has had t he r eins o f C ongress. S ome obs ervers s ay t hat Americans expect the President, who is a mer e mortal, to act like Superman. The demands on the President of the United States make for a hectic, nonstop schedule, juggling the needs of va rious co nstituencies. A typ ical da y in t he lif e o f the President involves a w hirl of meetings with advisers, w orking o n p olicy ma tters, makin g sp eeches, a nd carrying out public functions. The P resident might go from a sym bolic d uty lik e la ying t he wr eath o n t he Tomb o f t he U nknown S oldier t o signin g a co ngressional bill to meeting with economic advisers to discuss ways to reduce unemployment. No o ne ca n kno w in ad vance t he dilemmas t o b e raised o r t he q uestions t o b e ask ed o f t he P resident. President L yndon B aines J ohnson p ut i t a ptly w hen he s aid, The r ecognition o f unr elenting r esponsibility reminds me o f the truth of a st atement I he ard my father r epeat ma ny times: Son y ou will ne ver under stand what it is to be a father until you are a father.

one unable to hold up on the campaign trail would be unlikely to cope well with t he extraordinary pressures of the Oval Office. Americans vote for the President of the United States every four years on the Tuesday after the first Monday in N ovember. D elegates t o t he E lectoral C ollege ul timately decide which candidate wins the election. Despite t heir dif ferences in sty le a nd ideo logy, American P residents ha ve b een a fa irly ho mogeneous lot: w hite, male , a nd o verwhelmingly P rotestant. One Roman C atholic, J ohn F. K ennedy, was elec ted P resident, b ut s o fa r no w oman o r mem ber o f a racial o r ethnic minority has held office.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re p oor b ecause t he p residency is t he top political position in t he United States, making it a hard act to follow. The President is limited to tw o t erms in o ffice. On le aving o ffice, most P residents retire to lecturing, writing, visiting their presidential libraries, and/or performing charitable work. A few Presidents of the United States have left office in disgrace . I mpeachment, a p roceeding wi th w hich charges are raised by a legislative branch of a government against civil officials, dates back to ancient Greece. In the United States, only t hree PresidentsAndrew Johnson, Richard Nixon, and Bill Clintonwere in real danger of being removed from office through impeachment. Richard Nixon resigned from office rather than face a vote for his removal. Votes to convict Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton fell short of the required margins.

Salaries
The P resident o f t he U nited S tates e arns a s alary o f $400,000, acco rding t o t he D epartment o f L abors Occupational O utlook H andbook. The s alary is o nly a fraction of what a professional athlete earns. The President and members of the First Family live in the White House. I n addi tion, t he P resident r eceives a n exp ense account, funds for travel and entertainment, and retirement b enefits. A p ersonal s taff is r eady t o s atisfy t he Presidents tastes for everything from food and drink to limousines and helicopters.

Education and Training


The C onstitution specifies no f ormal requirements for the ed ucation a nd tra ining, b ut v oters lo ok c losely a t the backgrounds of presidential candidates.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Most P residents o f t he U nited S tates ha ve s erved in high p olitical o ffice as g overnors, s enators, o r vice presidents, but what they did beforehand varies widely. Some Presidents (e.g., Richard Nixon) followed a fairly conventional political path, rising from local to national office, while others carved out careers in t otally different f ields. J immy C arter was a p eanut fa rmer; Ro nald Re agan, a H ollywood ac tor; a nd G eorge W. B ush, an o ilman. W hereas B ill Clin ton kne w f rom a n e arly age he wa nted to be President, many others, including Harry Truman, Ro nald Re agan, a nd G eorge W. B ush, showed no such inclinations. Scholars offer a variety of theories on what makes for a successful President but agree on a f ew basic p oints.

Employment Prospects
Because t he p residency is a ho tly co ntested p osition held b y o nly o ne p erson, em ployment p rospects a re extremely poor. Nevertheless, anyone who is at least 35 years old, has lived in the United States at least 14 years, and is a natural-born citizen can serve as President. In reality, t hough, f ew indi viduals have t he exp erience, support, and endurance needed t o win t he presidency. No President since George Washington has made it to office without a f ight. Presidential campaigns are notoriously gr ueling. A s Emmet J ohn H ughes p oints out in The L iving Pr esidency, t he ca mpaign tra il ca n toughen and ready the President-elect for office. Some-

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Successful Presidents tend to be persuasive, ambitious, extroverted, politically shrewd, resilient, and energetic. Emmet J ohn Hughes in The L iving Pr esidency, as serts that successful Presidents share six traits: Sense of confidence Sense of proportion Sense of drama Sense of timing Sense of constancy Sense of humanity

contributed to his ineffectiveness in office (Good man; wrong profession, one observer said).

Unions and Associations


There is no organization of American Presidents, although scholars meet through institutions such as the Center for the Study of the Presidency in Washington, D.C.

Tips for Entry

Examples of these traits pepper history. John F. Kennedys sense of confidence, for example, helped citizens believe in their own capacities and the possibilities of the nation. A s ense o f p roportion ca n p revent mino r incidents from snowballing. Presidents like Theodore Roosevelt with a s ense of drama can turn potential disasters into photo opportunities. Thos e with a s ense of timing know w hen t o wa it a nd w hen t o str ike. Abraham L incoln, for instance, chose the opportune moment to end slavery in t he st ates a t wa r wi th t he U nion. S uccessful Presidents also share a sense of stability and compassion. The tra its t hat mak e f or a s uccessful P resident o f the United S tates a re no t al ways t he s ame as t hose o f a good p erson. F ranklin Ro osevelts appeal t o p olitical melo drama, f or exa mple, mig ht b e co nsidered a distasteful p ersonal tra it, e ven t hough i t undo ubtedly contributed to his success as P resident. D wight Eis enhowers dislike of political theatrics, on the other hand,

1. Recognize t hat t his is a p osition wi th no co nventional career path. Although almost all Presidents have held high political office, they worked in a va riety o f dif ferent p ositions b eforehand, including farming and acting. 2. Do something very well in the public eye. Ronald Reagan, for example, excelled at giving speeches. All P residents ha ve sha red a s ense o f a mbition, leading them to excel in public. 3. Develop political savvy. Almost all Presidents have held high political office; the position of governor has often opened the door to the presidency. 4. Learn a bout t he success es a nd fa ilures o f past Presidents. C olleges and universities commonly offer under graduate co urses in t he p residency through their political science departments, and the C enter f or t he S tudy o f t he P residency, in Washington, D .C., p rovides lec tures, co nferences, a nd f ellowships. B ooks o n t he Amer ican presidency abound.

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PART II

GOVERNMENT

LOCAL/STATE GENERAL POSITIONS

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: P roviding g eneral administra tive su pport; scheduling a nd a ttending meetin gs; t aking no tes and messages; conducting research Alternate T itle(s): M anagement A ssistant, Ex ecutive Assistant, Ex ecutive S ecretary, D epartment A ssistant, Program Assistant Salary Range: $18,000 to $40,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): Me tropolitan a reas, state capitals Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingVaries, dep ending o n whether the position is on a professional or nonprofessional track

CAREER LADDER
Manager Administrative Assistant Intern or Student

ExperienceMany p ositions en try-level; s ome work experience sometimes required in larger jurisdictions Special S kills and P ersonality T raitsFlexible; adaptable; skillful in communication

Position Description
Administrative A ssistants straddle t he line b etween clerical a nd ma nagement, dep ending o n t heir ed ucational background and the needs of the employer. Over the years, the term Administrative Assistant has become increasingly iden tified wi th s ecretarial w ork. A s g overnment has grown more complex, jobs once known as Administrative A ssistant ha ve b een r etitled t o inc lude town administrator, assistant to the town manager, and administrative analyst. Nevertheless, some municipalities have retained the title o f A dministrative A ssistant f or st affers wi th hig h levels of responsibility. In these cases, the Administrative A ssistant r eports dir ectly t o t he s elect b oard o r the town manager. The Administrative Assistant might develop sho rt- a nd lo ng-term p lans, co nduct st udies, prepare r esearch, a nd ha ndle s ensitive ci tizen co mplaints and confidential employee matters. Sometimes t he administrative pa rt o f th e ti tle i s dropped, as in r esearch as sistant, gra nts assist ant, o r assistant t o a t op p olicy o fficial. Or t he ti tle mig ht b e hyphenated, as in administra tive assistantgrants administrator or administrative-financial assistant. A Program Assistant might be someone with a college degree and a year of relevant experience who does professional-level work developing and implementing programs. Some p rofessional ass ociations us e ma nagement assistant t o enco mpass a wide ra nge o f p ositions,

including no t o nly A dministrative A ssistants b ut als o higher-level p ositions suc h as administra tive a nalysts (e.g., budget analysts, management analysts). Generally, management assist ants p erform mo re co mplex t asks than A dministrative A ssistants. A ma nagement assistant mig ht de velop a nd implement p erformance me asurement sys tems a nd co ordinate t he b udget p rocess. This position might require a masters degree in public administration a nd a f ew y ears o f p rofessional exp erience. I n N orthern C alifornia, s ome A dministrative Assistant positions have been upgraded to management analyst. Another title, executive assistant, applies to positions assisting t op decisio n mak ers. The ex ecutive assis tant might trac k legisla tive b ills a nd s erve as administrative coordinator for the agency, resolving problems and responding to complaints in a confidential manner. Executive assistants with masters degrees in p ublic administration usually are on their way up the career ladder. Individuals w ho prove t hemselves on t he job o ften are ask ed t o t ake o n mo re r esponsibility. An ex ecutive assist ant w ho g ets e veryone co ffee in t he mo rning mig ht b e c hairing a meetin g in t he a fternoon. A manager might turn-to a trusted executive assistant for advice, s aying s omething along t he lines o f This language s ounds t oo ha rsh. H ow mig ht w e c hange i t? The executive assistant might be asked to represent the manager at meetings and conferences.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Positions t end t o b e ra nked, as in A dministrative A ssistant I, II, a nd s o f orth. At t he st ate le vel, a n Administrative Assistant II mig ht conduct research for the budget director and report on the results. Generally sp eaking, A dministrative A ssistants perform a mix o f c lerical t asks a nd sp ecial p rojects. Whereas a low-level clerical worker might simply type a letter, an Administrative Assistant would probably draft it as well. Common responsibilities also include Responding to information requests from the public as well as other government personnel Serving as liaison to other departments and agencies Maintaining databases Screening phone calls Reserving space, preparing agendas, and taking notes for meetings Handling co rrespondence, inc luding p hotocopying and faxing Assisting in collecting and analyzing data Preparing reports

erally q ualifies ca ndidates f or p ositions t hat a re mo re clerical in nature. Upper management positions, on the other hand, may call for a masters degree.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Administrative A ssistants need t o b e w ell-organized, efficient, a nd a rticulate. Ex cellent o ral a nd wr itten communication skills a re a m ust. Many p ositions als o require str ong co mputer skills, p articularly in w ord processing, spreadsheet, database, and related software. Administrative A ssistants a re al ways p erforming a variety o f assignmen ts a nd s o need t o b e a ble t o p rioritize t asks. An A dministrative A ssistant mig ht w ork nights a nd w eekends d uring p eak w ork c ycles b ut b e compensated wi th o vertime pa y. I ndividuals m ust b e flexible a nd ada ptable since A dministrative A ssistants often act as gophers.

Unions and Associations


The American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Em ployees (AFSCME) a nd t he N ational A ssociation of Government Employees (NAGE) are unions that r epresent g overnment w orkers. The Amer ican Society f or Pub lic A dministration is a b road-based organization o f p rofessionals in lo cal, st ate, a nd f ederal government. State municipal associations provide professional guida nce, as do ass ociations t hat ha ve sprung u p sp ecifically f or m unicipal ma nagement assistants in Ar izona, C alifornia, C olorado, Illino is, Ohio, and Texas.

Salaries
Salaries f or A dministrative A ssistants va ry widel y. Large lo cal and st ate governments generally pay more than smaller o nes. M any p ositions pay in t he $18,000 to 24,000 ra nge. A hig hly r esponsible A dministrative Assistant for a small town may earn less than a support staffer for a large city or state department.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good because busy managers and administrators need assist ants to help ease the workload. A st eady turnover rate means new openings are often available.

Tips for Entry


1. Look f or job o penings in a va riety o f p laces. Check t he listin gs o f lo cal a nd st ate p ersonnel offices, university career centers, municipal associations, a nd ne wspaper c lassified ads. M any positions are also listed on the Internet. 2. Keep in mind that Administrative Assistant positions may be largely clerical in nature. 3. Seek o ut in ternship p ossibilities. M any g overnment offices use Administrative Interns. 4. Take st ock o f y our sho rt-term a nd lo ng-term career goals. If you are interested in a pa rticular issue, look for an Administrative Assistant position t hat de als wi th i t. D evelop t echniques f or upward mob ility suc h as r sum wr iting, networking, and interviewing skills. I f you want to advance to top management p ositions, consider getting a masters degree in public administration or a related field.

Advancement Prospects
Many p ositions o ffer o pportunities f or ad vancement. An Administrative Assistant in the state budget bureau, for instance, might be able to advance to a more responsible position in fiscal policy. Administrative Assistants who make t hemselves indisp ensable can, within a f ew years, rise to key positions.

Education and Training


Generally sp eaking, t he mo re r esponsible t he job , t he more education is required. A bachelors degree is generally the minimum for positions involving responsible administrative d uties. U seful f ields o f st udy inc lude public administra tion, b usiness administra tion, a nd political science. An ass ociates degree in business gen-

LOCAL/STATE GENERAL POSITIONS

49

MANAGEMENT ANALYST
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Ga thering a nd a nalyzing da ta; r esearching trends; preparing reports Alternate T itle(s): A dministrative Anal yst, B udget Analyst, Program Analyst Salary Range: $24,000 to $62,000 Employment Prospects: Good to excellent Advancement Prospects: Good to excellent Best G eographical L ocation(s): L arge ci ties, s tate capitals Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingBachelors o r mast ers degree

CAREER LADDER
Manager Management Analyst Intern or Student

ExperienceEntry-level o r s ome r elevant w ork experience Special Sk ills and P ersonality T raitsAnalytical; computer-literate; task-oriented; good with numbers

Position Description
Management Analysts gather and evaluate information to help managers answer a variety of questions: Is paid sick leave up or down? Are tax revenues increasing or decreasing? H ow ma ny b uildings a re b eing in spected each year? These types of questions are being asked with increasing frequency as government tries to improve its reputation by boosting efficiency. Much as co nsultants in t he p rivate s ector do , Management Anal ysts in g overnment e valuate a n organizations structure and suggest ways to improve efficiency. The tr end in g overnment is t oward vie wing t axpayers as c ustomers. Managers are turning t o performance me asurement t o im prove c ustomer service. Ar e t axpayers g etting t he most f or t heir money? If not, what can be changed? Often Management Analysts use computer spreadsheets to organize their data. Some M anagement Anal ysts w ork under co ntract. For instance, a st ate agency might hire a M anagement Analyst t o im prove in ternal o rganization a nd o perating p rocedures. The indi vidual mig ht g o t o dif ferent departments t o obs erve st affers in ac tion, p erhaps interviewing them about their particular jobs. Although Management Analysts in g overnment do much the same work as those in the private sector, they labor under different constraints. Rules and regulations abound. An ordinance from the 1800s might well affect the way a lo cal depa rtment is o rganized t oday. Of ten, Management Analysts are ranked by level. S ome posi-

tions o nce kno wn as A dministrative A ssistant ha ve been retitled Management Analyst. Generally, M anagement Anal ysts p erform t hree basic f unctions: b udget a nalysis, e valuating w hether or no t t he depa rtment is o perating wi thin b udget; management a nalysis, a nalyzing g eneral ma nagement issues; p rogram a nalysis, lo oking in to w hether o r no t the program is meeting its goals. As budget analysts, t hey advise and assist in es tablishing b udgets t o distr ibute f unds ef ficiently a mong programs. Their work begins when the heads of various programs or departments submit their budget proposals. Management Analysts compare these to the budgets of p revious y ears. Ar e t he p roposed incr eases w orkable? Are various departments getting their fair share? Often Management Analysts work closely with managers to fine-tune the budget, which ultimately has t o be approved b y t he he ad o f t he ag ency. Once t he b udget has been approved, the Management Analyst monitors it, lo oking a t mo nthly st atements t o mak e sur e t hat funds are being used appropriately. Some Management Analysts compare their work with budgets to managing a checking account. They need to make sure that withdrawals do not exceed deposits. Other a nalysts de al mo re wi th p rograms. U sually, the analyst in t heir ti tles p recedes a pa rticular a rea o f expertise, suc h as r edevelopment a nalyst, tra ffic a nalyst, or criminal analyst. An environmental analyst, for instance, might have a degr ee in b iology, chemistry, or a physical science.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Although M anagement Ana lysts te nd to b e ge neralists, t hey mig ht b e gi ven a t ask lik e lo oking in to t he funding possibilities for a particular program. Could the program be self-supporting? How much would citizens be willin g t o pa y in f ees? W hat kind o f gra nt s ources are available? Should money from existing departments be us ed? The M anagement Anal yst typ ically w ould research all possible alternatives and write a report. In addition, Management Analysts Review and analyze operating procedures Confer with staff to identify problems and needs Initiate special studies Determine t he met hods t o b e us ed in co nducting studies Recommend changes in o perations methods, procedures, and programs Compile va rious kinds o f inf ormation f or ma nagement use

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Strong a nalytical skills a re a m ust f or t his p osition. Management Anal ysts ga ther a nd ca tegorize inf ormation. Strong math skills help with the quantitative work. Management Analysts define problems, establish facts, and dra w co nclusions. Of ten t hey in terpret co mplex and technical material. They need to be be able to make sound decisions. Management Anal ysts als o sho uld b e g ood co mmunicatorsboth v erbally a nd in wri ting. M anagement Analysts prepare reports that need t o be concise and acc urate. I ndividuals m ust b e p ersuasive eno ugh to ga in accep tance f or t heir p rojects. The y need t o b e computer-literate a nd kno wledgeable a bout t he wa y government w orks. M anagement Anal ysts sho uld b e both self-starters and team players.

Unions and Associations


Management Anal ysts mig ht b e pa rt o f t he ba rgaining uni t o f t he N ational A ssociation o f G overnment Employees (NAGE) or another union representing professional, su pervisory, o r t echnical p ositions. P rofessional associations of interest to Management Analysts include t he Amer ican S ociety f or Pub lic A dministration and state municipal associations. Associations have been cr eated sp ecifically f or m unicipal M anagement Assistants in Ar izona, C alifornia, C olorado, Illino is, Ohio, and Texas.

Salaries
Salaries vary by education, exp erience, and size o f t he government en tity. G enerally, la rge en tities pa y mo re than smaller ones. Many positions pay in the $35,000 to $55,000 range. Management Analysts are often ranked by le vel: Management Analyst I, M anagement Analyst II, and so forth.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent b ecause local, state, and federal agencies are looking for ways to become more efficient. Opportunities for Management Analysts ca n b e f ound a t t he lo cal, st ate, a nd f ederal levels. If, however, a local entity is very small, such as a village, it probably wont need a Management Analyst.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent, esp ecially for entry-level positions. Individuals can rise from Management Analyst I t o Management Analyst II, a nd so forth. From there, they might become a department head or assistant city manager.

Education and Training


A bac helors degree or equivalent exp erience is g enerally required for entry-level Management Analyst positions in g overnment. A mast ers degr ee in b usiness, public administration, or a r elated field may substitute for required experience.

1. Take courses involving qualitative and quantitative research methods. 2. Seek o ut a n in ternship. M any in ternships o pen the doors to full-time employment. 3. Check help wanteds in a variety of places: local and state personnel offices, university career centers, newspaper classified ads, a nd state municipal associations. 4. Find o ut a bout co nferences a nd o ther ca reerdevelopment o pportunities o ffered b y st ate municipal associations. 5. Consider getting a masters degree in public administration o r a r elated f ield if y ou a re in terested in mo ving u p t o u pper ma nagement in g overnment or consulting positions in the private sector. Employers in the private sector generally look for Management Anal ysts wi th a mast ers degr ee in business administration or a related discipline.

LOCAL/STATE GENERAL POSITIONS

51

PROGRAM MANAGER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Managing a particular program; acting as a liaison to other agencies; planning projects and activities Alternate T itle(s): P rogram C oordinator, P rogram Supervisor Salary Range: $32,000 to $70,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): L arge me tropolitan areas, state capitals Prerequisites: Education or TrainingTwo to five years relevant program experience

CAREER LADDER
Manager Director Program Manager Program Worker/Supervisor

ExperienceBachelors or masters degree Special Skills and P ersonality TraitsGood communication, management, and organizational skills

Position Description
Program Managers do j ust as t heir title implies: They manage programs. The way they go about this, though, varies widel y. P rogram M anagers s pan t he ra nge o f government p rograms. J ust a bout a ny sp ecialty ca n precede the word manager, including arts, alcohol and drug r ehabilitation, a nd tra nsportation. The r esponsibilities of Program Managers dep end largely on t he needs o f t he pa rticular a gency. A P rogram M anager in he alth a nd h uman s ervices mig ht co unsel c lients and su pervise st aff, w hereas s omeone wi th t he s ame title in tra nsportation mig ht b e he avily in volved in public relations. Yet another Program Manager might coordinate ac tivities ra nging f rom ho liday pa rties t o special classes. Many Program Managers act as liaisons for government, private, and nonprofit agencies. If, for instance, a state co ntracts o ut men tal-health s ervices t o a p rivate agency, a P rogram Manager might oversee training for the contracted employees. Some p ositions a re t emporary, t he result of gra nts. A state public health agency, for instance, might receive a grant to offer outreach services to citizens with infectious diseases. The position of Program Manager might go to s omeone with a mast ers degree in p ublic he alth and a bac kground in ep idemiology. I n s ome j urisdictions a P rogram M anager mig ht b e a bove a p rogram coordinator, w hereas in o thers o ne p erson ha ndles all the r esponsibilities. S ome P rogram M anagers mig ht also b e called Anal ysts. I n addi tion t o b eing fa miliar

with t he ni tty-gritty w orkings o f t he p rogram i tself, they need t o b e a ble t o st ep bac k a nd lo ok a t t he b ig picture. H ow ma ny st affers a re needed? H ow sho uld they b e tra ined? Is t he depa rtment w orking within its budget? Like ma ny p ositions in g overnment, t hose o f P rogram Managers are ranked by level: Program Manager I, P rogram M anager II, a nd s o f orth. Typically, hig hlevel Program Managers are more involved in management matters. The la rger t he o rganization, t he mo re co mplex the logistical issues. The P rogram Manager needs t o grapple wi th a va riety o f q uestions: W hats t he b est way to get out a mess age to 500 p eople? Is it b est to arrange a meeting or send a memo? Does a particular problem need t o b e s olved no w, o r ca n i t wa it un til next week? In addition, many Program Managers also Conduct surveys and studies Provide guidance and direction to staff Review, e valuate, a nd r eport o n as signed p rogram areas Maintain reports and records Attend agency planning sessions

Salaries
Salaries va ry widel y acco rding t o le vel a nd t he na ture of a p rogram and its funding. Many salaries are in t he $35,000 to $50,000 range.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good. At the state level, for instance, most la rge agencies have programs that need to b e co ordinated a nd ma naged. C andidates sho uld apply to agencies best suited to their backgrounds.

youth p rograms w ould typ ically ha ve had exp erience as a youth worker, then as a program supervisor. Coordinating programs requires knowledge of not only the particular program but also general management skills: how t o delega te r esponsibility, r ecruit w orkers, a nd motivate employees.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood since o ne ca n mo ve up t he ladder t o a hig her-level P rogram M anager o r management p osition. P rogram M anagers hir ed o n a contract basis, ho wever, ha ve mo re limi ted p rospects since their work is time-limi ted. Once t heir contract is up, their work ends.

Unions and Associations


Program Managers might be part of the bargaining unit of the National Association of Government Employees (NAGE) o r a nother unio n r epresenting p rofessional, supervisory, o r t echnical p ositions. P rofessional ass ociations o f in terest t o P rogram M anagers inc lude t he American S ociety f or Pub lic Administration a nd st ate municipal associations.

Education and Training


Educational r equirements dep end o n t he typ e o f p rogram b eing ma naged a nd t he needs o f t he pa rticular agency. A degr ee in acco unting mig ht b e b est f or t he department of revenue, social work for human services, physical s cience f or a n en vironmental ag ency, a nd s o forth. A desir ed degr ee mig ht substi tute f or a y ear o r two of required experience. A masters degree in a pa rticular program area can help Program Managers move up the career ladder.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Most p ositions r equire exp erience in t he pa rticular program a rea. F or in stance, a P rogram M anager f or

1. Determine y our o wn a rea o f in terest. W hich issues appeal to you most? 2. Volunteer o r g et a n in ternship in y our f ield o f interest. In s ome f ields, part-time or temporary positions offer a good foot in the door. 3. Check listin gs in a va riety o f p laces: ne wspaper help wa nteds, co llege ca reer o ffices, m unicipal association and state personnel websites. Browse job listings, checking to see whether or not you have t he required education a nd exp erience f or the position.

LOCAL/STATE GENERAL POSITIONS

53

PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICER


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Disseminating information to the media; acting as a spokesperson; writing and producing materials; presenting information to the public Alternate T itle(s): I nformation Of ficer, I nformation and Communication Specialist Salary Range: $30,000 to $75,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Fair Best Geographical Location(s): Capital cities and large metropolitan areas Prerequisites: Education or TrainingCollege degree in journalism, communications, or a related field ExperienceTwo y ears minim um in p rofessional media or news setting

CAREER LADDER
Communications Director Public Information Officer Writer/Reporter or Press Assistant

Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsGood w riting skills; o utgoing p ersonality; r esourcefulness; ability t o est ablish p rofessional ra pport wi th t he media

Position Description
Public I nformation Of ficers a re t he jac ks-of-all-trades of g overnment co mmunications. The y wr ite p ress releases, gather information, prepare speeches, produce newsletters, a nd s erve as t he p rimary co mmunicators for government agencies. PIOs, as they are called, often wear three different hats: Public relations: promoting t he work of t he government agency Public affairs: dealing with policy issues Public information: making information available to the public How much time is devoted to each specialty depends largely on t he na ture of t he go vernment age ncy. A PIO f or a g overnment-run zo o, pa rk, o r m useum, f or instance, might be heavily involved in p ublic relations. He o r she needs t o g et o ut p ositive ne ws t o a ttract people to the site. Sometimes all t hree sp ecialties b lend t ogether in the course of one project. For instance, a PI O involved in a n ef fort t o p romote t he st ate pa rks mig ht wa nt t o inform the public about their weaknesses (e.g., deteriorating condition) as w ell as t heir strengths in a n effort to garner public support for increased funding. Proposals might be made, funding possibilities discussed. The PIO would then branch into the field of public affairs.

Public Information Officers have many of the same responsibilities as p ress s ecretaries, al though t hey generally w ork f or ag encies ra ther t han indi viduals. The D epartment o f En vironmental M anagement, f or instance, might have a PIO, whereas the governor has a press secretary. Typically, the PIO is a ca reer employee and t he p ress s ecretary is a p olitical a ppointee. B oth might call themselves spokespersons. Others, though, might r efer t o t hem b y mo re der ogatory t erms suc h as flaks or spin doctors. Although such terms have negative co nnotations, PI Os ac knowledge t hat spin can b e a r eality o f t he job . The y need t o mak e t heir government organizations look good. To do this, seasoned PIOs emphasize the importance of well-reasoned decisions in t heir co nversations wi th p olicy mak ers. Poor decisions dont spin well, they say. Many PI Os ha ve a bac kground in ne ws r eporting, which hel ps t hem kno w ho w t o p itch st ories t o t he media. I s i t a q uirky s tory f or radio? W hat mig ht a n editorial writer need t o know? Could a f eature accompany the news story? What kind of visuals are available for TV? Public inf ormation is a f ield un to i tselfnot t o b e confused wi th inf ormation sys tems. Al though b oth positions have information in their titles, an information systems officer de als more with t he t echnical end of co mmunications, suc h as co mputers a nd t elecommunications. Public Information Officers, on the other

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

hand, help governments communicate with the people, often via the media. Typical responsibilities of PIOs include Conferring with government officials Attending and assisting at press conferences Overseeing websites Coordinating publicity Writing sp eeches (s peechwriting is ra rely a s eparate position) Directing multimedia p rojects s uch as p ublic a ffairs announcements Developing posters, flyers, T-shirts, and so forth Managing a st andardized p olicy f or diss eminating information Work in t his f ield ca n b e str essful, pa rticularly in agencies f requently involved in co ntroversial issues. A government age ncy ma y b e a ccused of w rongdoing, perhaps even be sued. Public Information Officers need to a nswer dif ficult q uestions suc h as, W hy did y our agency issue a p ermit for an industrial facility next t o a school? Such dif ficult assignments, t hough, can b e rewarding, as PI Os facili tate co mmunication wi th t he p ublic. S ome PIOs work long hours, including nig hts and weekends. They are called o ut en mass e to inform the public about emergencies such as hurricanes and earthquakes.

of i ts p erformance. S ome indi viduals w ho s ee limi ted prospects in journalism are attracted to the more regular hours and higher pay of the field.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re fa ir b ecause co mpetition increases as o ne moves up the career ladder. For PIOs, the natural step up is to communications director. Communications dir ectors a re t he vision p eople w ho s et the communications policies for staffers such as PIOs to follow. PIOs then communicate that vision to the media. The communications director mig ht supervise a n umber of staffers, including Web and publications people as well as the PIO. Usually it takes two to five years to move up from PIO to communications director.

Education and Training


Many Pub lic I nformation Of ficers ha ve a bac helors degree in jo urnalism, b roadcast jo urnalism, En glish, communications, or public relations. A masters degree in p ublic administration ca n hel p indi viduals ad vance their careers.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Public Information Officers generally have some news experience, as b eing media-savvy is cr itical. Top-notch writing skills a re a m ust. I ndividuals n eed t o kn ow how t o o rganize a nd p resent inf ormation c learly a nd effectively. They also must be knowledgeable about the workings of government. Being resourceful counts for a lot in t his field. Public I nformation Of ficers need t o dig u p inf ormation quickly a nd co mmunicate w ell wi th dif ferent typ es o f people. Pub lic I nformation Of ficers a re al ways j uggling m ultiple t asks, w orking aga inst tig ht de adlines. When asked tough questions by the media, they need to respond professionally. This can be a high-pressure job.

Salaries
Salaries depend largely on an individuals level of experience. A Pub lic I nformation Of ficer mig ht b egin a t about $25,000 but move up to a higher level after a few years o n t he jo b. M any PI Os mak e in t he $45,000 t o $65,000 range, according to the National Association of Government Communicators. Pay classification usually coincides wi th t he co mplexity o f t he w ork. A gencies dealing wi th co mplex issues g enerally pa y t he hig hest salaries.

Unions and Associations


Public I nformation Of ficers mig ht b elong t o a va riety of ass ociations, including the National Association of G overnment C ommunicators (N AGC), t he Ci tyCounty C ommunications a nd M arketing A ssociation (3CMA), a nd/or st ate o rganizations p roviding p rofessional assist ance t o g overnment co mmunicators. NAGC de als wi th g overnment co mmunication a t a ll levels of governmentlocal, state, and federal. 3CMA, on the other hand, addresses issues at the local level and includes g eneral g overnment p ersonnel suc h as ci ty/ county managers as w ell as t hose involved sp ecifically in communications.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood b ecause g overnment, as do es p rivate ind ustry, r ecognizes t he im portance of ef fective co mmunication. Op portunities f or Pub lic Information Of ficers ca n b e f ound in lo cal, st ate, a nd federal government. Current trends, too, contribute to the growth of the information ind ustry. Pub lic I nformation Of ficers a re needed to deal with the publics increased demand for information, t he expa nsion o f t he I nternet, a nd t he efforts o f g overnment t o co mbat nega tive p erceptions

LOCAL/STATE GENERAL POSITIONS

55

Tips for Entry

1. Get media exp erience, p referably w orking f or a newspaper. Many newspapers hire stringers to cover meetin gs. Thes e pa rt-time r eporters ga in the experience needed for full-time employment. 2. Seek a n in ternship wi th a ne wspaper o r o ther media o utlet (e .g., T V, radio s tation, o r p ublic relations firm). 3. Scan g overnment w ebsites f or o penings. Chec k out st ate p ersonnel o r m unicipal ass ociation

sites. B efore a pplying f or a p osition, fa miliarize yourself with the work of the particular agency. 4. Set up an informational interview with someone in a n a gency t hat in terests y ou a nd ask t o b e apprised of future openings. 5. Attend events sponsored by professional associations. 6. Stay up to date onand understand t he workings o fthe la test f orms o f inf ormation t echnology.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

LOCAL POLITICAL AIDE


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: S cheduling; a nswering t he p hone; wr iting; researching; attending meetings Alternate T itle(s): M ayors Aide , C ouncilors Aide , Executive Assistant, Executive Secretary Salary Range: $28,000 to $36,000+ Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Fair Best Geographical Location: Larger cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree; masters degree preferred ExperienceInternship; political campaign work

CAREER LADDER
Higher-level Staffer Political Aide Volunteer Campaign Worker

Special S kills a nd P ersonality T raitsLoyalty; dedication; q uick le arner; t eam p layer; f lexibility; willingness to work long hours

Position Description
Local Political Aides assist mayors, city councilors, and other elec ted o fficials wi th s cheduling, r esearching, answering t he p hone, a nd p erforming mis cellaneous other tasks. In busy offices, where requests pour in f or the elected officials time a nd attention, L ocal Political Aides serve as important buffers. Often elected officials want to be perceived as nice and so delegate the task of s aying no t o t heir p olitical aides. When angry constituents call , L ocal P olitical Aides need t o k eep t heir cool and ask how they can help. Turning down requests is a skill t hat requires b oth firmness and diplomacy. Local Political Aides m ust be sensitive to the needs of different groups. The Chamber of C ommerce mig ht have one s et of needs, a co mmunity group another. Some requests involve funding. The Local Political Aide needs to say no to all inappropriate requests. S ometimes t he L ocal Political Aide ca n refer the caller to another source of help. Many calls involve requests for the elected officials time. For instance, Can the elected official attend an event that day? The L ocal Political Aide mig ht exp lain t hat s cheduling is do ne weeks in advance. Scheduling is also an important part of this job. Often, t he elec ted official and t he L ocal Political Aide have a w eekly s cheduling meetin g. T imea p recious commodity in p olitical lif eneeds t o b e s cheduled wisely s o all co nstituents are well-represented. E lected officials conserve time b y delegating various responsibilities to their Local Political Aides. Aides often do the tedious b ut necess ary w ork o f dig ging t hrough do cu-

ments. F or in stance, t hey mig ht f ind o ut w hich ci ties have curfews and which ones dont so the elected official can sound well-informed on the issue. Local P olitical Aides assist wi th co mmunications such as p ress releases and letters to constituents. Since some co nstituents f rame let ters f rom elec ted o fficials, Local P olitical Aides need t o wr ite acc urately a nd grammatically. The L ocal Political Aide als o mig ht b e included in s trategy sessions. Whats the best response to the budget crisis? How can he or she best support the elected o fficial? The L ocal P olitical Aide mig ht s erve as a lia ison to other political officials, perhaps those in state government. Many Local Political Aides w ork long and irregular hours. The y o ften attend meetin gs at nig ht a nd/or o n the weekends.

Salaries
Salaries g enerally ra nge f rom $28,000 t o $36,000 o r more, dep ending on t he size o f t he city. S maller cities generally pay on the low end of the range.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are fair because there is a limited number of slots. The number of mayors and city councilors is relatively small. Elected officials in small towns generally lack the funding for Local Political Aides.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are fair since, again, the number of slots is limited. Some Local Political Aides move

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

up to positions like chief of staff at the state level. Others r un f or p olitical o ffice t hemselves o r mo ve in to allied fields such as consulting.

Education and Training


Generally, a bac helors degr ee q ualifies a n indi vidual for the position of Local Political Aide, although some elected officials might prefer someone with a masters degree. Often, L ocal Political Aides c hoose this p osition to get an inside view of the work of elected officials. From this, they can decide w hether or not they want t o co ntinue t o w ork in t he f ield. S ome L ocal Political Aides g o on to law s chool or other graduate programs.

One of the top requirements of the job is b eing able to interact well with the public. Local P olitical Aides need a s ense o f in tegrity t o refuse p erks o ffered in r eturn f or sp ecial fa vors. The y should show maturity, reliability, and flexibility. Having a can-do attitude helps, as L ocal Political Aides o ften work under pressure.

Unions and Associations


Although no na tional association exists sp ecifically for Local Political Aides, t he Amer ican S ociety for Pub lic Administration is a b road-based national organization representing individuals in public service. State municipal ass ociations a nd p olitical pa rties, t oo, de al wi th issues of concern to those in the field.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Although s ome L ocal P olitical Aides ha ve ad vanced degrees and paid work experience, many others dont. A candidate can qualify for this position by volunteering on a political campaign or serving an internship. He or she sho uld, ho wever, alr eady ha ve str ong wr iting a nd researching skills as w ell as g ood in terpersonal skills.

Tips for Entry

1. Volunteer to work on a political campaign. 2. Look into internship possibilities. 3. Become ac tive in y our lo cal p olitical pa rty. Attend e vents t o t ake ad vantage o f netw orking possibilities.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

59

ASSESSOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: I dentifying a nd e valuating t axable p roperties; collecting a nd a nalyzing da ta; p reparing a ppraisal reports; testifying in court or defending assessments before appeals boards Alternate T itle(s): A ppraiser, A ssessment C ommissioner, Valuator, Deputy Assessor Salary Range: $17,000 to $150,000, full-time; $5,000 to $45,000, part-time Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location: Large population centers, major cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingCollege degree desirable

CAREER LADDER
Assessment Commissioner Appraiser/ Assessor Appraiser Trainee

ExperienceSubstantial exp erience in a ppraising and assessing Special Skills and P ersonality TraitsMathematical, st atistical, a nd spa tial-relations skills; t echnical aptitude; tact; good judgment; sense of fairness

Position Description
Assessors ga uge t he val ue o f ho mes, g olf co urses, billboards, a nd o ther t axable p roperties. L ocal p roperty t axes, bas ed o n t hese val ues, p rovide f unding f or municipal s ervices suc h as p olice a nd f ire p rotection, roads, and schools. Although taxpayers might disagree with t heir ass essments, A ssessors need t o mak e sur e that everybody pays a fair share of taxes. The term Assessor usually refers to the chief elected or appointed o fficer, al though he o r she mig ht als o b e called a n A ppraiser. W hether A ssessors a re elec ted o r appointed varies from state to state: 21 states have elected Assessors; 18 states have appointed ones. The remaining 11 states have Assessors according to local option. Elected A ssessors t end t o b e less t echnically p roficient t han a ppointed A ssessors. Of ten a n elec ted Assessor a ppoints a c hief dep uty A ssessor wi th mo re expertise in t he f ield. A ssessing o ffices va ry widel y in size, s ome st affed b y o ne p erson, o thers b y h undreds. In a small office, Assessors typically do all the appraisal work themselves. Assessment w ork is co mplex, in volving a co mbination o f a ppraisal met hodology, st atistical a nalysis, and common sense. Assessors use a formula to calculate the tax burden of each property holder, multiplying ass essed val ues b y t he m unicipal t ax ra te s et b y lawmakers t o det ermine t he a mount o f t axes o wed. Because ass essments are bas ed on market values t hat

change from year to year, Assessors appraise property annually. Each ye ar t he A ssessor pre pares an an nual a ssessment roll, w hich lists all p roperties in t he distr ict and their ass essed val ues. A ssessors a nd t heir s taff e valuate real p roperty (e .g., la nds a nd b uildings) a nd, in some places, personal property (e.g., crops, livestock, machinery). The assessment process typically involves Using special maps to locate and identify all t axable property in t he jurisdiction; marking changes in t he size a nd sha pe o f e ach pa rcel as de velopment t akes place Making a p roperty r ecord o f e ach pa rcel (e .g., p hotographs, soil samples, information about plumbing, electrical, and heating systems; the type of construction) Reviewing files from previous years to see whether or not a complete inspection is needed Noting street patterns, typ es of buildings, and other features of the neighborhood as a whole Collecting fac ts about recent s ales prices, rents, and the costs of construction from deeds, property-transfer papers, and other resources After analyzing all t his information, Assessors estimate t he ma rket val ue o f t he p roperty, w hich le ads them to an assessment figure. Local clerks or Assessors mail the tax assessments to property owners.

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Because t axpayers ha ve t he r ight t o co ntest t heir assessments, Assessors must be prepared to defend their estimates a nd met hods. The y mig ht ho ld meetin gs t o answer questions or handle complaints. Action needs to be taken to recover delinquent taxes. Sometimes assessments r esult in la wsuits. The A ssessor mig ht ha ve t o testify in court or appear before an appeals board. Assessment work can be stressful, as a gr eat deal of money r ides o n t he decisio n. A ssessors us ually w ork eight hours a day, 40 hours a week, although some positions, pa rticularly in small t owns, a re pa rt-time. The position of Assessor might also be combined with that of the Municipal Clerk.

Salaries
Salaries va ry widel y. S ome A ssessorsparticularly in rural co unties o r small t ownsare pa rt-time a nd s o earn considerably less than their full-time counterparts. The a nnual st arting s alary f or A ssessors is a bout $27,000 a y ear. E arnings r ise wi th exp erience a nd increased responsibility. After several years on the job, the average salary is about $36,000. Assessors in la rge jurisdictions generally earn more than those in smaller o nes. A c hief assessor in a j urisdiction that oversees a large number of properties with a large staff might earn between $100,000 and $150,000 per year. Management status, too, increases salaries.

Education p rograms co ver ass essment val uation and administra tion a nd lo cal la ws a nd r egulations. Trainees w ho successf ully co mplete t heir r equirements ca n mo ve u p t o p rofessional p ositions. Thos e who pass exa minations for one position can move up the career ladder t o t he next. C ommercial Assessors, for exa mple, r equire mo re sp ecialized tra ining t han residential Assessors. Some co urses hel p A ssessors k eep u p wi th ne w trends, suc h as val uation o f cell ular t owers o r val uation o f co ntaminated p roperties, a nd o thers p rovide the g eneral skills necess ary t o b e ef fective o n t he job, including p ublic s peaking a nd neg otiation skills. B oth types o f kno wledge a re str ongly r equired. Em ployers often pa y t uition cos ts. Em ployees mig ht g et time o ff from work to attend classes. Many st ate uni versities ha ve p rograms o f st udy for A ssessors o r o ffer t hem jo intly wi th t he g overnment. A co llege degr ee o r eq uivalent im proves a n Assessors chances for advancement. Useful programs of st udy inc lude urba n st udies, r eal est ate, p ublic administration, acco unting, en gineering, a nd b usiness administration.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Assessing requires a combination of technical skills and interpersonal f inesse. I n addi tion t o e valuating p roperties, A ssessors need t o t alk t o t axpayers w ho mig ht object to their assessments. On t he t echnical end , A ssessors sho uld ha ve a n affinity for spatial relationships to mark accurately what goes where on specialized maps accurately. Other desirable qualities are working well with numbers; having an orderly, inquiring mind; and being able to make sound and objective judgments. Assessors must b e able to make technical information understandable to the general public. Some Assessors w ork in neig hborhoods t hat r equire fa miliarity with another language. Assessors also need to communicate w ell wi th g overnment o fficials in volved in legislation, b udget a ppropriations, b uilding-permit da ta, and other matters of interest. Because taxes are a s ensitive subject for many people, A ssessors need t o b e t actful a nd di plomatic. Taxpayers have a r ight to challenge their assessments. The Assessor might need to testify in court or appear before an appeals boards.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good because all towns and cities, regardless of size, have Assessors. Assessors can be either elected or appointed. When t he p opulation o f a r egion gr ows, t he municipality ma y hir e mo re A ssessors. The c hances for employment are greater in large population centers than in smaller ones.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood. S ome A ssessors advance t heir ca reers b y mo ving t o a reas o f b roader jurisdictionfrom a t own t o a co unty, f or in stance. Skills de veloped in ass essing a re tra nsferable t o o ther jobs in b usiness or industry. The banking industry, for example, uses independent property appraisals in making loans. Someone might work in b oth the public and the private sector.

Education and Training


Specialized training counts for a lo t in t his field. Most states ha ve cer tification cr iteria f or A ssessors. P rofessional associations also offer certification programs.

Unions and Associations


The I nternational A ssociation o f A ssessing Of ficers (IAAO) is a p rofessional o rganization o f A ssessors. States, t oo, ha ve o rganizations o f ass essing o fficers

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since state laws regulate this profession. The Amer ican Association o f C ertified A ppraisers a nd t he N ational Association o f I ndependent F ee A ppraisers a re o ther organizations of Assessors.

Tips for Entry

1. Write t o o r call y our lo cal A ssessor t o mak e a n appointment to discuss your interests. 2. Contact t he p ersonnel offices of municipal governments o r t he listin gs o f m unicipal ass ociations to ask about positions in assessment offices or related fields. Positions in local zoning offices

and co unty co urthouses s ometimes p rovide transferable experience. 3. Tap in to t he r esources o f p rofessional ass ociations. I f y ou ha ve access t o t he I nternet, c heck out the IAAO website at http://www.iaao.org. Ask professional associations about brochures or single-copy publications available to nonmembers. 4. Look into programs of study for Assessors offered by state universities or professional associations. 5. Become politically involved if y ou are interested in running for Assessor. Seek the endorsement of your political party.

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ECONOMIC DEVELOPER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Enco uragement o f b usiness in vestment a nd job cr eation; ma rketing; stra tegic p lanning; p roject management; gra nt wr iting; a nd f inancial ma nagement Alternate T itle(s): C ommunity D evelopment S pecialist, E conomic D evelopment Man ager, D owntown Developer Salary Range: $30,000 to $55,000 Employment Prospects: Fair to good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location: Municipalities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree; masters degree increasingly preferred

CAREER LADDER
Director Economic Developer Position in Related Field or Assistant

ExperienceUsually a few years prior work experience in a r elated field such as p lanning, marketing, banking, or nonprofit management Special S kills and P ersonality TraitsProfessionalism; strong communication skills; a bility to interact with businesses

Position Description
Economic D evelopers have a sp ecial mission: t o build up t he eco nomic bas e o f t heir co mmunities. The y do this by supporting new and existing businesses. Economic de velopment is a r elatively ne w f ield. Often seen as a n offshoot of urban and regional planning, economic development has co me into its own in recent decades. Much o f t he Eco nomic D evelopers job in volves marketing. In much the same way a manufacturer sells a product to consumers, Economic Developers market a co mmunity t o b usinesses, tr ying t o co nvince t hem of t he val ue o f lo cating in a pa rticular ci ty o r t own. Businesses, though, may be skeptical of what the community has t o offer. The b usiness representative might worry that the neighborhood isnt safe enough, or that theres a lac k o f skilled w orkers, o r t hat t axes a re t oo high. The Economic Developer tries to help businesses meet t heir needs wi thout jeo pardizing t he w elfare o f the community. For instance, he or she might tell businesspeople about a local worker-training program. The business would get trained workers; t he community, a new supply of jobs. C ommunities want jobs t hat offer desirable wages and benefits for workers. Economic D evelopers need t o b e fa miliar wi th a variety of funding possibilities, including revolving loan funds, loa n gua rantees, a nd v enture a nd s eed ca pital. They also need to know how to apply for and adminis-

ter grants. For example, an Economic Developer might apportion a C ommunity D evelopment B lock Grant t o neighborhood groups. The Economic Developer spends much of the time acting as a facilitator. The individual might, for instance, raise a businesss concerns about safety with the appropriate municipal officials. An Economic Developer also might w ork t o sim plify t he pa perwork p rocedures f or new b usinesses. The co mmunity mig ht s et u p a onestop sho p w here b usinesses ca n t ake ca re o f all t heir permitting and licensing needs. Often t he Eco nomic D eveloper co ordinates t he efforts o f s everal dif ferent ag encies a nd o rganizations. He or she might give out and manage grants, while the local Chamber of Commerce might provide more of the hands-on help to businesses. The Eco nomic D eveloper als o w orks t o r etain o r improve w hats alr eady in t he co mmunity. An existing business might look to the Economic Developer to help it expand or to better market the community. The Economic D eveloper mig ht market t he community as a t ourist destina tion, f or in stance, t o g enerate mo re business. Redevelopment is a s ubset o f eco nomic de velopment. M any co mmunities ha ve t heir o wn r edevelopment a uthorities. I f a b uilding has b een a bandoned, the Economic Developer might work to get an outside developer or public funds to renovate it.

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The p osition o f Eco nomic D eveloper va ries wi th the priorities of a co mmunity. One ma yor might make economic de velopment t he cen terpiece o f his o r her administration, w hereas a nother g oes a bout c utting back a depa rtment. A co mmunity mig ht mak e a pa rticular p rojectenhancing t he a rts, f or in stancethe centerpiece of its economic development program. Like p eople in o ther f ields, Eco nomic D evelopers experience b oth success es a nd s etbacks. One p roject might trigger the revitalization of a f ormerly rundown area. Ano ther co uld r esult in a b itter c lash b etween business people and environmentalists. Economic D evelopers may w ork o ut o f a p lanning department, o ffice o f co mmunity de velopment, o r organization or agency specifically set up for economic development. S ome economic de velopment offices are set up by the government as nonprofits to facilitate the use of both private and public funds.

order to qualify for certification programs. Candidates need to pass b oth an oral and a wr itten exam in o rder to be certified.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many indi viduals b ecome Eco nomic D evelopers a fter working in a dif ferent b ut r elated f ield. S ome ha ve experience in ma rketing. Ot hers ha ve bac kgrounds in property de velopment, ba nking, urba n a nd r egional planning, o r s ome o ther f ield. M ost ha ve a t le ast a couple o f y ears o f w ork exp erience b efore b ecoming Economic Developers because a certain level of professionalism is required. Computers have transformed this field as t hey have many others. Increasingly, towns, cities, and regions are using t he Internet to attract business. S ome large economic development departments have created separate positions for Internet specialists. Experience analyzing data, too, is helpful. Ideally, the Economic Developer excels at both analytical thinking and marketing, combining a feel for financial m anagement w ith an out going p ersonality. P eople with drive and enthusiasm do best in this position. Economic D evelopers o ften w ork under p ressure. Many businesses want quick answers to complex questions. Economic Developers who can think on their feet have a leg up in this position. The Economic Developer needs t o be able to move easily f rom o ne p roject t o a nother, o ften wi th tig ht deadlines looming. Proposals for federal or state funding need t o b e co mpleted, a nnual r eports f iled, a nd meetings wi th b usinesses a nd co mmunity gr oups attended w hile s omeone bac k in t he o ffice wa nts t o know w hy a pa rticular incentive went to one business and not another. The Economic Developer needs to be able t o juggle a va riety of t asks at once without dropping the ball.

Salaries
The Economic D evelopers s alary dep ends on t he priorities o f t he co mmunity a nd t he indi viduals le vel o f responsibility. The media n s alary f or en try-level economic development staffers is about $42,000, according to t he I nternational Eco nomic D evelopment C ouncil. Generally, the larger the city or district, the higher the salary. Economic Developers at the Executive Director level earn between $50,000 and $150,000.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are fair to good because, although economic development is a growing field, it also depends on the funding priorities of the community.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause t here is a lot o f mo vement in t he f ield. P owerful links co nnect the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. Job climbers might need to move to a new city or town, however, to advance their careers.

Unions and Associations


The C ouncil f or U rban Eco nomic D evelopment (CUED) and American Economic Development Council (AED C) a re t he tw o ma in na tional ass ociations. Membership is o pen t o co llege st udents. M embers receive publications listing job openings.

Education and Training


A bachelors degree or higher is r equired for this position. Many Economic Developers have masters degrees in public administration, urban and regional planning, or business administration. Because they have a variety of different backgrounds, Economic Developers can demonstrate their mastery of skills by b ecoming cer tified t hrough ei ther o f t he tw o national p rofessional ass ociations. C ertification is no t a substi tute f or w ork exp erience, ho wever. Eco nomic Developers need t o ha ve s ome w ork exp erience in

Tips for Entry

1. Read up on t he f ield of economic de velopment. Start b y c hecking o ut t he w ebsites o f CUED (http://www.cued.org) a nd AED C (h ttp://www. aedc.org). Thes e w ebsites inf orm r eaders a bout upcoming conferences, certification courses, and issues of interest to those in the field.

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2. Check the course listings for your college or university. Many have courses in economic development in urba n a nd r egional p lanning o r p ublic policy. Take co urses in b usiness administra tion to get a better sense of how businesses work. 3. Do s ome s ort o f v olunteer w ork t o under stand how co mmunities w ork a t t he neig hborhood level. J oin a ci vic o r neig hborhood as sociation. These o ften de al wi th eco nomic de velopment issues. Volunteer to teach at a job-training center, since employment tra ining is a b ig a rea o f economic development. 4. Make t he mos t o f y our o wn w ork exp erience. Think in terms of the customer base in whatever

line of work you do. Join a junior business group or some other business-related association. 5. Get your foot in the door by working as an intern or a n assist ant. Ano ther p ossibility is to s eek out a job in a r elated field such as ba nking, real estate, or marketing. Most Economic Developers have prior work experience. 6. Develop Internet and data-gathering skills. Large economic development offices often hire people specifically to perform these functions. 7. Become familiar with different communities. Pay attention to what works and what doesnt.

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ELECTION OFFICIAL
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: M aintaining cer tified v oter-registration f ile; planning, de veloping, a nd im plementing elec tion day activities Alternate Title(s): Registrar of Voters, Director of Elections, Commissioner of Elections, Election Manager, Election Supervisor, Election Official Salary Range: $29,000 to $100,000 Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Fair Best Geographical Location: None Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingBachelors degr ee g enerally required ExperienceFive to 10 years for director-level positions; less for lower-level supervisory positions

CAREER LADDER
Election Director Election Official Election Clerk

Special Sk ills and P ersonality T raitsWell-organized; t eam p layer; det ail-oriented; r esponsible; honest; a ble t o w ork lo ng, b usy ho urs d uring election season

Position Description
Election Officials compare the day the polls open to the Super Bowl. For months, they gear up for the big event. A successf ul elec tion r equires t eamwork, m uch as a football game does. Work in elec tions has def inite p eaks a nd valle ys. Election Of ficials us e t he slo w s easons t o p repare f or the next elec tion. N ew v oting mac hines need t o b e ordered. Em ployees need t o b e tra ined, t he v oting rolls updated. As t he b usy months approach, elec tion departments tra nsform t hemselves f rom small o perations, with just a few full-time employees, to organizations o verseeing h undreds, if no t t housands, o f p oll workers. Recr uiting, tra ining, a nd co ordinating t hese temporary employees are massive undertakings, similar to running a small b usiness. Each individual needs a suitcase of supplies, which include lists o f registered voters, instructions on how to open voting machines, and provisional ballots. No a mount o f p reparation, t hough, ca n gua rantee complete success. S ometimes v oting mac hines b reak down. The Election Official might respond by dispatching a courier with paper ballots. Election Officials need to r espond q uickly t o w hatever p roblem a rises, o ften with TV news cameras on the scene. Sometimes people who show up at the polls are not the r egistered v oters t hey c laim t o b e. E lection la ws prohibit underaged voting, registration in a community

where o ne no lo nger r esides, a nd va rious o ther p ractices. Penalties, such as fines, can be imposed. Work in elections is exacting, as every procedure has a paper trail required by law. Usually, support staff help out with the more routine tasks. One o f t he ho ttest issues in elec tions t oday is t he potential us e o f t he Internet f or v oting. Fans a nd f oes of I nternet v oting dis agree a bout w hether o r no t t his technology is just around the corner. Insiders debate topics like how to protect against hackers and what to do about privacy. Election Officials also orchestrate voter registration drives and other outreach work. While in t he community, t hey s cout a round f or p olling p laces, lo oking f or spots t hat a re acces sible f or v oters wi th dis abilities o r other special needs. Back in t he o ffice, t hey u pdate v oter-registration lists, certify nomination papers and initiative petitions, analyze p opulation tr ends, e valuate ne w t echnologies, and de velop o verall p olicy. M any co mmunities, f or instance, have loosened up their requirements for registration and voting. Whereas once absentee ballots had to b e witnessed and notarized, now t hey can b e completed with a minimum of fanfare. Some E lection Of ficials w ork c losely wi th legislators on p olicy issues r elated to voting. If, for instance, victims of domestic abuse are afraid to vote, t he E lection Official might work on a special law protecting the

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privacy o f ci tizens wi th p rotective o rders. A s a r esult, these citizens might be able to vote without having their names printed on voter-registration lists. Many m unicipalities sp lit elec tion r esponsibilities between departments. A city clerks office, for example, might ha ndle s ome r esponsibilities, t he E lection Of ficials the rest. Election Of ficials typically work long hours during the weeks leading up to an election. It is not unusual for supervisors and staffers to work from 6:30 a.m. t o 9:00 p.m. during this p eriod. On t he big day itself, Election Officials often work until t he wee hours of t he morning, staying until all the votes have been counted.

Education and Training


Most supervisory positions require a college degree but do no t sp ecify a pa rticular co urse o f s tudy. A bac kground in business and/or political science, though, can be helpful.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Elections a re a s pecialized f ield in w hich exp erience counts for a lot. Full-time positions are often difficult to obtain, so many in t he field get experience by working as temporary and/or part-time staffers. People in t his f ield need t o b e t eam p layers, as successful elec tions dep end o n a co ordinated gr oup effort. E lection Of ficials w ork c losely wi th m unicipal clerks and ass essors, as w ell as co mmunity groups. By understanding the needs o f different groups of people, Election Of ficials ca n im prove access t o v oting. The workload ca n b e in tense, pa rticularly d uring t he b usy seasons, but Election Officials typically look forward to the adrenaline rush they get when the polls open.

Salaries
Election Of ficials w ork a t s everal le vels, wi th s alaries varying acco rdingly. Sala ries a re hig hest ($50,000 t o $150,000) for the director-level positions, which go by a variety of different names, such as registrar of voters, director o f elec tions, o r elec tion co mmissioner. B elow these are the deputy directors ($40,000 to $60,000) and election managers ($29,000 to $39,500).

Unions and Associations Employment Prospects


Employment p rospects a re fa ir b ecause t his is a v ery specific f ield wi th fa irly lo w t urnover. M any E lection Officials st ay in t heir jobs un til t hey r etire. H owever, opportunities in t his f ield exist in all co mmunities nationwide. The Election Center is a no nprofit organization of registration and voting officials.

Tips for Entry


1. Volunteer o r w ork pa rt-time in a n elec tion. Election o ffices o ften need extra hel p do ing the grunt w orkfolding a nd st uffing ballo ts, receiving ballots by mail, and entering voters on data-entry lists. 2. Hone your computer skills. Candidates with technological expertise have an edge in this field. 3. Read u p o n elec tions a nd t he demo cratic p rocessparticularly I nternet v oting, o ne o f t he most controversial issues in t he field. Check out the secti on o n I nternet v oting o n th e El ection Center website (http://www.electioncenter.com). 4. Register t o v ote, if y ou have not already. B eing a registered voter might be a prerequisite of the job.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re fa ir f or E lection Of ficials because dir ector-level p ositions a re r elatively s carce. Some individuals advance their careers by moving to a larger municipality or, perhaps, going from the local to the state level. Another possibility is t o set ones sights on an elected officesecretary of state, for example. Lower-level p ositions o ffer mo re p ossibilities f or advancement b ecause many offices offer the f lexibility to gr ow wi th th e jo b a nd th us be p romoted. Electio n clerks, f or in stance, mig ht b e a ble t o g et t he p osition upgraded to the level of manager and/or supervisor.

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HOUSING SPECIALIST
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: S creening p rospective t enants; su pervising properties; in terviewing la ndlords; co ordinating community o utreach; wr iting gra nts; r esearching and reviewing policy Alternate T itle(s): H ousing D evelopment M anager, Section 8 Coordinator, HOPE VI Coordinator, Public Housing Manager, C ontract C oordinator, Policy Analyst Salary Range: $30,000 to $65,000+ Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location: None Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingCollege degr ee g enerally required

CAREER LADDER
Program or Agency Director Housing Authority Director Housing Specialist Entry-Level Position or Intern

ExperienceInternship or experience in entry-level position Special S kills a nd P ersonality T raitsCommitment to public housing and social change; ability to perform multiple skills; good communication skills; willingness to work hard

Position Description
Housing Specialists address a basic h uman necessity the need for shelter. They can go about this in a number of different ways. Some Housing Specialists coordinate subsidized ho using p rograms. Ot hers a pply f or a nd administer gra nts. S till o thers do b oth, p lus wh atever else is required. The f ederal depa rtment o f H ousing a nd U rban Development (HUD) allo cates mo ney t o st ate g overnments f or us e b y lo cal ho using a uthorities. Thos e authorities o perate p ublic ho using de velopments a nd administer t he S ection 8 p rogram, in w hich t enants rent f rom p rivate la ndlords. H ousing S pecialists als o tap in to ne w HUD p rograms, w hich p rovide f unding for development of rental and/or ownership properties. Local ho using a uthorities incr easingly a re b eing asked b y t he f ederal g overnment t o p rovide no t o nly bricks and mortar but also social services to those who otherwise might fall through the cracks. Many of these residents need subst antial help. Housing Specialists try not o nly t o p rovide shel ter b ut als o t o hel p r esidents help t hemselves. B y p roviding access t o job-tra ining and other services, housing authorities work to encourage resident self-sufficiency. Much has c hanged since p ublic ho using g ot i ts start sho rtly a fter World War II. Pub lic ho using was originally de veloped f or v eterans a nd w orking fa milies. Over the yearsand with scant policy reviewthis

focus changed. Public housing developments shifted to housing t he p oorest of t he p oor, often with dis astrous results. M any p ublic ho using de velopments b ecame havens f or cr ime a nd dr ug a buse. S ometimes, p olicy makers decide that the best thing to do is t o tear down old housing developments and start again. Public ho using t oday st ands a t a cr ossroads. F ederal legislation has deregulated certain housing policies, encouraging t he de velopment of more entrepreneurial programs linking the public with the private and nonprofit sectors. On the local end, Housing Specialists need to know what works best for their communities. In small co mmunities, H ousing S pecialists tend t o b e g eneralists. They ma nage f inances, s creen a pplicants f or cr iminal records a nd/or o ther ba rriers t o subsidized ho using, organize r esidents meetin gs, a nd o versee p roperty maintenance. B ecause small o rganizations ha ve f ewer career r ungs, H ousing Dir ectors mig ht p erform s ome of these responsibilities themselves. Housing S pecialists in la rger ho using a uthorities have mo re sp ecialized jobs. One p erson mig ht b e in charge o f t he S ection 8 p rogram. S omeone els e mig ht coordinate r esident tra ining. Ano ther p erson mig ht write grants. Yet another person might be in c harge of monitoring federal legislation. In ma ny co mmunities, ho using a nd co mmunity development a re link edeither f ormally under o ne

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department or informally through strong connections between t he tw o. If, f or exa mple, a co mmunity s ets a goal of creating more affordable housing, the Housing Specialist mig ht t eam u p wi th a p rivate de veloper t o come up with a site plan. How can the project address the s afety co ncerns o f t he co mmunity? W hat a re t he needs o f p rospective r esidents? C ommunity meetin gs are held, and plans take shape, perhaps calling for the inclusion of a community police office and recreational facilities. The Housing Specialist typically helps cobble together a f unding p lan: loa ns, t ax cr edits, a nd t he like. He o r she mig ht als o t ake o n t he r ole o f P roject Manager. To im prove existin g de velopments, H ousing S pecialists often apply for funding to improve services. The Department o f L abor, f or in stance, administ ers W elfare-to-Work gra nts. M any gra nt wr iters als o t urn t o private foundations for help. An arts grant, for example, might pa y f or m usic les sons f or c hildren in a p ublic housing development. Work in housing offers both challenges and rewards. Like any social service job, it can be satisfying but also frustrating a t times. M any H ousing S pecialists w ork long hours, attending meetings at nig ht and/or on t he weekends.

Education and Training


A bachelors degree is generally required. Courses dealing with p olitical s cience, public administration, business, a nd s ociology hel p f oster a n under standing o f the issues in volved on t he job. A mast ers degree, particularly in p lanning or public administration, may b e required for upper management positions.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Midlevel jobs as a H ousing Specialist generally require some experience in the field. Some housing authorities hire entry-level staffers right out of college. Those who have done internships have a pa rticularly good chance of being hired. People co mmitted t o s ocial c hange do b est in t his position. H ousing S pecialists ca n b e ei ther lib eral o r conservative, since p olitical ideo logy is less im portant than dedica tion a nd ha rd w ork. S trong a nalytical a nd communication skills are essential. Housing Specialists need to be detail-oriented to document the various procedures required by law. The a bility t o k eep inf ormation co nfidential is another m ust. H ousing S pecialists s ometimes need t o make dif ficult decisio ns in volving p eoples access t o shelter. Because public programs cannot accommodate everyone, indi viduals in t his f ield s ometimes need t o turn down people in need of housing.

Salaries
Although salaries range according to the area and position in q uestion, ma ny s alaries fall in t he $45,000 t o $65,000 ra nge, acco rding t o t he N ational A ssociation of Housing and Redevelopment Officials. Larger housing a uthorities g enerally pa y mo re t han smaller o nes. Salaries als o r ise wi th le vel o f r esponsibility. S omeone with f ive years of progressively responsible exp erience who manages a housing program might earn an annual salary of about $60,000.

Unions and Associations


National ass ociations in volved in ho using inc lude t he National A ssociation o f H ousing a nd Rede velopment Officials (NAHRO) and the Public Housing Authorities Directors Association (PHADA).

Tips for Entry Employment Prospects


Employment p rospects a re g ood b ecause o f t he va riety o f p ositions. This is a r elatively old ind ustry. A s employees r etire, ne w p ositions o pen u p. I nternships help hook newcomers into the hiring network. 1. Look in to in ternship a nd w ork-study p ossibilities. Thes e exp eriences o ften le ad t o f ull-time positions. 2. Volunteer with a local housing authority. Offer to assist residents or help out in the business office. 3. Get references f rom p eople youve worked with. Working well as part of a team helps in this field, as in many others. 4. Check o ut t he w ebsites o f t he N ational A ssociation of Housing and Redevelopment Officials (www.nahro) a nd t he Pub lic H ousing A uthorities Directors Association (www.phada.org). 5. Consider graduate school if your goal is to reach the upper levels of management.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood. Exp erience a nd training hel p ad vance ca reers. P romotion is p ossible for people who can prove themselves on the job and are willing to take the initiative to increase their skills. One also can become more marketable by taking courses in allied fields such as r eal estate. Increased educationa masters degr ee, in pa rticularhelps Housing S pecialists rise up the career ladder.

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MUNICIPAL CLERK
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Facilitating the open and efficient administration of municipal government, which often includes dealing with budgets, human resources, government regulation, and city and town records Alternate Title(s): City Clerk, Town Clerk, Village Clerk, Borough Clerk, Ci ty Reco rder, Clerk-T reasurer, Clerk-Administrator, Clerk-Analyst, City Secretary Salary Range: $15,000 to $150,000+ Employment Prospects: Good to excellent Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location: None Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingCollege degr ee r ecommended but not required

CAREER LADDER
Elected Official or City Manager Deputy Clerk or Municipal Clerk Other Position in Municipal Government or Record/Information Management

ExperienceA few years in the field Special Sk ills and P ersonality T raitsOrganizational skills; facili ty f or mo ving a nd f ormatting information; sensitivity to political relationships and the needs of citizens

Position Description
Many people think of the role of the Municipal Clerk as a str ictly c lerical p osition. Its no t. The na me, t hough, can be misleading. Why work as a mere clerk, someone might ask, w hen, in stead, y ou ca n b ecome a ma yor or a ci ty ma nager? B ecause, in siders s ay, t he p osition involves more than its name implies. Although M unicipal Clerks ha ve t alked o ver t he years about changing their name to make it more attractive to new applicants, they have generally held on to it out o f tradi tion. M any co mmunities co mbine t he o ld with the new by using a hyphenated title such as ClerkTreasurer or Clerk-Administrator. The individual in this position might oversee everything f rom administering the cemetery to managing the budget. Some 16 p ercent o f M unicipal Clerks a re elec ted officials. As other politicians do, these Municipal Clerks need t o ca mpaign f or o ffice. M any M unicipal Clerks have become mayors. The rest are appointed, usually by the Mayor, city council, or local government manager. Municipal Clerks ha ve str ong o pinions a bout w hich status is b etterappointed o r elec ted. E lected Clerks argue that, because they are accountable to the citizens rather t han t he o fficial(s) w ho a ppointed t hem, t hey can b e mo re neu tral. A ppointed Clerks, o n t he o ther hand, em phasize t he ad vantages o f b eing professionals rather than politicians. Many indi viduals b ecome M unicipal Clerks a fter graduation from college or work in a lo wer-level, often

clerical, position in municipal government. Becoming a Municipal Clerk is a s tep up not only in salary but also in autonomy. The p osition is often what the individual makes of it. If, for example, a Municipal Clerk wants to be mo re in volved in t he co mmunity, he o r she mig ht organize a da y a t ci ty hall f or hig h s chool st udents. Municipal Clerks who prefer to stick close to the office, on t he o ther ha nd, ca n sp end mo re o f t heir time o n records management and other tasks. The work of the Municipal Clerk va ries widely from municipality to municipality, but many do the following: Swear in public officials Keep citizen records (e.g., birth, marriage, death) Provide information requested by citizens and public officials Send out public notices Assume r esponsibility f or cer tain asp ects o f v oter registration/elections Do r esearch a nd tra nslate ne w la ws in to m unicipal practices and procedures Conduct sp ecial p rojects a nd gra nt-administered programs Prepare agendas and be responsible for the accuracy of records of public meetings Municipal Clerks need t o b e w ell-versed in pa rliamentary p rocedure t o ca rry o ut t heir r esponsibilities in p ublic meetin gs. I f t he dis cussion g oes astra y, t hey

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might interject with a p oint of business. This r equires neutrality and diplomacy, as do ma ny other aspects of the job. A p ublic o fficial, f or in stance, mig ht o bject t o t he way he o r she was p ortrayed in t he minutes, p erhaps insisting that he o r she ne ver said what was r ecorded. A t ape r ecorder co uld co me in ha ndy in a n in stance like this. Another possible scenario might find one faction of the council looking for dirt on the other. Or, perhaps, a ci tizens gr oup wa nts inf ormation t o hel p oust the mayor. The Municipal Clerk needs to respond to legitimate requests but be neutralno easy task. Citizens a nd p ublic o fficials g o t o t he M unicipal Clerks office with myriad requests. One p erson wants a copy of a b irth or marriage certificate. Someone else wants t o r esearch t he hist ory o f a pa rticular p roperty. Still a nother per son wa nts t o kn ow a bout a cer tain zoning code or who holds the contract for a pa rticular parcel of land. Even in t his era o f hig h t echnology, r ecords a re still k ept in pa per f orm. S tate la w dicta tes h ow lo ng original do cuments a re held . Once t he r equired da te has pass ed, t he do cument could end u p on computer disk or in storage in someones barn, depending on the municipality. Day-to-day operations, too, vary from municipality to m unicipality. C ertain elec tion r esponsibilities ma y be ha ndled by t he Municipal Clerk o r t he r egistrar o f voters, dep ending o n t he m unicipality. Of fice p rocedures, too, vary widely. Some Municipal Clerks require people to fill out Freedom of Information Act forms to get p ublic do cuments. Ot hers t hink suc h p rocedures are unnecessarily bureaucratic and so fill requests on the spot. Some M unicipal Clerks co mplain a bout t he la yers of regulationfiling dates, citizen mailings, county/state record keepingthat, if no t followed to a t ee, can result in penalties for the municipality and big problems for the Municipal Clerk. Individuals in this position also have to deal with citizens who are impatient or even rude. New technologies and organizing systems have professionalized t his p osition. T oday M unicipal Clerks may be responsible for overseeing such new technologies as ca ble-TV a nd/or I nternet si tes. S ubordinates usually hel p o ut wi th s ome o f t he mo re r outine t asks, but the Municipal Clerk is still responsible for massive amounts of paperwork.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent b ecause competition is r elatively lo w. F ew p eople kno w a bout this position.

Advancement Prospects
Insiders s ay t hat ad vancement p rospects a re g ood because M unicipal Clerks b ecome fa miliar wi th all aspects of municipal operations. If t hey want to move up, they know whats available. People working in small towns, however, mig ht need t o move t o ad vance t heir careers.

Education and Training


A co llege degr ee is g enerally r ecommended b ut no t required. L arge ci ties, ho wever, ha ve mo re str ingent requirementsa minim um o f a bac helors degr ee, sometimes a mast ers degr ee p referred. M any Municipal Clerks complete an extensive certification program.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many individuals become Municipal Clerks after working in other positions in lo cal government or information a nd r ecord k eeping. S ometimes c lerical w orkers rise t o t he p osition o f M unicipal Clerk. P romotions from deputy clerk to full clerk, too, are common. Familiarity with computer systems, particularly the Internet, can be a plus. Municipal Clerks need t o ha ve a s trong c ustomerservice focus, thus making this position a p oor choice for s omeone s eeking g lamour. I ndividuals m ust b e extremely detail-oriented. A miss ed de adline ca n cost a municipality dearly. Municipal Clerks also need to be diplomatic, a voiding t he t emptation t o b e dra wn in to one political camp or another. Elected Municipal Clerks should be outgoing enough to campaign for office.

Unions and Associations


The International Institute of Municipal Clerks (IIMC) is a nonprofit membership association.

Tips for Entry

Salaries
Salaries vary greatly, depending on the locale. A Municipal Clerk in a small t own mig ht e arn $25,000 a y ear compared to a salary of $100,000 in a big city.

1. Decide w hat typ e o f p osition y ou wa nt. S ixteen percent of Municipal Clerks are elected to office and so need to campaign for their position. 2. Become familiar with what Municipal Clerks do by r equesting a ci tizens r ecord o r p ublic do cument. 3. Get your foot in the door by working in a lowerlevel p osition in m unicipal g overnment. M any Municipal Clerks ha ve migrated u p t o t heir current positions.

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4. Set up an informational interview with a Municipal Clerk t o g et mo re inf ormation a bout t he position. 5. If y ou a re co nsidering r unning f or M unicipal Clerk, ha ve a c lear s et o f ob jectives f or w hat you ho pe t o acco mplish. You will need t o f ile

papers a nd g et signa tures in o rder t o r un f or office. 6. Learn mo re a bout lo cal a rea p ractices a nd networks by contacting your State Municipal League for a referral to your states association of Municipal Clerks.

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RECREATION SUPERVISOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: A dministering r ecreation p rograms b y ha ndling staffing, scheduling, and budgeting needs Alternate T itle(s): Recr eation C oordinator, A thletic Supervisor Salary Range: $20,000 to $50,000+ Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location: Municipalities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingCollege degree, preferably in parks and recreation or leisure services management ExperiencePrevious exp erience as r ecreation leader

CAREER LADDER
Division Head or Director Recreation Supervisor Recreation Leader or Program Coordinator

Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsLeadership ability; management skills; str ong interest in sp orts and leisure

Position Description
Recreation is s erious b usiness f or t he S upervisor w ho oversees p rograms f or a ci ty o r t own. The Recr eation Supervisor s erves as a link b etween t he dir ector o f parks a nd r ecreation a nd t he r ecreation le aders w ho organize and direct participants in sp orts, camps, and other activities. Americas health craze has contributed to an increase in recreation programs. People are living longer, healthier li ves a nd lo oking f or wa ys t o c hannel t heir leisur e time. Parents want positive activities for their children. Sports p rograms f or girls as w ell as b oys ha ve m ushroomed in recent years. Recreation enco mpasses a wide a rray o f o fferings, including arts and crafts, competitive sports, and aerobics f or s enior ci tizens. I n s ome co mmunities, r ecreation a nd c ultural e vents a re co mbined. A r ecreation and c ultural a ffairs depa rtment mig ht o versee a f ood festival, ballo on fa ir, ethnic h eritage ce lebration, o r other special event. In small t owns, Recr eation S upervisors w ear ma ny hats. In addition to running recreation programs, they might lead a n acti vity s uch a s ad ult v olleyball. Th ey also might be responsible for park maintenance. In a la rge ci ty, t he Recr eation S upervisor mig ht b e in charge of just one facility, a ska ting r ink, for example. Or he o r she mig ht be responsible for a pa rticular activity, such as a thletics, aquatics, performing arts, or outdoor programs. In a medium-sized community, the

individual might be responsible for the gamut of recreation but not for parks as well. Safety has become an increasing concern of recreation departments everywhere. To meet this need, professional associations offer certification in areas such as playground safety. On the job, Recreation Supervisors make sure that procedures are established and followed. For instance, ice packs must be easily accessible in case of injury. Recreation S upervisors sho uld b e a ble t o r oll wi th the punches. Coin-operated lockers break down. Schedules change. Staffers fail to show up. Recreation Supervisors must deal with these kinds o f situations without losing their cool. They also need t o work while others play. Recreation Supervisors make sure that everything is going smo othly by making the rounds of programs, many of which take place at night or on the weekends. Since they are in c harge of staffing, they have to watch their leaders in action. Back in the office, Recreation Supervisors perform a variety of duties. These might include Writing press releases, brochures, and flyers Designing q uestionnaires s o ci tizens ca n e valuate programs Reviewing the fee structure of various offerings Planning the annual budget Working out scheduling so different teams can practice and play at various times Interviewing prospective employees

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Salaries
Salaries dep end la rgely o n t he size o f t he co mmunity and t he indi viduals le vel o f exp erience. Sala ries g enerally ra nge f rom $20,000 t o $40,000, al though mo re senior Recr eation S upervisors in la rger co mmunities generally earn a starting salary of $50,000 or more.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good. This is a f ield with an unusually large number of part-time, seasonal, and volunteer p ositions t hat provide a dir ect route to p ermanent employment. In s ome co mmunities, t he p osition of Recreation Supervisor is a part-time one. Recreation is a gr owth f ield, as s ome st affers le ave the public sector for commercial recreation and tourism management in the private sector. Positions in this rapidly growing field include camp directors, stadium managers, convention specialists, and resort services directors.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood, al though t hey va ry with t he mak eup o f t he depa rtment. W hen p eople retire, t hose b eneath t hem o ften mo ve u p t he ra nks. Generally speaking, the larger the department, the better t he p rospects o f ad vancement. S ome Recr eation Supervisors advance their careers by moving to another community.

go into recreation as a p rofession. Experience in a pa rticular field, such as athletics, is an asset for many positions. Some positions require certification in lifesaving, coaching, a nd/or a nother s pecialty. A ctivity p lanning calls for creativity and resourcefulness. Working as a part-timer can help individuals decide whether or not they have the right temperament for the field. Recreation workers need to be outgoing and energetic. They should enjoy recreation and be comfortable interacting with the public. Recreation S upervisors need t o b e s ensitive t o t he needs and feelings of people in all age groups. They are in a s ervice-oriented profession, which requires diplomacy. The Recr eation S upervisor sho uld b e g ood a t motivating o thers a nd delega ting r esponsibility. S ince recreation departments have a s trong group focus, the Recreation S upervisor sho uld ha ve t he mind-s et o f a team player. Good administrative skillsknowledge of budgets, accounting, a nd, incr easingly co mputersare a m ust. Although Recreation Supervisors face many of the same budget co nstraints as o ther m unicipal w orkers, t hey often get satisfaction from using recreation to improve the quality of peoples lives.

Unions and Associations


The National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) is a national nonprofit service organization dedicated to promoting the importance of parks and recreation.

Education and Training


A co llege degr ee is usuall y r equired f or t his p osition. Most la rge uni versities o ffer baccala ureate degr ees in parks and recreation or leisure studies. Programs typically include the history, theory, and philosophy of parks and recreation as well as management courses. Students can sp ecialize in a reas suc h as t herapeutic r ecreation, park ma nagement, o r co mmercial a nd ind ustrial r ecreation. The National Recreation and Park Association accredits undergraduate programs and offers certification programs for specialists in the field. Increasingly, Recr eation S upervisors a re e arning masters degr ees in pa rks a nd r ecreation o r r elated disciplines. S ome r ecreation administra tors ha ve backgrounds in s ocial work, forestry, or resource management. Req uirements f or em ployment va ry f rom community to community.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


This field offers easy entry as a part-timer. Many college students w ho w ork as co unselors o r le aders decide t o

1. Work as a pa rt-time em ployee o r v olunteer t o gain exp erience in t he f ield. Recr eation has a n unusually la rge n umber o f pa rt-time a nd s easonal jobs. Op portunities are plentiful for summer camp counselors, lifeguards, craft specialists, and a fter-school a nd w eekend r ecreation p rogram leaders. 2. Look into college programs in recreation and leisure studies. Most large universities offer this as a major. The NRPA accredits approximately 100 undergraduate programs in the field. 3. Check out ads in lo cal newspapers for positions. Recreation Supervisor positions are usually listed under Professional/Administrative. 4. Familiarize y ourself wi th t he f ield. The NRP As website (w ww.activeparks.org) o ffers a g ood overview.

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TOWN/CITY MANAGER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Directing daily operations of local government; implementing the policies of elected officials; preparing, submitting, and implementing the annual budget Alternate T itle(s): Town Manager, Local Government Manager, County Administrator, Chief Administrative Officer, Municipal Manager, Professional Manager Salary Range: $50,000 to $170,000+ Employment Prospects: Good to excellent Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geo graphical L ocation: Regio ns exp eriencing growth Prerequisites: Education or TrainingMasters degree preferred

CAREER LADDER
Town/City Manager Assistant Town/City Manager Management Analyst

ExperienceFive to 10 years of increasingly responsible management experience Special Skills and Personality TraitsStrong leadership q ualities; g ood co mmunication skills; hig h ethical standards; ability to work well under stress

Position Description
Town or City Managers serve as all-around top administrators, m uch as co rporate p residents do . The y p repare b udgets, hir e a nd f ire p ersonnel, a nd dir ect t he day-to-day operations of their organizations. But Town or City Managers dif fer f rom t heir corporate counterparts in o ne important way: The y work sp ecifically to complement t he le adership o f elec ted o fficials. C ommunities hire Town or City Managers for their administrative exp ertise in t urning p olicies in to ac tion. I n communities wi th a dir ectly elec ted M ayor, t he Town or City Manager may have fewer responsibilities than in municipalities with a council form of government. Over the years, the number of Town or City Managers has gr own in r esponse to the increased complexity of g overnment. M anagers need t o mast er a va riety o f new skills, inc luding how to sell a b ond issue, the best way t o f orecast r evenues, a nd ho w t o enco urage ci tizens involvement in the government process. As the top administrator, the Town or City Manager oversees whatever needs t o be done to make the community run smoothly. Typical responsibilities include Meeting wi th co uncil mem bers t o dis cuss p olicies and issues of concern Preparing the annual budget, submitting it to elected officials for approval, and implementing it once it has been approved Managing p ersonnel (e.g., hir ing department he ads, supervising top appointees)

Soliciting bids from government contractors Investigating citizens complaints and problems The work itself varies from day to day. The Town or City Manager might go from attending a meetin g with community gr oups o r b usiness le aders t o s oliciting o f bids f rom government contractors to returning phone calls and completing administrative reports. Local g overnments a re under co nstant p ressure t o improve m unicipal s ervices wi thout incr easing costs. Town o r Ci ty M anagers lo ok in to a va riety o f p ossibilities, such as privatization, performance reviews, and citizen input. They see to it that streets are plowed and potholes filled in a timely manner. Many T own o r Ci ty M anagers s ee t hemselves as being in the forefront but not the limelight, a role often reserved f or elec ted o fficials. The media o ften f ocus more a ttention o n elec ted o fficials t han o n T own o r City Managers. Sometimes t he line s eparating Town or City Managers f rom elec ted o fficials ca n b e a b lurry o ne. Take policy making, for example. Some insiders believe this is c learly t he do main o f elec ted o fficials; o thers s ay that Town o r Ci ty M anagers ine vitably a re in volved. For in stance, w hat if T own o r Ci ty M anagers b elieve that cer tain p roposals a re f inancially un sound? H ow can th ey not ad vise elec ted o fficials a bout s omething involving f inances? E lected o fficials, ho wever, mig ht approve the proposal anyway. The Town or City Manager has little choice but to implement it. Because local

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government manage rs s erve a t t he pl easure of t he council, they can be dismissed at any time. Tight de adlines a nd c lose p ublic s crutiny, t oo, ca n add to the pressures. Town or City Managers typically work long hours, often during the evenings and weekends. They are invitedand often expectedto attend civic functions. They also need to be on call in order to handle emergencies.

Salaries
Salaries f or T own o r Ci ty M anagers va ry widel y, depending on the population and demographics of the community. Managers who work in large municipalities generally earn higher salaries than those in small towns. The a verage a nnual s alary f or Town/City M anagers is $95,410, wi th t hose w ho w ork in small co mmunities earning less while those in large cities earn considerably more, according to the International City/County Management Association. Town o r Ci ty M anagers ser ve a t th e p leasure o f elected o fficials a nd s o ca n b e dismiss ed a t a ny time . Individuals in this field are encouraged to have employment agreements that outline severance arrangements.

good st epping st one t oward t he p osition o f Town o r City Manager. Experience at other levels of government (e.g., state, military) or as a manager in the private sector also can be helpful. Town or City Managers need to have the right combination of professional skills and character traits. First, they sho uld b e dedica ted t o im proving t he q uality o f life in t heir communities. They should have high ethical standards, as t hey are held u p to close public scrutiny. P ractices cen sured b y t heir p eers inc lude usin g public money f or private us e, contributing t o p olitical campaigns, and engaging in co nflicts of interest. Town or City Managers need to enforce the policies and regulations of elec ted officials regardless of t heir own p ersonal or political convictions. As the local governments chief executive officer, the Town or City Manager must provide strong leadership and be able to work with all types of personalities. Selfconfidence, dedication, and a willin gness to work long hours ca n hel p. B ecause t his p osition involves s olving the problems of the community, good decision-making skills and sound judgment are key. So, too, is the ability to work under the stress of tight deadlines.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent b ecause many communities hire professional managers.

Unions and Associations


The I nternational Ci ty/County M anagement A ssociation is a professional organization for individuals in the field.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good b ecause many Town or City Managers are reaching retirement age, thus creating new opportunities for those already in the field to move to larger, better-paying positions.

Tips for Entry

Education and Training


Educational requirements have changed over the years. In the early years of the profession, many Town or City Managers had bac kgrounds in ci vil engineering to help with the communitys infrastructure (e.g., bridges, roads, and water systems). Today, Town or City Managers generally ha ve mast ers degr ees in p ublic administra tion or b usiness. Thes e p rograms typ ically o ffer co urses in the financial and legal issues in volved in public governmentsubjects relevant to Town or City Managers.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Few ca ndidates a re hir ed as T own o r Ci ty M anagers right out of college. Instead, most b egin with an entrylevel p osition as a n administra tive assist ant, ma nagement analyst, or budget specialist. Any position in local government r elated t o m unicipal administra tion is a

1. Participate in s tudent g overnment a nd co mmunity activities. Understanding the administrative process ca n hel p y ou decide w hether o r no t a career in government is right for you. 2. Look in to grad uate p rograms in p ublic administration or business. Check out graduate school directories and websites to get information about programs in your area. 3. Obtain a n in ternship, if p ossible. This o pportunity to gain practical experience can help launch a career. 4. Contact the personnel or human resource office of the town, city, or county where you would like to w ork a nd/or st ate m unicipal ass ociations t o find out about specific career opportunities. 5. Consider jo ining a p rofessional ass ociation t o receive membership publications and information about upcoming e vents. State municipal ass ociations often run programs for staffers and prospective employees. B eing ho oked into a netw orking system can open up doors to employment.

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URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNER


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Analyzing trends in land-use, housing, transportation, a nd o ther co mmunity co ncerns; usin g co mputer planning tools; communicating graphically and verbally; touring sites; holding public hearings; mediating among conflicting groups; coordinating plans Alternate Title(s): Town Planner, City Planner, Urban and Regional Planner, Planning Consultant Salary Range: $40,000 to $80,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geo graphical L ocation: L arge ci ties, st ate ca pitals, rapidly growing communities Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingMasters degr ee in p lanning required for most positions

CAREER LADDER
Planning Director, Executive Director, or Partner in Consulting Firm Planner II or Senior Planner Planner I

ExperienceInternship; work experience preferred Special Sk ills a nd P ersonality TraitsSelf-motivated; able to think in terms of spatial relationships and p hysical design; w ell-organized, a rticulate, diplomatic

Position Description

Urban and Regional Planners spend much of their time thinking about the future. They draw up plans for locations of houses and roads, taking into account factors such as zoning codes and population growth. Using maps, graphs, and other tools, Urban and Regional Planners help communities revitalize the old and make way for the new. Planning is both an art and a science, combining design skills with technical knowledge. The road to a planning career often begins with a look around ones own environment. Urban and Regional Planners believe that communities large and small benefit from an organized approach to problem solving. They involve citizens, community groups, and public officials in the planning process. For exa mple, a P lanner w orking t o r evitalize t he downtown o f a n o ld ind ustrial ci ty mig ht ho ld p ublic meetings to discuss possibilities for development. He or she might conduct an analysis of existing conditions and possibilities for the future. The r esult is t he Plan, a f ormal do cument p resented t o co mmunity o fficials, w ho review, revise, and adopt it for ac tion. Once t he do cument is adopted, the Planners job is to implement it. Urban and Regional Planners often ac t as b oosters for t heir p rojects. The y t ake p otential in vestors a nd developers o n t ours o f t he si te. U rban a nd Regio nal Planners als o mig ht need t o media te disp utes a mong different interest groups.

Sometimes t he p rocess do es no t g o smo othly, as different groups may want different things. Although the U rban a nd Regio nal Pla nner has p rofessional expertise, o fficials, ad vocates, a nd ci tizens ma y f eel that they are the experts and therefore ignore or reject outside ad vice. Pla nners need t o b e f lexible eno ugh to bala nce t heir ide al p lan wi th t he r ealities o f t heir communities. Heavy v olume a nd tig ht de adlines ca n add t o t he pressures of the job. Although most Urban and Regional Planners a re s cheduled t o w ork a 40-ho ur w eek, t hey frequently a ttend e vening o r w eekend meetin gs wi th citizens groups, which add to their time on the job. Whereas in t he past, Urban and Regional Planners generally chose between two optionspublic planning and p rivate co nsultingmany a re no w f inding ne w opportunities with nonprofit organizations. Sometimes government departments contract with private or nonprofit organizations for planning services. Urban a nd Regio nal P lanners al so ca n c hoose t o specialize. Areas of specialization include Historic p reservationblending design skills wi th an under standing o f t he eco nomic a nd legal issues involved in preservation Transportation planningdesigning new transportation facilities and increasing the efficiency of existing ones

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Policy planning and managementdeveloping p olicies as pa rt of t he p lanning process, o ften f or a ci ty manager or other senior administrator Environmental p lanningworking o n issues suc h as the preservation of wetlands, the implementation of air quality strategies, and the protection of natural areas Urban designco mbining a n in terest in p hysical design with urban policy making International p lanning a nd de velopmentexamining strategies for regional and national development for less developed countries, U.S. agencies, and international organizations such as the United Nations

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Urban a nd Regio nal Pla nners m ust b e a ble t o t hink in t erms o f spa tial r elationships a nd p hysical design. Lower-level planning positions generally involve more technical, co mputer, a nd r esearch skills t han u pperlevel positions, which depend more on leadership and administrative know-how. Much o f p lanning involves working wi th p eople, s o g ood co mmunication skills are a must.

Unions and Associations


The Amer ican Pla nning A ssociation is a p rofessional organization t hat of fers profe ssional-development resources and publicizes job listings. The Association of Collegiate S chools o f Pla nning is a mem bership o rganization that includes most colleges and universities in the United States that offer planning programs.

Salaries
Salaries a re hig hly co rrelated t o exp erience. A b eginning U rban a nd Regio nal Pla nner mig ht e arn in t he $40,000 to $50,00 ra nge, w hile s omeone with 15 y ears experience might earn about $65,000 a y ear, according to t he Amer ican Pla nning A ssociation. S ome o ffices have increased salaries to attract better qualified Urban and Regional Planners. Consulting firms offer the prospects o f hig her s alaries a nd o wnership p otential no t available through public agencies.

Tips for Entry

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good for Urban and Regional Planners. Help wanted ads have grown steadily, reflecting ne w o pportunities in t he no nprofit, p rivate, a nd public sectors. A str ong eco nomy b oosts o pportunities f or U rban and Regio nal Pla nners, w ho b enefit f rom incr eases in residential co nstruction, co mmercial de velopment, transportation, a nd o ther ac tivities. M any o f t he ne w planning p ositions a re in a ffluent, ra pidly gr owing communities. Job applicants o pen t o a va riety o f p ossibilities have the best chances of landing a position.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood f or U rban a nd Regional Planners as t hey can move up in a va riety of ways t o a hig her-level p lanning p osition in t heir o wn department, t o a la rge m unicipality o r r egion, o r t o a consulting or related position in the private sector.

Education and Training


Education is a key requirement for Urban and Regional Planners. Although some universities offer undergraduate majors in urban and regional planning, most programs are at the graduate level. Many agencies require a mast ers degr ee f or ad vancement. I nternships a re becoming an increasingly common way to gain experience in the field.

1. Look in to ed ucational p rograms in p lanning b y checking o ut r esources a vailable t hrough t he American Pla nning A ssociations B ookstore: Guide t o G raduate Ed ucation i n U rban a nd Regional P lanning and Guide to U ndergraduate Education in Urban and Regional Planning. 2. If alr eady in a p lanning p rogram, a pply f or a n internship. For s ome indi viduals, a n internship offers a direct line to a full-time career position. For o thers, a n in ternship p rovides a c hance t o know what they do not wa nt t o b e do ing a nd so mo tivates t hem t o str ike o ut in a dif ferent direction. 3. Participate in co mmunity w orkshops/forums sponsored by local planning organizations. 4. Network with members of a student and/or professional planning association, and become active in your local chapter. 5. Prepare a r sum for e ach job typ e (e.g., Transportation Planner or Environmental Planner). 6. Write a rticles sho wing y our kno wledge o f co mmunity projects. 7. Check help wanted ads in local newspapers as well as the Sunday editions of regional newspapers. 8. Travel to other cities and towns to see how they are organized. Speak to people; take pictures. The more you learn about the nature of planning, the less you need to reinvent the wheel. 9. Consult t he Amer ican Pla nning A ssociations (APAs) magazine JobMart and/or job listings on the I nternet. The AP A lists jobs a t i ts w ebsite www.planning.org/jobs/all.asp.

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LOCAL/STATE SPECIALISTS

ANTIDISCRIMINATION WORKER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Enco uraging eq ual o pportunity in o btaining government jobs a nd co ntracts; p rotecting ci tizens from discrimination in em ployment, housing, public accommodations, and other matters Alternate T itle(s): Af firmative A ction Of ficer, I nvestigator, C ompliance Of ficer, Di versity C oordinator, Equal Opportunity Administrator Salary Range: $20,000 to $50,000+ Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good to excellent Best Geographical Location(s): State capitals Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingBachelors degr ee necessary; law degree for advancement ExperienceEntry level or two to five years' related experience

CAREER LADDER
Higher-Level Position in Private or Public Sector or Law Student Antidiscrimination Worker Intern or Staffer in Related Field

Special S kills a nd P ersonality T raitsCommitment to equal opportunity; strong research/investigative skills; diplomatic personality; good analytical abilities

Position Description
Individuals in t his f ield kno w all a bout co ntroversy. Every da y, i t s eems, a ne w co mplaint o r co urt c hallenge grabs headlines, raising new questions for Antidiscrimination W orkers. H ow do t hreats o f reverse discrimination a ffect p olicy makin g? What is a valid complaint o f dis crimination? H ow ca n g overnments handle t he ba rrage o f co mplaints de aling wi th s exual harassment, ag e dis crimination, a nd o ther typ es o f civil rights matters? Antidiscrimination Workers in lo cal and state governments de al wi th tw o p ressing issues: (1) enco uraging eq ual o pportunity f or g overnment jobs a nd contracts and (2) p rotecting citizens f rom dis crimination in employment, housing, public accommodations, and o ther ma tters. A co mplex p atchwork o f f ederal, state, and local legislation, along with judicial decisions, is constantly reshaping this field. For in stance, t he Eq ual Em ployment Op portunities Act of 1972 s et up a co mmission t o enf orce a ffirmative ac tion p lans, b ut, in 1978, t he U .S. S upreme Court decided in t he University o f Ca lifornia Re gents v. B akke cas e t hat racial q uotas co nstituted r everse discrimination. M eanwhile, st ate ag encies in vestigating citizen complaints have broadened their definitions of dis crimination t o inc lude no t o nly co ncerns a bout race, religion, and ethnicity, but also the considerations

related to age, harassment, sexual orientation, and disabilities. Within government agencies, numerical quotas are out. Goal setting is in. Increasingly, the term affirmative action is giving way to diversity and equal opportunity. Someone w orking in a ffirmative ac tion/equal opportunity mig ht s et mino rity r ecruitment g oals and sit in on job interviews to assure equitable hiring practices. Whereas affirmative action officers used to work largely on complaints of discrimination by government em ployees, t hey no w t ake mo re o f a p roactive a pproach, le ading em ployee tra ining in di versity issues. Staffers in volved in a set-aside p rogram f or g overnment co ntracts r each o ut t o mino rity a nd small businesses. I f, f or in stance, t he depa rtment o f co rrections plans to buy new mattresses for inmates, an equal opportunity w orker mig ht gi ve small b usinesses t he information they need to apply for the contract. Most s tates ha ve co mmissions t hat in vestigate and addr ess ci tizen co mplaints o f dis crimination in employment, ho using, a nd o ther a reas o f co ncern. States det ermine t he mak eup o f co mmissions, deciding, for instance, how many commissioners should b e appointed b y t he G overnor. W orking wi th t he co mmissioners a re lawyers a nd investigators w ho r esearch citizen complaints.

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Take, f or exa mple, t he hypothetical cas e o f a co mplaint by a Latina woman who claims she was bypassed for a p romotion b ecause o f her g ender a nd et hnicity. The in vestigator mig ht lo ok in to ho w ma ny w omen held hig h-level p ositions in t he company. Was t here a pattern o f den ying ad vancement t o w omen, o r mig ht the employees performance explain why she was denied a promotion? Some co mplaints a re q uickly dismiss ed; o thers a re mediated o r ra ised in a he aring o f t he co mmission. Investigators p rovide t he inf ormation needed t o hel p lawyers and commissioners decide which route to take.

Education and Training


Industry s ources r ecommend a bac helors degr ee in political science, criminal justice, or a related discipline. Internships can be particularly helpful, giving students a ha nds-on in troduction t o w ork in t he f ield. S ome Antidiscrimination W orkers ad vance t heir ca reers b y earning a law degree.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Prior experience in a field involving employment issues, investigation, and/or statistical analysis can be particularly helpful. Because Antidiscrimination Workers deal largely wi th p ersonnel issues, s ome ag encies lo ok f or individuals with a background in human resources. Many An tidiscrimination W orkers en ter t he f ield because they believe strongly in equal opportunity and want t o mak e a dif ference in t he w orld. S ome individuals, however, burn out because of the emotional nature of the work and the heavy workloads. State commissions are grappling with an ever-widening array of citizen co mplaints o f dis crimination, t hus makin g f or huge bac klogs. I nsiders s ay t hat An tidiscrimination Workers should be the type of people able to calm the waters.

Salaries
Industry sources say that salaries generally range from $20,000 to $50,000. An a ffirmative ac tion officer for a mid-sized city, for instance, might earn in t he $30,000 to $40,000 range.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good b ecause this is a ra pidly growing and c hanging f ield with opportunities in all levels of government. Local agencies report to state agencies, w hich, in t urn, r eport t o f ederal ag encies. A state agency de aling with employment dis crimination, for in stance, w ould r eport t o t he Eq ual Em ployment Opportunity Commission; one involved in housing discrimination, t o t he H ousing a nd Urban D evelopment Commission; and so on. Whereas s ome a reas, suc h as co ntract co mpliance, might b e s caled bac k in r esponse t o co urt c hallenges, other areas promise steady growth. Diversity training, in particular, is ho t. Opportunities dealing with diversity also can be found in the private sector and in education.

Unions and Associations


Individuals in t his field might belong to the American Association for Affirmative Action and/or the National Association of Human Rights Workers.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent b ecause of t he b readth o f o pportunities cr eated b y gra ppling with diversity in Amer ican society. Antidiscrimination Workers can move in a variety of directions. In addition to mo ving u p wi thin a g overnment ag ency, An tidiscrimination Workers can move f rom government into the private sector as well as to colleges and universities. Many p ositions in t he co rporate s ector a re cr eated as a r esult o f co urt decisio ns in la wsuits. S ome An tidiscrimination Workers als o incr ease t heir o pportunities by becoming attorneys.

1. Believe strongly in the policies you will be espousing. Individuals must be able to defend affirmative action and other controversial policies. 2. Stay current on the issues. Browse relevant websites, inc luding t he ho me pag es o f t he U nited States Eq ual Em ployment Op portunity C ommission (http://www. eeo c. g ov), Diversity.com (http://www.diversity.com), a nd st ate co mmissions. 3. Look f or en try-level jobs in volving h uman resources, investigations, a nd/or s ocial ac tivism to make yourself a competitive candidate for jobs with state antidiscrimination commissions. 4. Seek a n internship t o ga in ha nds-on exp erience in the field.

LOCAL/STATE SPECIALISTS

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AUDITOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: P articipating in a udit p lanning; meetin g wi th department ma nagers b eing a udited; co nducting fieldwork; writing audit reports Alternate T itle(s): P rogram A uditor, P erformance Auditor, Auditor I, Auditor II, and so on Salary Range: $35,000 to $70,000+ Employment Prospects: Excellent Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best G eographical L ocation(s): L arge cities a nd st ate capitals Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingBachelors degr ee; C ertified Public Accountant (CPA) or other certification helpful ExperienceOne year as trainee

CAREER LADDER
Audit Supervisor Auditor Auditor Trainee

Special S kills and P ersonality T raitsBusiness aptitude; a bility t o co llect, co mpile, a nalyze, a nd interpret da ta; ob jective o utlook; co mmitment t o public s ervice; str ong wr iting a nd co mmunication abilities

Position Description
Auditors examine the records of government agencies and contractors to ensure that public funds are used properly and services performed appropriately. Although the term Auditor sometimes refers specifically to the top elected or appointed o fficial, t he ti tle als o enco mpasses t he ma ny staffers who carry out the actual work of gathering information, analyzing data, and writing reports to document financial im proprieties, inef ficiencies, a nd o ther p roblems. They also set forth steps to remedy the problems. State a uditing depa rtments t end t o b e la rge o perations, with some 200 t o 800 Auditors of varying levels, whereas ci ty ag encies a re smaller , a veraging st affs o f between 15 a nd 20, acco rding t o t he N ational A ssociation of State Auditors, Comptrollers, and Treasurers (NASACT). State and city Auditors commonly provide toll-free numbers for citizens to call with complaints of government wrongdoing. Auditing is t echnically a subs et o f acco unting, although, in g overnment, i t als o dra ws he avily o n t he principles of public administration. Government auditors fall into two basic groups: Financial Auditors Performance Auditors Insiders s ay t hat al though a degr ee in acco unting is generally required of financial Auditors, it is not essen-

tial f or p erformance Auditors, w hose w ork in volves a broader ra nge o f r esponsibilities. S ome p erformance Auditors could also be called p rogram evaluators. Performance A uditors e valuate a n o rganizations o perations with an eye toward making it work better, faster, and cheaper. Many audits involve a mix of financial and performance elements. In a typical audit, Auditors work under the direction of a s upervisor o r ma nager, sp ending m uch o f t heir time in t he o ffices o f t he auditee. F or exa mple, if a local A uditor is a uditing t he ho using a uthority, he o r she might spend 18 months at that assignment, working at a temporary desk. The f irst p hase o f t he w ork in volves p lanning. I s the a udit g oing t o f ocus o n t he en tire ag ency o r o ne segment o f i ts o perations? W hat w ere t he f indings o f the last a udit? S hould t he a udit b e b roken do wn in to several small reports or one major report? Next is a meetin g known as an entrance conference with the managers of the agency being audited. During this conference, Auditors explain the scope of the audit and the access they will need to various records. Then Auditors conduct their fieldwork. An Auditor with a nonaccounting background might be paired with a cer tified p ublic acco untant o n t he a uditing t eam s o that each handles tasks within his or her areas of expertise. While the accountant reviews financial records, the Auditor whose background is no t in acco unting might

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interview st aff t o f ind o ut a bout t he f low o f w ork in the depa rtment. What responsibilities need a s upervisors signa ture? D o a ny o f t hese in volve a d uplication of effort? What kind of system is used for receiving and depositing checks? In t he co urse o f t heir w ork, A uditors mig ht f ind that c hecks a re dep osited o nly sp oradically, costin g the ag ency val uable mo ney in lost in terest. A uditors might then use data analysis techniques to calculate the amount of interest lostperhaps a half million dollars a year. The Auditor might then illustrate his or her f indings with the help of a computer spreadsheet. Next, the Auditors would write their report, describing problems and recommending solutions. They might, for in stance, r ecommend t hat a n a gency im prove i ts finances by investing in a cash register, implementing a cash receipt system, and depositing checks in a timel y fashion. Finally, A uditors p resent t heir f indings t o a gency managers in a n exit conference. At this time, the managers mig ht c hallenge t heir f indings. S ometimes t he managers a rguments ha ve mer it; a t o ther times, t hey dont hold up against the Auditors hard and fast data. Once the audit is completed, its findings are released to the media and/or public. Then the cycle starts again, as A uditors p eriodically r eturn t o t he si tes o f f ormer audits t o mak e sur e t hat r ecommendations ha ve b een implemented.

prevention, too, has led t o the creation of positions for forensic A uditors, w ho g enerally ha ve acq uired t heir expertise through exposure to cases on the job.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are excellent because Auditors can move up the career ladder in a va riety of ways. As in many positions in g overnment, Auditors are ranked by le vel o f exp erience, r ising in s alary as t hey mo ve up f rom tra inee t o ma nager t o dep uty Auditor t o ci ty Auditor or state Auditor. Some use their auditing skills and contacts to become managers of other city or state agencies. An A uditor wi th a mast ers degr ee in p ublic administration mig ht, f or in stance, e ventually b ecome a city manager. Another career track for someone with political aspirations but no a uditing exp erience would be to run for city or state Auditor. Usually, in such cases, the Auditor hires a p rofessional Auditor as a t op manager. The majority of positions, however, are appointed rather t han elec ted. M any t op A uditors a re cer tified public accountants. Opportunities for Auditors als o abound in t he private s ector. S ome g overnment a uditing depa rtments contract o ut s ervices t o p rivate f irms, a nd b usinesses often hire staff Auditors.

Education and Training


Auditing co mbines tw o dis ciplines: acco unting a nd social s cience. Al though f inancial a uditing r equires a specific bac kground in acco unting, t he b roader f ield of p erformance a uditing typ ically calls f or a bac helors degr ee o r eq uivalent in b usiness administra tion, accountancy, g overnment, o r p ublic administra tion. Most auditing co urses a re o ffered t hrough acco unting or business departments, although a public administration program mig ht include a c lass in a uditing and/or offerings in financial and program management, industry sources say. Many A uditors f ind t hat p rofessional cer tification enhances t heir advancement prospects. The Amer ican Institute o f C ertified Pub lic A ccountants designa tion of Certified Public Accountant (CPA) requires successful completion of a r igorous two-day examination; the Association o f G overnment A ccountants designa tion of C ertified G overnment F inancial M anager (C GFM) is conferred on candidates who have passed a s eries of three exams and worked in government for two years. A growing interest in f raud det ection a nd prevention has als o led t o specialized training and cer tification. The T exas-based A ssociation o f C ertified F raud Examiners, o r A CFE, o ffers a C ertified F raud Exa miner designa tion. The Amer ican B oard o f F orensic

Salaries
In st ate g overnment, t he a verage a nnual s alaries a re $37,656 f or en try-level A uditors, $44,450 f or middlelevel A uditors, a nd $53,327 f or u pper-level A uditors, according to the National Association of State Auditors, Comptrollers, a nd T reasurers. M any lo cal A uditors, too, make in the $40,000 to $60,000 range, according to the A ssociation o f L ocal G overnment Auditors. S ome local and state Auditors earn $70,000 o r more. Like in most p ositions, supervisors and managers e arn hig her salaries.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re ex cellent b ecause g overnment co mpetes wi th t he p rivate s ector f or A uditors. Because Auditors can choose either setting, those seeking positions in government usually find ample opportunities. Public dema nd f or acco untability in g overnment has, in some cases, sparked expansion of auditing staffs. If, f or in stance, t he p ublic b ecomes pa rticularly co ncerned about the schools, the municipality might order a sp ecial a udit. N ew in terest in f raud det ection a nd

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Accountants offers its own Certified Forensic Accountant credential.

Unions and Associations


The National Association of State Auditors, Comptrollers, and Treasurers and the Association of Local Government Auditors represent Auditors in st ate and local government.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Typically A uditors b egin as A uditor tra inees. A uditors often work in t eams of trainees paired with more senior staffers. Some individuals enter the field through internships. I n her a rticle Performance Auditing as a Public Administration Career Choice (Or Things They Never Taught Me in Graduate School) published in the National A ssociation o f L ocal G overnment A uditors newsletter, Ama nda N oble r ecalled b eing in troduced to t he f ield t hrough a n in ternship t hat disp elled her notions of Auditors as strictly accountants. Like accountants, however, Auditors must be detailoriented a nd ob jective. Al though p erformance a uditing is b roader in s cope than financial auditing, it, too, requires an ability to analyze facts and figures quickly. Auditors must be good at working with people, including auditees who balk at the idea of being audited.

Tips for Entry

1. Take a g overnment acco unting co urse. G overnment accounting dif fers f rom its counterpart in the private s ector in t hat it de als with laws a nd regulations rather than net income. 2. Seek an internship with the State Auditors Office. 3. Ask y ourself w hether y ou a re a det ail-oriented person, as this field requires meticulous attention to detail. 4. Browse t he websites of t he National A ssociation of St ate Auditors, C omptrollers, a nd Treasurers (www.nasact.org) a nd t he A ssociation of L ocal Government A uditors ( http://www.government auditors.org).

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EMERGENCY MANAGER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Resp onsible f or p rogram administra tion a nd program de velopment enco mpassing all p hases o f emergency management Alternate Title(s): Mitigation Officer, Response/Recovery Of ficer, Emer gency M anagement C oordinator, Training Of ficer, An titerrorism P lanner, H azard Mitigation Specialist Salary Range: $30,000 to $100,000+ Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): Positions t hroughout the nation Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingFour-year degr ee in emergency ma nagement o r r elated f ield (e .g., p ublic administra tion, p lanning) a nd/or f ield tra ining; masters degree sometimes preferred

CAREER LADDER
Director Emergency Manager Temporary Disaster Worker or Member of Allied Profession (e.g., police, fire, military)

ExperienceOne to five years of related experience; field experience required for advancement Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsKnowledge of principles, practices, procedures, and techniques of emergency management; ability to learn quickly; good people skills; coolness under pressure; willingness to be on call in case of emergency.

Position Description
Emergency M anagers co ordinate p rograms t o p rotect citizens f rom da ngers ra nging f rom h urricanes t o t errorist attacks. As t he w orld gra pples wi th a gr owing list o f t echnological hazards, Emergency Managers have assumed new im portance. Emer gency M anagers administ er plans and services to help communities and states prepare f or, r espond t o, a nd r ecover f rom b oth na tural dangers and those caused by human beings. This b road in terdisciplinary p rofession co mbines elements o f p ublic s afety wi th co mponents o f p ublic administration, p lanning, en vironmental p rotection, and p ublic he alth. Yet, as Emer gency M anagers dra w from other professions, they also have carved out their own iden titymore b ehind-the-scenes t han f irst-line responders suc h as f irefighters a nd p olice a nd mo re specialized than other public administrators. Emergency M anagers o versee t he de velopment o f comprehensive p lans t o b e f ollowed in times o f cr isis. Such p lans made i t p ossible f or o fficials t o r espond quickly t o t he t errorist attacks of S eptember 11, 2001. Emergency Managers co ordinated t he steps needed t o block o ff st reets in t he vicini ty o f t he W orld T rade Center q uickly b ecause t hey kne w w hom t o call f or barricades, which intersections needed police, and how

to initiate the paper trail needed to document that each task was completed. Emergency M anagers des cribe a f our-step p rocess needed to keep citizens safe: Mitigation Preparedness Response Recovery

Mitigation, t he co rnerstone o f emer gency ma nagement, involves t he ongoing ef fort to less en t he impact of dis asters o n p eople a nd p roperty. I n t his p hase, Emergency Managers might propose initiatives such as modifying b uilding co des t o mak e ho uses mo re resistant to disaster. They also identify and assess the risks affecting the community. Risk ass essments va ry f rom j urisdiction t o j urisdiction. An Emer gency M anager f or a coast al co mmunity mig ht iden tify h urricanes as a hig h r isk, whereas a co lleague in a hig hly ind ustrialized ci ty might b e mo re co ncerned a bout c hemical haza rds posed b y lo cal fact ories. S till a nother Em ergency Manager might take steps to safeguard the water supply and shopping mall because both serve large numbers of citizens.

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Emergency M anagers ma intain co mprehensive emergency operation plans (EOPs), typically hundreds of pag es lo ng, o utlining w ho is r esponsible f or w hat during a n emer gency. F or exa mple, t he EO P mig ht detail the United States National Guards responsibility for maintaining t ankers of water for us e in la rge-scale fire fighting. During the preparedness phase, Emergency Managers provide the leadership and training needed to cope with dis aster. S tate g overnments assist m unicipalities, which a re r esponsible f or most f irst-line ac tivities f or emergency preparation and response. Emergency Managers co mmonly ho ld ex ercises d uring w hich pa rticipants respond to a simulated emergency. If a r eal emer gency o ccurs, Emer gency M anagers follow agreed-upon procedures. They activate an emergency o perations cen ter, w hich co ordinates r esponse to a cr isis in m uch the same way that Mission Control orchestrates a s pace la unch. The Emer gency M anager responds t o calls f rom t he f ield. V olunteers a re dispatched to wherever they are needed. Then, during the recovery phase, Emergency Managers work on getting all systems back to normal. On a ny gi ven da y, a n Emer gency M anager mig ht work on various parts of the four-step c ycle. Risks a re always b eing ass essed a nd p lans co ntinually u pdated. Emergency Managers also Advise other agencies and organizations in the development and maintenance of their respective parts of the emergency operations plan Establish a nd ma intain t he emer gency o perations center on a continual basis Participate in in-st ate and interstate mutual aid programs Provide training in emergency planning as needed Attend meetin gs a nd gi ve t alks a bout emer gency management t o va rious ci vic f raternal, ed ucational, religious, and other groups Respond to federal requirements

the st ate le vel, w hich, in t urn, t end t o b e hig her t han those at the local level.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood b ecause ne w t hreats to p ublic s afety ha ve cr eated a gr eater a wareness o f the need for emergency management. Industry experts predict an increase in the number of positions as policy makers earmark more time a nd money for emergency management. B ecause o f t he in terdisciplinary na ture of t his f ield, la rge emer gency ma nagement depa rtments co mmonly hir e indi viduals wi th a va riety o f backgrounds. Someone with a bac kground in co mmunications, for instance, might be hired as a public information officer, and an individual with a background in human services might be in charge of relief work. Emergency ma nagement p ositions ca n b e f ound at the lo cal, s tate, a nd f ederal le vels. At t he f ederal le vel, the F ederal Emer gency M anagement A dministration hires no t o nly f ull-time em ployees b ut als o dis aster assistance employees paid by the hour for service during emergencies. Each of the 50 states has an emergency management department, al though i t mig ht b e called b y a slig htly different na me. S tate emer gency ma nagement depa rtments serve as co nduits for information and resources from t he f ederal g overnment t o m unicipalities. I n a n actual emer gency, emer gency ma nagement dir ectors report directly to the governor. In a small st ate the Emergency Manager is lik ely to be a jac k-of-all-trades, w hereas in a la rger st ate p ositions are more specialized. A p osition in mi tigation or recovery de aling pa rticularly wi th g overnment gra nt programs a nd in teragency p lanning mig ht r equire a background in p ublic administra tion, w hereas a p osition leading preparedness exercises might be best suited for someone with a bac kground in f ire protection, law enforcement, emergency services, or the military. At the local level, emergency management might be headed up by an emergency management specialist or a sheriff, fire chief, or other public safety officer. Industry specialists exp ect t he n umber o f p ositions a nd depa rtments devoted specifically to emergency management to increase in r esponse to growing concern about technological hazards. A variety of departments, including zoning b oards, p ublic he alth depa rtments, en vironmental agencies, police and fire departments, and 911 dispatch, are also involved in aspects of emergency management.

Salaries
Salaries vary according to the individuals level of experience a nd t he size o f t he j urisdiction. S ome co mmunities r ely la rgely o n pa rt-timers a nd/or v olunteers for emer gency ma nagement. Emer gency M anagers with limi ted exp erience, w ho w ork in r elatively small communities, mig ht e arn a round $35,000 co mpared to $75,000 f or t heir more exp erienced counterparts in larger j urisdictions, sp ecialists s ay. Sala ries f or Emer gency Managers with the Federal Emergency Management A dministration t end t o b e hig her t han t hose a t

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause o f gr owth in this field. Some Emergency Managers advance their

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careers b y mo ving f rom a small t o a la rger j urisdictionfrom lo cal t o st ate g overnment, f or exa mple. Others mo ve in to p ositions vaca ted b y indi viduals reaching retirement age. Still others find opportunities outside g overnment. H ospitals, uni versities, r elief-oriented nonprofits, and private companies are among the groups o ffering p ositions in o r r elated t o emer gency management.

certification: Associate Emergency Manager and Emergency Manager.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Positions require different levels of experience, depending o n t he le vel o f r esponsibility. S omeone w ho has just graduated from an emergency management degree program might gain experience through an internship and/or a t emporary p osition in t he wake of a dis aster. Supervisory positions generally require more extensive experience. For success in t his f ield, indi viduals m ust b e co ol under p ressure. C alls co me in f rom t he f ielda f irefighter might be trapped in a b uildingand the Emergency Manager needs to know how to respond quickly and effectively. Individuals should understand how different k ey elemen ts o f t he syst em (e .g., p ublic w orks, fire department, and emergency medical services) work to hold duplication to a minimum. Emergency Managers als o must st ay up-to-date on changes in t echnology a nd met hodology. I ndividuals must be able to collaborate with others who might have the sp ecialized information t hey need t o keep citizens safe. Emergency Managers who have earned the trust of others are most successful on the job. On a mo re p ersonal le vel, Emer gency M anagers must be able to cope with the anxiety of facing a s udden crisis. Individuals are on call in cas e of emergency. Every time the phone rings, Emergency Managers must be prepared to respond to disaster.

Education and Training


Emergency M anagers ha ve a va riety o f bac kgrounds. Whereas s ome Emer gency M anagers ha ve r eceived most of their training on the job (e.g., fire protection, law enf orcement, t he mili tary) a nd t hrough p rofessional-development courses, others hold undergraduate a nd/or grad uate degr ees. S ome p ositions sp ecify academic degrees in emergency management or allied fields suc h as p ublic administra tion o r urba n a nd regional planning. A masters degree may be preferred. In addi tion t o p rogram ma nagement, Emer gency Managers a re co mmonly in volved in p ublic co mmunication a nd h uman s ervices, a nd s ome sp ecialized positions are geared for individuals with backgrounds in those fields. In the past 10 y ears, numerous colleges and universities ha ve est ablished specific academic p rograms in emergency management. The Federal Emergency Management A dministration (FEMA) has enco uraged t he development of new academic programs to provide the growing sophistication needed for the profession. According to FEMAs Higher Education College List of 2001, s ome 24 s chools o ffer a cer tificate, di ploma, or minor in emer gency ma nagement; 11 s chools offer associate degree programs; nine schools offer bachelors degree programs; 17 s chools offer masters degree programs; and six s chools offer doctoral degree programs. Another 45 schools are investigating or developing programs in emergency management. Programs vary in orientation: Some programs focus more o n t he t echnical asp ects o f emer gency ma nagement; o thers, pa rticularly a t t he mast ers le vel, a re geared mo re t oward p ublic administra tion. An emer gency management program might include classes such as in troduction t o cr isis a nd emer gency ma nagement, hazard mitigation, disaster recovery, and terrorism and emergency management. Courses related to emergency management a re als o o ffered t hrough p ublic he alth, environmental science, and other departments. In addition to academic tra ining, Emergency Managers w ho have t he required years of work exp erience can s eek p rofessional cer tification. The I nternational Association of Emergency Managers offers two levels of

Unions and Associations


The I nternational A ssociation o f Emer gency M anagers r epresents p rofessionals t hroughout t he ind ustry; the National Emergency Management Association is an organization for directors of st ate emergency management agencies.

Tips for Entry

1. Volunteer with the American Red Cr oss (http:// www.redcross.org) o r a g overnment emer gency management ag ency. The Amer ican Red Cr oss offers f ormal dis aster tra ining p rograms o n a variety of subjects. Emergency Operations Centers activated during times o f crisis also provide opportunities for volunteers. 2. Look in to co urses a nd p rograms in emer gency management. The Emer gency M anagement Institute of the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) lists p rograms in emergency ma nagement o n i ts w ebsite (h ttp://www. fema.gov/emi). The tra ining office of your st ate

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emergency management agency also might provide courses. 3. View listin gs o f emer gency ma nagement jobs maintained b y FEMA (h ttp://www.fema.gov/ career), t he I nternational A ssociation o f Emer gency Managers (http://www.iaem.com), and the National Emer gency M anagement A ssociation (http://www.nemaweb.org).

4. Check o ut in ternship o pportunities wi th t he Federal Emer gency M anagement A ssociation (FEMA) and other agencies. 5. Browse w ebsites o f FEMA (h ttp://www.fema. gov) and state emergency management agencies to b ecome fa miliar wi th t he w ork do ne in t his profession.

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EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEWER/ COUNSELOR


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: I nterview j ob a pplicants; r efer a pplicants t o prospective employers; contact employers t o det ermine personnel needs and conduct follow-up Alternate T itle(s): Em ployment S pecialist, J ob S pecialist Salary Range: $25,000 to $50,000+ Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best Geographical Location: Branch or central offices of state employment agencies Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree or equivalent ExperienceOne year as trainee or equivalent

CAREER LADDER
Recruiter or Manager Employment Counselor Employment Interviewer

Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsKnowledge of interviewing and placement techniques and procedures; ability to associate with people from a variety of backgrounds; familiarity with counseling and testing; a bility t o co mmunicate w ell a nd ex ercise good judgment

Position Description
Employment I nterviewers and C ounselors ar e ma tchmakers o f s orts, pa iring job s eekers wi th p rospective employers. Unlike human resources managers who deal with hir ing f or g overnment jobs, Em ployment I nterviewers a nd C ounselors p rovide ca reer s ervice t o t he general public. Many of these offices have incorporated one-stop in to t heir ti tles, ha ving co nsolidated a nd updated s ervice f rom t he day t hey were known as t he unemployment office for their handling of unemployment claims. They list job openings for a wide variety of occupations: blue-collar, clerical, professional/managerial. Employers throughout the area place job orders for positions to be filled. Employment I nterviewers a nd C ounselors mig ht spend part of their time collecting job orders. They contact em ployers t o det ermine t heir s pecific p ersonnel needs. What type of education and training do applicants need? How is the particular job structured? Maintaining good relations with employers is an important part of the job since this helps assure a steady stream of job orders. Besides helping firms fill job openings, Employment Interviewers and Counselors help individuals find jobs. Many people are looking for jobs as a co ndition of collecting unem ployment b enefits; ho wever, a nyone ca n visit these offices.

The Em ployment I nterviewer s traddles t he ladder between a clerk and a counselor. In clear-cut cases, the Employment I nterviewer t akes inf ormation a bout t he applicants w ork hist ory a nd r efers him o r her t o t he appropriate job listin gs. U sually t his ca n b e do ne in a sin gle in terview. S ometimes, t hough, a pplicants a re unsure a bout t heir c hoice o f a n o ccupation. Em ployment Interviewers listen for certain types of comments indicating the need for counseling: I need a job, and Ill take anything. I want t o do s omething interesting, but I do nt know what. I hate the work I do. I cannot stay on a job for more than a few months. Employment I nterviewers a nd C ounselors w ork together as a team. Both conduct interviews, although those of t he C ounselors are less str uctured. C ounseling ma y t ake p lace o ver a p eriod o f s everal w eeks. Many applicants have a variety of problems, including limited ed ucation, dr ug o r alco hol addic tion, a nd a lack of marketable skills. Some have unrealistic expectations o f t he job ma rket. Em ployment C ounselors need to be empathetic and tactful but also persuasive and firm.

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In the course of working with a particular applicant, an Em ployment C ounselor mig ht do v ocational t esting, make referrals to other agencies and/or programs, and assist wi th rsum-writing and interviewing skills. Many em ployment o ffices o ffer ca reer-development workshops and classes to the public free of charge.

Salaries
Interviewers a re b elow C ounselors in t he p ublic employment o ffice hiera rchy a nd s o e arn lo wer s alaries, al though pa y va ries f rom st ate t o st ate. M any individuals e arn in t he $35,000 t o $40,000 ra nge. N o national g overnment o rganization k eeps s tatistics o n salaries for Employment Interviewers and/or Employment Counselors.

specialists commonly refer clients for outside help, they need to b e familiar with s ocial-service agencies in t he area. The y sho uld als o b e kno wledgeable a bout t he breadth of occupations in the world of work. Employment Counselors need to be part cheerleader, part taskmaster. They must be positive and enthusiastic in order to motivate applicants to embark on a plan for career success, yet f irm enough to enforce office r ules when necessary.

Unions and Associations


The I nternational P ersonnel M anagement A ssociation (IPMA) is a p rofessional association for public personnel professionals.

Tips for Entry Employment Prospects


Employment prospects are good, as employment offices are typically scattered throughout a state. In some states, the o ffices a re o rganized as p ublic-nonprofit pa rtnerships. C ompetition is s tiffer f or t he mo re a ttractive locations. B eing f lexible about ones choice of lo cation can enhance an individuals employment prospects.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are excellent as em ployees are commonly promoted from within.

Education and Training


A bachelors degree is generally required. Requirements are less stringent for Employment Interviewers than for Employment C ounselors. F or t he f ormer, exp erience may substitute for a degree.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Employment Interviewers and Counselors are in a helping profession and so need t o be sensitive to the needs of people whose race or background differs from theirs. Good listening skills are essential. Because employment

1. Visit a st ate em ployment o ffice, w hich ma y b e called a one-stop job or career center, in your area to become familiar with the services it offers. 2. Develop your people skills. Employment Interviewers and Counselors need to have a good feel for all types of people. 3. Check out the IPMA w ebsite (http://www.ipmahr.org). Go to the student center to get an overview of the field of human resources/personnel. 4. Get y our f oot in t he do or b y b eing willin g t o work part-time. 5. Try t o a rrange f or a n inf ormational in terview with a manager. 6. Consider grad uate s chool if y our g oal is t o advance t o t he le vels o f u pper ma nagement. Many grad uate p rograms in p ublic administration offer a concentration in human resources. 7. Visit a lib rary t o c heck o ut b ooks, jo urnals, a nd articles about human resources and labor issues. Familiarize yourself with the wide world of work by p erusing r esources s uch as t he U.S. D epartment of Labors Occupational Outlook Handbook.

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ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIALIST
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: C onducts st udies, in spections, a nd r esearch projects; p repares r eports; ca rries o ut o r o versees programs to protect the environment Alternate T itle(s): En vironmental Anal yst, C onservation A gent, En vironmental H ealth M anager, Environmental M anager, En vironmental Pla nner, Environmental Engineer, Compliance Officer Salary Range: $35,000 to $80,000 Employment Prospects: Good to excellent Advancement Prospects: Good to excellent Best G eographical L ocation(s): Varies by specialty (e.g., f orestry in he avily w ooded r egions, co astal management by oceans); regulatory offices generally located in state capitals Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingVaries; g raduate degr ee may be needed for advancement

CAREER LADDER
Director or Consultant Environmental Specialist Intern or Student

ExperienceTwo years generally required Special Skills and Personality TraitsConcern for the en vironment; desir e t o w ork indo ors a nd o utside; a ttention t o det ail; a nalytical skills; a bility t o interpret t echnical da ta a nd co mmunicate r esults; willingness to work under pressure

Position Description
Environmental S pecialists in g overnment p rotect t he environment in ways unimaginable only a f ew decades ago. F ew f ields ha ve gr own as q uickly a nd dra matically as t his one. B efore 1960, t he environmental f ield consisted mainly of park rangers, foresters, and a small number of public health officials. Then t here occurred a massi ve shif t in co nsciousness, as p eople b egan t o realize that the Earths resources were limited. The environmental movement was b orn. Two landmark events occurred in 1970: t he cr eation o f t he En vironmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the passage of the Clean Air Act. The Cle an Water Act and myriad other initiatives followed. Environmental Specialists in government encompass a variety of professionals (e.g., planners, pollution-control r egulators, na tural r esource ma nagers, ed ucators, communicators), wi th s ome p ositions co nsiderably more technical than others. A p osition monitoring air pollution mig ht in volve c hemistry, en gineering, a nd public health. Someone working to redevelop contaminated l and, o n t he o ther hand, mig ht ne ed to k now more about planning issues. Environmental issues a re o ften co ntroversial, p itting one constituency against another, although sometimes dif ferent gr oups f ind co mmon s olutions. At t he

local level, for instance, a partnership might be formed between a m unicipality a nd a gas co mpany t o r eplace the o ld gas ca ps o n ci tizens ca rs. Ci tizens w ould g et improved gas mile age and a r eduction in a ir pollution. The oil company would improve its public image. Local initiatives als o mig ht inc lude p urchasing p roperty f or conservation purposes. Large ci ties typ ically ha ve en vironmental ma nagement depa rtments he aded b y a dir ector. U nderneath the director might be assistant directors in charge of the following specialties: Airhelping co mmunities s tay wi thin t he o zone compliance levels stipulated by the Clean Air Act Waterpreventing co ntamination o f st orm wa ter and drinking water by pollution Landredeveloping en vironmentally co ntaminated properties known as brownfields to prevent sprawl and encourage smart growth Solid wastemanaging landfills and trash Recyclingestablishing o r o perating efficient programs State en vironmental ag encies t end t o b e in volved more in r egulatory ma tters as r equired b y t he f ederal Environmental Protection Agency. Over the years, many

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responsibilities for environmental protection have shifted from the federal government to the states. Each state also has a cen tralized operation for emergency management to respond t o dis asters ra nging f rom f loods a nd t ornadoes t o r iots a nd t errorist a ttacks. M ost en vironmental agencies either combine both regulatory and natural resource operations or focus on one of the two. Of t he tw o, r egulatory jobs t end t o b e t he mo re technical. S tate r egulators in spect t he p roperty o f different industries to make sure they are not harming the environment. A typ ical da y mig ht in volve r eviewing compliance data; determining what, if any, enforcement actions a re needed; a nd pa rticipating in t he de velopment o f r egulations. The mix o f en gineering a nd s cience, on the one hand, and policy making and politics, on the other, depends on the position. Natural r esource a gencies typ ically de al wi th b iological, eco logical, o r f orestry issues; en vironmental education; a nd en vironmental ma nagement. Thes e individuals work as caretakers of the public lands. Some might, for example, coordinate a waterway program. Environmental S pecialists a re o ften co nstrained in their decisio n makin g b y t echnical inf ormation a nd the law. If, for instance, a factory with a wastewater discharge demonstrates through technical documentation that it can meet tr eatment requirements, the p ermit is issued even though citizens might object. Local and state environmental agencies can, however, establish t heir o wn p olicies. A s tate mig ht de velop i ts own standards for companies exempted (under a grandfather c lause) f rom t he Cle an Air A ct o r im plement burden r eduction t echniques t o mak e en vironmental protection mo re f lexible a nd cost-ef fective. A s a ne w era dawns for the environmental movement, emphasis is increasingly being placed on preventing pollution.

to a va riety o f p rofessionals: p lanners, ed ucators a nd communicators, p ollution-control sp ecialists, a nd natural r esource ma nagers. Within t hese b road a reas, individuals ca n c hoose f rom a n umber o f s pecialties such as air, water, land and waste, fishery and wildlife, and coast al ma nagement. J obs a re b ecoming incr easingly sophisticated.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent b ecause of t he va riety o f ag encies a nd o rganizations in volved in t he en vironment. P ossibilities exist a t t he f ederal as w ell as t he st ate a nd lo cal le vels, es pecially wi th a group o f ag encies co llectively kno wn as t he B ig F ive: the U.S. F orest S ervice, National Park S ervice, B ureau of L and M anagement, F ish a nd W ildlife S ervice, a nd Environmental P rotection A gency. Ano ther f ederal agency involved in en vironmental issues is t he Federal Emergency Management Administration. As En vironmental S pecialists c limb t he ca reer ladder, t hey b ecome mo re in volved in ma nagement a nd policy making. Environmental Specialists also work in the nonprofit and private sector. Although En vironmental S pecialists o ften mo ve from t he p ublic t o t he hig her-paying p rivate s ector (causing employee retention problems for government agencies, insiders say), some individuals go in the opposite dir ection. S omeone mig ht c hange f rom w orking for a wa ter or ener gy consulting f irm, f or exa mple, t o becoming the director of water conservation for a city.

Education and Training


Someone interested in a ca reer related to the environment can choose from a variety of educational options. Interdisciplinary p rograms in en vironmental s cience have m ushroomed o ver t he pas t f ew decades a t t he associates, bachelors, and graduate levels. At the associates degree level, many programs provide the training needed for the more technical aspects of environmental careers. B achelors degr ee p rograms in en vironmental studies combine science, engineering, government, law, and a variety of other disciplines. As t he f ield has b ecome increasingly s ophisticated, many p eople wi th bac helors degr ees a re f inding t he need t o co ntinue t heir ed ucation t o ad vance t heir careers. G raduate p rograms in en vironmental s cience are o ften link ed t o a nother sp ecialty, suc h as p ublic administration, p ublic he alth, en gineering, o r urba n and regional planning. Educational requirements vary by position. Whereas a bac kground in b otany mig ht b e ide al f or s omeone working on public gardens, a mast ers degree in p ublic

Salaries
Salaries va ry acco rding t o a n indi viduals le vel o f responsibility. Although positions generally fall into the $35,000 to $80,000 ra nge, someone in a small m unicipality mig ht e arn less. M any p ositions a re ra nked b y levelEnvironmental Specialist I, En vironmental Specialist II, and so forth. Salaries increase with supervisory and management responsibilities. Many Environmental Specialists in local/state government start in the $35,000 to $40,000 range, then move up to about $50,000 within a f ew y ears, acco rding t o t he N ational A ssociation o f Environmental Professionals.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent b ecause environmental w ork is a ra pidly e volving f ield o pen

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health w ould b e b etter f or a n indi vidual de aling wi th the he alth ef fects of air p ollution. Positions with titles like Planner or Engineer mig ht b e o pen t o ca ndidates with a variety of educational backgrounds. Agencies set their own educational requirements.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


A co uple o f y ears o f exp erience in t he f ield is hig hly desired. Internships, in particular, can open up doors to career-oriented positions. Backgrounds in s cience, statistics, a nd co mmunication a re us eful. En vironmental Specialists must have the analytical skills a nd attention to detail required to interpret data, prepare reports, and communicate results effectively. On a more personal level, Environmental Specialists in government must be able to withstand the stress that results from dealing with controversial issues subject to criticism f rom t he media a nd t he p ublic. M any En vironmental Specialists work long hours under pressure.

Unions and Associations


Associations of broad interest include the Student Conservation A ssociation a nd t he N ational A ssociations o f Environmental Professionals. An Environmental Specialist might also belong to the National Association of Local Government En vironmental P rofessionals, t he En vironmental C ouncil o f t he S tates, a nd mo re sp ecialized organizations s uch as t he S oil a nd Water C onservation Society or the Air and Waste Management Association.

1. Familiarize yourself with the role of government in en vironmental a ffairs. A g ood p lace t o st art is the Environmental Protection Agency website (http://www. epa. g ov/ hist ory). Many state and local g overnments als o ha ve w ebsites f or g overnment ag encies. B rowsing t hese ca n help y ou pinpoint an area of interest. 2. Volunteer to work in your field of interest for an environmental agency. 3. Seek out opportunities for internships as w ell as seasonal or part-time employment. These opportunities a re widel y a vailable, o ffering b oth pa id and unpaid positions. Some are offered through professional ass ociations suc h as t he S tudent Conservation Association. 4. Look into environmental programs at the undergraduate and/or graduate level. 5. Check out environmental career websites such as that of the National Association of Environmental P rofessionals (h ttp://www.naep.org), w hich include internships as w ell as r egular job o penings. 6. Look b eyond ci ty a nd co unty t o r egional en tities such as regional planning commissions, solid waste p lanning distr icts, o r wa ter ma nagement districts. Ask someone in a lo cal environmental department for leads in your area.

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ETHICS INVESTIGATOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: C ontacting a nd in terviewing r espondents, complainants, a nd wi tnesses under oa th; iden tifying, collecting, and evaluating documents; preparing comprehensive wr itten reports for review by et hics commission members Alternate Titles: Ethics Specialist Salary Range: $30,000 to $75,000 Employment Prospects: Poor Advancement Prospects: Poor Best Geographical Location(s): State capitals Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree ExperienceTwo to four years in a related field Special Skills and Personality TraitsInvestigative techniques; in terviewing skills; a nalytical a bilities;

CAREER LADDER
Senior Ethics Investigator Ethics Investigator Various Investigative Positions (e.g., insurance, child support)

understanding of ethics rules and regulations; ability to ma intain str ict co nfidentially a nd co mmunicate effectively orally and in writing

Position Description
Ethics I nvestigators lo ok in to cas es o f p ossible g overnment wrongdoing. Is an elected official misusing public funds? H as a lobb yist o ffered gif ts t o a st ate legisla tor? Has someone hired a relative? Any answer of yes to these questions could indicate a violation of state ethics laws. Ethics Investigators differ from their counterparts in law enforcement in t he way t hey go about t heir work. Because they are dealing with civil rather than criminal investigations, t hey do no t ca rry gun s o r us e f ingerprints. S omeones na me o n a n en velope is suf ficient evidence for their purposes. An E thics I nvestigator sp ends m uch o f his o r her time wr iting r eports f or co mmissioners, w ho, in t urn, decide w hether or not t o impose f ines or other p enalties. S tates det ermine t he mak eup o f t heir o wn et hics commissionshow ma ny mem bers a re a ppointed b y the governor, who represents which political party, and so forth. Often Ethics Investigators follow complicated paper trails. One time-co nsuming cas e in S eattle in volved a money-laundering s cheme in w hich a w ealthy b usinessman had co nvinced eight different people to write checks t o him in s upport o f a ballo t ini tiative. The Seattle E thics a nd E lections C ommission sub poenaed bank r ecords t o trace t he tra nsactions. I n a nother case in S eattle, t he Ethics Investigator checked payroll records to see whether or not someone was getting paid

overtime for time no t worked. In yet another case, the Investigator tracked down lumber receipts to show the extent of illegal logging. Although E thics I nvestigators sp end m uch o f t heir time in the office, poring over records and writing reports, they also conduct interviews in the field, where they hear the respondents side of the story and speak to witnesses. In the case of a p ublic official accused of inappropriately using aides for p ersonal chores such as ba by-sitting, the Ethics Investigator might interview everyone involved in the situation. Did t he aides feel pressured to help or did they do so willingly? What were the circumstances? Setting up interviews can be a time-consuming process, as Ethics Investigators need to accommodate their sources but also keep travel expenses to a minimum. At the last min ute, a s ource might decide t o speak only if subpoenaed. The E thics I nvestigator w ould t hen need to get a subpoena. Sometimes cas es a re dismiss ed f or lac k o f e vidence at the end of an informal fact-gathering phase. Although such results might seem at first glance to be defeats, insiders s ay t he investigative process of nosing a round ca n prompt government officials to change their behavior. Public s candal, too, can tr igger change. Many st ate ethics commissions sprang up shortly after the Watergate s candal o f t he 1970s in r esponse t o t he p ublics concern about government behavior. Not all states have ethics commissions, however. In a state without an eth-

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ics co mmission, t he a ttorney g eneral o r s ome o ther official would investigate cases of possible government wrongdoing. The funding for state ethics commissions is controversial, as, in most cas es, t he budget is det ermined by elected officials who may be or have been investigated by t he co mmission, t hus p osing a p ossible co nflict o f interest. The California Fair Campaign Practices Commission, however, is f unded s eparately as a r esult of a citizens initiative. Responsibilities of Ethics Investigators have grown in response to the publics demand for government accountability. Common tasks of Ethics Investigators include Auditing political campaigns Attending public hearings Reviewing documents, tapes, transcripts, minutes of meetings, and other material Responding to questions f rom o fficials and employees about ethical matters Resolving et hical q uestions ra ised b y t he gr owing number of public/private partnerships

colleges in adding such programs to their curriculums. Typically, t hese p rograms o ffer a t le ast o ne co urse in interviewing t echniques a nd in vestigation as w ell as internships o ffering p ractical exp erience in t he f ield. Students le arn ho w t o ask q uestions, ga ther e vidence, and testify. Advanced degrees may substitute for a year or two of required experience.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Individuals can get investigative experience in a variety of si tuations: la w enf orcement, t he I nternal Re venue Service, child-support investigations, insurance claims, for example. Journalism, too, can develop investigative and interviewing skills. An E thics I nvestigator needs t o b e o pen-minded and fair. Good listening skills a re a must. Ethics Investigators also must be aggressive enough to pursue leads. They o ften de al wi th s ensitive ma tters r equiring t act and discretion.

Unions and Associations


The Council on Governmental Ethics Laws is a p rofessional association of ethics professionals in government agencies.

Salaries
Salaries for Ethics Investigators generally range between $30,000 and $75,000, va rying from state to state. Typically, Ethics Investigators gain more responsibility with experience.

Tips for Entry

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are poor because there are only a limited number of positions. Some states do not have ethics commissions. Ethics commissions generally have small st affs. M ost et hics co mmissions a re a t t he st ate, rather than the local, level.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are p oor b ecause of t he small size of ethics commissions. If a state has the position of a senior Ethics Investigator, it is likely to have only one. Ethics Investigators may us e t heir exp erience t o move into another field such as law or investigation.

Education and Training


Criminal j ustice, pa ralegal, o r legal tra ining is p referred. M any f our-year co lleges ha ve jo ined tw o-year

1. Look in to pa ralegal, cr iminal j ustice, a nd legal studies p rograms. M ost o ffer co urses in in terviewing techniques and investigation. 2. Take ad vantage o f in ternship p ossibilities. An internship need no t b e wi th a n et hics co mmission, p er s e, t o o ffer val uable in vestigative experience. M yriad p rivate a nd p ublic o rganizationslaw enforcement, the Internal Revenue Service, child-support agencies, insurance companiesdo investigative work. 3. Develop your interviewing and communications skills by taking an entry-level investigative position. Journalism experience, too, can be helpful. 4. Check hel p wa nted ads in a va riety o f p laces, including local newspapers. 5. Visit g overnment w ebsites t o r ead t he ho me pages of ethics commissions and check out state personnel job listings.

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HUMAN SERVICES DIRECTOR


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Overseeing the effective delivery of human services to clients by directing budgets, personnel, program development, and other areas of administration Alternate Title(s): Area Director, Division Director Salary Range: $45,000 to $150,0000+ Employment Prospects: Fair to good Advancement Prospects: Fair Best Geographical Location(s): Areas with a commitment to human services Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingMasters degr ee in p ublic administra tion, p ublic p olicy, b usiness administration, public he alth, psychology, s ocial work, or related field

CAREER LADDER
Human Services Commissioner Human Services Director Human Services Program Manager

ExperienceSix to 12 years of increasingly responsible experience Special Skills and Personality TraitsVision, leadership, a nd a dedica tion t o h uman s ervices; a mbition; good interpersonal skills; patience

Position Description
Human S ervices Dir ectors he ad u p depa rtments t hat provide child welfare, food stamps, Medicaid, and other help t o t hose in need . Welfare r eform a nd o ther legislative initiatives have spurred t he creation of a mo re entrepreneurial, ma rket-oriented en vironment f or human s ervices. S ome st ate h uman s ervice a gencies have budgets on a pa r with those of Fortune 500 co mpanies. Increasingly, human services once provided by local a nd st ate ag encies a re b eing co ntracted o ut t o private and nonprofit organizations. Human S ervices Directors enter t his p osition f rom two basic dir ections: p ublic p olicy o r dir ect s ervice. Many p ositions co mbine t he tw o: S ome p ositions fall more at the policy end of the spectrum, and others have more of a direct service orientation. People on the policy end o f the spectrum generally begin their careers in research-oriented positions, rising from program analyst to program manager to director. They ask questions such as, How well are Latino clients doing? How can services be improved? Individuals wi th mo re o f a dir ect s ervice o rientation o ften r ise u p t he ra nks f rom H uman S ervices Worker t o su pervisor t o p rogram ma nager t o Dir ector. A Human Services Director who deals with issues of c hild a buse mig ht c hair a meetin g t o det ermine whether or not a child in foster care should be returned home. The cas eworker, supervisor, and agency lawyer would contribute their input, and the Human Services

Director w ould ass ume o verall r esponsibility f or t he decision. Each bac kgroundpolicy de velopment o r dir ect servicehas i ts o wn s et o f p erceived str engths a nd weaknesses. Someone with a p olicy background might be b etter a t s eeing the b ig p icture, w hereas a n individual wi th mo re dir ect s ervice exp erience mig ht b e better at understanding the nitty-gritty realities of those in need. Ideally, as indi viduals mo ve u p t he ra nks, t hey acquire t he skills needed f or t he next le vel. B y t he time a mental health worker becomes a program manager, f or in stance, he o r she sho uld kno w a bout no t only t he da y-to-day w ork o f tr eatment, b ut als o t he setting of goals, de velopment of p olicy, and motivating of others. Typically, Human Services Directors provide leadership in five major areas Client services Budgets Personnel Program planning and development Public relations

A typ ical da y mig ht b egin wi th r eviewing r eports. How m uch mo ney is b eing sp ent o n pa rticular p rograms? How many children are being abused? What are the governors new policy objectives?

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Then the Human Services Director might meet with program ma nagers. H ow is e veryone g etting alo ng in the office? Is a particular child in foster care doing better? Are all reports up-to-date? Next u p: mo re meetin gs. The H uman S ervices Director might meet with administrators of state or private-sector a gencies, t alk t o ci tizen ad vocates, o r pa rticipate in a t ask force on a social program such as one related to teen pregnancy. From there, the Human Services Director might return to the office to find numerous phone and e-mail messages waiting. A f ront-page ne ws st ory mig ht ha ve p ortrayed the agency in an unfavorable light. The governor wants a change in p olicy right away. The Human Services Director needs to drop everything and tend to the situation. Human S ervices Dir ectors co mmonly f ind t hemselves dealing with crises and emergencies. For instance, a fire in a f oster home might result in tw o deaths. The Human Services Director would need t o make a st atement to the press and launch an internal investigation. Personnel problems, too, might erupt. An employee with a drinking problem might not show up for work. A caseworker might accuse the supervisor of being a racist. The Human Services Director would be responsible for resolving such matters. Because Human S ervices Directors sp end s o much time r eacting t o p roblems, t hey o ften f ind li ttle time for developing new programs. The creative, innovative, fun part of the job is constantly preempted by day-today r esponsibilities. S uch p ressures no twithstanding, Human Services Directors can find satisfaction in helping to make the system work for those in need.

a larger one, such as a regional, county, or state agency. However, o nce th ey ri se t o th e po sition o f H uman Services Dir ector, t hey ma y f ind f ew p ositions a bove them: dep uty co mmissioner, co mmissioner, s ecretary of human services, then, ultimately, governor. Organizational str uctures va ry f rom ag ency t o agency, as s ome inco rporate all s ervices under o ne umbrella and in others specialties such as mental health, Medicaid, and subst ance abuse are more autonomous. Whether a n indi vidual is a sp ecialist o r a g eneralist might depend, in part, on the organizations structure.

Education and Training


Individuals ca n c hoose ei ther a bac kground in p olicy analysis/program administra tion o r dir ect s ervice/ social w ork. F or t he f irst, degr ees in p ublic administration, business administration, and public p olicy are most hel pful. F or t he s econd, degr ees in s ocial w ork, education, p ublic he alth, a nd psy chology a re r ecommended. A law degree, too, can be useful.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Skills that make for an effective human services worker can backfire at the director level. Whereas a clinician is trained t o b e em pathetic a nd no ndirective, a H uman Services Director often needs to be tough and decisive. He or she sho uld be willing to forge ahead with a p lan even if others are trying to block it. Human Services Directors need to have a vision and persuade others to share it. They must be tough negotiators a nd ha ve a f irm grasp o f f iscal r esponsibility. They sho uld b e a ble t o ha ndle da ta a nalysis, co mplex problems, long hours, and high stress.

Salaries
Salaries vary according to the size of the jurisdiction and the level of responsibility. Human Services Directors at the lo cal le vel mig ht mak e $45,000 t o $70,000, co mpared to $50,000 to $85,000 in midsized and $60,000 to $150,000 in large jurisdictions.

Unions and Associations


Associations t hat o ffer p rofessional r esources f or Human Services Directors include the American Public Human Services Association and the National Association of Social Workers.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir t o g ood. P rivatization has cr eated s ome ne w o pportunities b ut s caled bac k others. S ome p ositions have b een c hanged f rom overseeing staff to managing contracts. On t he other hand, strong links exist a mong t he public, private, and nonprofit s ectors, cr eating o pportunities f or la teral a nd upward movement.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are fair. Human Services Directors can rise from a small jurisdiction, such as a city, to

1. Determine y our o wn a rea o f passio n. Ar e y ou passionate about social equity, public health, child welfare, or some other area of social concern? 2. Get experience in the field by working as a counselor, volunteer, or other human services worker. People in human services are generally expected to pa y t heir d ues b y p utting s ome time in the trenches. Because human services worker positions constitute the majority of jobs in t he field, they are often advertised in S unday newspapers and college career offices.

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3. Point y ourself in t he dir ection o f director b y distinguishing y ourself as a le ader. N etwork, write, a nd do w hatever els e i t t akes t o b ecome visible. Attend summer institutes. 4. Ask yourself whether youre willing to put yourself f orward a nd ex ercise inf luence in a p ublic

role o r w hether y oud ra ther w ork b ehind t he scenes. If the latter, you might prefer to stay in a position like director of research. 5. Talk to professors in va rious graduate programs to exp lore y our in terest in t he f ield a nd det ermine possible courses of study.

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LABOR RELATIONS SPECIALIST


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: D ealing wi th co ntract neg otiations, em ployee grievances, a nd o ther w orkplace ma tters; b eing up-to-date o n la bor la w a nd ba rgaining tr ends; researching and writing Alternate T itle(s): Em ployee Re lations M anager, Human Resources/Personnel Specialist Salary Range: $30,000 to $60,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Fair to good Best Geo graphical L ocation: S tates wi th ext ensive unionization of public employees Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree required; masters or law degree preferred

CAREER LADDER
Assistant Director of Labor Relations Labor Relations Specialist Personnel/Human Resources

ExperiencePrior w ork exp erience in p ersonnel/ human resources department preferred Special Skills and Personality TraitsGood listening and communication skills; patience; fair-mindedness

Position Description
Labor Rela tions S pecialists de al wi th t he r elationship between unio ns a nd ma nagement in g overnment. Workers in lo cal a nd st ate g overnment a re typ ically represented b y s everal dif ferent unio nspolice, f irefighter, and public service worker unions, to name just a f ew. The L abor Rela tions S pecialist w orks o n b ehalf of management to negotiate and enforce collective bargaining agreements with the unions. These agreements can be so complex that department managers need help understanding t hem. The L abor Rela tions S pecialist provides the necessary help, serving as a sort of internal consultant. On a typical day, a L abor Relations Specialist might field several different inquiries from department managers. Who gets the first pick of vacation? Can I require an em ployee t o w ork a t a cer tain lo cation o r time? I s everything in t he workplace safe by federal standards? What do es t he co ntract s ay a bout p romotion a nd seniority? What can I do about an attendance problem? The Labor Relations Specialist also gets involved in problems t hat may or may not le ad to a f ormal gr ievance. S omeone in a depa rtment mig ht b e t hreatening or ha rassing s omeone els e. Ano ther em ployee mig ht be introducing longstanding p ersonal problems to t he workplace. S till a nother em ployee mig ht co mplain that he o r she was dis ciplined o r f ired unfa irly. Typically, contracts call f or managers and employees to tr y to w ork o ut t heir o wn p roblems. I f, ho wever, t his is

not p ossible, t he L abor Rela tions S pecialist b ecomes involved. Sometimes, for example, an employee might refuse to t ake r esponsibility f or his o r her ac tions. P erhaps the employee had s everal vehicular accidents while on the job . The L abor Rela tions S pecialist mig ht r ecommend a n em ployee assis tance p rogram o r co unseling. Sometimes an outside arbitrator is called in t o resolve the problem. Another problem might be that the manager is t oo authoritarian. The ma nager might be quick to yell but reluctant to listen. The Labor Relations Specialist might help t he ma nager de velop mo re ef fective su pervisory skills. Although t he L abor Rela tions S pecialist mig ht a t times ac t as a n ad vocate f or la bor, he o r she is t he representative of management. Unions have t heir own representatives. Relationships b etween unio ns a nd ma nagement in the past ha ve b een no toriously ad versarial, wi th b itter disagreements costing taxpayer money. To prevent such problems, management has b een forced to take a more collaborative st ance. L abor Rela tions S pecialists tr y t o help managers and employees to work together. Busy times g enerally o ccur a round co ntract neg otiations. Before contract negotiations, a Labor Relations Specialist might survey surrounding areas to see whether or no t em ployee s alaries a re co mpetitive. The L abor Relations S pecialist co uld t hen us e t his inf ormation t o

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bolster managements side in t he contract negotiations. For example, he o r she mig ht argue t hat t he 5 p ercent pay incr ease r equested b y t he unio n is o ut o f line a nd that a 2 percent increase would be sufficient. Negotiations ca n b e len gthy, o ften lastin g in to t he night. Patience and good people skills a re musts. Once an agreement is reached, the Labor Relations Specialist generally writes it out and explains it to managers. Sometimes the Labor Relations Specialist holds training s essions f or ma nagers o n t opics suc h as w hat t he contract says about promotion or dealing with difficult employees. Increasingly, innovative techniques, such as the S exual Harassment P revention Training Ga me, a re being used to deal with sensitive workplace issues. The job o f t he L abor Rela tions S pecialist va ries, depending on the size and locale of the office. In small towns, the individual tends to be a g eneralist. A L abor Relations Specialist in a la rge city or state, on the other hand, may be assigned to only one area, such as dis cipline, or a single collective bargaining unit. Although L abor Re lations S pecialists de al p rimarily with the relationship between unions and management, they als o b ecome in volved in f ederal a nd st ate r egulations governing nonunion employees. Equal opportunity and workplace safety laws, for instance, cover all workers, not j ust t hose in unio ns. I n ci ties a nd st ates (p rimarily in the South) where government workers are not unionized, t he p rofessional de aling wi th em ployment issues would probably b e called a h uman resources/personnel manager rather than a Labor Relations Specialist.

level. L arger depa rtments g enerally o ffer mo re o pportunity f or ad vancement. Directors a nd assist ant directors often begin as Labor Relations Specialists.

Education and Training


Labor Rela tions S pecialists ca n ha ve ei ther a bac kground in lib eral a rts o r a mo re sp ecialized f ield o f study suc h as ind ustrial r elations, h uman r esources, business administration, public administration, or law. Different employers lo ok for dif ferent backgrounds. A law degr ee ca n b e pa rticularly hel pful f or u pper-level positions such as labor counsel.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Labor relations is a specialized field in which employees learn largely by doing. Previous experience in employee relations hel ps in t his middle-ma nagement p osition. Some Labor Relations Specialists have worked in other fields or b een promoted f rom c lerical p ositions. As in many ca reers, kno wledge o f co mputers a nd inf ormation systems is useful. Being a good listener is crucial. The Labor Relations Specialist needs to be able to relate to a wide va riety of people and deal with such sensitive workplace issues as dismissal and s exual harassment in a n objective manner. Patience and empathy are important qualities. The position also requires good research and writing skills as well as some public speaking. The L abor Rela tions S pecialist w orks in a hig hly confidential environment and so should convey a sense of in tegrity a nd dis cretion. K nowing w hen t o b e p ersuasive and when to stand back is an important part of the job.

Salaries
The size of the office and level of the candidates experience hel p det ermine s alary. I n la rge urba n a reas wi th more t han o ne L abor Rela tions S pecialist s omeone recently out of college might earn $30,000, compared to $55,000 to $65,000 for a more experienced professional. Salaries in smaller j urisdictions g enerally ra nge f rom $30,000 to $45,000.

Unions and Associations


Associations o f in terest t o L abor Rela tions S pecialists include t he National Public Employer L abor Relations Association (NPELRA), t he I nternational P ersonnel Management Association (IPMA), a nd t he S ociety for Human Resources Management (SHRM).

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood b ecause L abor Relations S pecialists hel p g overnment ag encies r esolve potentially costly labor disputes out of court. Employment prospects are solid and growing. Solid unionization in t he public sector, too, makes for stability in t he field. Labor Relations Specialists can be found in lo cal, state, and federal government.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are fair to good, depending on the n umber o f p ositions t hat a re a vailable a t a hig her

1. Consider various courses of study for this interdisciplinary f ield. A co mbination o f s ocial s ciences, b usiness, a nd b ehavioral s ciences ca n b e particularly us eful. M any grad uate p rograms in public administration offer a specialty in human relations. Only a few universities offer programs specifically in labor relations. 2. Look into internship possibilities. 3. Be u p-to-date o n de velopments in la bor la w b y following t he ne ws. Pay attention, in pa rticular,

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to big-city newspapers since they are most likely to p rovide co mprehensive co verage o f la bor issues in a large unionized city. 4. Join a p rofessional ass ociation de aling sp ecifically with labor relations or the broader field of public administration.

5. Talk to people in labor relations. Ask to sit in on a contract negotiation or other type of meeting. 6. Ask about the possibility of a pa rt-time position if t he municipality lacks f unding for a f ull-time Labor Relations Specialist.

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PUBLIC HEALTH PROFESSIONAL


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Planning, designing, and administering public health p rograms; co mmunicating wi th t he p ublic and the media; collaborating with others to provide health services Alternate Title(s): Division Director, Program Coordinator, Epidemiologist, Policy Analyst, Health Agent Salary Range: $32,000 to $79,000+ Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geo graphical L ocation: N ationwide, wi th mo re opportunities in large population centers Prerequisites: Education or TrainingMasters degree required ExperienceTwo to f ive ye ars of g raduate f ield experience

CAREER LADDER
Senior Public Health Official or Consultant Public Health Professional Graduate Student or Program Assistant

Special S kills and P ersonality T raitsManagement skills; c ultural s ensitivity; a nalytical a bilities; discretion in handling confidential information

Position Description
Public H ealth P rofessionals a re co mmonly ask ed o ne question: W hat, exac tly, is t he dif ference b etween health a nd public he alth? H ealth, t hey r eply, de als with individual patients, whereas public health involves the needs o f entire communities. Public Health Professionals p lan, design, a nd administ er a n e ver-changing array o f p rograms t o p rovide f or t he w ellness o f ci tizens. They assess the health needs of the community to answer questions like, Should funds be allocated for teen parenting, violence prevention, fluoridation, tuberculosis screening, or something else? What should their role be in imm unizations? H ow ca n t hey co llaborate wi th hospitals, he alth ma intenance o rganizations (HM Os), nonprofits, and others in the community to assure that the health needs of all citizens are being met? Increasingly, public health agencies are moving away from direct clinical care, following the general shift in government toward privatization and collaboration with other organizations. A Pub lic Health Professional concerned about t he hig h rate of diabetes among minorities, for example, might enlist t he help of a p rominent member of the clergy to publicize the problem. A ci ty might go f rom immunizing patients to outsourcing to HMOs, while providing tracking and oversight. Public H ealth Of ficials s ometimes need t o mak e quick decisio ns f or t he p ublic w elfare. H ow m uch o f a r isk do es a mos quito-borne vir us killing crows p ose

to h umans? I s i t eno ugh t o j ustify sp ending t axpayer money o n sp raying wi th in secticides? W hat ca n a community do t o r espond t o s omeone w ho may have purposely b een inf ecting o thers wi th t he acq uired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus? At t he m unicipal le vel, Pub lic H ealth P rofessionals o ften sha re decisio n makin g wi th a lo cal b oard o f health. I f, f or exa mple, t he Pub lic H ealth P rofessional wants to implement an indoor smoking ban, he o r she might have to go through the local board of health. In the case of the outbreak of a disease, on the other hand, the Public Health Professional might have the authority to ac t b ecause of t he r isks involved in wa iting to convene a board. Local a nd st ate ag encies va ry in o rganization. I n some st ates, t op lo cal Pub lic H ealth Of ficials need t o have a medical degr ee; in o thers, t hey do nt. Environmental and public health might be combined into one department, typ ically called environmental h ealth, that addr esses issues s uch as s afe dr inking wa ter a nd air quality. Public health might also be a department of health and human services. At the state level, Public Health Professionals head up a va riety of programs. An indi vidual mig ht direct a p rogram p roviding p regnant w omen a nd c hildren access t o he alth in surance, design a nd im plement a community-based AIDS p rogram f or p eople r ecently released f rom co rrectional facili ties a nd subst ance-

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abuse treatment centers, or conduct research analysis on the disease and mortality rates at hazardous waste sites. In addition, Public Health Professionals Respond to state and federal mandates requiring the reporting of various diseases Speak t o t he media t o inf orm ci tizens a bout p ublic health concerns Prepare b udgets, a pply f or gra nts, a nd a ward co ntracts Write reports Conduct statistical analyses Develop a nd co nduct in-s ervice tra ining p rograms, workshops, and conferences Serve o n ad visory b oards, coali tions, a nd co mmissions.

tion, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and t he N ational I nstitutes o f H ealth. An indi vidual interested in p ublic health policy might also become a congressional aide or other government staffer. Public Health Professionals also can move between sectors. S omeone mig ht, f or exa mple, g o f rom a p osition in g overnment to one with a t hink tank, corporation, consulting firm, or nonprofit organization.

Education and Training


Although s omeone mig ht g et a n en try le vel p osition with a co llege degree or less, ma ny other positions call for a mast ers degr ee in ei ther p ublic he alth o r p ublic administration. Positions for top public health officials in some states call for a medical degree. Public Health Professionals straddle the middle levels o f t he ca reer ladder, t aking pa rt in p rogram ma nagement, p olicy makin g, a nd o ther ac tivities. S ome positions might call f or a bac kground in p ublic health, others in ma nagement. M any grad uate p rograms in public health offer joint degree options in law, business, public administration, or some other discipline.

Salaries
Salary f igures f or Pub lic H ealth P rofessionals in lo cal and state government are difficult to pinpoint because of t he lac k o f st atistical inf ormation f or va rious p ositions. According to the Association of Schools of Public Health, t he s alaries o f Pub lic H ealth P rofessionals in local/state g overnment ra nge f rom a bout $32,000 t o $79,000.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Public H ealth P rofessionals g enerally acq uire exp erience in t he f ield in grad uate s chool a nd/or in lo werlevel positions. Many positions are ranked by level, such as Program Manager I, II, and III; higher level positions call for higher levels of experience and/or education. Public Health P rofessionals w ear a va riety o f hats: technical exp ert, co mmunicator, da ta a nalyst, ed ucator, p olicy ma ker, a nd ma nager. I ndividuals m ust b e attentive t o det ail a nd g overnment r eporting r equirements. P olicy makin g r equires p olitical s avvy. W hatever co mbination o f ha ts o ne w ears, ha ving a f irm commitment to public health, and government service in general, is vital.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good because Public Health Professionals are needed in research, management, education, and p olicy making. Shortages of Public Health Professionals a re exp ected t o co ntinue w ell in to t he 21st century, according to the Association of Schools of Public Health. Opportunities exist at the local, state, and federal levels of government as well as in the private and nonprofit sectors. Amo ng t he tr ends r esponsible f or cr eating a n increased dema nd f or Pub lic H ealth P rofessionals a re an incr eased r eliance o n ma naged ca re, w hich p laces greater em phasis o n de vising p revention s trategies; infectious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a nd m ultidrug-resistant stra ins o f tuberculosis, w hich r equire mo re sur veillance, in tervention, education, and research; and an aging population, incr easing t he dema nd f or deli very o f g eriatric health care programs.

Unions and Associations


Prominent o rganizations inc lude t he A ssociation o f Schools o f Pub lic H ealth, t he N ational A ssociation o f County & City Health Officials, and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good because of the variety of opportunities. S omeone mig ht go f rom t he lo cal or state level to a position with one of the three big federal agencies: the C enters for Disease C ontrol and Preven-

1. Explore the field of public health by volunteering or working in an entry-level position. 2. Look in to grad uate s chool o ptions. T wo p laces to begin: Association of Schools of Public Health (http://www.asph.org) and the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (http://www.naspaa.org).

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3. Hone your political skills if y ou hope eventually to b ecome a p ublic he alth o fficial, as t op p ositions are commonly political appointments. Also, insiders add, legislation and programs often have political strings attached. 4. Browse t he w ebsites o f lo cal a nd st ate p ublichealth agencies as well as those of the three major

federal agencies: the National Institutes of Health (http://www.nih.gov), H ealth Res ources a nd Services A dministration (h ttp://www.hrsa.gov), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (http://www.cdc.gov).

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VICTIM ADVOCATE
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Ed ucating vic tims a nd wi tnesses a bout t he rights a nd s ervices a vailable t o t hem; inf orming them a bout t he cr iminal j ustice p roceedings; p roviding emotional support; acting as liaison with the prosecutor Alternate T itle(s): D omestic-Abuse V ictim A dvocate, Sexual-Assault V ictim A dvocate, Child V ictim Advocate, Victim Assistance Specialist, Victim Witness Coordinator Salary Range: $25,000 to $55,000 Employment Prospects: Good to excellent Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best Geographical Location: District attorneys offices nationwide Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree preferred

CAREER LADDER
Director of Victim Advocacy or Victim Specialist Victim Advocate Intern, Worker in Related Field (e.g., counseling, teaching)

ExperienceTwo years related experience preferred Special S kills a nd P ersonality T raitsAbility t o develop rapport with others quickly; empathy; flexibility; interest in the legal system

Position Description
Victim Advocates in district attorneys offices guide victims and witnesses through the legal process. This relatively new position is pa rt teacher, part counselor, and part legal specialist. Until a co uple o f decades ag o, vic tims o f cr ime had few legal rights. Grieving relatives and victims themselves were kept out of the courtroom on the grounds that they might p rejudice j uries. V ictims a nd wi tnesses r eceived only a legal s ummons t o co urt wi th no acco mpanying information or contact person to answer their questions. Prosecutors s ometimes lost cas es b ecause t hey were too busy to prepare victims and witnesses adequately for trial. Then t he vic tims r ights mo vement a rose. P eople began t o t alk o penly a bout t he impact o f cr imes suc h as ra pe, do mestic vio lence, a nd c hild a buse. The f ederal g overnment pass ed n umerous b ills, inc luding t he Victim and Witness Protection Act of 1982, the Victims of Crime Act of 1984, t he Child Victims Bill of Rights in 1990, a nd the Violence against Women Act of 1994. States began to require services for victims. These ne w la ws gi ve vic tims legal r ights in t hree basic areas: Information Notification Participation

Victim A dvocates ca n no w b e f ound in vir tually every district attorneys office in the nation. They notify victims and advocates about upcoming hearings, inform them about victim compensation, and solicit their input in the case. As the prosecutor handles legal strategy, the Victim Advocate gives victims and witnesses the emotional su pport t hey need t o g et t hrough t he p rocess. They hel p t hem a pply f or vic tim co mpensation a nd prepare them for questioning on the witness stand. On a typical day, a Victim Advocate juggles ongoing cases with questions from new callers. A Victim Advocate mig ht get a call f rom a w oman w ho s ays her tw o grown children just told her t hey were abused by their grandfather. D o t hey need t o sp eak to t he p olice? Are they g oing t o b e cr oss-examined in co urt? W ill t heir names b e p rinted in t he p ress? The V ictim A dvocate replies y es t o t he f irst tw o q uestions, no t o t he t hird. The na mes o f s exual-abuse vic tims a re g enerally k ept out o f t he ne wspapers. S omeone els e mig ht wa nt t o drop charges against the boy who stole her 12-year-old sons bicycle. The Victim Advocate replies that the court will take into account the womans call for leniency but may proceed with the charges. Other caller s a re r eluctant t o t estify. The y mig ht have tr ouble g etting tra nsportation t o t he co urthouse or wor ry ab out t aking t ime of f f rom work . W ill t hey be r eimbursed f or t heir time a nd/or exp enses (e .g.,

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medical bills) related to t he cr ime? The V ictim Advocate may present some possibilitiesrestitution by the defendant, a lo cal f und f or vic timsbut em phasizes that there are no guarantees. Many caller s exp ress c ynicism a bout t he cr iminal justice syst em. W hy g o f orward w hen t he def endant will just cop a p lea or get a slap on the wrist? How can witnesses know that defendants wont go after them in retaliation? It is the Victim Advocates job to explain that t here are no gua rantees, but, if t he vic tim or witness do es no thing, t he def endant ma y co ntinue co mmitting crimes. Once the court process winds to a close, the Victim A dvocate p repares t he indi vidual f or w hat lies ahead.

cybercrimes. Ot her Advocates w ork with vic tims w ho do no t sp eak En glish. A V ictim Advocate knowledgeable about a cer tain sp ecialty can carve out his o r her own niche as an expert.

Education and Training


Victim A dvocates ha ve a va riety o f ed ucational bac kgrounds. M any ha ve bac helors degr ees in psy chology or criminal justice. Some have graduate degrees. Others have an associates degree. New laws requiring vic tim s ervices have prompted some j urisdictions t o mo ve existin g p ersonnel, suc h as s ecretaries, in to t he p osition o f V ictim A dvocate. Because of this training gap, states are moving toward certification f or V ictim A dvocates. S upervisory p ositions may require a law degree.

Salaries
Salaries generally range from $25,000 t o $55,000, wi th small distr icts o n t he lo w end o f t he s cale a nd la rger areas paying in t he higher range. Salaries, too, increase with exp erience a nd p romotion t o p rogram ma nagement positions.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many Victim Advocates have a background in counseling, criminal justice, or a related field. Victim Advocates must be able to establish a rapport with others quickly, as usually their first contact with the people they serve is over the phone. Many p eople ha ve unr ealistic ide as a bout vic tims; those w ho w ork wi th t hem under stand t hat t hey a re sometimes a ngry o r dif ficult. S ometimes p rosecutors, too, might have agendas that clash with those of Victim Advocates. If, for example, the prosecutor wants to plea bargain a case that the victim wants to put before a jury, the Victim Advocate might be caught in the middle. Victim A dvocates m ust ha ve t he people skills needed to defuse negative emotions such as anger, sadness, a nd o utrage wi thout dismissin g t hem. P atience, empathy, and an ability to present information matterof-factly help Victim Advocates b e ef fective, as do es a clear understanding of the legal system.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent b ecause this is a ra pidly gr owing f ield. L aws r equiring vic tim services have led to the creation of new jobs across the country.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re ex cellent b ecause V ictim Advocates in a distr ict attorneys office can move in a variety o f dir ections, inc luding r unning f or p olitical office. The W ashington S tate s enator J eralita C osta, for exa mple, has a n ext ensive bac kground in vic tim advocacy. Some Victim Advocates g o o n t o la w s chool. Ot hers advance to supervisory p ositions within t heir own office or move to larger jurisdictionsfrom the district to the federal level, for instance. Still others take advantage of other opportunities de aling with vic tim issues, particularly in the nonprofit sector, including Speaking, training, and consulting Research/legislative efforts Program development Public awareness programs Prevention programs National victim organizations

Unions and Associations


The N ational Or ganization f or V ictim A ssistance is a private no nprofit o rganization o f indi viduals in volved in victim and witness rights and services. Other organizations dealing with victim issues include the Office for Victims of Crime and the National Center for Victims of Crime.

Tips for Entry

Because this field is relatively young, new specialties are e volving. S ome Advocates ha ndle identity t heft o r

1. Take co urses in co unseling, cr iminal j ustice, law, psy chology, a nd w omens issues t o b ecome knowledgeable about the field. 2. Volunteer for a crisis hotline or intervention center that provides free training.

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3. Get a job in a fast-paced , p eople-oriented f ield such as teaching or counseling. 4. Watch criminal trials to obs erve cross-examination and other experiences faced b y victims and witnesses.

5. Browse t he I nternet, usin g t he k eyword victim. Use the same keyword to look for books, including f irst-person acco unts b y vic tims, in lo cal libraries.

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STATE/FEDERAL LEGISLATIVE STAFF

CONGRESSIONAL PAGE
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: D elivering co rrespondence, legisla tive ma terial, and small packages; answering phones; preparing the Congressional Chambers; performing other assorted tasks as needed Alternate Title(s): House Page, Senate Page Salary R ange: P ro-rated: bas ed o n a nnual s alary o f $20,491 f or S enate P ages a nd $18,817 f or H ouse Pages Employment Prospects: Poor Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): Washington, D.C. Prerequisites: Education o r TrainingHigh s chool j uniors wi th at least a 3.0 grade point average

CAREER LADDER
High School Senior Congressional Page High School Sophomore

ExperienceParticipation in extracurricular activities (e .g., st udent g overnment, v olunteer o rganizations) Special Skills and Personality TraitsGood health; stamina; humility; strong interest in public service

Position Description
Congressional P ages ho ld hig hly co veted p ositions li ving, working, and studying in Washington, D.C. In much the same way that pageboys in medieval times trained for knighthood by assisting their higher-ranked elders, high school juniors today can learn about the legislative process b y w orking p rimarily as mess engers f or C ongress. They s ee f irsthand t he less ons t hat t hey le arned in history books about how a bill becomes law. Some members of Congress began their own careers as pages. To q ualify f or a p osition as a C ongressional P age, individuals m ust b e p rospective hig h s chool j uniors sponsored b y a mem ber o f C ongress. C ongressional Pages a re accep ted f or t hree s essions: fall , sp ring, o r summer. Dur ing t he academic y ear, mem bers o f t he program a ttend t he H ouse o r S enate P age S chool, where t hey t ake a s tandard hig h s chool c urriculum, which includes English, math, science, and social studies. Congressional Pages attend classes only in the early morning, s o t hey ca n sp end t he r est o f t he da y o n Capitol Hill. Those hired for the summer session do not attend school. Easily r ecognized b y t heir tradema rk unif orms, Congressional Pages typically begin the day by reporting to their supervisors. They work as a p ool, rotating duties, rather t han as st affers f or indi vidual mem bers. Duties consist primarily of delivering correspondence, legislative material, and small pac kages, but Pages also answer phones, take messages, and staff the cloakroom.

On a typ ical da y, t he f irst o rder o f b usiness ma y be p reparing t he c hambers f or t he da ys p roceedings. Congressional P ages la y o ut ag endas, do cuments, a nd supplies such as water and pens. Then they begin their work as messengers. Pages deliver envelopes containing all s orts o f ne ws: g ood a nd bad , r outine a nd hist oryaltering. A pag e might deliver notes to members from their office staff, flags from the flag room, and packages from the House to the Senate, and vice versa. Congressional Pages s ometimes w ork w ell into t he night. If a session of Congress extends past 10 p.m., the next days classes may be postponed.

Salaries
Pages are paid at an annual rate of $20,491 f or S enate Pages, $18,817 f or House Pages. Automatic deductions are made for federal and state taxes, social security, and residence hall f ees. The cos t o f li ving in t he residence hall is $600 a month for Senate Pages, $400 a month for House Pages. Most meals are included in the fee. Some pages live with their parents or relatives.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are p oor b ecause of t he hig hly competitive na ture o f t his p osition a nd t he limi ted number of openings. All applicants must be sponsored by a member of Congress. The number of more senior members wishing to sp onsor a P age f urther limits t he selection. Onl y 72 H ouse P ages a re c hosen f or mo re

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than 400 Rep resentatives a nd 30 S enate Pages f or 100 Senators. The H ouse a nd S enate p rograms a re administ ered separately. The U .S. H ouse o f Rep resentatives P age Board (made u p o f tw o mem bers f rom t he ma jority party s elected b y t he S peaker, o ne mem ber f rom t he minority party selected by the minority leader, the clerk of t he House, a nd t he s ergeant a t a rms o f t he House) administers the House Page Program. On the Senate side, the U.S. Senate sergeant at arms administers the work and residential aspects of the Page Program; t he S ecretary o f t he S enate administ ers t he educational co mponent. The det ermination o f w hich 30 of t he 100 S enators is allo wed to sp onsor a pag e is based on the patronage system of each party.

Work as a C ongressional P age r equires st amina and ma turity. The w ork t ends t o b e fast-paced a nd physically t axing, wi th pag es o n t heir f eet, r unning messages all da y long. They must be willing to follow direction and forgo activities such as fa mily trips and proms if t hey o ccur d uring t he s chool w eek a nd/or workweek. Congressional P ages a re exp ected t o ma intain a neat appearance and conservative hairstyle at all times and a bide b y t he dr ess co de. H ouse P ages w ear lo ngsleeved w hite shir ts, na vy b lue b lazers, a nd da rk gra y slacks (b oys) o r da rk gra y knee-len gth skir ts wi thout slits (girls). Senate Pages wear navy blue suits and white shirts. All pages must wear solid black shoes.

Unions and Associations Advancement Prospects


Advancement prospects are good because a position as Congressional Page gives an individual valuable exp erience a nd p ersonal co ntacts. M any indi viduals a re impressed by a young persons experience as a Congressional Page. The position also offers excellent opportunities for making helpful contacts. Because o f t he str ong ed ucational co mponent t hat accompanies the work, the House Page School and the Senate Page School serve as important organizations in lieu of traditional unions or associations.

Tips for Entry

Education and Training


Page eligibility is limi ted to juniors in hig h school. All applicants must be 16 y ears old on the date they begin their page term. There are no exceptions. Students must have at least a 3.0 grade p oint average to be eligible for the program. In addition to their regular work and studies, pages participate in a ma ndatory enrichment program. They attend f ield tr ips and lec tures intended to give t hem a behind-the-scenes look at the way government works.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Participation in extrac urricular ac tivities r elated t o public s ervice ca n b e hel pful. P articipation in s tudent government and/or civic organizations such as the Boys or Girls Club, as well as strong recommendations from teachers, might help an applicant win sponsorship by a member of Congress. For many young people, the opportunity to live, work, and study in the nations capital is a dream come true. Boys and girls live on separate floors in dormitories supervised by proctors. Its like summer camp, said one former Page about the residential aspects of the program.

1. Work o n g etting g ood grades, as C ongressional Pages must have at least a B average. 2. Participate in extrac urricular ac tivities (e .g., student g overnment, v olunteer o rganizations) related to public service. 3. Think ca refully a bout w hether o r no t y ou a re willing t o s acrifice ac tivities s uch as vaca tions and ho liday p lans if t hey in terfere wi th s chool or work activities. The congressional calendar is subject to sudden change. 4. Write a let ter t o y our S enator o r Rep resentative requesting co nsideration f or t he P age P rogram and asking what steps you should take in order to apply (e .g., a p ersonal st atement, des cription o f extracurricular activities, high school transcript, birth certificate, and three letters of recommendation). Ask at your school or public library for addresses of members of Congress or search the webpages o f t he U.S. House (h ttp://www.house. gov) and/or Senate (http;//www.senate.gov). 5. Contact y our st ate legisla ture t o s ee w hether i t, too, has a P age Program. Program requirements concerning age, length of service, and other matters ma y b e mo re f lexible f or st ate legisla tures than for Congress.

STATE/FEDERAL LEGISLATIVE STAFF

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LEGISLATIVE CORRESPONDENT
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Op ening, s orting, a nd r outing ma il; r esearching issues; formulating responses; initiating mailings to constituents on issues of importance Salary Range: $25,000 to $35,000 Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best Geographical Location: Washington, D.C. Prerequisites: Education or TrainingCollege degree ExperienceNone; g enerally co nsidered a n en try level position

CAREER LADDER
Legislative Assistant Legislative Correspondent Student or Intern

Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsGood w riting, research, and organizational skills

Position Description
Legislative Correspondents, as their name implies, write letters for busy members of Congress. They respond to hundreds, if no t t housands, o f p ieces o f ma il a w eek. Many, but not all, members of C ongress have L egislative C orrespondents sp ecifically f or t his p urpose. I n state legisla tures, in terns a nd L egislative C orrespondents handle most of the mail. On C apitol H ill, t he w orkload o f L egislative C orrespondents rises and falls as hot issues generate huge volumes of mail. Some Legislative Correspondents sort their ma il in to ca tegories, f or exa mple, issues, gra nts, visiting co nstituent, a nd in vitations f or t he s enator o r representative. L egislative C orrespondents als o answer the p hone a nd ma y do s ome p hotocopying o r o ther tasks, if need be. Mostly, though, they open, sort, route, answer, fold, stuff, and send mail. Legislative C orrespondents co mmonly assign a code n umber t o e ach let ter, en tering i t o n t he co mputer system. People write to their senators and representatives to ask questions and express their points of view. How can a s on or daughter find a job in W ashington? W hat is t he legisla tors st and o n a pa rticular issue? Legislative Correspondents typically route some letters to fellow staffers and handle others themselves. Some let ters a re o f t he I su pport o r I do nt lik e variety. W hen a lo t o f ma il is r eceived o n t he s ame subject, t he L egislative C orrespondent responds with the appropriate preprogrammed issue paragraph. More interesting tasks involve researching issues and generating r esponses. I n s ome o ffices, t he L egislative Correspondent is in c harge of a particular issue and so

can respond to mail directly related to it. If the supervisor is enco uraging, t he L egislative C orrespondent ca n assume m ore r esponsibility wi th tim e. S till, thi s i s a fairly lo w-level p osition. L egislative C orrespondents become familiar with a wide ra nge of issues a nd hone valuable wr iting skills. L egislative C orrespondents can move up to positions such as legislative assistant, office manager, or press assistant.

Salaries
Salaries f or L egislative C orrespondent g enerally fall into the $25, 000 to $35,000 range. The median salary is about $30,000, according to industry sources.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are fair because there are a limited amount of positions, and some are already promised t o in terns o r indi viduals p ersonally co nnected t o legislators.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are excellent because individuals able to prove themselves in this difficult job may advance their ca reers. L egislative C orrespondents ca n c hoose among three dif ferent tracks: legislative (e g., legisla tive assistant), administrative (e.g., office manager), or communication (e.g., press assistant). Insiders say that, of the three, the legislative track is the most common.

Education and Training


Legislative C orrespondents need t o ha ve a co llege degree. Common majors are political science, econom-

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ics, hist ory, a nd En glish. S ome L egislative C orrespondents have advanced degrees.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Good wr iting skills a re ess ential. S ome L egislative Correspondents co mbine a bac kground in j ournalism with an interest in politics. Because they respond to large amounts of mail, Legislative Correspondents need to be well-organized and efficient. They should care a bout t he co ncerns o f a verage ci tizens desp ite the lac k o f g lamour ass ociated wi th wr iting let ters rather t han hob nobbing wi th hig h-powered p olicy makers. Some o ffices ask ca ndidates f or wr iting s amples; others test their abilities by requiring them to respond to actual letters within a s et amount of time. Excellent writing and research skills are required.

Unions and Associations


Legislative C orrespondents mig ht b elong t o t he C ongressional L egislative S taff A ssociation o r o ther o rganizations.

1. Look in to in ternship p ossibilities. M any in terns move dir ectly t o p ositions as L egislative C orrespondents. 2. Call your U.S. s enators or representatives office to ask about possible positions. 3. Write for a student newspaper or something else that will gi ve you wr iting s amples t o us e in t he application process. 4. Take ad vantage o f cen tral p ersonnel s ervices, such as t he House and Senate job lines, b ut also leave your rsum with the chief of staff or whoever does the hiring for that office. 5. Check o ut c lassified ads in t he tw o C apitol Hill newspapers, Roll C all (http://www.rollcall.com) and The Hill (http://www.hillnews.com). 6. Look into working as a p olitical temp in W ashington, D .C. F or mo re inf o, c heck o ut h ttp:// www.politemps.com. 7. Browse the U.S. Senates online job listings http:// www.senate.gov/employment. The H ouse p lacement office provides only hard-copy listings.

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DISTRICT AIDE
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: M aintaining t he L egislators visib ility in t he district; responding t o co nstituent co ncerns; ma intaining the Legislators schedule; acting as liaison to central office Alternate T itle(s): Regio nal A ssistant, L ocal A ssistant, Administrative Assistant, Ex ecutive Assistant/ Scheduler, Caseworker, Field Representative Salary Range: $20,000 to $40,000+ Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Fair to good Best G eographical L ocation(s): C ongressional districts Prerequisites: Education or TrainingVaries

CAREER LADDER
District Director or Position in Members Legislative Office or on Campaign District Aide Campaign Volunteer or Intern

ExperienceCampaign experience preferred Special Sk ills and P ersonality T raitsOutgoing; knowledgeable about local issues; flexible; loyal

Position Description
District Aides de al with matters on the home-front for busy senators or representatives off in the capital tending t o legisla tive b usiness. Al though t he w ork o f District Aides may lack some of the glamour of work in the capital, t hey a re o n t he f ront lines o f p olitics. Distr ict Aides s erve as t he eyes a nd e ars o f legisla tors. The y help constituents, monitor issues, and provide feedback about the popularity (or lack thereof) of the lawmaker on the home turf. All mem bers o f C ongress a nd a bout o ne-third o f state legisla tors ha ve o ffices in t he dis trict. B ecause most st ate legisla tors li ve in t heir distr icts, t hey ha ve less need f or distr ict st aff. S ome us e a s ecretarial p ool for everything they cannot do themselves. A state legislator may use his o r her ho me as a district office. In his b ook Legislative Life, Alan Rosenthal tells of one state legislator who, on getting a co mplaint from a co nstituent a bout o vergrown w eeds o n t he median str ip o f a lo cal hig hway, pac ked u p his la wnmower and cut down the plants. Legislators in larger districts, though, may need district offices to keep in touch with constituents. In some states, legislators have their main offices in t he district because t he legisla ture lac ks suf ficient o ffice space . I n others, w hen t he legisla tive s ession ends, o perations move back to the district. Staffers in distr ict offices at the state level deal with a va riety o f co nstituent issues, inc luding r equests f or

information (W hat a re t he st ates la ws o n ha ndguns? ) as well as appeals for help (Can you cut through the red tape?). District Aides also schedule the legislators local appearances and keep tabs on various issues. In California, for example, district offices are so well-established that District Aides mig ht meet p eriodically with directors of state agencies. All mem bers o f C ongress have at le ast o ne distr ict office, and many have more. The r elationship between the Washington, D .C., o ffice a nd t he distr ict o ffice is sometimes strained as t he two perform different functions. C entral-office st affers de aling wi th legisla tive matters mig ht co nsider q uestions f rom t he distr ict about constituent issues a nuisance. District o rganization va ries f rom o ne mem ber o f Congress to the next. Some members have mobile offices, which travel from county to county. In such a case, locations might be announced on local radio stations. In la rger, mo re p ermanent o ffices, Distr ict Aides might include a mix o f low-level and senior staffers. In some congressional offices, the chief of staff works out of t he distr ict, su pervising lo wer-level Distr ict Aides, who do la rgely clerical tasks. Often, District Aides a re divided into the following categories: Casework: ha ndling co nstituent p roblems wi th f ederal agencies Scheduling: responding to invitations to the Senator or Representative

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Fieldwork: attending various functions, such as Chamber of Commerce meetings and Kiwanis Club dinners District Aides work as ambassadors of sorts for senators and representatives. They may hand out literature or r ead a sho rt st atement f rom t he mem ber. Dis trict Aides represent members of Congress but do not speak for them. Because they work in the heart of the district, everyone they meet is a p otential voter. District Aides mak e numerous calls t o g overnment ag encies t o stra ighten out constituent problems. A late Social Security check? Immigration p roblems? Trouble g etting mili tary b enefits? The District Aide acts as a caseworker, explaining regulations to constituents and tracking down requests from different agencies. On a typ ical day, t he Distr ict Aide w ould c heck in with t he c hief o f s taff o r t he dis trict dir ector t o t alk about the schedule. The District Aide might have meetings at the housing affairs office or school department. At the request of the Washington office, he or she might take a n inf ormal p oll t o f ind o ut w hat co nstituents think about a particular issue. Often, District Aides accompany legislators on trips throughout the district. A District Aide responsible for scheduling might find out in ad vance what the legislator should wear and where he or she will sit.

or f ederal ca pital. S omeone in a small distr ict o ffice unable to relocate might find limited options.

Education and Training


District Aides ha ve va rious ed ucational bac kgrounds, depending on the requirements of the position. Whereas one Distr ict Aide mig ht ha ve li ttle mo re t han a hig h school diploma, another might have a law degree.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Some local political experience such as hel ping out on a campaign is g enerally preferred or required. District Aides m ust ca re a bout lo cal p eople a nd issues. The y should kno w w hos w ho in t he co mmunity. F ormer class p residents, w ho kno w a nd g et alo ng w ell wi th everyone in t he community, make ideal field representatives, insiders say. Major differences exist between district staffers, who focus on local matters, and central staffers, who work in the legislative arena. Because many District Aides have personal ties t o the Legislator, they have a hig her loyalty q uotient t han cen tral st affers o n t he lo okout f or higher-level p ositions wi th o ther Members. Nevertheless, central staffers may regard their own policy work as mo re im portant t han t he Distr ict Aide s co ncerns about co nstituent issues. S ome o ffices tr y t o im prove communication by hiring district staffers to work in the central office.

Salaries
Salaries vary, depending on the size o f the district and the level of responsibility. Only about one-third of state legislatures have district staffs, and salaries vary widely, according to the National C onference of State Legislatures. In some states, Legislative Assistants or part-timers staff the district office. Salaries generally range from about $20,000 to more than $40,000, according to industry insiders.

Unions and Associations


District Aides mig ht be involved in t he National Conference o f S tate L egislatures o r va rious o ther o rganizations. The no nprofit, no npartisan C ongressional Management F oundation p rovides inf ormation a bout and services for District Aides and other staffers.

Tips for Entry

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir. Op enings a re limi ted, and individuals competing for this position may be up against others in t he district with strong personal connections to the legislator. This position is far more common in Congress than in state legislatures.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are fair to good, depending on whether or not someone is willing to move to the state

1. Visit district offices to get a feel for the work they do. 2. Volunteer to work on a political campaign. 3. Take a n in terest in t he co mmunity. F ollow t he issues and attend public meetings. 4. Begin with your own elected officials, since t hey represent your district. Contact the state director or chief of staff responsible for hiring

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LEGISLATIVE ASSISTANT
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Assisting the Legislator with bill processing and research, communication, and administrative support Alternate T itle(s): L egislative Aide , L egislative Clerk, Administrative Assistant, Administrative Aide Salary Range: $25,000 to $50,000 Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Good to excellent Best G eographical L ocation(s): S tate legisla tures, Congress Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree required; graduate degree preferred by some employers ExperienceEntry-level o r s ome exp erience required

CAREER LADDER
Committee Staffer, Legislative Director, or Other Positions Legislative Assistant Legislative Correspondent, Intern, Campaign Worker, or Student

Special S kills and P ersonality T raitsBasic research, computer, and communication skills

Position Description
Legislative Assistants help senators and representatives with e verything f rom p hotocopying t o b ill dra fting. Many recent college graduates drawn to the legislative arenas whirl of power and policy making set out for this highly coveted position. Few make a career of legislative work, however. The fast pace, long hours, and relatively low pay can take a toll. Still, even a year or two as a Legislative Assistant can propel ones career forward, opening u p do ors in t he legisla ture, g overnment ag encies, lobbying f irms, a nd o ther o rganizations. Of ten, t oo, Legislative Assistants leave to go back to school. Although t he job o f L egislative A ssistant mig ht seem g lamorous, i t is o ften la rgely c lericalanswering telephones, sorting mail, scheduling appointments, and working on constituents problems. The volume of work can be overwhelming, insiders say. Many L egislative A ssistants st art o ut p erforming mostly clerical tasks such as a nswering the phone and taking messages but, with time, do mo re research-oriented w ork. L egislative A ssistants wi th a fa ir a mount of re sponsibility wor k on l egislation pr actically f rom start to finish. They draft it, work with committee consultants, gather information, round up supporters, and arrange f or p eople t o lobby on t he bills b ehalf. Along the way, they address questions like, How might a particular bill affect the home district? What groups would

be in favor of it? How do different legislators line up in favor of or against it? The size o f legislative staffs varies widely. Typically, Legislative A ssistants r eport t o a hig her-level st affer such as a legislative director. Some state legislators lack their own staffs or have only part-time Legislative Assistants. Since members of Congress work full time, their offices are better staffed than those of state legislators. Generally speaking, in Washington, D.C., Senate staffs tend to be larger than those of the House of Representatives, giving legislative aides more room for specialization. In many offices, work is di vided by subject area. One L egislative Assistant mig ht b e involved in ed ucation, he alth ca re, w elfare, a nd en vironmental issues; another, in a dif ferent s et o f issues. E ach L egislative Assistant would then readskim throughall the bills in t hose areas affecting t he distr ict, putting together a report on whatever is going to reach the legislative floor that day. The L egislative A ssistant in volved in hig h-profile committee w ork ho lds a n esp ecially p rized p osition. In the course of a legisla tive session, thousands of bills simply die . Thos e t hat t he co mmittee is ac tively co nsidering, o r moving, st and t he b est c hance o f b eing passed into law. Depending on the organization of the office, committee work is ha ndled by either Legislative Assistants o r legisla tive dir ectors. The y pa rticipate in hearings and line-by-line drafting of the bill. Individu-

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als involved in committee work try to incorporate their bosss ideas into the pending bill. Legislative Assistants also commonly Meet with lobbyists Represent legislators at meetings and conferences Arrange co mmittee a nd sub committee he arings f or Legislators bills and activities Assist in developing legislation and amendments Respond to requests for information about legislators bills and activities Prepare memos a nd r eports bas ed o n co mpleted research for Legislators

groups. A L egislative A ssistant mig ht b ecome a n a nalyst for a lobbying firm, for instance.

Education and Training


Usually p ositions s pecify a bac helors degr ee o r t he equivalent of education and experience. Some Legislative A ssistants le ave t o co ntinue t heir ed ucation, p erhaps entering law school or getting a masters degree in public administration.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Legislative Assistants should have excellent research and communication skills. The y sho uld b e a ble t o a nalyze information q uickly a nd exp lain i t c learly v erbally o r in writing, to various groups. Legislative Assistants also must be good at following directions. In state legislatures and Congress, the staffers job is to be loyal to the legislator. Credit always goes to the member, insiders say. Staffers need to be willing to put aside their own egos. The volume of work in legislative offices can be enormous. Many staffers fall victim to boredom or burnout. A L egislative A ssistant mig ht b e p resented wi th t hree new projects when he o r she alr eady has a f loor statement to write, a s ubcommittee meeting to attend, and four weeks worth of mail to answer. Although legislative staffers are notoriously overworked, they gain valuable experience on the job.

Salaries
Salaries for Legislative Assistants generally range from $25,000 to $50,000, acco rding to the National C onference o f S tate L egislatures. I n C ongress, s enators a nd representatives determine their own staff salaries. Salaries for those who work in the Senate tend to be higher than those in the House of Representatives. The median salary for Legislative Assistants in Washington, D.C, is about $36,000, according to industry sources.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are fair for Legislative Assistants because t here a re a limi ted n umber o f p ositions. On the plus side, these positions open fairly often because of high turnover. Few individuals stay more than a few years in a state legislature or Congress. In st ate legisla tures, mo re p opulous st ates ha ve t he greatest n umber o f p ositions. S ome small st ate legislatures, suc h as t hat o f Wyoming, lac k L egislative A ssistants. Larger states break down the position into different levelsLegislative A ssistant I, L egislative A ssistant II, Senior L egislative A ssistant, a nd s o f orthcreating room f or ad vancement. On t he na tional le vel, L egislative Assistant positions are generally easier to find in the U.S. House of Representatives, which has more members than the S enate. Salaries, however, tend to b e higher in the Senate.

Unions and Associations


Legislative Assistants might be involved in the National Conference of State Legislatures, the American Society for Public Administration, or other organizations. The nonprofit, no npartisan C ongressional M anagement Foundation p rovides inf ormation a bout a nd s ervices for Legislative Assistants and other staffers.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent b ecause Legislative Assistants make important personal contacts on the job, which come in handy for future job hunting. Many L egislative A ssistants a re j ust passing through, looking for a cr edential to put on their rsums. S ome mo ve u p t o cen tral legisla tive ag encies o r committees. Ot hers la nd hig her-level p ositions wi th government ag encies o r p rivate o r no nprofit in terest

1. Begin wi th y our o wn elec ted o fficials. B eing a constituent offers you the hometown advantage. 2. Seek internship opportunities. Some colleges and universities have s emester in Washington, D.C., programs. 3. Work o n a r epresentatives o r s enators elec tion campaign. M any ca mpaign v olunteers beco me paid staffers. 4. Realize t hat timin g is cr ucial t o la nding a p osition as a L egislative A ssistant. F ind o ut w hen sessions b egin, to t ake advantage of hir ing p ossibilities p resented b y la wmakers w ho ha ve no t hired L egislative A ssistants o r ha ve had a lastminute cancellation.

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5. Read u p o n st ate legisla tors a nd mem bers o f Congress to see which ones share your political philosophy. 6. Look in to cen tral p ersonnel s ervices suc h as the jo b lines o f t he H ouse Of fice o f H uman Resources (202-226-6731) a nd t he S enate Employment Bulletin (202-228-5627) as w ell as the U.S. Senate online job listin gs (www.senate. gov/employment), but also leave your rsum in members offices a nd f ollow up p eriodically by

phone or in person to take advantage of sudden openings. 7. Check out helpful websites, including that of the National Conference of State Legislatures (http:// www.ncsl.org) as w ell as tw o Capitol Hill newspapers, Roll C all (http://www.rollcall.com) a nd The Hill (http://www.hillnews.com). 8. Look into working as a p olitical temp in W ashington, D .C. F or mo re inf o, c heck o ut h ttp:// www.politemps.com.

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RESEARCH ANALYST
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Performing quantitative and qualitative analysis; analyzing policy questions and options; writing reports; responding to inquiries Alternate Title(s): L egislative Anal yst, Policy Anal yst, Fiscal Analyst, Committee Staffer Salary Range: $35,000 to $90,000 Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Good to excellent Best Geographical Location(s): State legislatures, Congress, other government entities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingGraduate degree required or preferred ExperienceVaries by position

CAREER LADDER
Research Director or Other Position with Government Agency or Private or Nonprofit Organization Research Analyst Research Assistant or Graduate Student

Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsKnowledge of r esearch t echniques; a bility t o summa rize co mplex data orally and in writing; understanding of the legislative process

Position Description
Research Analysts provide the information and analysis that L egislators a nd o ther g overnment o fficials need to mak e w ell-informed deci sions. Res earch Anal ysts respond to complex questions like, What are the effects of w elfare r eform? a nd H ow ca n S ocial S ecurity b e improved? Insiders s ay t hat Res earch Analysts involved in f iscal ma tters a re pa rticularly inf luential. W hatever t he specialty, Res earch Anal ysts dif fer f rom lib rarians in that t hey p rovide no t o nly a nswers b ut als o in-dep th analysis. Whereas a lib rarian mig ht f ind out t he gross domestic product in a pa rticular fiscal year, a Research Analyst w ould co mpare t he p revious y ears do mestic product to the current years and make an analysis. The chair o f t he he alth co mmittee mig ht ask a Res earch Analyst for the pros and cons of higher copayments for prescription drugs. Much o f t his typ e o f w ork o riginates in cen tral agencies sp ecializing in no npartisan r esearch. A t t he state le vel, ag encies suc h as t he Of fice o f L egislative Research, the Senate Reference Bureau, and the Legislative Res earch C ommission ha ve sp routed u p o ver t he years. Of ten, st affers o f t hese ag encies a re assigned t o various committees. A Research Analyst might specialize in education, for example. At t he na tional le vel, t he C ongressional Res earch Service, a b ranch of t he L ibrary of C ongress, provides information a nd a nalysis t o expa nd o r su pplement

research s upplied by t he re presentatives or s enators own st aff. (Ot her co ngressional su pport a gencies include the Congressional Budget Office and the General Accounting Of fice.) A s ampling o f C ongressional Research Service reports includes Decorum in H ouse Debate, Ideas f or P rivatizing S ocial S ecurity, a nd Russias P residential E lection: Ou tcome a nd I mplications. Whereas these central agencies provide nonpartisan research, Research Analysts for caucuses or committees are more openly political. They analyze bills from a partisan perspective and research issues o f special interest to the party. Research Analysts are a no tch above research assistants on the career ladder. Both groups are often ranked by le vel. The hig her u p t he p osition, t he mo re co mplex the research. Research Analysts commonly prepare reports with tables and charts. A Research Analyst might present flowcharts showing the differences between the House and Senate versions of a bill, for example. Many Research Analysts have a masters, Ph.D., or law degree. Research directors are on the top rungs. Although s ome legislators have voracious appetites for research, many others want their information brief and to the point. A half-page memo might work better than a tw o-page brief. At the state le vel, opportunities for g enerating in-dep th r esearch a re b est d uring t he interim w hen Res earch Analysts have t he opportunity to do oversight studies.

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Research Analysts at the state level tend to be more jacks-of-all-trades t han t heir co unterparts in a cen tral federal agency such as the Congressional Research Service. When a state legislature is in session, the Research Analyst might arrive at 7:30 a.m. to meet with the chair and prepare for an 8:00 a.m. committee meeting. Materials would need t o be organized, an agenda prepared. After sitting in on the committee meeting, the Research Analyst mig ht wr ite a r eport f or a n a fternoon s ession of the House and S enate. Meanwhile, questions would have to be answered, legislation drafted, floor speeches written. The y w ould als o n eed t o a nalyze legisla tion and coordinate administrative tasks such as scheduling and organizing hearings and meetings. During t he in terim, Res earch Anal ysts ha ve mo re time to explore in-depth issues. L egislatures determine what issues sho uld be studied during the interim. Perhaps, for example, t he legislature calls f or t he creation of a t ask force to improve adult education in t he state. The Res earch Anal yst w ould t hen r esearch typ es o f programs, n umbers o f pa rticipants, p ossible im provements, p rospective f unding s ources, a nd t he lik e. The research group would solicit input from citizens groups and education associations, hold public meetings, issue a report, and, finally, draft legislation. In Kentucky, this process resulted in legislation calling for a special council and new funding for adult education. More generally, Research Analysts work on a variety of tasks, including Performing q uantitative a nd q ualitative r esearch using library resources, Internet sources, information from policy centers, and other material Writing reports Responding t o inq uiries co ncerning a n assigned subject area Conducting meetings to brief members of the House and/or Senate

it va ries f rom y ear t o y ear. S omeone wi th a mast ers degree mig ht t ake a job as a r esearch assist ant wi th a prestigious g overnment ag ency suc h as t he C ongressional Res earch S ervice wi th t he ho pe o f e ventually moving up to Research Analyst.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent b ecause positions are ranked, thus creating ladders for advancement. Work as a Research Analyst for a state legislature or Congress may also open up doors with government agencies, in terest gr oups, a nd va rious o ther em ployers. L inks a re strong a mong all t he s ectors, a nd ma ny employ Res earch Anal ysts a nd simila r st affers. S omeone mig ht mo ve f rom a r esearch p osition wi th a university, for example, to a hig her-level position with the Congressional Research Service.

Education and Training


Positions typically call for graduate-level training, either a masters degree in public administration or a degree in a specialty such as international relations or education. Entry-level positions such as Res earch Assistant might call f or o nly a n under graduate degr ee, b ut a grad uate degree is needed for many other positions. A Res earch Anal yst w orking o n s ocial p olicy, f or instance, mig ht ha ve a Ph.D . o r eq uivalent do ctoral degree in p olitical science, public administration, public p olicy a nalysis, p lanning, o r a r elated f ield. M any positions call f or t he kind o f s ophisticated q uantitative a nalysis t aught at t he grad uate le vel, suc h as ho w to crunch n umbers a nd ho w t o p erform cost-b enefit a nalysis. A ttorneys a re o ften s ought f or p ositions requiring a knowledge of the law.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


A background in specific policy areas such as education, human s ervices, or cr iminal justice can b e helpful. The ability t o w ork o n m ultiple t asks in a fast-paced w ork environment is a m ust. Every phone call is dif ferent and each has potential for changing the whole days schedule. Research Anal ysts sho uld b e a ble t o p rovide acc urate and objective information while maintaining confidentiality. Many work as an integral part of a research team, in which good communication skills are required. The r esearch p rocess ca n b e lo ng a nd f rustrating, s o patience is important.

Salaries
Salaries for Research Analysts vary according to levels of education and experience as follows: Level 1B achelors degr ee a nd limi ted exp erience, $35,000 to $60,000 Level 2G raduate s chool a nd s ome exp erience, $45,000 to $80,000 Level 3Expert with extensive education and experience, $65,000 to $90,000

Unions and Associations Employment Prospects


Employment prospects are fair because the number of jobs in t he legislative s ector is fa irly limi ted, al though Research Analysts might belong to the National Conference of State Legislatures or the Congressional Research Employees A ssociation. The y als o mig ht b elong t o

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broad-based organizations such as t he American Society for Public Administration or the American Political Science Association.

Tips for Entry

1. Plan t o e arn a grad uate degr ee t o b etter y our chances in this field. Learn more about graduate school options by checking out the website of the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (http://www.naspaa.org). 2. Look into internship possibilities. Some colleges and uni versities ha ve S emester in W ashington, D.C., programs. 3. Realize t hat ma ny hig hly ed ucated p eople w ork in r elatively lo w-level legisla tive jobs. I t is no t

uncommon for a legisla tive assist ant on C apitol Hill to have a graduate degree. A legislative assistant with a graduate degree might then become a Research Analyst. 4. Develop exp ertise in a pa rticular a rea, suc h as education, international relations, or economics, by t aking co urses a nd w orking in t he f ield. A background in q uantitative research can be pa rticularly helpful. 5. Browse t he websites of t he National C onference of S tate L egislatures (h ttp://www.ncsl.org) a nd the Congressional Research Service (http://www. loc.gov/crsinfo).

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CHIEF OF STAFF
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Acting as top administrator of legislative office by advising and supporting the Legislator as well as managing staff Alternate T itle(s): A dministrative A ssistant, S taff Director Salary Range: $85,000 to $135,000 Employment Prospects: Poor Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): Washington, D.C., or state capitals Prerequisites: Education or TrainingVaries ExperienceFive to 10 years

CAREER LADDER
High-Level Position in Public or Private Sector Chief of Staff Legislative Director, Government Administrator, or Campaign Manager

Special Skills and Personality TraitsManagement and leadership skills; good political instincts

Position Description
The Chief o f S taff is t he t op dog o f t he legisla tive staffsecond o nly t o t he s enator o r r epresentative. Although sometimes known by the alternative title of administrative assistant, the Chief of Staff is hardly the glorified clerical worker the former term might imply. Increasingly, o ffices a re swi tching t o Chief o f S taff to reflect the stature of the position. The Chief o f Staff is usually the most influential member of the legislators staff as w ell as his o r her most tr usted a ide. The job of t he Chief o f S taff def ies e asy categorization, as t he individual p lays ma ny dif ferent r oles suc h as p ersonnel dir ector, b udget administra tor, co nflict media tor, policy adviser, and counselor. Senators a nd r epresentatives le ad suc h hig h-pressured, tightly scheduled lives that they need someone in the office to lean onusually the Chief o f Staff. Quarters a re cra mped, p ressures hig h. Tempers f lare. The Chief of Staff tr ies to do w hatever it t akes to keep t he boss happy. S ome Chiefs o f Staff have b een known t o mediate disputes between legislators and their spouses. Chiefs o f S taff tr y t o k eep e veryone o n t he st aff marching in the same general direction. No one wants a legislative staff to be sidetracked by infighting. Highstakes decisio ns need t o b e made q uickly, wi th t he legislator a ble t o tr ust t he j udgment o f t he Chief o f Staff. The tw o work together so closely that the Chief of S taff o ften kno ws t he b osss a nswers t o q uestions without asking.

The Chief o f Staff co ordinates t he big picture for the legislator, managing t he often conflicting needs o f three different worlds: The Campaigngetting the legislator reelected The Districtdealing with constituents The Main Officeworking on legislative issues Because t here is o nly o ne legisla tor, s ome f unction inevitably is def erred. The distr ict o ffice, f or exa mple, might wa nt t he legisla tor t o deli ver t he K iwanis Cl ub keynote addr ess. The ca mpaign, ho wever, has r eceived 18 breakfast invitations for that same morning. The Chief of S taff needs t o mak e q uick decisio ns. W hich e vents will attract the most p eople? Are any being arranged by friends of the legislator? Have some groups been turned down before? Meanwhile, myriad other questions compete f or a ttention. A r eporter calls t o ask a bout a fals e accusation. A lo cal co nstituent t hreatens t o wi thdraw support. Ano ther o ffice wa nts t he legislator t o cos ponsor a b ill. A s t hese de velopments unf old, t he Chief o f Staff needs to see what legislation is on the floor for that day. If the legislator is out of the office, the Chief of Staff may need t o mak e all t he im portant decisio ns o n t he basis o f his o r her kno wledge o f t he legisla tors o verall p hilosophy. The Chief o f S taff a nd legisla tor w ork t ogether closely o n p olicy issues. A b ill o n f oreign trade , f or example, might raise conflicting concerns. On the one

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hand, t he legisla tor mig ht o ppose i t b ecause o f t he countrys h uman r ights r ecord. On t he o ther ha nd, the b ill co uld b e eco nomically ad vantageous t o t he district. The Chief o f S taff w ould hel p t he legisla tor w eigh the options, then make a decisio n. If, for example, the legislator decided t o v ote a gainst t he bill, t he Chief o f Staff might come up with a p lan to neutralize opposition in t he distr ict. Perhaps t he Chief o f Staff would have the Press Secretary write a p iece highlighting the legislators support of other protrade bills. In addi tion, t he Chief o f S taff administ ers b udgets and oversees long-term planning. When a staffer leaves, the Chief of Staff interviews and chooses a replacement. Other responsibilities include Setting g oals f or va rious a reas o f t he o ffice (e.g., administrative, legislative, press) Keeping the legislator involved in all areas of operation Representing the legislator at various meetings, strategy sessions, seminars, and social functions Writing speeches for the legislator Developing a nd enf orcing p rocedures f or q uality control Organizing meetin gs, in w hich he o r she ac ts as leader, moderator, and facilitator

In addi tion, Chiefs o f S taff ca n mo ve t o hig h-level positions wi th p olitical ca mpaigns, lo bbying a nd co nsulting groups, and fund-raising organizations.

Education and Training


This is a f ield in w hich exp erience co unts fa r mo re than a n ad vanced degr ee. P olitical s cience co urses can be helpful, but an advanced degree without legislative exp erience wont do a n individual much good. Experience is cr ucial. M ost Chiefs o f S taff ha ve a t least a bac helors degr ee a nd subs tantial legisla tive experience.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Most Chiefs of Staff have substantial experience in legislative or government affairs. Some campaign managers, too, rise to Chief o f Staff, as do indi viduals with a background in g overnment management. A ci ty manager, f or exa mple, mig ht mo ve t o t he C ongress a nd become a Chief of Staff. As a result, Chiefs of Staff have well-honed political instincts. These insights become so intuitive that some individuals b elieve t hey w ere b orn with t hem. People who see themselves as political by nature look at a set of circumstances and move toward wherever they want to go. They see the knots in a ny given situation and know how to cut through them while avoiding trouble. Someone mig ht b e hig hly intelligent but lack good political in stincts. I n o ne ac tual cas e, a co ngressional st affer w orried a bout a n unfa vorable p ress r eport bought t he r eporter a b ottle o f wine . The su pervising Chief o f S taff s aw t his as a cas e o f bad p olitical instinct and predicted that the reporter would criticize the staffer in the press for resorting to bribery, and that is exac tly w hat ha ppened. The st affer was e ventually fired. Ideally, t he Chief o f S taff a nd legisla tor de velop a relationship based on mutual respect and trust. In some less fortunate cases, however, the legislator might try to micromanage the office, thus undercutting the authority of the Chief of Staff. Whatever the case, the Chief of Staff works long hours under extreme pressure.

Salaries
Salaries f or legislative Chiefs o f S taff t end t o b e lower in-state legisla tures t han in C ongress. A ccording t o the-National C onference o f S tate L egislatures, t he average s alary ra nge f or Chiefs o f S taff is $85,000 t o $135,000. In Congress, salaries for Chiefs o f Staff generally ra nge-from $80,000 t o $130,000, acco rding t o industry sources.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re p oor b ecause o f t he small number of positions.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause Chief o f Staffs can advance their careers by moving in a number of dif ferent dir ections. W ithin t he legisla tive s ector, a Chief of Staff might move to a larger jurisdictionfrom the H ouse t o t he S enate, f or exa mple. Chiefs o f S taff also can move from the legislative to the executive sector, in w hich they generally supervise more employees and earn higher salaries. A Chief o f Staff for the secretary of the treasury might supervise 50,000 employees, compared to 18 in a congressional office.

Unions and Associations


Chiefs o f S taff in t he legisla tive s ector mig ht b elong to o rganizations suc h as t he N ational C onference o f State Legislatures or the U.S. House of Representatives Administrative A ssistants A ssociation. The no nprofit, nonpartisan C ongressional M anagement F oundation provides services for and information about personnel on Capitol Hill, including Chiefs of Staff.

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Tips for Entry

1. Get legislative experience. Individuals commonly rise up the ranks from legislative assistant to legislative o r co mmunications dir ector t o Chief o f Staff. 2. Volunteer on a candidates campaign. Some campaign workers become full-time staffers.

3. Pay attention to the personal styles of individuals in public office. Personalities can make or break the relationship b etween legislator and Chief o f Staff.

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OTHER STATE/ FEDERAL POSITIONS

PARALEGAL
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Performing legal research; interviewing clients, witnesses, and/or experts; conducting investigations; summarizing information; drafting legal documents, correspondence, and pleadings Alternate Title(s): Legal Assistant, Paralegal Specialist Salary Range: $30,000 to $65,000 Employment Prospects: Excellent Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best G eographical L ocation(s): W ashington, D .C.; state capitals; major urban areas Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingBachelors degr ee a nd/or certificate

CAREER LADDER
Law Student or Paralegal Coordinator Paralegal Student/Trainee

ExperienceEntry-level or relevant experience Special Sk ills and P ersonality T raitsDetailoriented; a nalytical; willin g t o le arn a nd ada pt t o new technologies; interested in legal issues

Position Description
Paralegals play a role in law similar to that of nurses in medicine. J ust as n urses ca re f or pa tients b ut ca nnot prescribe medica tion, pa ralegals ca n assist wi th cas es but must refrain from the actual practice of law, which includes presenting cases in court. Nevertheless, Paralegals are responsible for substantive tasks such as in terviewing exp erts, a nalyzing do cuments, a nd dra fting pleadings and motions. Because Paralegals can perform many o f t he s ame d uties as la wyers f or co nsiderably less money, they are in gr eat demand by b oth government ag encies a nd p rivate la w f irms s eeking t o b oost efficiency. The U .S. D epartment o f L abor exp ects t he paralegal p rofession t o b e o ne o f t he fast est-growing occupations in the decade ahead. Individuals typ ically b ecome P aralegals b ecause they a re in terested in legal issues b ut uncer tain a bout or disinclined toward going to law s chool. S ome individuals want to get a close-up look at the legal environment b efore decidin g t o in vest co nsiderable time a nd money in la w school. Others find that the increasingly substantive nature of paralegal work makes it a ca reer unto i tself ra ther t han a mer e st epping st one t o a la w practice. Some g overnment ag encies, inc luding t he U .S. Department o f J ustice a nd t he F ederal T rade C ommission, o ffer t emporary p ositions o f pa rticular interest t o indi viduals p ondering w hether o r no t t o a ttend law s chool. P ermanent p ositions in g overnment dra w candidates f rom a va riety o f ed ucational a nd ca reer

backgrounds, including career changers and entry-level professionals. Most Paralegals start out doing the grunt work, s orting t hrough b oxes o f inf ormation, co ding documents, and checking copies for accuracy. As P aralegals ga in mo re exp erience, t hey do mo re research, interviewing, and report writing. Often, they review do cuments f or r elevant material o r e vidence the so-called smoking gun. The everyday vocabulary of Paralegals includes words like interrogatories, motions, and pleadings, in r eference t o t he va rious processes of the legal system. Responsibilities for Paralegals in g overnment agencies o ften fall in to tw o ma in a reas: in vestigation a nd court p reparation. A P aralegal mig ht in vestigate p ossible cases of fraud, which, if confirmed, are then raised in administrative hearings. Paralegals mig ht in terview c lients, s ources, a nd/or experts. A Paralegal for the Federal Trade Commission, for in stance, mig ht lo ok in to p ossible a ntitrust st atute violations by interviewing corporate ex ecutive officers from co mpeting co mpanies. W hat kind o f impact has a particular merger had? H as their own business been harmed? What kind of market is there for the product? Paralegals also commonly Review relevant case law Participate in pretrial conferences Initiate searches for supportive materials Prepare reports, exhibits, and statistical analyses Draft and edit legal and nonlegal materials

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Salaries
Salaries f or P aralegals in g overnment g enerally ra nge from $30,000 t o $65,000. A ccording t o t he B ureau o f Labor Statistics, the average annual salary for Paralegals is about $45,000 in lo cal government, $41,000 in s tate government, and about $58,000 in federal government.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are ex cellent b ecause paralegal work is a r elatively new and rapidly growing field. The U.S. Department of Labor expects rapid growth in t he decade ahe ad as P aralegals incr easingly t ake o n t asks formerly carried out by lawyers.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re ex cellent b ecause P aralegals ca n mo ve in a va riety o f dir ections. S ome P aralegals le ave t heir jobs t o en ter la w s chool, a ttend la w school at night, or apply to graduate programs in other fields such as business or public administration. Others stay in t he field, either in g overnment or in private la w f irms, r ising t o p ositions lik e s enior pa ralegal o r pa ralegal administra tor. S ome f ields, s uch as patent la w, a re pa rticularly l ucrative. P aralegals als o commonly mo ve in to a n administra tive p osition in the co urts, s uch a s th at o f a co urt c lerk. S till o thers use their knowledge of paralegal work to branch off in new directions in t he private sector. A P aralegal might become a recruiter for a temporary employment agency specializing in pa ralegal work. Or a n individual might join a s oftware co mpany t hat tra ins P aralegals t o us e new computer programs.

Many universities and colleges offer majors in paralegal o r legal st udies, w hich inc lude co urses in legal research and writing, criminal law, and civil procedure. Another pa th f or ca ndidates, incr easingly fa vored b y employers, is a n undergraduate major in a lib eral arts field such as En glish or history followed by a p ostbaccalaureate certificate program. Industry sp ecialists r ecommend a co mbination of g eneral ed ucation, legal sp ecialty, a nd p rofessional ethics r equirements. F oremost a mong t he lib eral a rts is En glish co mposition/grammar b ecause P aralegals spend a fair amount of time writing. The American Bar Association approves (but do es not accredit) paralegal education programs that seek its recognition. Both t he N ational A ssociation o f L egal A ssistants and t he N ational F ederation o f P aralegal A ssociations provide p rofessional cer tification t o indi viduals w ho meet t heir ed ucational/experience r equirements a nd pass a q ualifying exa m. Al though t he t erms paralegal and legal a ssistant a re o ften us ed in terchangeably, t he designation o f Regist ered P aralegal indica tes hig her educational a ttainment t han t hat o f C ertified L egal Assistant b ecause t he National Federation of Paralegal Associations, unlike t he National Association of L egal Assistants, requires candidates to hold a baccala ureate degree.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many pa ralegal p rograms p rovide exp erience t hrough internships. The University of Massachusetts legal studies p rogram, f or in stance, has a n in ternship a rrangement wi th t he M assachusetts C ommission aga inst Discrimination. I nternships ca n p rovide t he p ractical experience needed to answer questions like, Would law school be worth the time and money? Is paralegal work challenging enough? Which areas of sp ecialization are most in teresting? W hatever t he sp ecialty, P aralegals need to be detail-oriented. As one Paralegal put it, You have to look out for crossing the ts and dotting the is. Paralegals m ust als o ha ve t he a nalytical a bilities needed t o grasp t he b ig p icture a nd b e willin g t o adapt to new technologies such as a nimated databases, scanning, and imaging. These days, court exhibits often are loaded directly onto CD-ROMs. Temperament, t oo, mig ht co me in to p lay. S ome individuals may become Paralegals because they thrive behind the scenes rather than out front, arguing in t he courtroom.

Education and Training


Requirements f or ed ucation a nd tra ining va ry f rom position to position. Over the past few decades, paralegal education has evolved from the in-house training of the 1960s to the masters degree programs of the 1990s. Educational options include Two-year associates degrees Four-year baccala ureate degr ees in pa ralegal/legal studies Postbaccalaureate certificate programs Masters degree programs Paralegals dis agree a mong t hemselves a bout ho w much and w hat typ e of education should b e required. Currently t here a re no unif orm st andards f or P aralegals. S ome in siders o ppose st andardizing ed ucational requirements; others believe that Paralegals should have a minimum of a baccalaureate degree.

Unions and Associations


Professional ass ociations r epresenting P aralegals include t he N ational A ssociation o f L egal A ssistants

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and the National Federation of Paralegal Associations. The American Association of Paralegal Education and the American Bar Associations Standing Committee on Legal A ssistants a re involved in ed ucational p rograms for Paralegals.

Tips for Entry

1. Research paralegal programs. Industry specialists recommend baccala ureate o r p ostbaccalaureate programs.

2. Join a pa ralegal association to take advantage of networking opportunities. 3. Read up on the field by checking out books and/ or the trade journal Legal Assistant Today. 4. Check out the U.S. Office of Personnel Managements w ebsite (http://www.usajobs.opm.gov) t o look for opportunities for Paralegals.

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GOVERNMENT LAWYER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Enf orcing a nd administ ering t he na tions systems of law and justice, which entail research, litigation, and other forms of legal practice Alternate Title(s): Attorney, Counsel Salary Range: $60,000 to $130,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): Positions a t all le vels of government (e.g., local, county, state, federal) Prerequisites: Education o r TrainingLaw degr ee; necess ary t o pass bar exam in state where you plan to practice ExperienceVaries by level

CAREER LADDER
Lawyer in Private Practice or Judge Government Lawyer Law Student

Special Sk ills a nd P ersonality T raitsInterest in and co mmitment t o p ublic-sector la w; ex cellent writing and sp eaking abilities; skill in a nalysis, and logic; perseverance

Position Description
Government L awyers dra ft, a nalyze, a nd def end t he laws of the land. Since law provides the framework for our nation, it should come as no sur prise that Government Lawyers play an important role in all branches and levels of government. They interpret statutes for regulatory agencies, draft legislation for Congress, argue cases in criminal court, and act as advocates and advisers on virtually every issue of government concern, from drug trafficking to water r ights. G overnment L awyers often work closely with public officials, many of w hom als o hold law degrees. Despite t he wide va riety o f p ositions, G overnment Lawyers share a keen interest in public service, according to Lisa L. Abrams, J.D., author of The Official Guide to Le gal S pecialties. The y wa nt t o mak e a dif ference by grappling with issues o f concern to all ci tizens, not just paying clients. S ome Government L awyersprosecutors of high-profile crimes like murder and kidnapping, for instancegrab the public spotlight; others toil behind the scenes. At t he m unicipal le vel, G overnment L awyers, w ho may b e called ci ty s olicitors, a re co nstantly a nswering questions from public officials, department heads, and other staffers. They grapple with questions such as t he legal issues involved in a particular plan for land development or the citys response to a possible lawsuit. At the state level, a Government Lawyer might work in an executive agency involved in r egulatory matters.

If, f or in stance, a ci tizen f iles a co mplaint a gainst a licensed p rofessional, t he G overnment L awyer mig ht help decide whether or not the person is guilty of fraud or misconduct. Government L awyers a t t he f ederal le vel w ork f or a number of dif ferent agencies, including the Department of Justice, which is supervised by the U.S. attorney general. Among other responsibilities, the Department of J ustice de als wi th ci vil r ights issues a nd def ends the U nited S tates w hen i t is sued . F or in stance, t he attorney mig ht ha ndle a cas e in volving t he access o f disabled p eople t o p ublic acco mmodations o r def end the U nited S tates in a s uit in volving a n acciden t o n federal property. In the legislative sector, Government Lawyers work in offices of members of Congress, legislative committees, and organizations providing special legal s ervices such as b ill dra fting, p olicy ad vising, a nd legal o versight. An attorney involved in a committee dealing with health-care oversight, for example, might be involved in questions related to Medicaid fraud. What types of cases are investigators handling? Are certain policies leaving programs vulnera ble t o f raud a nd a buse? H ow mig ht these p roblems b e b est addr essed? Ano ther A ttorney might work on bill drafting to make sure all p roposed legislation meets legal standards. In the criminal justice system, Government Lawyers work as state attorneys general, prosecutors, and public defenders. Prosecutors, who represent the people of the

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129

United S tates aga inst susp ected cr iminals, s ometimes run f or elec ted p ositions suc h as distr ict a ttorney o r attorney general. On the other side of the court are the public def enders, w ho r epresent def endants una ble t o afford a p rivate a ttorney. M any cas es a re r esolved b y plea bargain rather than taken to trial. Because o f t he wide va riety o f p ositions, g overnment law attracts both individuals seeking a long-term niche a nd t hose lo oking f or a st epping st one. M any Government L awyers mo ve in to t he p rivate s ector, where t hey can e arn hig her s alaries but often have to work longer hours. Some, though, return to the public sector, w here t hey ca n r epresent t he issues o f all ci tizens without having to worry about such private-practice concerns as generating billable hours or making partner.

Education and Training


Becoming a la wyer g enerally r equires s even y ears o f postsecondary education. Although some colleges and universities offer courses in legal studies or criminal justice, industry sources say there is no one recommended prelaw major. Many majors, including English, political science, and history, can be useful, as they help students de velop p roficiency in r esearching, wr iting, a nd thinking logicallyskills needed to succeed in both law school and the profession. Individuals applying to law school face stiff competition, esp ecially f or t he most p restigious s chools. All law schools approved by the American Bar Association require students to take the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). S ome la w s chools o ffer jo int p rograms, suc h as in la w and business or public administration, which usually require an additional semester or year. For the first year or so of law school, students generally take core classes in topics such as constitutional law, contracts, property law, torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. L ater, t hey ca n t ake mo re sp ecialized co urses to investigate fields of interest such as criminal or labor law. Clinical programs, clerkships, and internships help students decide w hat kind o f practice b est suits t hem. Law school graduates receive the degree of juris doctor (J.D.) but must pass a wr itten bar examination to practice in any state or other jurisdiction.

Salaries
Government Lawyers generally earn less than attorneys in private practice. According to the U.S. governments Bureau of Labor Statistics the average annual salary for lawyers is a bout $85,000 in lo cal government, $78,000 in s tate g overnment, a nd a bout $117,000 in f ederal government.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good because all le vels and branches of government employ lawyers. About 13 percent of law school graduates take jobs with the government, acco rding t o t he N ational A ssociation f or L aw Placement. Ar eas o f p ressing co ncern, suc h as he alth care, intellectual property, international law, elder la w, environmental la w, a nd s exual ha rassment, o ffer pa rticularly good opportunities. Insiders say that the government provides a gr eater degree o f s ecurity a nd b etter w orking ho urs t han p rivate practice. On t he other hand, the financial rewards of private practice can be much greater as top salaries in the private sector exceed those in government.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Government L awyers sha re ma ny tra its wi th o ther attorneys but also possess one special characteristica commitment to public service. They want to represent all citizens rather t han a s elect group of clients. Many become interested in public-sector law through clinical programs in law school or clerkships for judges. Under the broad umbrella of government law, skills vary by position and field of specialization. Those who appear frequently in court must be able to think quickly and speak with ease and authority. Negotiating skills are particularly important for resolving cases through plea bargains. Most G overnment L awyers s pend t he ma jority o f their time o utside t he courtroom, interviewing c lients and witnesses and handling other details in preparation for trialtasks that require a co mbination of interpersonal a nd o rganizational skills. L awyers m ust b e a ble to p ersevere in t he face o f legal p roblems and win t he respect of others t o succeed o n t he jo b. B ecause G overnment L awyers ha ndle co mplex cas es, t hey must b e able t o t hink logicall y a nd wr ite c learly. L egal wr iting must b e precise to prevent p otential misinterpretation and, hence, lawsuits.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good because government practice gi ves la wyers tw o im portant ass ets: exp ertise in a pa rticular field of law and personal contacts valuable for networking. Some individuals continue to work in g overnment, p erhaps ad vancing t o administra tive positions. Others enter private practice, in which hours may b e lo nger a nd f inancial r ewards gr eater, o r t he nonprofit sector, which puts a simila r emphasis on the public in terest. F or exa mple, s omeone mig ht g o f rom being a prosecutor for the government to working as an attorney for a womens advocacy group.

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Unions and Associations


Associations of interest include the National Association for Law Placement and the American Bar Association.

Tips for Entry

1. Participate in debating or other activities to hone public-speaking skills for the courtroom. 2. Check o ut guides t o la w s chools. The w ebsites of t he Amer ican B ar A ssociation (h ttp://www. abanet.org) and the National Association for Law

Placement (h ttp://www.nalp.org) als o p rovide useful information. 3. Look into working as a law clerk for a judge after graduation from law school. These positions provide a n ex cellent cr edential as w ell as f irsthand exposure to the judicial system. 4. Arrange for informational interviews with G overnment L awyers as pa rt o f y our ca reer p lanning. Res pect t he b usy s chedules o f indi viduals by offering to limit interviews to 10 minutes.

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131

POLICY ANALYST
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: U sing va rious a nalytical t ools t o p repare reports, conduct briefings, and perform other duties that advise decision makers about policy options Alternate Title(s): Budget Analyst, Program Analyst Salary Range: $30,000 to $93,000+ Employment Prospects: Fair to good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): Varies by state Prerequisites: Education o r TrainingMasters degr ee in p ublic policy, public administration, or public affairs ExperienceInternship recommended Special Skills and Personality TraitsUnderstanding of decision making, budget, and legislative pro-

CAREER LADDER
Policy Maker, Think Tank Analyst Policy Analyst Graduate Student

cesses as well as analytical techniques and particular area o f p ublic p olicy (e .g., he alth ca re, ed ucation); excellent co mmunication a nd in terpersonal skills; ability to think logically

Position Description
Policy Anal ysts trace t heir r oots bac k t o t he exp erts of a ncient times w ho ad vised p rinces a nd kin gs. Yet despite suc h links t o t he past, t he mo dern p rofession of p olicy a nalysis da tes bac k o nly t o t he s econd half of t he 20t h cen tury. An o utgrowth o f t he eco nomic techniques o f t he 1960s, p olicy a nalysis c hanged dramatically in t he following 40 years, according to Beryl Radin, a uthor o f Beyond M achiavelli: P olicy A nalysis Comes of Age. Gone a re t he da ys w hen P olicy Anal ysts ha tched new government programs in isolation. Such programs suffered unexpected political and practical problems, as formal analysis alone was not enough. Decision makers began lo oking f or ne wcomers wi th p rogram exp ertise and mast ers degr ees in p ublic p olicy in stead o f economics. These days, Policy Analysts generally specialize in a particular area, such as housing or child care, working collaboratively with other specialists inside and outside government. Increasingly, lo ng r eports ha ve gi ven wa y t o p ithy papers and briefings. Policy Analysts have lost some of the clout t hey had in t he old days but gained a wider range o f r esponsibilities. Thes e da ys t hey f ocus no t only on the development of programs but also on their implementation and evaluation. Some Policy Analysts also produce quick and dirty analyses to help public officials respond immediately t o t opical issues o r bad press.

Policy Analysts use techniques such as program analysis and cost estima tes to advise p olicymakers. Eugene Bardach describes the classic approach in The Eight-Step Path of Policy Analysis: A Handbook for Practice: Define the problem Assemble some evidence Construct the alternatives Select the criteria Project the outcomes Confront the trade-offs Decide Tell your story

In t he re al worl d of go vernment, ho wever, P olicy Analysts often follow a les s formal route that is bas ed on the needs o f decision makers. For example, a sho rt briefing might consist of only two steps, compared to all eig ht f or a f ull-length stra tegic o r a nnual p erformance plan. Ultimately, the decision maker determines which o f t he P olicy Anal ysts r ecommendations a re accepted. Increasingly, Policy Analysts wrestle with such political is sues as ideo logical dif ferences a nd b udget limi tations. For instance, a Policy Analyst working on a plan to expand a block grant program for child care might lead focus groups to gauge public reaction to various proposals. How mig ht t he proposal win t he broadest p ossible public su pport desp ite p robable o pposition f rom st ay-

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at-home parents? Would interest groups in favor of child care find the proposal too weak? Might opposition arise in other departments within the agency? As do traditional bureaucrats, Policy Analysts spend much of their time attending meetings and responding to co rrespondence. Yet t hey als o in troduce a cer tain logic t o t he messy b usiness o f g overnment decisio n making. In the end, the role of Policy Analyst depends on the needs of the agency.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Internships provide an excellent way to get a foot in the door. Insiders recommend that individuals use the time between co llege a nd grad uate s chool t o ga in exp erience (either through an internship or in a n entry-level position) in a pa rticular area of policy. Someone interested in c hild ca re p olicy, f or in stance, mig ht w ork as a r esearch assist ant f or a n in terest gr oup suc h as t he Childrens Defense Fund. Policy Anal ysts m ust b e a ble t o dra w o n a va riety of q uantitative a nd q ualitative a nalytical t echniques. Computers have revolutionized this field, as t hey have many others. Policy Analysts increasingly are expected not only to be good writers and analysts but also to be experts in a particular field of policy. Although tra ined t o b e o bjective obs ervers, t hey must als o b e savvy about the inner w orkings of p olitics a nd g overnment. The y co mmonly meet wi th others in g overnment a nd sp ecial in terest gr oups t o discuss policy issues. Increasingly, Policy Analysts are expected t o mak e sho rt, p ithy s ummaries f or b usy decision mak ers. One b ig c hallenge f or P olicy Analysts is finding time to reflect on ways to improve and initiate programs. Because Policy Analysts advise but do not make policies, their job can be frustrating at times. For example, a long report might be used only for fine-tuning a program, not structuring it, the decision makers role. Some Policy Analysts act not only as ob jective observers but also as ad vocates in t heir area of expertise. Ultimately, Policy Analysts must decide f or t hemselves w hat t heir expectations should be.

Salaries
Salaries generally range from $30,000 t o $93,000+. On the lo w end o f t he s cale a re st ates wi th r elatively lo w costs of living. On the higher end are upper-level positions in t he federal government. In the federal government, p ositions a re stepped, wi th e arnings r ecently ranging o n t he g overnment pa y s cale f rom a GS-9 ($38,824 to $45,699) to a GS-15 ($93,063 to $120,981).

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are fair to good. The downsizing of t he f ederal g overnment a nd de volution o f r esponsibilities t o t he st ates ha ve elimina ted s ome p ositions and created others. Because not all states have positions for P olicy Anal ysts, t he typ es o f a nalytical t asks t hey perform may b e incorporated in o ther p ositions, such as program manager. Positions with the federal government have become increasingly competitive. As a result, insiders r ecommend t hat indi viduals t ake ad vantage of internship p ossibilities, particularly t he Presidential Management Internship, to get a foot in the door.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause en try in to the p rofession o pens u p do ors. Once indi viduals f ind their first jobs, they can move in a variety of directions, either wi thin g overnment o r t o t hink t anks, ad vocacy groups, or other organizations. Policy Analysts work in a va riety of settings. Someone mig ht, f or exa mple, le ave a P olicy Anal yst p osition wi th t he f ederal g overnment t o b ecome dir ector of policy for an advocacy group. Another possibility is staying within government but moving into a decisionmaking rather than an advising role.

Unions and Associations


Policy Anal ysts b elong t o a va riety o f ass ociations, including t he A ssociation f or Pub lic P olicy Anal ysis and M anagement (AP PAM), N ational A ssociation o f Schools o f Pub lic Af fairs a nd A dministration, Amer ican Political S cience Association, a nd Amer ican S ociety for Public Administration.

Tips for Entry


1. Look in to grad uate p rograms in p ublic p olicy, public administra tion, o r p ublic a ffairs; ma ny Policy Anal ysts a re grad uates o f t hese p rograms. The w ebsite o f t he National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (http://www.naspaa.org) provides helpful links. 2. Focus on a particular policy area in keeping with your own interests. Increasingly, this is a f ield of specialists.

Education and Training


Graduate p rograms in p ublic p olicy, p ublic administration, a nd p ublic a ffairs s erve as co mmon tra ining grounds f or indi viduals in t he f ield. Thes e p rograms train students in the tools of the trade, such as program analysis, b udget p rojections, im plementation a nalysis, and evaluation.

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3. Seek out internship programs and/or entry-level positions between college and graduate school to develop exp ertise in a pa rticular a rea o f p olicy. Insiders r ecommend t he P residential M anagement Internship program as a foot in the door to competitive positions in the federal government. 4. Check o ut t he f ederal g overnments p ersonnel website (h ttp://www.usajobs.opm.gov) t o le arn more about the Presidential Management Internship program.

5. Create your own internship program by offering to work for t he he ad of p olicy for an agency or organization of interest. 6. Check o ut h ttp://www.publicservicecareers.org, a Web site covering careers in the NEW Public Sector, w hich enco mpasses g overnment, no nprofits, no ngovernment o rganizations, co nsulting, contracting, and academia.

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PRESS SECRETARY
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Disseminating information to the media; advising and counseling public officials Alternate Title(s): Media Adviser, Public Information Officer Salary Range: $40,000 to $110,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): L arge me tropolitan areas, state capitals Prerequisites: Education or TrainingCollege degree ExperienceMedia experience preferred

CAREER LADDER
Chief of Staff or Communication Director Press Secretary Campaign Worker, Writer/Reporter, or Press Assistant

Special Sk ills a nd P ersonality T raitsArticulate; able to create good writing; energetic; outgoing; creative; willing to work long hours

Position Description
Press S ecretaries co mbine t he p ersonal lo yalty o f political aides with the communications savvy of public inf ormation o fficers. Their job is hel ping g overnment officials maintain a p ositive public image, largely through t he media. P ress S ecretaries sp end m uch o f their time dis seminating information to reporters and editors as well as responding to questions about specific issues. A s do p ublic inf ormation o fficers, t hey o ften have bac kgrounds in jo urnalism. H aving f irsthand experience hel ps P ress S ecretaries kno w ho w t o p itch stories to the media. Press S ecretaries g enerally w ork f or indi viduals rather t han ag encies. This o ne-on-one r elationship gives them some unique responsibilities. A Press Secretary might write a short biography of the public official for the Internet or oversee a newsletter for constituents. The P ress S ecretary is o ften a pa rt o f t he p oliticians inner cir cle. This exp osure t o day-to-day operations helps Press Secretaries understand the issues well enough to communicate them effectively to the media. Once the public official takes a st and, the Press Secretary monitors public reaction. As an adviser, the Press Secretary counsels the public official on the likely reactions of different constituencies. Who, for example, might object to a new manufacturing plant? Environmental groups? Neighbors? The last thing the public official wants is f or an unexpected source of opposition to make itself known at the last minute. Press Secretaries often need to answer difficult questions f rom r eporters. C ertain t echniques ca n ei ther

score p oints o r bac kfire. An o ff-the-cuff emo tional response, for instance, might generate more press coverage t han a b land s tatement, but it als o mig ht reflect negatively on the government official and hurt the Press Secretarys own career. Being proactive, rather than reactive, can make the Press S ecretary mo re ef fective. S easoned P ress S ecretaries know that three things can quell a cr isisspeed, facts, and focus. They have an action plan prepared so they can quickly disseminate the facts and get back to business. Pressure ca n b e in tense in t his de adline-driven field. Press Secretaries often wear beepers to respond to reporters under deadline. If the Press Secretary releases information too late, the public official might lose out on much-needed exposure. Press Secretaries also commonly Monitor the media Give staff oral and written briefs Analyze the attitudes and opinions of the public Advise t he p olitician o n a ppropriate r esponses t o questions Prepare information on key projects or policy for the public Write speeches

Salaries
Salaries vary greatly, as smaller entities generally pay on the lower end. Officeholders decide the salaries of their Press Secretaries. If they consider the Press Secretary an

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entry-level position, they pay less than if they look at it as a senior-staff job. Many salaries fall into the $55,000 to $65,000 range, according to the National Association of Government Communicators.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir t o g ood b ecause p ositions wi th elec ted a nd administra tive o fficials ca n b e found a t t he lo cal, s tate, a nd f ederal le vels. Op portunities a re g enerally b est d uring a n elec tion c ycle. I n smaller en tities s uch as lo cal g overnment, t he P ress Secretary mig ht w ork as a g eneral a ide as w ell as a media adviser.

ground r unning. T ime is p recious, a nd e vents o ccur at a mo ments notice. Press Secretaries must be able to communicate well, both verbally and in writing, under pressure. Individuals need t o ha ve a g ood under standing o f the media, p ublic o pinion, a nd c urrent issues. G ood research skills a re im portant. The a bility t o sp ot a n issue b efore i t b ecomes a p roblem is a def inite p lus. Press Secretaries also should be well-organized, persuasive, and able to handle stress.

Unions and Associations


The N ational A ssociation o f G overnment C ommunicators is a p rofessional ass ociation t hat hosts a y early conference f or indi viduals in t he f ield. P ress S ecretaries als o mig ht b e mem bers o f t he Amer ican S ociety for Public Administration, state municipal associations, and other organizations.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause P ress S ecretaries ca n ad vance t heir ca reers in a f ew dif ferent directions. Some stay with an elected official but move up the ranks to a position such as chief of staff. Others move laterally in g overnment. Still o thers g o into p rivate consulting.

Tips for Entry

Education and Training


A degree in English, journalism, political science, communication, hist ory, o r p ublic p olicy is hel pful in t his field. A mast ers degree in a f ield such as p olitical s cience might help a candidate land certain positions.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Often P ress S ecretaries ha ve a media bac kground o r experience in ca mpaign w ork, p ublic r elations, o r research. Certain skills, though, are acquired on the job. In t his q uick-paced f ield, indi viduals need t o hi t t he

1. Volunteer on a political campaign. 2. Get a n in ternship, if p ossible. I nternships ca n open do ors t o f ull-time p ositions s uch as P ress Assistant, w hich, in t urn, ca n le ad t o assist ant press secretary or Press Secretary. 3. Offer t o hel p a s chool b oard o r o ther o rganization with press releases and/or brochures. 4. Become active in a p olitical party to take advantage of important networking opportunities. 5. Check listin gs f or P ress S ecretaries a nd related positions a t uni versity ca reer cen ters. S ometimes en try-level jobs suc h as p ress assis tants are available.

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SPEECHWRITER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Meeting with public officials; writing speeches, position papers, analyses, and other special projects Alternate T itle(s): S pecial A ssistant, C ommunication Officer, Writer Salary Range: $45,000 to $150,000+ Employment Prospects: Poor Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): Washington, D.C. Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree required; masters degree sometimes preferred ExperienceFive to 10 years

CAREER LADDER
Communication Director or Corporate Speechwriter Speechwriter Public Information Officer

Special Skills and Personality TraitsQuick thinking; co mputer li teracy; cr eativity; willin gness t o let credit for ones work go to the boss

Position Description
Individuals w ho w ork ex clusively as S peechwriters are a ra re b reed. M ost sp eeches a re wr itten b y st affers a nd p ublic o fficials t hemselves, w ho j uggle a va riety of responsibilities. Individuals who hold the title of Speechwriter w ork p rimarily f or hig h-level p oliticians such as t he president, the vice president, cabinet secretaries, and some members of Congress, administrative officials, U.S. governors, and mayors of large cities. Many sp eechwriting jobs g o t o in siders w ho a re at the r ight p lace a t t he r ight time . T ypically t hey ha ve worked their way up a co mmunication track, although sometimes exp ertise in a pa rticular f ield, suc h as f oreign policy, opens doors to a p osition as S peechwriter. Positions often include other typ es of wr iting, such as articles a nd p olicy pa pers, as w ell as sp ecial p rojects such as drafting the greeting for Christmas cards. Speechwriting has lo ng b een shr ouded in m ystery to assure that credit goes to those who utter the words rather than those who write them. Although presidents as fa r bac k as G eorge W ashington ha ve s ought hel p with their speeches, they have done so under t he guise of p olicy ad vice. P resident Washington t urned t o his secretary o f t he tr easury, Alexa nder H amilton; A braham Lincoln, to his s ecretary of state, William Seward. Everyone knows that U.S. presidents and other key officials are too busy to write all t heir own speeches from scratch. In the 20th century, speechwriting gained some recognition. By the 1970s, t he White House had est ablished an Office of Speechwriting. The former presidential S peechwriter P eggy N oonan wr ites o penly a bout

how she, not President George H. W. Bush, created such memorable lines as a t housand p oints o f lig ht a nd read my lips. The way Speechwriters go about their work depends largely o n t he needs o f t heir b osses. W hereas s ome public o fficials dra ft mos t o f t heir own sp eeches, o thers dep end mo re he avily o n S peechwriters. S easoned Speechwriters know how to dig do wn into the exp eriences, personalities, and passions of their bosses to create phrases that sound like those of the speaker. In the process, they ask themselves questions like, Who is the audience? Which key issues should be addressed? Usually the Speechwriter and public official meet to discuss what should be included in the speech. Because speeches ca n mak e o r b reak t he sp eakers r eputation, speechwriting is o ften do ne b y co mmittee. Dra fts o f the sp eech a re o ften gi ven o ut t o va rious ad visers f or comment. One of President Jimmy Carters Speechwriters compared his r ole to that of a tra uma surgeon: He was t he o ne w ho did t he su turing, sti tching t ogether everyone elses input. An important sp eech mig ht go t hrough more t han a do zen dra fts as sp eaker a nd S peechwriter f ine-tune the t ext. D oes t he b eginning ef fectively s et t he t one? Is the speech punchy enough? Does one section lead naturally into the next? Will people with short attention spans want to listen to the whole speech? One v eteran S peechwriter, Warren Ander son, f ormerly of the army and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, compares the relationship between speaker and Speechwriter to a two-career marriage: First, t he tw o dep end he avily on

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each o ther e ven t hough t hey s ee li ttle o f o ne a nother. Second, interference f rom outsiders can put an undue strain on the relationship. And, third, the initial excitement of the pairing often wears off with time. Not sur prisingly, t here a re a lo t o f divorces. B ut legendary pa irings lik e t hat o f P resident J ohn F. K ennedy a nd his S peechwriter, Theo dore S orenson, result in w ords t hat ca n ca pture a nd def ine a n era. S peechwriters often come and go with administrations. Once an elec ted o fficial is v oted o ut o f o ffice, t he S peechwriter might be out of a job.

courses in p ublic relations t hat address sp eechwriting. The A ccrediting C ouncil o n Ed ucation in J ournalism and Mass C ommunications maintains a list o f all c urrently accredited journalism and mass communications programs with links to program websites.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Speechwriters g enerally ha ve s everal y ears o f exp erience. M any b egin wr iting sp eeches a fter w orking in journalism, then in government communication. Communication staffers commonly write speeches as well as press releases, position papers, and the like. By the time someone b ecomes a S peechwriter, he o r she sho uld have well-developed p olitical instincts as w ell as a f eel for the power of the spoken word. Speechwriters try to coin memorable phrases. Often they use symbols and metaphors as shorthand representations of more complex ide as. In an article in Writers Digest, S peechwriter M ike B rake des cribes ho w, in a speech to the legislature to urge reform of state purchasing regulations, he chose a symbola box of staplesto illustrate how complicated the old spending rules were. Many S peechwriters us e sp lit s creens a nd o ther computer techniques in t heir work. C omputer literacy can speed up the work, and, in speechwriting, time is of the essence. A Speechwriter might be told at 4 p.m. that the boss is going to be on the six oclock news. Because cr edit f or sp eeches g enerally g oes t o t he speaker, not the writer, Speechwriters need to be willing to subordinate their own egos to those of their bosses. As one veteran speechwriter put it, You need a p retty good ego.

Salaries
Salaries range widely, from $45,000 to $150,000 or more, according t o ind ustry s ources. S peechwriters w orking on the national level tend to make higher salaries than those a t t he st ate o r lo cal le vel. S ome S peechwriters work on a freelance basis. The general rule of thumb is to allow one hour of work for every minute of speech. In the private sector, freelance Speechwriters can make more t han $100 a n ho ur, acco rding t o t he ne wsletter The Executive Speaker.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are poor because of the scarcity of positions devoted exclusivelyor even primarilyto speechwriting. H owever, p olitical p ositions t urn o ver fairly q uickly, t hus cr eating t he need f or ne w S peechwriters, esp ecially d uring a n elec tion c ycle. S peechwriters als o ca n los e t heir jobs b ecause o f shif ts in administration. P residential ca ndidates, f or exa mple, hire Speechwriters, but, if t he candidate loses the election, the Speechwriter is out of work.

Unions and Associations Advancement Prospects


Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause wr iting speeches f or w ell-known o fficials ca n o pen u p do ors. Speechwriters ca n mo ve in a va riety o f dir ections. I n addition to advancing in government, they can get into media or corporate communication. Many become corporate Speechwriters. Some open up their own communication businesses. Speechwriters might belong to the National Association of G overnment C ommunicators, t he Pub lic Rela tions Society of America, Inc., or a variety of other organizations dealing with communication.

Tips for Entry

Education and Training


A bac helors degr ee is r equired, a nd grad uate w ork in co mmunication o r a r elated f ield ma y b e hel pful. At ma ny uni versities, co mmunication p rograms o ffer

1. Join a public speaking or debating club. 2. Check out books on speechwriting and anthologies o f s peeches a t t he lib rary. P ay a ttention t o political speeches and addresses on television. 3. Volunteer to write speeches for a co mmunity or charity gr oup. K eep a co py o f t he t ext f or y our portfolio and list the project on your rsum.

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INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS INTERN


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: A ssisting wi th p reparation f or meetin gs, co nducting r esearch, dra fting pa pers, a ttending meetings, a nd b ecoming fa miliar wi th U nited N ations (UN) operations Alternate Title(s): Intern, Secretariat Intern Salary Range: None Employment Prospects: Fair to good Advancement Prospects: Good to excellent Best G eographical L ocation(s): I nterns co me f rom a variety of locations to work at UN H eadquarters in New York City Prerequisites: Education or TrainingGraduate school

CAREER LADDER
Various Positions in International Affairs UN Headquarters Intern Graduate Student

ExperienceVolunteer w ork a nd tra vel a broad recommended Special Sk ills a nd P ersonality TraitsGood academic and analytical skills; language abilities; excellent communication and interpersonal skills

Position Description
United Nations Headquarters Internships expose graduate students to t he inner w orkings of a leg endary institution. H owever, a nyone exp ecting t o g o dir ectly f rom a UN H eadquarters I nternship t o pa id em ployment with t he U nited N ations is b ound t o b e dis appointed. UN H eadquarters I nterns a re p rohibited f rom s eeking employment wi th t he U nited N ations f or six mo nths after co mpletion o f t heir in ternships. B ecause em ployment at the United Nations is highly competitivepartly as a result of a geographical quota system, partly because of the UNs need f or highly trained personnelthe sixmonth r ule was de veloped t o dissuade a pplicants f rom thinking of the internship as an automatic door opener. UN H eadquarters I nterns w ork in t he S ecretariat, the ma in administra tive b ody o f t he U nited N ations. Internships a re g enerally tw o mo nths lo ng, al though they can be extended, with sessions in t he fall, spring, and summer . A pplicants m ust sub mit a n a pplication, rsum, and short (150 to 250 words) essay stating their reasons for wanting to be in the program. Selected candidates a re exp ected t o w ork f ive da ys a w eek f rom 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The UN H eadquarters I nternship p rogram co mbines job r esponsibilities wi th ed ucational ac tivities. For instance, a H eadquarters Intern might be asked to sit in o n a s ession of the General Assembly and report on i t t o his o r her depa rtment. H eadquarters I nterns

commonly conduct research, participate in preparation for meetin gs, dra ft pa pers, a nd a ttend b riefings a bout the UN system and its goals. They also usually have the opportunity t o meet wi th t he S ecretary-General f or a photo shoot. The United Nations assigns Headquarters Interns to 11 different departments: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Executive Office of the Secretary General Office of Internal Oversight Services Office of Legal Affairs Department of Political Affairs Department of Disarmament Affairs Department of Peacekeeping Operations Office f or t he C oordination o f H umanitarian Affairs Department of Economic and Social Affairs Department o f G eneral A ssembly Af fairs a nd Conference Services Department of Public Information Department of Management

When a pplying f or in ternships, a pplicants indica te their t op t hree areas of interest. The I nternship C oordinator t akes t hese c hoices in to co nsideration w hen making assignmen ts. E ach in tern is t hen as signed t o a su pervisor, w ho p rovides a wr itten des cription o f responsibilities during the first week of the internship.

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A typical day usually begins when interns check in with t heir su pervisors. F rom t here, t he I ntern mig ht go to the UN lib rary to gather data, then return to the office to assist with tasks such as preparing agendas and contacting individuals abroad for an upcoming meeting or conference such as the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The intern might also help draft a major document, update t he depa rtments w ebpage, a nd p erform s ome clerical tasks. In the afternoon, the Intern might attend an inf ormational meetin g a bout t he responsibilities of another depa rtment. The da y usuall y ends w hen t he intern follows up with his or her supervisor. At the end of the session, the Intern receives a certificate signed by the Secretary-General.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good to excellent because, even t hough in ternships do no t le ad dir ectly t o employment with the United Nations, they nevertheless open a va riety of do ors. S ome UN H eadquarters Interns f ind men tors w ho t ake a n in terest in t heir career goals. UN Interns commonly move on to positions with intergovernmental organizations (e.g., The North A tlantic T reaty Or ganization [N ATO]); no ngovernmental o rganizations (e .g., t he I nternational Red Cross), and the private sector (e.g., international finance). M ore t han 1,500 no ngovernmental o rganizations ha ve consultative st atus wi th t he U nited Nations. S ome f ormer I nterns a re hir ed a t t he UN after working in nonprofits or other types of organizations for a few years. Although an internship does not ensure entry, it can give a q ualified ca ndidate a n ad vantage o ver a nother applicant who is eq ually qualified. The UN H eadquarters I nternship C oordinator estima ted in 2002 t hat 5 percent of Headquarters Interns are eventually hired by the United Nations.

Salaries
UN H eadquarters I nterns a re no t pa id. B ecause t heir schedules do not allow for other work, UN interns must be prepared to pay an estimated $2,900 a month to live in New York City. The majority of interns60 to 75 p ercentreceive either f ull o r pa rtial f unding f rom ed ucational in stitutions o r o rganizations, acco rding t o t he I nternship Coordinator. S ome in terns r eceive f unding f rom t heir governments. The rest pay their own expenses. Most s tudents c hoose t o sha re a partments. The average studio apartment rents for $800 t o $2,000 p er month, according to the UN H eadquarters Internship website. The I nternship p rogram p rovides a list o f accommodation possibilities to all selected candidates.

Education and Training


To q ualify f or a UN H eadquarters I nternship, a st udent m ust b e enr olled in a degr ee-granting grad uate program. Rele vant f ields o f st udy inc lude, b ut a re no t limited t o, di plomacy, in ternational a ffairs, b usiness administration, eco nomics, la w, p olitical s cience, a nd peace st udies. H owever, no r estrictions a re p laced o n the fields of study of prospective Interns.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir t o g ood b ecause, although in ternships a re co mpetitive, t hey a re o ffered three times a y ear, in t he fall , sp ring, a nd summer . About 15 p ercent of applicants are accepted for 120 t o 150 slots per session, according to the Internship Coordinator Rene Moller. Applicants indicate their top three fields o f in terest, b ut cer tain a reasincluding p eacekeeping, humanitarian, social, and political affairsare particularly popular and so more competitive. The UN H eadquarters I nternship is j ust o ne o f several in ternships o ffered wi thin t he hig hly decentralized UN sys tem. Affiliated specialized agencies or programs wi th s eparate in ternship p rograms inc lude the UN D evelopment P rogram, UN Childr ens F und (UNICEF), I nternational L abor Or ganization (IL O), and UN Institute for Training and Research. Although there is no one listing of all UN-affiliated internships, all offices are linked to the UNs website (http://www. un.org).

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many UN H eadquarters I nterns ha ve li ved o r st udied abroad a nd w orked as v olunteers. An y w ork exp erience that involves dealing with a wide variety of people is helpful, as t he United Nations is a c ulturally diverse environment. The United Nations looks for applicants with good academic a nd a nalytical skills, g ood la nguage skills, and excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Knowledge of on e or m ore l anguages i s h elpful. Su ccessful I nterns t end t o b e s elf-starters w ho ha ve t he patience needed to work within a bureaucracy, according to Helen Anderson, Director of Internships for the Fletcher School at Tufts University.

Unions and Associations


There a re no unio ns o r ass ociations f or UN H eadquarters Interns. Graduate students, though, can turn to t heir s chools ca reer co unselors f or p rofessional guidance.

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Tips for Entry

1. Study or live abroad. 2. Participate in volunteer activities. 3. Choose a graduate program in your field of interest. To qualify for the UN H eadquarters Internship program, you must be a graduate student. 4. Browse t he UN w ebsite (w ww.un.org) for information a bout t he UN I nternship p rogram (click o n About t he U nited N ations) a nd links to o ther in ternship p rograms wi thin t he hig hly decentralized UN sys tem. Other internship programs include those of the UN Childr ens Fund (UNICEF), t he UN D evelopment P rogram, t he

International L abor Or ganization, a nd t he UN Institute for Training and Research. 5. Seek the help of graduate school career counselors. They might be able to put you in touch with alumni who work at the UN and can help you get the most out of your internship experience. 6. Check o ut t he hel pful F requently A sked Questions s ection o f t he U nited N ations H eadquarters New York Internship P rogramme Web si te, including inf ormation a bout a pplication de adlines (e .g., a pproximately f our mo nths p rior t o the internship session).

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FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICER


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Advocating and advancing U.S. policy interests and protecting the welfare of U.S. citizens abroad in embassies throughout the world Alternate T itle(s): J unior Of ficer, P rofessional Di plomat, Consular Officer, Administrative Officer, Economic Of ficer, P olitical Of ficer, Pub lic Di plomacy Officer Salary Range: $40,365 to $55,725+ Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): U .S. em bassies throughout the world Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingGenerally bac helors degree or hig her; passing grade o n t he foreign s ervice examination

CAREER LADDER
Senior Foreign Service Officer Junior Foreign Service Officer College or Graduate Student

ExperienceVarying requirements; age between 20 and 59 years Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsAvailability for w orldwide assignmen ts a nd s ometimes ha rdship; willingness to learn a f oreign language; strong interpersonal and communication skills; good problem-solving a nd decisio n-making a bilities; unco mmon commitment

Position Description
Foreign S ervice Of ficers r epresent t he in terests o f t he United S tates a broad. F rom t heir p osts in em bassies throughout t he w orld, t hey p romote U.S. f oreign p olicy, administ er U .S. immigra tion a nd na tionalization laws, assist Amer icans overseas, and explain American objectives a nd c ultures t o t he p eople o f o ther co untries. Foreign S ervice Of ficers report to p olicy makers in W ashington, D .C., a bout e verything f rom r outine tasks to earthquakes, coups, or terrorist attacks. As professional diplomats, Foreign S ervice Officers hold f ront-line positions under t he embassys top official, t he a mbassador. Em bassies g enerally inc lude f ive sections co rresponding t o t he ca reer pa ths o f F oreign Service Officers: Consular (e.g., vis a processing, assist ance to Amer ican citizens) Administrative (e .g., ma nagement o f b udgets, p ersonnel) Economic (e.g., trade agreements, U.S. business) Political (e.g., human rights issues, political parties) Public di plomacy (e .g., p ublic inf ormation, c ultural programs) Foreign S ervice Of ficers generally b egin their s ervice in t he C onsular Di vision. I n addi tion t o in ter-

viewing a pplicants a pplying f or vis as t o visi t t he United S tates, co nsular o fficers p rotect aga inst vis a fraud a nd p revent p otentially da ngerous indi viduals from entering t he United States. The y als o s erve as a life ra ft f or Amer ican ci tizens in t he host co untry. If a n Amer ican t ourist los es his o r her passp ort, t he consular officer replaces it. Or, perhaps, an American is ar rested ab road, r uns o ut o f mo ney, o r ne eds hel p in t he e vent o f a dis asterall r esponsibilities o f t he consular officer. After co mpleting t heir co nsular assignmen ts, F oreign S ervice Of ficers g enerally en ter in to lo ng-term service in t heir c hosen ca reer pa th. I ndividuals w ho serve as A dministrative Of ficers p rovide t he ma nagement exp ertise needed f or t he smo oth a nd ef ficient operations of the post. They locate housing for incoming staff, hire support staff, order supplies, and perform other administrative tasks. Foreign S ervice Of ficers in t he Eco nomic Di vision deal with trade policy and other business matters. They might participate in trade neg otiations b etween countries t hat in volve mo nths o f det ailed p oint-by-point debate. I n addi tion, eco nomic o fficers a re co mmonly involved in tracking significant economic developments in the host country, offering assistance to U.S. business representatives, and providing support for specific U.S. trade promotion programs.

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Political officers, as their title implies, monitor political e vents wi thin t he host co untry a nd ad vocate U.S. political interests. In the case of an upcoming election, the political officer might spend months preparing for it, perhaps working with government officials to invite international obs ervers t o cer tify t he fa irness o f t he election. P olitical o fficers mig ht als o la unch p rojects such as v oter-education drives using sketches and storyboards to educate a largely illiterate population about voting procedures. Political officers also are commonly involved in tracking the development of new and existing p olitical pa rties a nd r eporting o n h uman r ights issues. The f inal ca reer pa thpublic di plomacyinvolves building bridges of communication between the United States and the host country. Foreign Service Officers in the Pub lic Di plomacy Di vision co mbine p ress-related functions with cultural-exchange responsibilities. They serve as sp okespersons for the United States and coordinate p eople-to-people ex changes, inc luding t he F ulbright p rogram, w hich administ ers p rograms o f st udy in the United States and overseas. Whatever t he career path, Foreign S ervice Of ficers must commit to a life-style, not just a job. Foreign Service Of ficers g enerally sp end mo re t han half o f t heir careers overseas and the rest on domestic assignments in Washington, D.C., or o ccasionally in o ther parts of the United States on special assignment. Many overseas posts are in small or remote countries where Americanstyle amenities are unavailable.

year, according to ACT Inc., the government contractor that administers the exam. Individuals who do w ell on the wr itten exa m a re in vited t o t ake t he o ral ass essment. The application process is a lengthy one, about 18 months from start to finish. The p olitical a nd p ublic di plomacy ca reer pa ths tend t o b e pa rticularly co mpetitive b ecause o f t he large numbers of candidates who apply. The U.S. State Department has indica ted a gr eater r ecruitment need for administrative and consular officers, and to a lesser degree, eco nomic o fficers b ut dis courages a pplicants from c hoosing o ne ca reer pa th wi th t he in tention o f switching to another one. The U.S. Department of State also recruits and hires individuals f or t he r elated p ositions o f f oreign s ervice specialist a nd Ci vil S ervice em ployee. F oreign s ervice specialists a re hir ed f or t heir t echnical o r administrative exp ertise in f ields suc h as inf ormation ma nagement and security engineering. Unlike Foreign Service Officers, foreign service specialists do not need to take the Foreign Service Written Exam, although they must have an oral assessment and agree to worldwide availability. Ci vil s ervice em ployees s erve in W ashington, D.C., and regional offices.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good because the Foreign Service o ffers p romotion o pportunities f rom j unior to mid-le vel t o s enior o fficer. L ike t eachers a nd p rofessors, F oreign S ervice Of ficers a re eligib le f or t enure. J unior Of ficers m ust s erve a t le ast o ne t erm as consular o fficers a nd demo nstrate p roficiency in a foreign la nguage in o rder t o q ualify f or t enure a fter three years of duty. If they are not successful, they are considered again one year later. Tenure is required for continued service. Most o f a F oreign S ervice Of ficers ca reer is sp ent, after ga ining t enure, a t t he midgrades. Exp erienced Foreign S ervice Of ficers ca n e ventually co mpete t o become members of the Senior Foreign Service, a small group o f o fficers w ho f ill t he most dema nding a nd sensitive positions in t he Foreign S ervice. Members of the S enior Foreign S ervice formulate, organize, direct, coordinate, a nd im plement U .S. f oreign p olicy. En try into the Senior Foreign Service is highly competitive.

Salaries
Salaries for Foreign S ervice Of ficers vary according to levels of education and experience. Currently, the entrylevel s alary f or F oreign S ervice Of ficers wi th a co llege degree and no p rofessional exp erience is $40,365, compared to $55,725 for someone with a doctorate and no p rofessional exp erience. S enior-level F oreign S ervice Of ficers mak e co nsiderably hig her s alaries, wi th a t op s alary o f a bout $154,700, acco rding t o ind ustry sources.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir b ecause, al though t he United States State D epartment recently increased t he number o f en try-level F oreign S ervice Of ficers f rom about 250 to 466 a year in 2001, the application process for F oreign S ervice Of ficers is r igorous, dema nding, and highly competitive. Entry-level a pplicants a re r equired t o t ake b oth a written and an oral exam. B etween 10,000 a nd 15,000 applicants take the Foreign Service Written Exam each

Education and Training


No specific educational background is required for Foreign S ervice Of ficers, al though mos t ha ve a t le ast a college degr ee. M any ho ld ad vanced degr ees in in ternational relations, economics, business administration, law, jo urnalism, o r o ther a reas. A r ecent F oreign S er-

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vice Of ficer c lass inc luded t he f ollowing ed ucational categories: B .A. (18), J .D. (3), M.A. (20), M.B .A. (1), Ph.D. (4). Aptitude for the Foreign Service is ga uged through a rigorous testing process. Candidates must register to take the Foreign Service Officer Test, a computer-based exam given at over 200 t esting centers throughout the United S tates. The t est is gi ven s everal times a y ear. This exam has t hree multiple c hoice s ections (English Expression, Job Knowledge, and Biographic Questionnaire) as w ell as a n essay on an assigned t opic. Candidates who perform successfully on the Foreign Service Test advance to the Oral Assessment. The Oral A ssessment is a da y-long set of exercises, which me asure skills suc h as j udgment, planning, and working with others. Candidates participate in a gr oup exercise d uring w hich t hey m ust p resent a p rospective p roject a nd deba te ho w b est t o allo cate limi ted U.S. g overnment f unds. N ext a re indi vidual ex ercises, including a s eries of hypothetical questions (e.g., How would you handle a case involving an American student caught with illegal drugs?). Incoming Foreign Service Officers begin their career with a s even-week o rientation c lass f ocusing o n f oreign affairs responsibilities and the life of the diplomat abroad. Once Foreign Service Officers are assigned to a specific post, they receive additional training, including language instruction and sp ecific skills needed t o p erform effectively in the country or region to which they have been assigned.

nel have prompted the U.S. State Department to devise safety p lans, inc luding, if necess ary, e vacuation o f t he post. Although t he lif e-style o f F oreign S ervice Of ficers offers the occasional glamour of state receptions, individuals s pend much of t heir time w orking b ehind t he scenes, la ying t he gr oundwork f or f uture agr eements. Foreign S ervice Of ficers m ust b e in terested in li ving in ne w a nd dif ferent c ultures a nd willin g t o le arn a t least one language, if not several. Foreign Service Officers must have well-developed problem-solving skills to resolve whatever comes their way. Anyone who receives a conditional offer of employment must be investigated for security clearance. Issues that could delay issuance of s ecurity clearance include a c urrent o r past hist ory o f dr ug o r alco hol a buse, credit p roblems, f oreign co ntacts, a nd/or a f oreignborn spouse. Although such issues might not ultimately preclude s ecurity c learance, t hey len gthen t he time required to complete the clearance process.

Unions and Associations


The American Foreign Service Association is a n organization dedica ted t o ma intaining a s trong, ef fective Foreign Service.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Candidates f or t he F oreign S ervice m ust b e U.S. ci tizens b etween t he ag es o f 20 a nd 59 a nd a vailable f or worldwide assignmen t. The a verage ag e o f F oreign Service Of ficers is a round 30. I ndividuals with a va riety o f bac kgrounds jo in t he Foreign S ervice. A r ecent Foreign S ervice o rientation c lass inc luded indi viduals with exp erience as P eace C orps Volunteers, b usiness/ financial consultants, lawyers, and teachers as well as a bartender and a state senator. Before joining the Foreign Service, individuals must agree t o b e available f or w orldwide assignment. Many overseas p osts a re in a reas t hat lac k Amer ican-style amenities and pose health and safety hazards. Cases of bombings and kidnappings involving embassy person-

1. Spend time li ving, w orking, o r st udying in another co untry. G et t o kno w p eople f rom different cultures. 2. Learn as many languages as possible. 3. Check o ut t he Foreign S ervice Of ficer inf ormation o n t he U .S. D epartment o f S tate C areers website (http://www.careers.state.gov). 4. Browse the website of the American Foreign Service Association (www.afsa.org), publisher of the booklet Inside a U.S. Embassy: How the Foreign Service Works for America. 5. Prepare f or t he F oreign S ervice Of ficer Test b y checking o ut t he r ecommended r eading o n t he testing section of the website (http://www.careers. state.gov). In addition, many candidates order the Foreign Service Officer Test Study Guide, which can be ordered for $20 online, or by mail to: ACT Customer Service (68), P.O. Box 1008, Iowa City, IA 52243-1008 or call (319) 337-1429.

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INTELLIGENCE OPERATIVE
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: A cting as lia ison b etween p olicy mak ers a nd overseas o peratives; p roviding su pport f or o peratives abroad, and/or working on espionage cases in foreign countries Alternate Title(s): Professional Trainee (PT), Clandestine Service Trainee (CST), Operations Officer, Field Officer, Staff Operations Officer, Collection Management Officer, Spy, Officer (Central Intelligence Agency) Salary Range: $47,245 to $64,222+ Employment Prospects: Fair to good Advancement Prospects: Good to excellent Best Geographical Location(s): Washington, D.C. Prerequisites: Education o r T raining3.0 grade p oint a verage; background in C entral E urasian, E ast A sian, o r Middle Eastern language a plus

CAREER LADDER
Senior Officer or Branch Chief Intelligence Operative Trainee

ExperienceForeign tra vel; p revious r esidency abroad; and/or military experience helpful Special Skills and P ersonality TraitsWillingness to learn a foreign language; patriotism; resourcefulness; well-developed interest in f oreign affairs; successful completion of background investigation and polygraph exam; ability to keep secrets

Position Description
Intelligence Op eratives pa rticipate in ac tivities r elated to espionage, the practice of spying. Although the word spy might bring to mind ima ges of James Bond jetting around t he w orld as A gent 007, r eal o peratives in t he Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) lead considerably less glamorous lives. They spend more of their time digging for information than chasing villains. They rarely carry guns o r r ide a round in exp ensive ca rs. I ndeed, g lamour s eeking is co unterproductive. Re al o peratives tr y to fit in t o maintain their cloak of secrecy. Operations that are clandestine, meaning secret, covert, or hidden have long been controversial. In the 1970s, the CIA was under fire for its involvement in assassination attempts, coups, and other paramilitary operations. Stricter regulations and prohibition of assassinations followed. The Clandestine S ervice is pa rt of t he CIAs Directorate o f Op erations, w hich is in volved in t he co llection p hase o f t he in telligence c ycle. Af ter inf ormation is collected, it is a nalyzed by experts and disseminated to p olicy mak ers. T echnological ad vances in in telligence gathering by electronic and satellite photography have no t elimina ted t he need f or w hat t he CI A calls HUMINT, human intelligence. The CI As Cla ndestine S ervice o ffers tw o tra ining programs. The first, the 18-month Professional Trainee (PT) P rogram, gi ves ne wcomers a n in troduction t o

the f ield. The s econd, t he Clandestine S ervice Trainee (CST) Program, which many individuals enter on completion o f t heir 18-mo nth tra ining, p repares tra inees specifically for overseas operations. Some applicants are accepted directly into this more advanced program. Individuals in t he P rofessional T rainee P rogram provide support to their colleagues overseas and act as liaisons between U.S. policy makers and officers in t he field. I f, f or exa mple, a n o fficer in t he f ield has q uestions about a p ossible informant, the trainee might do background r esearch. Or , p erhaps, t he o fficer a broad needs to obtain supplies or talk to a highly skilled technical p erson. The tra inee would mak e t he necess ary arrangements. In addi tion, tra inees co nvey r equests f rom p olicy makers to officers in the field. If, for instance, the policy maker has a q uestion about t he nuclear capabilities of a particular country, the trainee might notify the f ield officer t o co ntact a n inf ormant w orking as a n uclear engineer. I nformantsnot t he f ield o fficers t hemselvesare known as agents. At t he end o f t he 18-mo nth p eriod, t he tra inee should ha ve a b etter ide a o f t he typ e o f assignmen ts he or she w ould like to pursue. Trainees who are more interested in r esearch and cas e management in W ashington, D .C., t han in ga thering in telligence o verseas might b ecome st aff o perations o fficers. Thos e mo re

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interested in w orking o verseas a pply f or t he Cla ndestine Service Trainee (CST) Program. This mo re sp ecialized tra ining t akes p lace a t t he CIAs tra ining facili ty, kno wn as The F arm, o utside Washington, D.C. Trainees learn how to detect whether they are being trailed and how to communicate secretly in countries where phones are tapped and their movements mo nitored. The y mig ht s end mess ages in co de or develop other modes of clandestine communication such as dead dr ops, a syst em t hat in volves le aving packages o f inf ormation in p redetermined lo cations. Trainees als o ga in t he la nguage ski lls t hey need f or assignments in the field. Individuals w ho successf ully co mplete t he Cla ndestine S ervice Trainee P rogram a re t hen c hosen f or assignments. CI A Op eratives w ork under cover a nd might use assumed names. Much of their time is sp ent cultivating a nd meetin g wi th s ources. I n s ome cas es, informants ha ve la ter t urned o ut t o b e do uble ag ents working for the other government. Intelligence Op eratives, o ver t he y ears, ha ve pa rticipated not only in inf ormation gathering but also in political and economic actions, propaganda, and paramilitary ac tivities. Al though t he exac t na ture o f CI A operations is classified information, details culled from declassified do cuments a nd b ooks b y f ormer I ntelligence Operatives provide a sampling of activities: Interrogating unwilling sources Providing financial support to political contacts Training forces involved in battling the opposition Participating in the capture of suspected terrorists

increased the size of its Clandestine Service. The application p rocess, ho wever, is hig hly co mpetitive. A pplicants m ust pass a r igorous s creening p rocess, w hich includes a polygraph exam and security clearance. The CIA is organized into four teams: the Directorate of Operations, the Directorate of Science and Technology, t he Dir ectorate o f I ntelligence, a nd t he Dir ectorate o f A dministration. The Dir ectorate o f Op erations, which includes the Clandestine Service, is probably the best known of the teams. Information gathered by the first tw o t eams is t hen t urned o ver t o t he Dir ectorate of Intelligence, the analytical department, which interprets it and writes the finished product. The Directorate of A dministration is in c harge o f ma naging r esources for the agency. Career tracks for analysts are separate from those for clandestine service officers, according to the CIA. Analysts are usually sp ecialists with advanced degrees. An analyst might be an expert in ei ther a pa rticular country o r r egion o r f ield suc h as c hemical w eapons. The CIA offers a summer internship in intelligence analysis focusing on international affairs, languages, economics, or engineering for graduate students.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood t o ex cellent b ecause individuals are screened carefully for suitability for the job. Applicants accepted into entry-level positions generally ha ve t he skills needed t o ad vance in t he CI A. Individuals can move up in ei ther foreign or domestic positions. Individuals who choose to serve abroad can advance either as senior officers or in managerial positions such as branch chief or deputy director. Not e veryone, ho wever, st ays wi th t he CI A. S ome officers have left disillusioned with the CIAs objectives and/or met hods. S everal ha ve wr itten a rticles, b ooks, and/or speeches critical of their former employer. The f ield o f in telligence is a b road o ne, ext ending well beyond the confines of the CIA to include defense and la w enf orcement ag encies as w ell as p rivate co rporations. The F ederal B ureau o f I nvestigation (FBI) differs f rom t he CIA in t hat i t has a la w enf orcement function (s ee the profile of FBI S pecial Agent in F acts On F iles Career O pportunities i n La w E nforcement, Security, and Protective Services).

Some assignmen ts a re mo re da ngerous t han o thers. The co ld wa r has gi ven wa y t o t hreats f rom ne w enemiesterrorists, dr ug lo rds, a nd w eapon de alers, among them. Intelligence Operatives face the challenge of penetrating this new world. As one former CIA official told the New York Times, Its like dining with the devil.

Salaries
Salaries vary with levels of experience; trainees earn less than officers. Salaries for members of t he Professional Trainee P rogram st art a t a round $47,000. En try le vel salaries f or in telligence o peratives in t he Cla ndestine Service st art a t $52,000. W ithin e ach pa y le vel, individuals receive step increases as they gain experience.

Education and Training


To be eligible for the CIAs training programs, applicants must b e r ecent co llege o r grad uate s chool grad uates with at least a 3.0 grade point average. Foreign language proficiency a nd a grad uate degr ee a re p luses. D egrees and exp erience in in ternational b usiness, f inance, o r

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir t o g ood. A s widel y reported in t he media, t he CI A in r ecent y ears has

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relations; physical science; computer science; or nuclear, biological, c hemical en gineering a re p referred. The CIA is pa rticularly interested in ca ndidates with backgrounds in C entral E urasian, E ast A sian, a nd M iddle Eastern languages. Some co lleges, mili tary s chools, uni versities, a nd graduate p rograms o ffer co urses sp ecifically in in telligence, commonly through political science or international a ffairs depa rtments. The A ssociation of Former Intelligence Of ficers (h ttp://www.afio.com) p rovides a listin g o f t hese co urses, inc luding s ome sy llabuses, through t he Academic E xchange Pr ogram secti on o f its w ebsite. C ourse ti tles inc lude I ntelligence: P rocess, Policy, and Management (University of Oklahoma, Fall 2001), National S trategic I ntelligence (C alifornia S tate University, Spring 2001), a nd Intelligence and Foreign Policy (C olumbia U niversity, S chool o f I nternational and Public Affairs, Fall 2001).

the United States. All applicants must take a p olygraph exam. Although t he da y-to-day o perations o f I ntelligence Operatives are considerably less g lamorous than those of fictional spies, real-life operatives must cultivate some of t he s ame p ersonality tra its as t heir s creen co unterparts: an adventurous spirit, ingenuity, and resourcefulness. Intelligence Operatives must be able to deal with fast-moving, ambiguous, and unstructured situations.

Unions and Associations


The A ssociation o f F ormer I ntelligence Of ficers is a n organization dedicated to fostering, through education programs and publications, public understanding of the role of intelligence in serving U.S. national interests.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Individuals w ho ha ve tra veled o r li ved a broad ha ve valuable experience for positions with the CIA, especially if they have become fluent in a foreign language of stra tegic im portance t o t he ag ency. M ilitary exp erience, t oo, ca n b e hel pful. Ot her w ork exp erience also ca n p rovide a bac kground f or under cover w ork abroad. The a pplication p rocess f or t he CI A is a r igorous one. The CI A lo oks a t a n indi viduals bac kground t o determine, f or exa mple, w hether he o r she w ould b e good a t k eeping s ecrets. S omeone wi th a hist ory o f seeking public acclaim, for instance, might be deemed unsuitable b ecause co vert o perations r equire r elative anonymity. To det ermine sui tability f or em ployment, t he CI A examines t he a pplicants lif e hist ory, tr ustworthiness, reliability, and soundness of character. Abuse of drugs, including ma rijuana, is o ne o f t he co mmon r easons applicants a re denied a s ecurity c learance. I ndividuals with foreign contacts als o may exp erience s ecurity delays w hile t hey a re in vestigated f or t heir lo yalty t o

1. Spend some time a broad to gain an understanding of foreign policy issues. 2. Look in to t he CI As em ployment o pportunities for co llege st udents. A s o utlined o n t he CI As employment website (http://www.cia.gov/careers/ index.html), t he ag ency o ffers t hree p rograms: Undergraduate Student Trainee (Co-op), Internship P rogram, a nd G raduate S tudies P rogram. The first two are for undergraduate students. The third is f or grad uate st udents in terested in t he CIAs analytical career track. 3. Browse the CIAs website (http://www.cia.gov). In addition to information about employment, t he site inc ludes a s ection f or kids, wi th sp y ga mes and a n in telligence b ook list. A b ook list f or adults, Intelligence L iterature, is inc luded in t he Publications section of the main website. 4. Read u p o n in telligence b y s earching p ublic libraries, magazine, and Internet databases using keywords such as spy or strategic intelligence. 5. Refrain from any activities that might jeopardize your accep tance. C andidates f or t he CI A m ust pass medical and polygraph examinations as well as a background investigation.

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PART III

ACTIVISM

NONPROFIT ADVOCACY AND ADMINISTRATION

PROGRAM ASSISTANT
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: A ssisting wi th co mmunication, co nference planning, a nd f und-raising; a nswering p hones; maintaining da tabases; p roviding g eneral c lerical/ administrative support Alternate Title(s): Administrative Assistant, Marketing Assistant, Fund-Raising/Development Assistant Salary Range: $24,000 to $34,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): Major cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree ExperienceEntry level

CAREER LADDER
Program Coordinator Program Assistant Student or Intern

Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsBasic office skills; a ttention t o det ail; ex cellent o ral a nd wr itten communication skills; a bility to juggle multiple tasks; belief in the mission of the organization; willingness to learn

Position Description
Program A ssistants g et a n en try-level in troduction to t he w orld o f no nprofit o rganizations. The y assist higher-ups with everything from clerical tasks to fundraising, research, and writing. They are constantly juggling tasks, such as answering the phones, sending faxes and contacting other organizations. In an age of e-mails and w ebsites, t heyre o ften t he o nes b ehind t he co mputer, updating news and notifying members. Often, indi viduals b ecome P rogram A ssistants because they are drawn to the idealism of the nonprofit sector. Nonprofit organizations allow people to pursue their passio ns, w hether s aving t he w hales o r f eeding the poor. Someone interested in the fields of education, public p olicy, a nd la w, f or in stance, mig ht b ecome a Program Assistant for an educational advocacy group. Someone els e mig ht do o utreach w ork f or a co mmunity-development gr oup. Yet a nother indi vidual wi th an interest in writing might look for a communicationoriented p osition t hat in volves, a mong o ther t hings, preparing the organizations newsletter. Program Assistants who prove themselves on the job o ften are given increased responsibility. Typically, organizations are made up of two parts: Program staff: carry out the mission of the organization Administrative staff: p erform t asks s uch as f undraising a nd p ublic r elations in s upport o f t he o rganization

In o rganizations w hose p rogram p ersonnel ha ve s pecialized education and training in f ields such as s ocial work, environmental science, and law, the administrative route offers the best opportunities. Responsibilities of Program Assistants vary according t o t he needs o f t he pa rticular no nprofit o rganization. A Program Assistant for a professional association might w ork o n logistics f or t he a nnual co nference. Which r ooms a re a vailable? W hat is a p rospective speakers availability? Should members be notified by email or snail mail? Because Program Assistants are usually fairly low on the totem pole, they often clear final decisions with higher-ups in the organization. Typical r esponsibilities o f P rogram A ssistants include Acting as liaison with outside agencies Preparing basic correspondence Tracking and analyzing data Answering phones Maintaining databases Implementing special projects Assisting wi th t he wr iting o f a rticles, gra nts, a nd training materials Providing general administrative support

Salaries
Salaries generally fall into the $24,000 to $34,000 range, according to industry experts. Large organizations generally pay more t han small o nes. Sala ries in no nprofit

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organizations t end t o b e r elatively lo w co mpared t o those in the government and in the private sector.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood b ecause o f t he la rge number of positions. Managers in no nprofits need t he assistance o f en try-level st affers t o k eep t he o rganization running smoothly.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause P rogram Assistants get valuable work experience that helps them move u p wi thin t heir o wn o rganization o r t o a la rger nonprofit. Many individuals also move from nonprofit organizations t o g overnment o r b usiness. Thes e p ositions o ften s erve as tra ining gr ounds f or st affers w ho want to grow with the organization. As one insider put it, They learn what flies and what doesnt. Sometimes, t hough, ad vancement r equires additional s chooling o r o utside exp erience. This is pa rticularly tr ue in s pecialized a reas suc h as in ternational development that require individuals to have advanced degrees.

sionately about a particular issue. Many nonprofit organizations dedica te t hemselves t o p ressing s ocial a nd political issues suc h as t he en vironment, co mmunity development, and civil rights. On the negative side, nonprofit workers tend to earn low s alaries, w ork in cra mped q uarters, a nd end ure high levels of uncertainty, industry sources say. Unlike in t he p rivate s ector, in w hich r esults a re me asured by bottom-line profits, in no nprofit organizations outcomes are less measurable. When t he p ros o utweigh t he co ns, indi viduals can gain valuable exp erience. Program Assistants are always j uggling a va riety o f t asks a nd t herefore need strong o rganizational skills. P ositions g enerally call for basic office skills, w hich include competency with computers. Of ten, t he P rogram A ssistant ac ts as a liaison for the organization, linking the main office to members and outside agencies. Being able to get along well with others is cr ucial. As one insider says, They [Program A ssistants] need t o b uild b ridges b etween people.

Unions/Associations
Program Assistants might belong to the Office and Professional Employees International Union.

Education and Training


Program A ssistant p ositions g enerally r equire a bac helors degr ee. I ndustry sp ecialists s ee ma ny P rogram Assistants wi th lib eral a rts degr ees in ma jors suc h as English, history, or political science. A grad uate degree is particularly helpful for advancement into some upperlevel p ositions. M any co lleges a nd uni versities o ffer graduate level programs in nonprofit management.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Program A ssistant p ositions a re g enerally en try-level but may require some experience in t he nonprofit sector and/or related fields. As does any field, the nonprofit sector has both positives and negatives. Nonprofit work can b e a n ex cellent fit f or s omeone w ho ca res pas-

1. Read b ooks a bout t he no nprofit s ector t o hel p pinpoint your areas of interest as well as skills you would like to develop. Jobs in t his field abound, so it is helpful to know your own goals. 2. Go in willin g t o le arn. This ma y b e y our most important asset on the job. 3. Practice prioritizing. Program Assistants must be able to juggle multiple tasks. 4. Think in terms of lightening someone elses load. Managers hire Program Assistants to make their own lives easier. 5. Volunteer at a nonprofit organization in your area.

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PROGRAM DIRECTOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: I mplementing p rograms; s upervising st aff; managing b udgets; p lanning a nd mo nitoring p rogram activities Alternate T itle(s): P rogram M anager, P rogram C oordinator, Director of Programs Salary Range: $40,000 to $85,000 Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location: Major cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree required; masters degree preferred ExperienceThree to five years

CAREER LADDER
Program Director for Larger Organization Program Director Program Coordinator or Field Organizer

Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsCapacity to make sound decisions, communicate well, and build coalitions; a bility t o ma nage p eople, b udgets, a nd events

Position Description
Program Dir ectors he ad a pa rticular a rea o f a no nprofit o rganization. U nlike ex ecutive dir ectors, w ho are r esponsible f or e verything f rom s atisfying b oard members t o makin g sur e e veryone g ets a pa ycheck, Program Dir ectors f ocus o n o ne sp ecific a rea. S omeone in a n en vironmental o rganization, f or in stance, might b e a P rogram Dir ector in c harge o f s aving t he rain forest. The ex ecutive director, on the other hand, would be in charge of budgets, staff, and issues for the entire organization. Usually P rogram Dir ectors w ork f or o rganizations large enough to justify Directors in addition to a chief executive. P rogram Dir ectors ca rve o ut o ne a rea o f expertise, w hether i t b e p roviding r elief t o B osnia o r providing preventive health care for children and families. Yet within that one area, Program Directors juggle numerous dif ferent t asks. I s t he p rogram meetin g i ts timeline? W hich stra tegies a re most ef fective? H ow can the Internet be used to communicate a pa rticular message? Positions vary according to the needs of a particular organization. S omeone w orking t o s ave t he ra in f orest might spend part of the time ra ising money for the project and the rest doing research in the fields of Central Amer ica. A P rogram Dir ector in volved in s ocial services might visit corporations to get their support in providing jobs to youth, and someone directing a block watch p rogram mig ht w ork a t de veloping le adership within the community. Someone working for legislative

change, in t urn, might research the issue, draft legislation, dr um up grass-roots support, and meet wi th t he media. Common r esponsibilities o f all P rogram Dir ectors include Implementing programs Hiring, training, and supervising staff Monitoring program activities Preparing reports, proposals, and budgets Writing and speaking in public Building coalitions Working closely with the executive director on plans

Whatever the type of organization, Program Directors are forever asking themselves one crucial question: Is t he p rogram acco mplishing i ts g oal, o ften r eferred to as i ts mission? I f, f or exa mple, t he missio n is t o build a better life for children in developing nations, the Program Director should be asking, What have I do ne today to save the children?

Salaries
Salaries generally fall into the $40,000 to $85,000 range and a re co mmensurate wi th exp erience acco rding t o industry exp erts. The a verage s alary f or a P rogram Director is a bout $62,000, acco rding t o a s alary sur vey by t he NonProfit Times. Salaries vary according to the size o f t he o rganization, wi th la rger o rganizations generally paying considerably higher salaries than their

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smaller counterparts. Individuals with extensive experience and/or advanced degrees earn the highest salaries.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir b ecause s ome o rganizations ha ve co nsolidated p ositions. One P rogram Director might oversee two or three different programs. Opportunities a re s omewhat link ed t o p olitical tides. When a pa rticular a rea is t hreatened, o rganizations gear up to address it.

In addi tion t o le ading a s taff, P rogram Dir ectors must als o co mmunicate t he p rograms mess age t o t he outside world. Often, this involves turning complicated data and information into simple and persuasive messages.

Unions and Associations


Many Program Directors belong to associations in their particular field of expertise, whether it be the environment, social work, or international affairs, as well as to organizations such as the Society for Nonprofit Organizations that deal with issues of concern to the nonprofit sector.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause P rogram Directors acq uire skills r eadily tra nsferred t o la rger organizations. The y mig ht ad vance wi thin t heir o rganization, move to another group, or even use their skills to move into the private sector.

Tips for Entry

Education and Training


Often P rogram Dir ectors ha ve a grad uate degr ee in a particular a rea o f exp ertise suc h as s ocial w ork, b usiness, or environmental science. Experience in the field, though, may substitute for a graduate degree.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


By t he time indi viduals b ecome P rogram Dir ectors, they ha ve sho wn a n in terest a nd exp ertise in a pa rticular p rogram a rea. The y need o ne addi tional tra it, however, to be effective Program Directors: strong leadership skills. I nsiders lo ok f or a trac k r ecord o f t eamwork and managerial skill.

1. Take stock of your own interests. Program Directors need t o be dedicated to a pa rticular area of concern. 2. Get t he required exp erience. Program Directors generally st art o ut in lo wer-level p ositions suc h as f ield o rganizer o r p rogram assist ant b efore moving u p to ma nagement-oriented p ositions such as program coordinator or Program Director. 3. Ask yourself whether you have the combination of expertise in a discipline and ability to lead and manage that is required of this position. 4. Browse no nprofit w ebsites s uch as I dealist.org (www.idealist.org) t o r ead jo b ads f or P rogram Director.

NONPROFIT ADVOCACY AND ADMINISTRATION

155

DIRECTOR OF VOLUNTEERS
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: D esigning a nd im plementing v olunteer p rograms; r ecruiting, tra ining, a nd su pervising v olunteers; recognizing the efforts of volunteers Alternate Title(s): Volunteer Coordinator, Recruitment and Recogni tion M anager, C ommunity Ou treach Coordinator; other titles that vary by setting Salary Range: $20,000 to $60,000+ Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): Good Prerequisites: Education o r TrainingVaries b y s etting; co llege degree or higher ExperienceVolunteer experience generally required

CAREER LADDER
Position with Larger Organization or Related Specialty Director of Volunteers Volunteer

Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsEnjoyment of w orking wi th p eople; a bility t o sp eak w ell in groups; energy; flexibility; positive outlook

Position Description
Directors of Volunteers manage a r esource worth million o f do llarsAmericas cadr e o f un paid w orkers. Schedules need t o b e j uggled, logistics co ordinated. Although s ome o rganizations s till a ssign r esponsibilities f or v olunteers t o st affers o n t op o f t heir r egular responsibilities, many are creating specific positions as Director of Volunteers. Individuals may work in a va riety of settings: professional ass ociations, ad vocacy o rganizations, a nd s ocialservice agencies, to name just a f ew. Programs span the gamut. S ome us e volunteers to provide clerical support to pa id st affers; o thers, t o su pplement s ocial s ervices; still others, to advocate for a cause. Someone involved in managing v olunteers f or a designa ted-driver p rogram, for example, might be involved in everything from advertising for volunteers to maintaining the database needed to match volunteer drivers to those needing a ride. Directors of Volunteers do many of the same tasks as personnel officers involved in recruiting and interviewing staff wi th o ne ma jor dif ference: t hey m ust f ind wa ys t o motivate p eople wi thout t he us e o f a pa ycheck. Within the organization itself, they often need to act as in-house educators to dispel notions of volunteers as second best. Directors of Volunteers manage programs from start to finish, in a process that involves a number of steps: Program planning Recruitment

Screening Training Recognition Typically, p rogram p lanning b egins wi th ass essing the o rganizations need f or v olunteers. The Dir ector of Volunteers mig ht design a q uestionnaire o r sur vey to det ermine a reas w here assist ance is needed . W hat tasks need t o b e do ne? S hould v olunteers w ork independently o r assist pa id st aff? H ow ca n p ositions b e designed to appeal to the needs of volunteers? Once t he p rogram has b een est ablished, Dir ectors of Volunteers recruit, screen, and train volunteers. The Director of Volunteers might contact community leaders and design ads a nd flyers for volunteers. Screening might in volve co nducting bac kground c hecks t o p revent inappropriate candidates from having contact with vulnerable individuals. The Director of Volunteers then trains volunteers and supervises them in their progress. Finally, t he Dir ector o f V olunteers r ecognizes t he efforts of volunteers and others within the organization. He o r she mig ht p lan a f ormal r ecognition cer emony, present volunteers with small gif ts as t okens of appreciation, and/or issue awards. In addition, Directors of Volunteers Meet t he needs o f a n incr easingly di verse p ool o f volunteers (e.g., students required to do co mmunity service, court-ordered appointments)

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Keep up-to-date on new technologies such as vir tual volunteering (e.g., offering services such as editing or counseling on-line) Act as liaison between paid and volunteer staff

didates must have the equivalent of three years of fulltime exp erience in v olunteer ma nagement, w hich ca n include both salaried and nonsalaried positions.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits Salaries


Salaries vary widely, depending on the individuals level of exp erience a nd t he size o f t he o rganization. The Director o f Volunteers f or a small o rganization mig ht earn $20,000, co mpared t o $100,000 f or s omeone at a large international organization. Titles vary by setting, as do s alaries. I n t he hiera rchy o f v olunteer administration, a co ordinator o r ma nager mig ht w ork under a Director of Volunteers. According to a r ecent sur vey by the NonProfit Times, the average annual salary for a Director o f Volunteers is a bout $40,000, co mpared t o about $71,000 f or a de velopment director, a t op f undraising position. Many Dir ectors o f Volunteers st art o ut as v olunteers, a role that can help them better understand the people they a re co ordinating. Dir ectors o f Volunteers sho uld enjoy working with p eople and b e good at motivating them. They spend much of their time ac ting as c heerleaders of sorts, offering encouragement in the place of a pa ycheck. Dir ectors o f Volunteers als o w ork c losely with paid staffers, who are sometimes ambivalent about the us e o f v olunteers. A s t he lia ison b etween t he tw o groups, t he Dir ector o f Volunteers sho uld ha ve g ood mediation skills. For example, if work space is tight, the Director of Volunteers might help paid and unpaid staff find ways to share the quarters.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are fair because although this is an emerging profession, some organizations place volunteers rather than paid staff in the position of Director of Volunteers.

Unions and Associations


The A ssociation f or V olunteer A dministration is a n international p rofessional ass ociation f or indi viduals committed to effective leadership of volunteer efforts.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause indi viduals can either advance within volunteer administration or move into related fields such as h uman resources, special e vents w ork, de velopment, a nd p ublic r elations. Positions co ordinating v olunteers ca n b e f ound in all sectors. In the private sector, for example, a large company might have a volunteer program for employees as part of its human resources department.

Education and Training


Requirements f or ed ucation a nd tra ining va ry widel y by s etting. Al though s ome p ositions mig ht r equire a specific degr ee in a f ield suc h as s ocial w ork o r no nprofit m anagement, m any ot hers are m ore i nterested in p ractical exp erience a nd kno wledge o f t he f ield. Some co mmunity co lleges, co lleges a nd uni versities, and grad uate s chools o ffer co urses in no nprofit ma nagement addressing issues of volunteer administration. The Association for Volunteer Administration provides professional cr edentialing le ading t o t he designa tion of C ertified in Volunteer Administration (CVA). C an-

1. Participate in v olunteer p rograms as a s tudent. Options a bound no t o nly f or ha nds-on s ervice such as t utoring, b ut als o f or co ordination o f events in volving o ther v olunteers suc h as b ook drives. Many student organizations are involved in service to the community. 2. Offer t o w ork as a v olunteer o r in tern f or t he Director o f V olunteers o f a n o rganization o f interest to you. 3. Browse the Internet, using the keywords Volunteer Management. Two websites, Energize, Inc. (http:// www.energizeinc.com) a nd t he A ssociation f or Volunteer A dministration (h ttp://www.avaintl. org), provide job listings and other resources. 4. Look into educational opportunities in nonprofit management by checking the website maintained by Seton Hall University (www.shu.edu). 5. Check t he w hite pag es o f y our p hone b ook f or a listin g f or Volunteer C enter, as ma ny ma jor cities ha ve o ne. I f y ours do esnt, call y our lo cal United Way to learn more about organizations in your area of interest.

NONPROFIT ADVOCACY AND ADMINISTRATION

157

COMMUNICATIONS DIRECTOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Dir ecting p ublic r elations f or a n o rganization by o verseeing p rojects suc h as p ress r eleases, b rochures, websites, and newsletters Alternate T itle(s): Pub lic Rela tions Dir ector, Pub lic Information Dir ector, C ommunications a nd M arketing Dir ector, C ommunications C oordinator, Communications Manager Salary Range: $30,000 to $100,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Fair Best Geographical Location(s): Major cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree; masters degree sometimes preferred ExperienceFive years related experience

CAREER LADDER
Communications Director for Larger Organization Communications Director Communications Assistant, Writer, or Reporter

Special Sk ills and P ersonality T raitsExcellent writing, v erbal, a nd in terpersonal skills; media savvy; interest in and commitment to the issues

Position Description
Communications Dir ectors ac t as mo dern-day messengers. The y deli ver a n o rganizations mess age t o its mem bers as w ell as t o t he p ublic a nd t he media. In a n incr easingly co mpetitive a nd t echnologically sophisticated wo rld, t hey m ust wo rk har d to e nsure that t heir mess ages a re no t dr owned o ut b y t he din of others. Communications Dir ectors w ork c losely wi th executive dir ectors, w ho ha ndle t he o verall dir ection of t he group. In ma ny small o rganizations, t he ex ecutive dir ector ac ts as de fac to C ommunications Dir ector, co nveying t he mis sion o f t he o rganization t o t he outside world. In organizations with both positions, the Communications Dir ector g enerally f ocuses o n suc h public relations tasks as p roducing press releases, brochures, a website, newsletters, and other items. Many C ommunications Dir ectors ha ve mo re t han one r esponsibility. C ommunications, o r p ublic r elations, as i t is o ften called , mig ht b e link ed t o a nother specialty suc h as f und-raising, ma rketing, o r g eneral administration, wi th p ositions b earing ti tles suc h as director o f co mmunication a nd ma rketing. C ommunications Dir ectors face s pecial c hallenges, as ma ny people have only a limited understanding of what nonprofit organizations do. Unlike private companies t hat produce a nd s ell p roducts lik e ca rs a nd D VD p layers,

nonprofit o rganizations p eddle s omething mo re difficult to measureprograms. Organizations t hemselves a re s ometimes un sure about how best to communicate their message. Should Communications Dir ectors p romote p rograms f or t he public good in the same way merchants sell their wares, or should they take a more low-key approach? Although good deeds have long been performed with great modesty, nonprofit organizations increasingly are adopting private-sector t echniques t o ra ise p ublic a wareness o f important issues s uch as p overty, ho melessness, a nd acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Sometimes C ommunications Dir ectors a re t orn between the organizations desire to put its best foot forward and the publics need for openness and disclosure. For exa mple, t he organization may b e reluctant t o list the salaries of top executives on its website for fear that the public will t hink the figures too high since c harity has long been associated with great personal sacrifice. Communications Dir ectors a re co nstantly j uggling tasks. The y mig ht g o f rom r eturning calls f rom t he media, hir ing p rinters, a nd assignin g st ories, t o meeting with staff to gather input for the next edition of the newsletter. How are various programs doing? Any noteworthy developments? How can members help? Although o rganizations co mmonly us e t erms familiar o nly t o t hose in t he f ield, C ommunications

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Directors str ive for words and phrases t hat are widely understood. Passages full of acronyms, for instance, can baffle readers. Communications Dir ectors co mmonly p repare brochures a nd o ther p ublications t o g enerate p ublic involvement in t he o rganization. An ad vocacy gr oup, for in stance, mig ht p repare a list o f wa ys indi viduals can get involved (e.g., writing to members of Congress, joining the organization). Other responsibilities of Communications Directors include Developing stra tegy t o enha nce t he visib ility o f t he organization a nd r espond p roactively t o nega tive exposure Organizing and participating in events and briefings Enlisting reporters, editors, and others to cover stories or issues Writing and editing publications Evaluating communication efforts Identifying target audiences and most effective modes of communication (e.g., press releases, public service announcements)

Education and Training


Insiders r ecommend a bac helors degr ee in jo urnalism, En glish, co mmunication o r a r elated dis cipline. A mast ers degr ee in o ne o f t hose a reas ca n hel p wi th advancement.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Communications Directors typically have several years of related experience. Some have worked in journalism and a re kno wledgeable a bout ho w r eporters a nd editors de velop a nd p lace st ories. An indi vidual ma y, f or example, move from a ne wspaper to a no nprofit organization, w here he o r she ga ins im portant exp erience in ho w t o us e co mmunication t echniques t o ad vance social change. Within an organization, a writer or editor or co mmunication assist ant typ ically acq uires exp erience and supervisory skills before moving up to a management position such as Communications Director. Organizations lo ok f or indi viduals wi th a p roven track r ecord in co mmunication. I n addi tion t o b eing able to communicate well verbally and in writing, Communications Directors should have a good visual s ense to gi ve p ublications a hig h-quality lo ok. C ommunications Directors must b e a ble t o wr ite f or a n umber o f different a udiences, inc luding t he p ublic, p rospective funders, and the media.

Salaries
Communications Dir ectors in t he no nprofit s ector generally e arn $30,000 t o $100,000, ind ustry s ources say. Small organizations tend to pay lower salaries than their larger counterparts. The a verage salary for Communications Dir ectors in no nprofit o rganizations is about $60,000, according to Abbott, Langer Association Surveys.

Unions and Associations


Communications Directors might belong to the Public Relations Society of America, the Society for Nonprofit Organizations, or various other organizations.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood b ecause o f t he ra pid growth o f t he no nprofit s ector a nd t he im portance o f communication.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are fair because upward mobility g enerally, al though no t al ways, dep ends o n mo ving f rom a smaller o rganization t o a la rger o ne. N ew openings dep end o n t urnover, w hich ca n b e lo w in organizations wi th dedica ted C ommunications Dir ectors. A new job also might entail a move to another city. Sometimes a Communication Director moves up to the post of executive director.

1. Get as much writing experience as possible, starting with school publications. Organizations often ask for writing samples when hiring a C ommunications Director. 2. Volunteer f or a n o rganization in y our f ield o f interest. 3. Check dir ectories o f no nprofit o rganizations in public libraries and career centers. 4. Browse t he w eb, usin g k eywords (e .g., environment, human rights) in line with your own issues of co ncern t o le ad y ou t o w ebsites, a n incr easingly im portant r esponsibility o f C ommunications Directors.

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FUND-RAISER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Coordinating fund-raising drives (e.g., locating new do nors, enco uraging existin g do nors t o gi ve more) a nd r elated p ublic r elations a nd ma rketing activities Alternate T itle(s): Development Of ficer, Dir ector o f Development, Campaign Director, Large Gift Director, Director of Planned Giving, Event Coordinator, Grant Writer, Director of Mailing a nd Direct Marketing, Canvassing Supervisor Salary Range: $35,000 to $90,000 Employment Prospects: Excellent Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best G eographical L ocation(s) f or P osition: Metropolitan areas Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingBachelors degr ee required; mast ers s ometimes p referred f or u pperlevel positions

CAREER LADDER
Development Director Fund-raiser Related Career (e.g., business, public relations, education) or Volunteer

ExperienceTwo to four years Special Sk ills a nd P ersonality T raitstenacity, dedication, a bility t o ha ndle r ejection, co nfidence, good writing and research skills, attention to detail, and belief in the cause

Position Description
Fund-raisers ca n b e lif esavers f or no nprofit o rganizations. Without funding, nonprofit organizations would be hard pressed to feed t he hungry, advocate for t heir causes, and perform countless other good works. Competition for t he t ax-deductible dollar has spa wned t he need f or incr eased s ophistication in a n ind ustry t hat has its own terminology. Contributors are donors, the money they contribute is a gift. Contrary t o w hat s ome p eople mig ht t hink, gra nts from f oundations a nd g overnment ag encies mak e u p only a small sha re of t he philanthropic pie. By far t he largest percentageapproximately 75.6 percentcomes from private indi viduals, according t o t he Association of Fundraising Professionals. In small nonprofits, Fund-raisers generally combine a va riety o f f und-raising stra tegies, w hereas in la rger nonprofits they are more apt to specialize. Fund-raisers raise money in five basic ways: Asking for large gifts from individual donors S oliciting bequests Hosting special events Applying for grants Launching phone, letter, or canvassing appeals

A large organization might have a large-gift director who looks for big money; a director of planned giving who specializes in hel ping people make charitable endo wments a nd b equests; a n e vent co ordinator who plans and executes the organizations annual benefit a nd o ther ma jor e vents; a gra nt wr iter w ho seeks money from foundations and government agencies; a nd a dir ector o f ma iling a nd dir ect ma rketing who sends letters and makes phone calls t o potential donors. I n addi tion, ma ny grassr oots o rganizations canvass do or-to-door, wi th t he su pervisor p erforming a r ole simila r t o t he F und-raiser in c harge o f volunteers. Organizations g enerally w ork f rom o ne e vent o r campaign to the next. Event coordinators, for instance, organize fund-raising functions such as celebrity galas, black-tie dinner s, wal kathons, c harity b owling t ournaments, a nd o ther s ocial ga therings t o ra ise mo ney for an organization. In the process, they manage every detail of the event, from the invitations and speeches to the refreshments and seating. Grant wr iters, in t urn, wr ite p roposals des cribing why t he organization t hey work for needs mo ney and exactly ho w i t w ould b e sp ent. The y s earch da tabases of foundations and government grant-making agencies

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to find organizations that fund the nonprofits areas of concern. In small organizations, fund-raisers generally juggle a n umber o f r esponsibilitiesannual dr ives, ca pital campaigns, and special events, among themcarefully planning e ach ca mpaign o r p roject. Exp erts no te t hat fund-raisers are allowed few shortcuts. Hours of painstaking research and planning go into each solicitation. How can the organization find new donors? How can it encourage existing donors to be more generous? Fund-raisers set dollar goals and timetables, prepare feasibility st udies, tra in w orkers a nd v olunteers, a nd organize e vents t o kic k o ff t heir ca mpaigns. E veryone needs to be committed, enthusiastic, and ready to go. Organizations g enerally w ork f rom t he in side o ut, soliciting board members and other reliable sources of support before moving on to other donors. If, for example, t he o rganization p rovides ed ucational p rograms for children, the Fund-raiser might solicit parents. Past donors, t oo, are likely s ources of contributions. In t he process o f ra ising mo ney, F und-raisers o ften em bark on various public relations and marketing projectsTshirts bearing the groups logo, for exampleto get the organization in the public eye.

Colleges a nd uni versities t hroughout t he U nited States o ffer co urses de aling wi th f und-raising a nd other financial matters. Some universities offer on-line courses. I ndiana U niversity has i ts o wn f und-raising school, which offers a cer tificate program with credits applicable to a mast er of arts in p hilanthropic studies or a master of public affairs in nonprofit management. Other universities offer courses in no nprofit management that deal with topics such as fund-raising. At t he grad uate le vel, 86 p rograms in t he U nited States offer a co ncentration (three or more courses) in nonprofit management, according to a recent study supported by the Kellogg Foundation. Often these courses are pa rt o f a p rogram le ading t o a mast ers degr ee in public administration. Many co ntinuing ed ucation p rograms, t oo, o ffer courses in f und-raising a nd r elated sub jects. P rofessional ass ociations suc h as t he A ssociation o f F undraising P rofessionals p rovide no t o nly c lasses b ut als o certification programs for Fund-raisers.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Fund-raisers co mmonly ha ve bac kgrounds in suc h fields as marketing, business, or education. Many individuals b ecome F und-raisers f or no nprofit o rganizations because they want to make a difference. Asking p eople for money, however, is no e asy task. In addi tion t o s ex, p olitics, a nd r eligion, mo ney is a contentious subject. People are taught not to discuss it. The mere mention of money is co nsidered r ude. As a result, Fund-raisers are often viewed with suspicion. Successful F und-raisers, t hough, b elieve deep ly enough in what they are doing to challenge social conventions r egarding t he dis cussion o f mo ney. The y s ee themselves not as b eggars but as dedica ted professionals. I nstead o f takin g r ejection per sonally, th ey k eep moving ahead, inspiring others to want to help.

Salaries
Salaries vary by the size and type of organization, ranging f rom $35,000 t o $90,000. S mall grassr oots gr oups pay lower salaries than large, established organizations. The average salary for a charitable Fund-raiser is about $67,000, acco rding t o t he A ssociation o f F undraising Professionals.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re ex cellent b ecause t he demand for Fund-raisers exceeds the supply. Opportunities for Fund-raisers abound.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a bound b ecause F und-raisers can easily move from small t o larger organizations or c limb t he hiera rchy wi thin t heir o wn o rganization. Many successful Fund-raisers advance to become directors of development or vice presidents.

Unions and Associations


The Association of Fundraising Professionals is a p rofessional organization of nonprofit Fund-raisers. Other organizations inc lude t he A ssociation f or H ealthcare Philanthropy and the National Committee on Planned Giving.

Education and Training


An explosion of workshops, seminars, and undergraduate a nd grad uate p rograms has cr eated ne w o pportunities f or le arning a bout f und-raising. Al though Fund-raisers s till lea rn inf ormally f rom m entors o n the job , t hey als o ca n t ake ad vantage o f mo re f ormal programs.

Tips for Entry


1. Get y our f oot in t he do or b y v olunteering o r interning f or a no nprofit. J oin a f und-raising committee or help plan a special event. 2. Ask a bout co urses in no nprofit st udies a t y our local college or university.

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3. Look into on-line courses in fund-raising offered by uni versities suc h as C ase W estern Res erve University, G eorge M ason U niversity, a nd t he Indiana University C enter on Philanthropy. For more information, visit t he educational opportunities section of the Association of Fundraising Professionals website (www.afpnet.org). 4. Consult trade publications such as the The Chronicle o f Ph ilanthropy (h ttp://www.philanthropy.

com), NonProfit Times (www.nptimes.com), and Grassroots F undraising J ournal ( www.chardonpress.com) for listings of fund-raising workshops and employment opportunities. 5. Be prepared to learn on the job. Very few individuals enter the field with the perfect set of skills. Many indi viduals le arn f rom a de velopment director who acts as a mentor.

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PROGRAM OFFICER, FOUNDATION


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: I nvestigating a nd e valuating gra nt p roposals and/or implementing in-house projects Alternate Title(s): Program Associate Salary Range: $40,000 to $100,000+ Employment Prospects: Poor Advancement Prospects: Fair Best G eographical L ocation(s): M ajor ci ties (wi th some exceptions) Prerequisites: Education or TrainingMasters degree preferred, usually in the foundations field of interest ExperienceOne t o 10 y ears in t he f oundations area of interest

CAREER LADDER
Associate Director, Foundation Program Officer, Foundation Nonprofit Activist or Administrator

Special S kills and P ersonality TraitsStrong o ral and wr itten co mmunication skills; cr itical t hinking and good judgment; interest in program area(s) funded by foundation

Position Description
Program Of ficers hel p p hilanthropic f oundations decide w hich o rganizations a nd/or indi viduals sho uld receive grants. Unlike many of their p eers in t he nonprofit world who are struggling to raise funds, foundations a re in t he en viable p osition o f ha ving mo ney t o give away. Philanthropic foundations serve as societys research and development armproviding funds for education, public he alth, t he a rts, s ocial s ervices, a nd n umerous other program areas. In t he competitive world of philanthropy, foundations receive many more requests for funding than they can possibly meet. Program Of ficers sif t t hrough t he p roposals t o decide, first of all, which fall within the general scope of the foundation. A foundation that deals primarily with the environment, for example, probably would reject a request f or a rts f unding. The P rogram Of ficer w ould then notify the grant seeker that the proposal had been denied. If, ho wever, t he p roposal f its wi thin t he pa rameters o f t he f oundation, t he P rogram Of ficer a nalyzes it further. The P rogram Officer might determine what percentage o f t he gra nt w ould b e s pent o n costs suc h as eq uipment, st aff, a nd b uilding co nstruction. W ho would b enefit f rom t he gra nt? D oes t he gra nt s eeker have the expertise needed for the project? Take t he h ypothetical exa mple o f a p roposal f rom a hosp ital f or a ne w da y ca re cen ter. The P rogram Officer would find out whom the new day care center

would benefit: families of patients or the hospitals own employees? The foundation might give a higher priority to families of patients, deciding t hat t he hospital itself could fund day care for its own employees. Next, the Program Officer would rank the proposal against o thers t hat addr ess t he s ame g eneral t opic. I n the cas e o f t he hosp ital p roposal, t he P rogram Of ficer mig ht need t o compare it t o a p lan by a n existin g day ca re center f or a ne w p layground. W hich is mo re important f or t he f oundation t o f und? Then t he P rogram Officer would rank all of the proposals that are up for that funding cycle, which could be annual, quarterly, or based on another period. The Program Officer might then present his o r her findings at a p reliminary meeting w here others in t he foundation co uld ra ise q uestions o f co ncern. W hy is the hospital asking for $100,000 when a similar project funded last year cost only $50,000? What is the reputation o f t he ag ency a ffiliated wi th t he da y ca re cen ter? Would each plan be financially feasible? To f ollow u p, t he P rogram Of ficer mig ht s chedule si te visi ts. H e o r she mig ht in terview indi viduals involved wi th t he p roposals, t our t he si tes, a nd mo re thoroughly research the grant seekers. Has the foundation ever funded other projects undertaken by either of these organizations? If so, what were the results? Finally, the Program Officer would write summaries of t he co mpeting p roposals f or a p resentation b efore the foundations chief executive officer and/or board of directors. The decisio n mak ers w ould mak e t he f inal

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determinations. The Program Officer would then notify each of the grant seekers of the results. As P rogram Of ficers ga in exp erience, t hey mig ht be gi ven addi tional decisio n-making r esponsibilities. A f oundation mig ht allo w exp erienced P rogram Of ficers not only to analyze incoming proposals but also to develop their own projects. A Program Officer might see a need for a particular type of research, for example. The Program Officer would then write a proposal and work with an organization involved in that line of research. Program Officers in foundations might also Analyze conditions and trends in the program area Work with research teams to measure the programs effectiveness and impact in the field Conduct grant workshops Track grants and progress reports

look f or s omeone wi th a bac kground in s ocial w ork, whereas one involved in t he environment might prefer someone with a degree in ecology. An advanced degree in a pa rticular discipline might substitute for a cer tain number of years of work experience in the field.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits

Salaries
Salaries are linked to the size of the foundation, with large organizations generally paying the highest salaries. Many Program Officers in f oundations earn in t he $60,000 t o $80,000 range, according to industry sources.

Often indi viduals have w orked in o ne of t he program areas funded by the foundation. For instance, the executive director of a s ocial-service agency might become interested in w orking f or t he f oundation t hat f unded one of its projects. Program Officers must be able to communicate well verbally a nd in wri ting. Th ey o ften wri te s ummaries and give oral presentations. Good analytical skills and a sense of fairness are important. Although w orking f or a gra nt-giving o rganization might s eem str ess-free co mpared t o do ing t he usual fund-raising of the nonprofit world, foundation workers face a s pecial kind o f p ressure: al ways b eing ask ed f or money. Foundations receive many more proposals than they can approve. Insiders say that Program Officers run the risk of succumbing to arrogance and cynicism unless they have the ability to empathize with grant seekers.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re p oor b ecause o f t he desir ability of this position versus the relatively small n umber o f jobs. C ompetition is stif f b ecause ma ny p eople see foundation work as a way to make a difference without having to raise money. According to the Council on Foundations, one job ad might attract 300 applicants. A few large foundations, including the Ford and Kellogg Foundations, provide the majority of jobs in t he foundation world. A small f oundation might use part-time Program Officers.

Unions and Associations

The C ouncil o n F oundations is a p rofessional ass ociation of grant-making organizations. Foundation professionals als o co me t ogether t hrough a ffinity gr oups representing a variety of different issues and population groups. Exa mples list ed o n t he C ouncil o n F oundations website include the Association of Black Foundation Ex ecutives, Dis ability F unders N etwork, F unders for Lesbian and Gay Issues, and Grantmaker Forum on Community and National Service.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re fa ir b ecause most f oundations ha ve o nly a small n umber o f p ositions a bove the level of Program Officer. To advance, an individual might need to move to another foundation. A very large foundation, ho wever, mig ht ha ve a co uple o f tier s o f Program Officers. Some Program Officers leave philanthropic foundations to pursue other interests. For example, an individual might leave a foundation to run a nonprofit agency or go into private consulting.

Tips for Entry

Education and Training


Foundations g enerally lo ok f or exp ertise in w hatever program a reas t he f oundation s erves. A f oundation involved in s ocial-service projects, for example, mig ht

1. Look into internships with foundations as a wa y to get a foot in the door. 2. Find a f ield of interest about which you are passionate. Foundation workers typically have work experience and/or education in a pa rticular area such as p ublic he alth, t he en vironment, s ocial services, or the arts. 3. Browse t he w ebsite o f t he C ouncil o n F oundations (h ttp://www.cof.org) f or job p ostings a nd information about affinity groups. 4. Check your school or local library for The Foundation Directory by the Foundation Center staff. Also b rowse t he F oundation C enters w ebsite (http://www.foundationcenter.org) t o vie w listings o f f oundations b y p rogram a rea a nd g eographical location.

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WEBMASTER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: M aintain a nd u pdate existin g si te, wr ite a nd edit website content, respond to inquiries from constituencies, iden tify o pportunities f or im proving website effectiveness and efficiency, monitor website usage statistics Alternate Title(s): Communications/Technology Associate, Web P roduction S pecialist, Technology S pecialist, Online A dvocacy C oordinator, IT M anager, Web-Based Organizer Salary Range: $35,000 to $80,000 Employment Prospects: Good to Excellent Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best Geographical Location(s): Growing cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree; knowledge of HTML, computer software, Web design

CAREER LADDER
Chief Technology Officer, Consultant Webmaster Communications Assistant

ExperienceThree to five years Special Skills and Personality TraitsStrong technical skills a nd in terest in t echnology, a bility t o learn quickly, willingness to work as part of a team, writing skills, c uriosity, interest in cr eative us es o f multimedia

Position Description
Webmasters spin words and pictures into online messages designed t o capture public interest in t heir organizations. With the Internet an integral part of everyday life, Webmasters help nonprofits attract new members, raise m uch-needed f unds, a nd b uild im portant coalitions with a click of a mouse. Often, in small o rganizations, t he Webmaster has a job title that reflects a range of responsibilities above and beyond connecting to the Internet. The Webmaster might also b e r esponsible f or t he o rganizations mem bership, communications, marketing, and/or fund-raising efforts. Not surprisingly, many learn the technical skills they need on the job and so call themselves accidental techies. Many small organizations use a central applicationservice p rovider o r hir e a f reelancer t o r edesign t heir website, t hus minimizin g t heir in-ho use needs. A s a result, t he in-ho use Webmaster is typ ically a co mmunications st affer w ho ga thers u p all t he inf ormation needed f or t he w ebsite. The o utside s ervice p rovider or consultant does the actual programming for the site, conferring wi th t he Webmaster a bout o ptions suc h as computer animation and audio streaming. In the world of activism, Webmasters write and edit action alerts and other online advocacy and education materials, w orking wi th t he o rganizations ma rketing and program directors to choose the right design, text,

images, and videos for the website. Some websites such as CampusActivism.org help like-minded groups share common r esources. A ne w gr oup mig ht us e t o si te t o list a n e vent o n t he calenda r, s earch t he da tabase f or guest speakers, and start a newswire. In a la rge no nprofit o rganization, t he W ebmaster tends to be more of a specialist. Such a person would be designing new Web pages and interactive media such as slideshows, maps, and video clips. As a w hole, Webmasters sp end much of t heir time on site maintenance, updating, and improvement. They make si tes w ork fast er b y r educing t he size o f f iles s o theyre q uicker t o do wnload. I n a w ell-conceived si te, graphics a re p leasing a nd dr op-down men us e asy t o navigate. Increasingly, websites provide interactive features t hat ena ble visi tors t o r egister f or e vents, pa rticipate in sur veys, sign u p for e-mail, submit articles, and/or donate funds online. In the course of a day, the Webmaster might upload a ne w issue o f t he magazine , v erify us ernames/passwords, a pprove job listin gs, c heck t hat k eywords a re showing up in s earch engines, and send out e-mails. Is a link b roken? D oes s omeone need hel p downloading a p df f ile? Was s omeone una ble t o log o n? I f s o, t he Webmaster tries to fix the problem. The individual also monitors w ebsite us age st atistics a nd p rovides r egular reports.

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Salaries
Salaries for f ull-time Webmasters in no nprofit organizations range from about $35,000 to $60,000. According to the NonProfit Times, the average salary for Webmasters is about $55,000. Some organizations hire part-time Webmasters and/or use freelance Web designers.

their w ork gra phically p leasing o nline. A bac kground in marketing and fund-raising, too, can be helpful since many small no nprofit organizations assign a va riety of responsibilities to their Webmasters. Internet technologies are constantly changing, so Webmasters should be willing to keep learning on their own.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good to excellent. In general, the prospects are excellent, as the Bureau of Labor Statistics expects prospects for Webmasters to grow much faster t han a verage f or all o ccupations t hrough 2014. However, in s ome lo cations, s uch as co llege t owns, employment prospects are good, rather than excellent, because o f t he la rge n umber o f Web-savvy job ca ndidates.

Experience, Skill, and Personality Traits


Individuals in terested in W ebmaster jobs sho uld ha ve a general understanding of t he Internet and computer technologies. P ositions co mmonly r equire exp erience with HT ML a nd Dr eamweaver as w ell as fa miliarity with co mputer la nguages s uch as J avaScript. M any Webmaster p ositions als o r equire g ood wr iting, o rganizing, a nd f und-raising skills. An et hical a nd mo ral approach is im portant b ecause Webmasters de al wi th privacy issues suc h as cr edit-card do nations. F inally, an ability to multitask is im portant to s uccess in t heir field.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are excellent because organizations are increasingly using ne w t echnologies t o communicate wi th t heir co nstituents. W ebmasters o ften come in to co ntact wi th s enior-level decisio n-makers who turn to t hem for advice. In addition, many Webmasters de velop t heir o wn W eb design b usinesses, sometimes becoming full-time consultants.

Unions and Associations


Webmasters mig ht b elong t o a va riety o f ass ociations, including t he I nternational W ebmasters A ssociation, the HT ML Writers G uild, a nd NTEN (t he N onprofit Technology Network).

Education and Training


Webmasters come f rom a va riety of educational backgrounds. S ome a re la rgely s elf-taught. Ot hers mig ht have t aken s ome co mputer o r w eb design co urses in a tw o-year o r f our-year co llege. I ncreasingly co lleges and uni versities a re o ffering co urses in w eb t echnologies t hrough t heir co mmunications as w ell as t heir computer science departments. In addition, many organizations and schools offer special classes and/or certification programs. Because the Internet generally falls under t he organizations co mmunications depa rtment, W ebmasters should b e g ood wr iters w ho ha ve a n e ye f or makin g

Tips for Entry

1. Design your own website and You-Tube video as samples of your work. 2. Learn video a nd digi tal p hotography t echnologies. 3. Take courses in communications, marketing, and computer graphics. 4. Teach y ourself ne w co mputer skills b y r eading books and online tutorials. 5. Check out the educational opportunities and job listings o f NTEN, a no nprofit t echnology co mmunity, at http://www.nten.org.

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FOUNDER, NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Ar ticulating t he p urpose o f t he o rganization; r ecruiting su pporters; f ormulating o perating expenses; filing for tax-exempt status Alternate Title(s): President, Social Entrepreneur Salary Range: $0 to $120,000 Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Fair Best Geographical Location: Nationwide Prerequisites: Education or TrainingVaries ExperienceHelpful but not required Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsPassionate; socially savvy; proficient in communication skills

CAREER LADDER
Executive Director Founder Previous Career (e.g., teacher, social worker, student)

Position Description
Founders o f st art-up o rganizations a re t he en trepreneurs o f t he no nprofit w orld. S ome call t hemselves social entrepreneurs, eschewing words like charity and philanthropy f or p rivate-sector t erms suc h as resultsdriven management and quarterly goals. They know that good in tentions, alo ne, a re no t eno ugh t o gua rantee success in the competitive world of the 21st century. Young ide alists a re t urning t o no nprofits in m uch the way their parents flocked to government programs like t he P eace C orps in t he 1960s. N ew co mmunity service programs have sprouted up around the nation, introducing hig h s chool a nd co llege st udents t o t he nonprofit s ector. S ome grad uates o f t hese p rograms have decided t o cr eate t heir o wn no nprofit o rganizations. An indi vidual who tutored in co llege, for example, might found an organization to boost the academic skills of inner-city children. Others become Founders after scoring big profits in the private sector and deciding they want to give something back. Still others draw on their professional backgrounds, lifelong interests, or personal experiences with disease, tra uma, o r s ome o ther lif e-altering si tuation. A small , lo cal gr oup mig ht ca tapult in to t he na tional spotlight if i t hits j ust t he r ight p ublic ner ve. Mothers against Dr unk Dr iving, f or exa mple, q uickly b ecame successful, as did the United Way and the Make-a-Wish Foundation.

Although no o ne ca n p redict exac tly ho w w ell a n idea will ca tch o n, ca reful p lanning a nd r esearch ca n help p rospective F ounders decide w hether o r no t t o take t he p lunge. Res ources f or p rospective F ounders abound, including websites, books, and start-up manuals. A s a f irst st ep, in siders s ay, F ounders sho uld t urn their ide a into a s tatement of purpose or mission by asking a n umber o f q uestions: W hat s ervice will t he nonprofit provide? Is it needed? How many people will use i t? F rom t his st atement o f p urpose, t he F ounder can move on to a business plan. What kind of operating expenses are needed? How big a staff? How much time and money will be spent on lobbying? Founders typically delegate some of their responsibilities to a planning committee and/or board of directors. S ometimes, a fter r esearching t he o rganizational landscape, t he gr oup decides no t t o mo ve f orward. I f, however, t he Founders original ide a gains acceptance, the next st ep is t o es tablish a str ucture. Organizations usually c hoose r epresentativestypically a b oard o f directorsto mak e decisio ns f or t he gr oup. Once t he structure is c hosen, t he group can wr ite its bylaws (in keeping with the specific requirements of the secretary of states office). An o rganization need no t inco rporatea gr oup o f friends can form a self-help group and call themselves a nonprofitbut, if the organization remains an informal group, t he Founder assumes f inancial liability and t he

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group lac ks certain p rivileges. Or ganizations r egister for inco rporation wi th t he st ates s ecretary o f st ate o r secretary of commerce. Next is filing for tax-exempt status. People commonly refer t o no nprofits as (c)(3) s o r (c)(4)s, a bbreviations used b y t he I nternal Re venue S ervice. The dif ference between t hem is t he a mount o f lob bying t hey ca n do . Both a re t ax-exempt o rganizations (t hey need no t pa y corporate income taxes on their money), but only (c)(3) organizations can offer donors a tax deduction. In return, (c)(3)s m ust limi t t he a mount o f lobb ying t hey do . A (c)(4) organization can make lobbying its primary activity but loses the opportunity to offer donors a tax break. Once t he pa perwork is do ne, t he F ounder ca n celebrate t he b irth o f a ne w no nprofit o rganization. The ha rdest pa rt o f t he job , ho wever, is k eeping t he organization ali ve. Of ten t he F ounder als o b ecomes the o rganizations ex ecutive dir ector. H e o r she r uns the organization, chairing meetings, s etting goals, and motivating o thers t o ac hieve t hem. Running a n o rganization ca n b e v ery dif ferent f rom founding i t. S ome high-profile Founders have b een f ired by the b oard of directors. Once a Founder has established an organization, it can live on without him or her to lead it.

Education and Training


Education a nd tra ining va ry widel y b ecause, in t his field, p ersonal exp erience ca n co unt f or mo re t han a degree. Someone might, for example, draw on experiences as a w elfare r ecipient t o t each s elf-sufficiency skills. A medical do ctor, o n t he o ther ha nd, mig ht build o n y ears o f f ormal ed ucation a nd tra ining t o start an organization providing health-related services overseas.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Founders draw on a variety of experiences, both formal and informal. Someone whose child suffers from a particular disease might found a nonprofit organization to help other parents cope with the problem. An art lover might s tart a small m useum e ven t hough he o r she has no f ormal exp erience in t he f ield. Of ten, t hough, Founders do have a bac kground in t heir organizations area of exp ertise. For example, a gr oup of human s ervice workers might leave their old employer because of philosophical differences and form their own nonprofit organization. Although ma ny p eople s ee F ounders as r isk t akers, in siders disp ute t his no tion, s aying t hat success depends la rgely o n ca reful p lanning t o minimize r isk. Founders need t o go out and sell their ideas. Excellent communication skills are a must.

Salaries
Often it takes more than a y ear for the Founder to start earning a salary. Money needs to be put into the organization before it can be taken out. Start-up expenses include filing costs, o ffice exp enses, and often legal f ees exceeding $500. I f a no nprofit generates an income of less t han $25,000, it need not file with the Internal Revenue Service. In these cases, the Founder may receive only token pay.

Unions and Associations


Founders mig ht b elong t o t he S ociety f or N onprofit Organizations o r o ther o rganizations t hat p rovide resources to nonprofits. The National Council of Nonprofit Associations is a network of 39 state and regional associations of nonprofit organizations.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are fair. Some 29,000 ne w nonprofits are st arted e very year, according to t he S ociety for N onprofit Or ganizations. B ecause t he n umber o f nonprofits has doubled in the past few decades, organizations face s tiff competition. No longer is a no nprofit likely to be the only game in town. Industry s ources s ometimes ad vise p rospective Founders t o co llaborate wi th existin g o rganizations rather t han to str ike out on t heir own. For example, a group o rganized t o hel p middle-c lass dis aster vic tims might pa rtner wi th a lo cal c hapter o f t he Red Cr oss, with the latter acting as a financial sponsor.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are fair because many nonprofits lim p alo ng f or y ears b ecause t hey lac k t he skills, talent, and resources to flourish, industry sources say.

1. Ask y ourself w hether y ou a re mo tivated b y t he right r easons. I ndustry s ources ad vise aga inst forming a nonprofit organization to address personal p roblems suc h as w orkplace unha ppiness or general malaise. 2. See whether your state has an association of nonprofit o rganizations. One p lace t o lo ok is t he website o f t he N ational C ouncil o f N onprofit Associations (http://www.ncna.org). 3. Read a bout st arting a no nprofit o rganization. Check o ut lib rary b ooks. S can t he W eb f or sites (e .g., h ttp://www.helping.org) t hat p rovide numerous links. 4. Check state regulations by contacting the offices of the attorney general and the secretary of state.

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EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: L ead o rganization; e valuate p rograms; ra ise funds; work with board of directors; build alliances; act as chief spokesperson of the organization Alternate Title(s): President Salary Range: $45,000 to $200,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location: Major cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingGraduate degree or special training in nonprofit management preferred ExperienceFive years of related experience Special Skills and Personality TraitsCommitted; persuasive; diplomatic; p olitically s avvy; organized; flexible; resilient; visionary

CAREER LADDER
Executive Director of Larger Organization or Consultant Executive Director Management-Level Position or Founder of Organization

Position Description
Executive Directors are the nonprofit sectors equivalent of corporate executive officers. As the person at the top, the Ex ecutive Dir ector s ets t he t one f or t he o rganization, serving as chief advocate and administrator. Individuals assume r esponsibility f or no t o nly lo ng-term planning b ut als o da y-to-day o perationseverything from pa yroll t o p rogram e valuation. M ost im portant, they co mmunicate t he o rganizations mess age t o t he outside world. Whether a n o rganization is f ighting f or h uman rights, lobbying for government reform, or working to improve t he co mmunity, t he Ex ecutive Dir ector m ust communicate its mission to the public. Certain words crop u p r epeatedly in t alk a bout successf ul Ex ecutive Directors, passion, vision, and leadership, among them. The Executive Director serves as t he driving force, the figurehead, and the voice of the organization. He or she ac ts as t he point person for the organization, ha ndling p roblems a nd co mplaints. Of ten different gr oups ha ve dif ferent needs. T ake, f or exa mple, the va rious f unding p riorities o f t he f ollowing t hree groups: Board of Directorscut costs Staffraise salaries Publicbeef up programs

Forging a consensus is no easy task. Since the board of dir ectors (made u p o f v olunteers) usuall y has t he power to hire and fire the Executive Director, the relationship between the two can make or break a career. Executive Dir ectors sp end t heir da ys makin g difficult decisio ns. Ar e p rograms r unning smo othly? What kind of resources are necessary for improvement? Should the organization take a firm stand or be willing to compromise? For years, Executive Directors kept quiet about the difficulties of their jobs. Few wanted to risk being seen as incompetent. But, as w ord of the difficulties spread, attention shifted from the shortcomings of individuals to the difficulties of the position itself. Management consultants b ecame involved, offering ne w help for Executive Directors in the form of books, articles, and workshops such as the Management Centers aptly titled Executive Di r ector 101. Advice givers encourage Executive Directors to find ways to lighten their loads. N ew strategies include delegating responsibility for internal matters to an associate director and working out barter-type arrangements with other organizations. For instance, the Executive Director of a small organization might arrange for a larger group to do its payroll in return for certain services. A typ ical da y f or a n Ex ecutive Dir ector mig ht include

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Touching base with key personnel Strategizing with the Board of Directors Reviewing reports and data to improve programs Attending meetings in the community Participating in alliances with other organizations Raising money and overseeing finances

sional o rganizations a nd uni versities, inc luding H arvard U niversitys JFK S chool o f G overnment, t he Indiana University C enter on Philanthropy, and Syracuse Universitys Maxwell School. In some fields, such as s ocial w ork, a sp ecialized grad uate degr ee ma y b e required.

Salaries
Salaries ra nge widel y, dep ending p rimarily o n t he typ e of o rganization, acco rding t o t he S ociety f or N onprofit Organizations. An Ex ecutive Dir ector f or a small co mmunity-based no nprofit mig ht e arn $45,000 t o $60,000 compared t o $60,000 t o $120,000 f or a midsized gr oup and $90,000 to $200,000 for a large national organization.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Most E xecutive Dir ectors ha ve p revious ma nagement experience, but, even so, this position can be daunting because o f t he m ultitude o f r esponsibilities. Ex ecutive Directors m ust list en t o t he needs a nd wa nts o f st aff, board mem bers, a nd t he p ublic, ul timately decidin g what is b est f or t he o rganization. A s o ne in sider s ays, There are quite a number of balls to juggle. Outside f orces ca n add t o t he p ressure. A s tr ends change, a gr oup t hat was t he nonprofit s ectors flavor of the year may lose its appeal. Funds may dry up as a result, p osing ne w challenges for t he Executive Director. Many Executive Directors work long hours because they b elieve deep ly in t he mis sion o f t heir o rganizations. They must possess stamina and patience.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good because of the variety of no nprofit o rganizations. T urnover a t t he t op, t oo, makes f or o penings. I nsiders em phasize t hat p rospective Executive Directors should know what theyre getting into. Executive Directors may spend much of their time fund-raising to enable the organization to survive.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause Ex ecutive Directors can either grow with the job, move to a larger organization, or branch off in other directions. According t o t he st udy Leadership L ost b y C ompassPoint Nonprofit S ervices o f Sa n Francisco, C alifornia, ma ny individuals decide aga inst t aking a nother p osition as Executive Dir ector b ecause o f t he lo ng ho urs, o ften 80 hours a w eek or more, and high stress levels. Some Executive Directors go into consulting or other endeavors in the private sector.

Unions and Associations


Executive Directors belong to a variety of organizations, including the Society for Nonprofit Organizations, the American S ociety o f A ssociation Ex ecutives, a nd t he Alliance for Nonprofit Management.

Tips for Entry

Education and Training


Education and training have become especially important b ecause o f t he incr easingly co mplex a nd co mpetitive na ture o f t he no nprofit s ector. P rograms in nonprofit ma nagement a re o ffered t hrough p rofes-

1. Volunteer f or a n o rganization t hat de als wi th your own areas of interest. 2. Become a member of the board of directors. 3. Read p rofessional jo urnals suc h as Nonprofit World and Nonprofit Times. 4. Look in to ed ucational p rograms in no nprofit management. 5. Take a p rofessional a pproach. Wanting to do good is not enough. Individuals must also know how to do so.

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PUBLIC INTEREST

CANVASSER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: G oing do or-to-door t o co nduct mem bership drives and educate citizens about issues o f concern to the organization Alternate Title(s): Activist Salary Range: $18,000 to $25,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): Major cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingTraining provided ExperiencePrior community experience a plus

CAREER LADDER
Director of Canvassing Canvasser Student

Special S kills a nd P ersonality T raitsOutgoing; p ersonable and optimistic; interested in issues; enthusiastic about making a difference

Position Description
Canvassers get a val uable foot in t he door of activism. This entry-level position generally involves going doorto-door to raise funds for an organization and educate citizens a bout issues o f co ncern. The Pub lic I nterest Research G roup (PIR G) a nd Cle an Water A ction us e canvassers extensively, as do o ther groups, both locally and na tionally bas ed. C anvassing ca n b e do ne o n t he phone as well as in person. Those who canvass door-to-door generally work in the late afternoon and early evening hours, when most people are home for dinner. They typically visit between 30 and 100 homes a night, depending on how far apart the buildings are spaced. Canvassers might have a petition to sign or postcards for citizens to send to lawmakers. They provide ways for citizens to get involved. Canvassers often work in teams headed up by supervisors. A talented Canvasser might be in charge of mapping out an area and supervising others. Because people may b e unfamiliar with t he t erm Canvasser, organizations o ften us e t he mo re g eneral ti tle Activist f or t his position.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good b ecause p ositions are widely a vailable. M any o rganizations r ely he avily o n Canvassers t o b uild t he kind o f grass-r oots su pport they n eed t o s urvive. Positions th at turn over n eed t o be quickly refilled, presenting a steady stream of opportunities.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good because organizations often p romote C anvassers t o o ther p ositions. A C anvasser mig ht b e given supervisory responsibilities and be p romoted t o a p osition suc h as C anvassing Dir ector o r F ield Or ganizer. C anvassing gi ves indi viduals valuable exp erience in co mmunication a nd f und-raisingskills needed in many positions. Some Canvassers branch into related endeavors such as running an initiative ca mpaign o r hel ping a p olitical ca ndidate. Ot hers leave canvassing to attend law school or other graduate programs.

Education and Training


Organizations g enerally p rovide t heir o wn tra ining t o familiarize Canvassers with the art of talking to people about the issues. Many Canvassers are college students who see canvassing as a temporary, part-time job.

Salaries
Salaries for full-time Canvassers generally range from $18,000 t o $25,000, acco rding t o ind ustry s ources. The pa y str ucture va ries f rom gr oup t o gr oup, as some o rganizations link s alaries c losely t o p erformance. A hig h-performing C anvasser ma y b e gi ven supervisory responsibilities and extra pay. Some organizations hire Canvassers on a part-time basis, paying $8 to $12 an hour.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Canvassing can be a difficult job, as some people resent strangers knocking on their doors. Because Canvassers are dealing directly with the public, good communication skills are essential. Canvassers should be outgoing,

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personable, a nd en gaging. I nsiders s ay t hat ha ving a sense o f o ptimism is pa rticularly im portant. En thusiasm is co ntagious, t hey s ay; a C anvassers ex citement about t he w ork o f t he o rganization ca n mak e o thers more willing to get involved. Canvassers with an upbeat attitude who b elieve that change is p ossible do b est in this job. They should care deeply about the issues.

Tips for Entry

Unions and Associations


There a re no unio ns o r ass ociations sp ecifically f or Canvassers, in siders s ay, b ut indi viduals mig ht b elong to organizations in their field(s) of interest.

1. Check help wanted ads in newspapers and notices around town. Positions are often posted on lampposts or bulletin boards in cafes and other gathering spots. 2. Cultivate a p ositive a ttitude. B elieving t hat change is p ossible ca n hel p mo tivate o thers to get involved. 3. Expect so me r ejection. Ca nvassers s hould n ot fall apart if someone closes the door in their face. Having a thick skin helps.

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CONSUMER ACTIVIST
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: I nvestigating susp ected co nsumer p roblems; publicizing findings; and advocating for change Alternate T itle(s): P roject Dir ector, Res earch A ssociate, Consumer Advocate Salary Range: $18,000 to $100,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): W ashington, D .C., state capitals; and major cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingCollege degree, with courses in history, political science, and journalism helpful ExperienceVolunteer exp erience o r in ternship recommended

CAREER LADDER
Position with Larger Organization Consumer Activist Volunteer or Intern

Special Sk ills and P ersonality T raitsStrong research a nd wr iting skills; p ublic-speaking a bilities; media savvy; understanding of government and political processes; tenacity

Position Description
Consumer Activists advocate for goods and services in the public interest. Often they fight for the little guy against powerful corporations or interest groups. Over the y ears, C onsumer A ctivists ha ve p ushed f orand wonlegislation affecting such areas as housing, health care, utility rates, and food labeling. As other ac tivists do, t hey generally p erform a co mbination of research, public education, and lobbying. Much of t he growth in t his f ield has r esulted f rom the activism of Ralph Nader, who founded a va riety of consumer o rganizations in t he 1970s. M any o f t hese, including t he Pub lic I nterest Res earch G roup, r emain active today. Some gr oups, inc luding la rge o rganizations suc h as C onsumers Union, Pub lic Ci tizen, a nd C onsumer Federation of America, cover a wide va riety of issues. Others f ocus o n sin gle issues suc h as f ood s afety, health ca re, o r p rivacy o n t he I nternet. Of ten, co nsumer groups form alliances with other organizations. A gr oup de aling wi th M edicare r eform, f or exa mple, might enlist t he support of t hose w ho work with t he elderly. Consumer Activists generally work in cycles by project. The c ycle typ ically b egins wi th r esearch. B ecause certain techniques, such as direct questioning, are often ineffective w hen exp loring co ntroversial issues, C onsumer A ctivists m ust us e o ther s trategies t o g et t he information they need.

For instance, someone investigating suspected nursing ho me a buse mig ht us e t he F reedom o f I nformation Act to research a government inspection database. Another p ossibility is f or the C onsumer Activist to go undercover, p retending t o b e t he c hild o f a n ursinghome patient. After in vestigating t he p roblem, t he C onsumer Activist tries to publicize and address it. The Consumer Activist w ho w orks under cover mig ht wr ite a r eport documenting his o r her exp eriences. He o r she mig ht release a report to the media and try to appear on radio or television talk shows. The next st ep in volves ad vocating f or c hange. The Consumer A ctivist mig ht f orm allia nces wi th o ther groups t o lobb y. T ogether t hey mig ht w ork wi th a n executive agency involved in nursing home regulations. They might propose new legislation. Successes result, as do setbacks, as one cycle gives way to the next. In addition, C onsumer Activists mig ht b e involved in Community organizing Fund-raising Program management Statewide coordination

Salaries
Salaries vary with the experience of the individual and the size of the organization. Someone in an entry-level

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position with no prior experience might make $18,000 a year compared to $100,000 or more for someone in a large organization with several years experience.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood. I ndustry sp ecialists describe the field as stable: neither expanding nor contracting.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause C onsumer Activists who prove themselves on the job tend to move up t he ca reer ladder . H owever, in siders ca ution t hat the job ca n b e dif ficult. I n o rder t o b e successf ul, a Consumer Activist must develop the kind of media and political savvy needed to promote institutional change.

of a t opic; wr ite in sim ple, dec larative s entences; a nd know how to communicate with the media. Whereas a n en try-level p osition mig ht b e s uited for someone right out of college, a p rogram manager position g enerally r equires s ome exp erience. Of ten, organizations gi ve C onsumer A ctivists a gr eat de al of a utonomy, t hus r equiring t he indi vidual t o b e a self-starter. Being able to cultivate alliances with other groups a nd o vercome f rustration is als o im portant. Above all , C onsumer A ctivists m ust b elieve in t heir cause.

Unions and Associations


The C onsumer Federation of Amer ica is a n advocacy, educational, and membership organization comprising more than 285 organizations throughout the nation.

Education and Training


A college degree is generally required, although no one particular ma jor is r ecommended. C ourses in hist ory, political science, and journalism can be helpful.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many individuals break into consumer activism through internships o r v olunteer w ork, al though t his typ e o f experience is no t al ways r equired. J ournalism exp erience also can be useful, as Consumer Activists must be able to research the who, what, where, when, and why

1. Volunteer to work for a co nsumer organization. Many volunteers are hired for paid positions. 2. Look for an internship. 3. Check no nprofit dir ectories, jo urnals, a nd w ebsites for consumer organizations and/or jobs. Consumer Protection is a common subject heading. 4. Submit op-ed pieces a nd/or let ters t o t he editor for publication. Because writing skills are important to this position, having samples of your work can be helpful in the job-search process.

PUBLIC INTEREST

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ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVIST
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: A dvocating f or t he en vironment; de veloping strategies to encourage public action; building coalitions Alternate T itle(s): P rogram C oordinator, C ampaign Coordinator, Organizer, Program Officer, Campaign Manager, Community Organizer Salary Range: $18,000 to $47,000 Employment Prospects: Fair to good Advancement Prospects: Fair to good Best Geographical Location(s): Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; Boston; Seattle Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree or higher generally preferred

CAREER LADDER
Executive Director Environmental Activist Volunteer, Intern, or Canvasser

ExperienceTwo to five years Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsDedication; aggressiveness; creativity; energy

Position Description
Environmental A ctivists def end w hat ca nnot sp eak for i tselfthe na tural w orld a round t hem. En vironmental A ctivists a re in volved in a dizzyin g a rray o f activities, f rom co unting ki ller w hales o ff t he coast o f Alaska t o p romoting ci tizen a wareness o f s afe dr inking-water st andards t o addr essing t he is sues o f g lobal climate change. Environmental nonprofit organizations abound, n umbering in t he t housands. M any, t hough, are la rgely v olunteer o perations. The n umber o f environmental staffers in nonprofits, as opposed to government or private industry, is relatively small. Nevertheless, t heir inf luence has b een eno rmous. Nearly every major environmental victory of our time can be traced to the leadership or involvement of nonprofit groups, according to the Environmental Careers Organization, a na tional no nprofit bas ed in B oston, Massachusetts, dedica ted t o hel ping p eople p ursue careers related to the environment. Although en vironmentalists o f t he la te 1960s a nd early 1970s w ere often dismissed as eccen trics or radicals, ma ny en vironmental gr oups ha ve b ecome w ellestablished and highly professional over the years. Some groups link en vironmental and consumer issues, w hile others are devoted to a pa rticular environmental cause such as animal rights. Still others focus on a pa rticular strategy such as lo bbying or direct action. Well-known environmental groups include the Appalachian Mountain Cl ub, t he A udubon S ociety, Cle an Water A ction,

the D efenders of Wildlife, t he Environmental D efense Fund, t he N ational W ildlife F ederation, t he N ature Conservancy, t he Pub lic I nterest Res earch G roup, t he Rails t o Trails C onservancy, t he S ierra Cl ub, a nd t he World Wildlife Fund. New grass-r oots o rganizations, me anwhile, ha ve sprouted up, giving r ise to t he environmental justice movement. A ccording t o t he En vironmental C areers Organization, t he en vironmental j ustice mo vement began in 1987 wi th t he p ublication o f a la ndmark study f inding t hat, nationwide, communities with two or mo re haza rdous was te si tes ha ve t hree times t he percentage o f mino rities a mong t heir p opulation as those with no wast e sites. Community groups arose to address t heir o wn issues o f co ncern. Af ter s ome success, a gr oup mig ht decide t o b ecome p ermanent a nd hire its own staff. Generally sp eaking, ac tivism falls under t he umbrella of environmental education and communication. Strategies differ from group to group. Some adopt a mo re co nfrontational a pproach t han o thers. B ut a ll share the same basic g oal: to communicate the importance of environmental issues in wa ys that educate the public and encourage action. If, f or exa mple, a n o rganization is tr ying t o dra w attention to air p ollution caused by fossil f uel us e, t he Environmental A ctivist needs t o exp lain t he p roblem clearly and succinctly to the average p erson. Why should s omeone ca re a bout f ossil f uels? W hat ca n he

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or she do t o make a dif ference? Should he o r she sign a p etition? Join a ca mpaign? Next, t he Environmental Activist sizes u p t he p ower s tructures in volved. W ho are t he ma in p layers in t he corporate a rena? Who a re the decisio n mak ers a t t he f ederal le vel? H ow sho uld the group go about gaining their support? Environmental Activists know from experience that there is p ower in n umbers. To increase t heir strength, they co mmonly b uild coali tions wi th o ther gr oups. Then t hey w ork tir elessly t o ac hieve t heir g oals. One day mig ht in volve co mmunity meetin gs a nd p hone calls; another, research and lobbying. Whether an Environmental Activist gravitates more toward street theater or press conferences depends in large part on the goals of the organization. This is not, by any stretch of the imagination, a 9 t o 5 job . En vironmental A ctivists o ften w ork nig hts a nd weekends. If a gr oup is a rranging a he adline-grabbing event suc h as a p rotest, demo nstration, o r b oycott, a n Environmental A ctivist is lik ely t o b e w orking la te a t night confirming last-minute details. A typ ical da y f or a n En vironmental A ctivist in a state capital might include Reading the newspaper to see how the organizations issues are playing out in the press Seeing what is happening in t he state legislature that day Meeting with the communication staff to plan a special event (e.g., a p ublic gathering on the state house steps) Testifying before a legislative committee Meeting wi th legisla tive st aff t o lobb y o n b ehalf o f issues Answering correspondence of citizens and members Attending a nig ht meetin g t o o rganize p eople in a neighborhood that needs support

on t he ca reer ladder , as o pportunities f or v olunteers and canvassers abound. C anvassing involves kno cking on a lot of doorstypically 75 in a particular neighborhood per nightto explain issues a nd solicit funds for the organization. Anyone willing to endure the rigors of door-to-door campaigning can find excellent prospects as a Ca nvasser. Good Ca nvassers a re o ften p romoted to f ield o rganizers o r hir ed f or mid-le vel p ositions as Environmental Activists. Mid-level p ositions, ho wever, ca n b e ha rd t o f ind because ma ny gr oups r ely he avily o n v olunteers a nd part-timers. Nevertheless, p eople with passion, p ersistence, and a well-developed array of skills can find jobs as En vironmental A ctivists. N ew gr oups co ntinue t o form, although paid staffs tend to be small.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects, t oo, a re fa ir t o g ood. Upperlevel p ositions in no nprofit ac tivism t end t o b e r elatively low-paying. An ex ecutive director of a no nprofit might earn less than a midlevel staffer in a government agency o r p rivate co mpany. J ob s atisfaction, t hough, can be high, thus compensating for the long hours and relatively low pay. Opportunities a re b est f or indi viduals willin g t o explore a variety of possibilities. One of the fastest growing environmental fields is green-products marketing, which, al though in t he p rivate s ector, sha res t he ide alism of nonprofits. Opportunities to market solar energy, recycled paper, and other green products are commonly listed in environmental magazines and on websites.

Education and Training


No o ne ed ucational bac kground is r ecommended f or Environmental A ctivism, as r equirements va ry f rom job to job. Some insiders caution against making longterm educational plans without first exploring the field as a volunteer, intern, or staffer. Organizations va ry s o m uch in s cope t hat o ne group ma y wa nt a n a ttorney, a nother a n eco nomist, and y et a nother a na turalist f luent in J apanese. S till, generalists, too, are in dema nd. B eing a q uick le arner is always a plus.

Salaries
Usually an individual has w orked as a v olunteer or an entry-level st affer b efore a rriving a t t his middle r ung on the career ladder. Salaries for full-time Environmental A ctivists g enerally fall in to t he $18,000 t o $47,000 range, a nd r elatively la rge o rganizations g enerally pa y more t han smaller o nes. Sala ries f or En vironmental Executive Dir ectors ra nge f rom t he a bout $45,000 t o more t han $100,000, acco rding t o t he En vironmental Careers Organization.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Most Environmental Activists enter the field as a calling rather t han a job . M any st art o ut as v olunteers. N onprofits are known for their flexibility and high level of personal involvement. Of fices tend to b e small, allowing indi viduals t o ex ercise a va riety o f skills. S taffers commonly do a little of everything, from creating websites to taking out trash.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects f or t his midle vel p osition a re fair to good. Opportunities are much better lower down

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Chronic under funding a nd under staffing, t hough, can take a toll. Often it is difficult to achieve goals. Environmental Activists commonly need t o do s ome fundraising. Passion and boundless energy are required, but increasingly o rganizations als o a re lo oking f or s olid skills in areas such as program management and fundraising.

Unions and Associations


The Student C onservation Association, t he Environmental C areer C enter, a nd t he N ational A ssociation of E nvironmental Profe ssionals of fer profe ssional guidance a nd de velopment t o indi viduals in terested in t he f ield. En vironmental A ctivists mig ht als o belong to the National Association of Environmental Professionals or one of a va riety of more sp ecialized organizations.

Tips for Entry

1. Volunteer, in tern, o r w ork pa rt-time. B egin b y checking out t he websites of organizations such as the Student Conservation Association (http:// www.sca-inc.org), and the Environmental Career Center (h ttp://www. en vironmentalcareer. co m). 2. Participate in a ca mpaign involving either a candidate or an issue to develop your political savvy for the job.

3. Bypass t he la rge, b rand-name o rganizations f or the medium to small o nes. C ompetition can b e fierce for jobs at the larger organizations. Smaller organizations can offer the best opportunities for self-starters. 4. Browse t he a bundant su pply o f en vironmental resources o n t he I nternet. One g ood p lace t o start is S outhampton C ollege L ibrarys En vironmental Res ources o n t he I nternet (http:// www. s outhampton. li u. ed u/ lib rary/ en viron. h tm), which has links t o o n-line p ublications suc h as Conservation Ec ology and E M agazine, as wel l as t o m yriad en vironmental o rganizations. S urf organizational webpages for a wealth of information: a det ailed des cription o f t he o rganization and its programs, its publications, the names and responsibilities of key staffers, and perhaps even a list of current job openings. EnviroLink (http:// www.envirolink.org) a nd t he En vironmental Web Dir ectory (h ttp://www.webdirectory.com) also offer numerous links. 5. Check out job listings on environmental employment websites as w ell as in en vironmental publications. 6. Read b ooks a nd a rticles o n t he en vironmental field. S earch for b ooks, magazines, a nd articles, using the keyword environmental.

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GOVERNMENT REFORM ACTIVIST


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Researching, lobbying, community organizing, and ed ucating t he p ublic t o im prove g overnment and the political process Alternate T itle(s): P olitical Or ganizer, L egislative Advocate, Democracy Advocate, Program Manager, Policy Analyst Salary Range: $30,000 to $55,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location: Washington, D.C. Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree required; masters or law degree sometimes preferred

CAREER LADDER
Executive Director or Lobbyist Government Reform Activist Legislative Staffer or Staff Assistant

ExperienceThree to four years Special S kills a nd P ersonality T raitsCommitment to public-interest issues; fa miliarity with government processes; excellent communication skills; political contacts

Position Description
Government Ref orm A ctivists w ork t o im prove t he democratic sys tem b y c hampioning a va riety o f me asures: ca mpaign f inance r eform, incr eased ci tizen involvement, a nd ne w elec tion la ws, a mong t hem. Individuals ask themselves questions like, How responsive is t he p olitical system to t he needs o f t he p eople? Should p olitical ads b e r egulated? W ould s ame-day voter registration do more to boost citizen participation or increase the chances of fraud? Government r eform o rganizations o verlap wi th research institutes (e.g., think tanks), which also take an interest in t he wa y g overnment o perates. B ut w hereas a t hink t anks w ork ends wi th t he r elease o f a wr itten report, go vernment re form a dvocacy g roups mo ve on to the next step of fighting for change. Over the past couple of decades, government reform issues ha ve gra bbed f ront-page he adlines. Questio ns about ca mpaign f inances, in pa rticular, ha ve spa rked controversy. Government Ref orm A ctivists t ake pa rt in f our major ac tivities: r esearch, lobb ying, co mmunity o rganizing, and public education. The p ercentage o f time de voted t o e ach ac tivity d epends on t he or ientation of t he g roup. Wh ereas some groups make lobbying their primary activity, others t ake a mo re varied approach in k eeping with t heir tax-exempt st atus. I ndividuals ca n b e hir ed p rimarily for o ne t asklobbying o r grass-r oots o rganizing, f or instanceor a mix.

Organizations vary greatly in size . Common Cause, for in stance, has no t o nly a na tional he adquarters b ut also a netw ork o f st ate o ffices co vering a wide ra nge of issues. Ot her groups, for instance, U.S. Term Limits, focus on a specific area of concern. Organizations spa n t he p olitical sp ectrum, co mmonly des cribing t hemselves as nonpartisan e ven though certain issues may attract more members of one political pa rty t han a nother. The no npartisan C ouncil for Government Reform, for instance, appeals to fiscal conservatives with its message of limited government. Government Ref orm A ctivists typ ically r esearch issues and convey them to members. If, for example, a bill for campaign financing reform is b efore Congress, they might analyze the pros and cons, deciding to compromise on some points but not others. Common r esponsibilities o f G overnment Ref orm Activists include Researching and analyzing issues Lobbying (e.g., testifying at hearings, providing information) Acting as spokesperson and media contact Organizing p hone ba nks, e vents, rallies, a nd o ther activities Preparing newsletters and other publications

Salaries
Salaries f or G overnment Ref orm A ctivists g enerally range from approximately $30,000 t o $55,000, Ex ecutive

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Directors earn $45,000 t o $120,000, acco rding to industry s ources. Sala ries a re g enerally co mmensurate wi th experience.

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are fair to good. R apid growth of ne w organizations during t he past tw o decades has resulted in n umerous p ositions, b ut ind ustry sp ecialists are uncertain about whether or not this trend will continue.

legislative exp erience b ecause o f t he im portance o f personal co ntacts. S omeone w ho has w orked f or a high-ranking mem ber o f C ongress, f or exa mple, would be golden. Other p ositions lo ok f or bac kgrounds in o rganizing or communications. Government Reform Activists must be per suasive both verbally and in wri ting. They should be able to structure their arguments soundly to combine public policy with advocacy.

Unions and Associations Advancement Prospects


Advancement prospects are good because Government Reform A ctivists mak e im portant co ntacts, o pening doors t o f uture ad vancement. I ndividuals ca n ei ther move up to management positions within their organizations or advance in a n area of specialization such as lobbying or communication. Individuals might be members of the American Political Science Association, the American Society of Association Ex ecutives, a nd/or t he Amer ican S ociety f or Public Administration.

Tips for Entry

Education and Training


A bac helors degr ee is g enerally a minim um in t his field. Insiders recommend a degree in political science, journalism, o r a nother ma jor co ncerned wi th p ublicpolicy ma tters. A la w degr ee o r a mast ers degr ee in public policy or administration or political science can be helpful for advancement.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Individuals in t his f ield t end t o b e ci vics b uffs. Positions t hat in volve lobb ying g enerally call f or p rior

1. Use t he k eywords government o versight a nd reform t o s earch em ployment w ebsites s uch as http://www.idealist.org for jobs in the field. 2. Volunteer in a p olitical ca mpaign a nd/or co mmunity activity. 3. Check o ut in ternship p ossibilities in t he f ield. Many organizations, suc h as Pub lic Citizen a nd the C enter f or Resp onsive P olitics, list t heir internship opportunities online. 4. Get legislative, campaign, media, and/or organizing experience to enhance your chance of getting hired.

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PUBLIC INTEREST LAWYER


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Arguing cases in court; providing legal services for underrepresented or poor populations; performing la w-related t asks s uch as lobb ying a nd p olicy analysis Alternate T itle(s): S taff A ttorney, L itigation C ounsel, Community Lawyer, Legal Director Salary Range: $35,000 to $90,000+ Employment Prospects: Fair Advancement Prospects: Good Best G eographical L ocation(s): L arge ci ties; r ural areas Prerequisites: Education or TrainingLaw degree; passing of bar exam

CAREER LADDER
Lawyer for Private Firm Public Interest Lawyer Law School Student

ExperienceEntry-level t o s everal y ears, dep ending on the position Special Sk ills a nd P ersonality TraitsDedication to equal justice; sound legal sk ills; ability to assume responsibility q uickly; kno wledge o f a s econd la nguage helpful

Position Description
Public I nterest L awyers r epresent c lients a nd ca uses that a re o ften no t s erved b y p rivate la w f irms. O ver the years, Public Interest Lawyers have fought forand wonvictories in a reas suc h as racial j ustice, w omens rights, and environmental protection. The w ork of Public I nterest L awyers va ries b y o rganization: s ome groups r epresent indi vidual c lients; o thers de al mo re with policy issues. Often, though, the two overlap. An organization that represents a pa rticular gr oup o f c lients, f or in stance, might challenge a ci tys p olicy on an issue o f concern. Harvard L aw S chools Public Interest J ob S earch Gui de describes a va riety of s ettings in w hich Public Interest Lawyers work, including Client-oriented public interest organizations Organizations involved in international affairs Labor unions Legal services offices Policy-oriented public interest organizations

Client-oriented p ublic-interest o rganizations, suc h as t he Washington L egal Clinic f or t he H omeless a nd the AIDS Legal Council of Chicago, represent individuals with problems in the offices area of specialization. A client faced wi th p ossible e viction, for example, mig ht turn t o t he o rganization f or hel p. One Pub lic I nterest

Lawyer profiled in a Harvard publication described his office as a legal emergency room. Casework in client-oriented public interest organizations commonly involves not only litigation (court proceedings) b ut als o s trategies s uch as wr iting letters o n t he c lients b ehalf, ho lding legal r ights s eminars for clients, and contacting government agencies. Sometimes la wyers f or t hese o rganizations a re als o involved in tracking of legislation, lobbying, and public advocacy. Other Pub lic I nterest L awyers w ork f or in ternational o rganizations, la bor unio ns, o r legal s ervices offices. The la tter p rovide f ree o r r educed-fee as sistance f or lo w-income c lients. Thes e co mmunity o r neighborhood-based gr oups g enerally de al wi th ci vil, as o pposed t o cr iminal, cas es in a reas s uch as fa mily, housing, a nd co nsumer la w. Pub lic I nterest L awyers in legal s ervices o ffices ha ve c lose c lient co ntact a nd substantial caseloads. Policy-oriented o rganizations em ploy a va riety o f strategies to accomplish their goals. Some groups, such as the American Civil Liberties Union and the National Association f or t he A dvancement o f C olored P eople (NAACP) L egal D efense a nd Ed ucation F und, r ely largely o n c lass ac tion sui ts a nd o ther legal stra tegies. Others combine legal s trategies with social action. Still others f ocus p rimarily o n r esearch, a nalysis, a nd dissemination of information.

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Common r esponsibilities f or Pub lic I nterest L awyers in policy-oriented organizations include Litigating in state and federal courts Analyzing pending legislation and government initiatives Coordinating efforts of volunteer attorneys, law students, and other volunteers Engaging in public speaking at conferences and other events Participating in education and outreach efforts

and f ieldwork. M ost la w s chools o ffer st udents t he choice of a public interest track, according to Equal Justice Works (formerly the National Association of Public Interest L aw). I n c hoosing a la w s chool, Eq ual Justice Works recommends that students Examine the course catalog for relevant offerings. Look f or s chools wi th la w c linics a nd/or p ro b ono programs o ffering students the opportunity to practice law. Ask about summer and term-time externships (a term commonly used for credit-granting internships). See whether any student groups (e.g., Environmental Law S ociety, B lack L aw S tudent A ssociation) de al with issues of public interest concern. Find o ut a bout ca reer s ervices f or st udents s eeking public in terest ca reers. S ome s chools ha ve p ublic interest co ordinators a nd sp onsor job fa irs, pa nels, and o ther ed ucational p rograms f or st udents in terested in working in the field.

Salaries
Salaries f or a ttorneys in p ublic in terest o rganizations generally st art a t a round $40,000 a nd r ise t o a bout $65,000 with s everal years of exp erience, according to the National Association for Law Placement. Although s alaries f or Pub lic I nterest L awyers a re considerably lo wer t han t hose o f a ttorneys in p rivate practice, ma ny t ake ad vantage o f f inancial-assistance programs. A growing number of law schools offer public s ervice s cholarships a nd/or loa n f orgiveness p rograms. Fellowships, grants, and public service programs also provide funding for public interest law.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Legal clinics and pro bono programs give law students valuable ha nds-on exp erience in p ublic in terest la w. Programs such as Equal Justice Works national service program, funded by the National Corporation for Public Service, also provide opportunities for law students and lawyers. Volunteer and community work in a nonlegal setting or capacity can also be helpful. Public I nterest L awyers m ust b e co mmitted t o t he cause o f eq ual j ustice. B ecause most p ublic in terest organizations a re sho rt-staffed, Pub lic I nterest L awyers assume hig h le vels o f r esponsibility e arly in t heir careers. The y sho uld b e a ble t o hi t t he gr ound r unning. Public Interest Lawyers also should have excellent research, writing, and interpersonal skills. The w ork is typically fast-paced, and many Public Interest Lawyers work long hours.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir b ecause o pportunities are link ed t o g overnment a nd c haritable f unds, w hich are limited. In addition, many nonprofit organizations lack t he resources of private f irms for recruiting. As a result, law students often need t o work harder t o f ind jobs as Public Interest Lawyers than they would to find positions in private law firms.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause Pub lic Interest L awyers ca n f ind o pportunities in a va riety of s ettings. S ome Pub lic I nterest L awyers ad vance t o positions suc h as s enior co unsel o r dir ector o f li tigation wi thin t he w orld o f no nprofits, a nd o thers mo ve into government or private practice. The American Bar Association recommends that all private law firms provide some legal s ervices on a pro bono basis at no cost to c lients. S ome p rivate la w f irms ha ndle a s ubstantial n umber o f cas es wi th b road s ocial, p olitical, o r economic im pact. C ommon a reas o f co ncern inc lude employment discrimination, civil rights, and immigration law.

Unions and Associations


Equal J ustice W orks is a n o rganization dedica ted t o mobilizing la wyers a nd la w st udents t o w ork in t he public in terest. The Amer ican B ar A ssociations p ro bono section also represents Public Interest Lawyers.

Tips for Entry

Education and Training


Since t he 1960s, la w s chools a round t he na tion ha ve incorporated p ublic in terest issues in to t heir co urses

1. Volunteer for a legal s ervices organization. Consult t he y ellow pag es o f y our lo cal p hone b ook under Legal Services to find organizations in your area. 2. Look f or a pa rt-time o r s ummer job do ing research or office work in a la w firm or law-ori-

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ented nonprofit organization to see whether you like the field well enough to attend law school. 3. Attend career fairs, panel discussions, and other events sp onsored by law s chools a nd/or p rofessional associations. 4. Read mo re a bout ca reers in p ublic in terest la w. Good resources include the website of Equal Jus-

tice W orks (h ttp://www.equaljusticeworks.org) and Harvard Law Schools annual Public Interest Job Search Guide, which can be ordered by Internet (h ttp://www.law.harvard.edu/students/opia), e-mail (p ia@law.harvard.edu), p hone (617-4953108), or fax (617-496-4944).

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COMMUNITY, SOCIAL, AND INTERNATIONAL ISSUES

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATE


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Participating in a variety of tasks, such as organizing meetin gs, o btaining p ermits, a nd s ecuring financing, r elated t o t he de velopment o f ho using and/or other revitalization projects Alternate Title(s): Development Assistant, Real Estate Associate, C ommunity D evelopment C orporation (CDC) Or ganizer, H ousing C ounselor, J ob D eveloper, Assistant Property Manager, Training Program Coordinator, Program Associate Salary Range: $25,000 to $40,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): Large urban areas Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree or equivalent required; masters degree preferred

CAREER LADDER
Higher-Level Position with Community Development Corporation (CDC) or Allied Organization; Consultant Community Development Associate Volunteer or Intern

ExperienceTwo t o t hree y ears v olunteer, internship, or other experience Special S kills a nd P ersonality T raitsCommitment; r esilience; p roblem-solving, co mmunication, and a nalytical skills; fa miliarity wi th lo w-interest financing programs

Position Description
Community Development Associates participate in revitalization ef forts t hat co mbine t he passio n o f a mo vement with the entrepreneurial savvy of an industry. From its early days in the 1960s and 1970s, the community de velopment movement has f lourished, giving rise to thousands of locally based nonprofits known as community development corporations, or CDCs. These organizations develop housing, commercial space, jobs, and a variety of community services. Most CD Cs f ocus t heir r evitalization ef forts o n a placean inner ci ty neig hborhood, a det eriorating suburb, a r ural co mmunity, o r a nother g eographical areabut some organizations form to serve a group of people such as Hispanics, senior citizens, or Vietnamese immigrants. CDCs, which might also be called by other names such as neighborhood housing services or community-based development groups, range in size from a couple of staffers to hundreds of employees. According to t he N ational C ongress f or C ommunity Eco nomic Development (N CCED), t he average size o f a CD C is six staffers, comprising entry-level Associates, midlevel project managers, and an executive director. Initially, CD Cs f ocused p rimarily o n r eal est ate development and renovation. Over the years, however,

CDCs have established programs in other areas, including human s ervices, t he arts, urban gardens, and economic a nd w orkforce de velopment. F or exa mple, t o develop en trepreneurial jobs, a CD C mig ht la unch a commercial c leaning co operative t o hel p lo w-income residents wi th eq uipment costs, ma rketing, a nd o ther services needed f or successf ul small b usiness o wnership. However, as P aul C. B rophy and Alice S habecoff observe in A Guide to Careers in Community Development, CD C jobs in volved in r eal est ate de velopment continue to outnumber those in other areas. Many Community Development Associates get their start as v olunteers o r in terns. F rom t here, t hey mig ht land an entry-level position as an associate, an umbrella term t hat covers a va riety of p ositions. A C ommunity Development A ssociate mig ht b e ei ther a jac k-of-all trades s taffer o r a n as sistant t o a p roject ma nager in a pa rticular a rea. The jac k-of-all trades C ommunity Development A ssociate mig ht hel p o rganize co mmunity meetin gs, p repare f unding a pplications, a nd contact co ntractors w hile assis ting wi th a co mmercial development project one day and a p lan for affordable housing the next. Some s taffers in CD Cs w ork p rimarily as co mmunity organizers. Unlike other groups t hat us e commu-

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nity organizers primarily to get outside powers to fix a problem, CDCs can often act autonomously. The CD C organizer, f or in stance, mig ht help residents a nd merchants participate in a p lan to develop vacant lots and buildings. Other en try-level p ositions a re mo re sp ecialized, depending o n t he needs o f t he o rganization, ind ustry sources say. For example, a CDC might need a training program coordinator for a ne w computer center, a job counselor t o hel p r esidents t hrough t he job-h unting process, a ho using co unselor f or a p rogram f or f irsttime home buyers, a program associate for after-school activities, o r a job de veloper f or a ne w em ployment program encouraging businesses to hire neighborhood residents. S ome CD Cs als o hir e p roperty ma nagers, caseworkers, researchers, writers, and/or fund-raisers. Although staffing varies from organization to organization, many individuals who start in entry-level jobs move up to increasingly complex and responsible positions in volving p roject ma nagement. A p roject ma nager in ho using, for instance, might be involved in t he following duties: Obtaining zoning and building permit approvals for project development Performing financial feasibility analyses Preparing applications for financing Working with the community to assess housing needs and develop support for projects Monitoring construction during development Researching possible sites for new projects

advancement. Within the world of community development co rporations, indi viduals co mmonly ad vance t o higher le vels o f r esponsibility ei ther wi thin t heir o wn organization o r in a nother CD C. One C ommunity Development Associate might decide to become a sp ecialist in a p roject a rea suc h as ho using renovation or commercial development and others to set their sights on t he p osition o f t he t op g eneralistthe ex ecutive directorwho nurtures the talents of all those involved in t he dif ferent ac tivities of t he organization. A C ommunity D evelopment A ssociate mig ht b ecome ex ecutive dir ector o f a small CD C in t hree t o f ive y ears o r, after le arning t he r opes, le ave t o st art his o r her o wn CDC, insiders say. In addi tion t o CD Cs, t he vast a nd in terconnected network of community development settings includes National and regional community development organizations Government agencies Foundations and other funders Community-oriented businesses and nonprofits Policy, advocacy, and trade organizations Consulting firms Many indi viduals ad vance t heir ca reers b y mo ving from community-based to regional or national organizations, known as intermediaries, that provide technical and f inancial assist ance t o CD Cs a nd o ther co mmunity-based groups. National intermediaries include the Neighborhood Rein vestment C orporation, t he L ocal Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), a nd the Enterprise Foundation. Other CD C st affers mo ve in to p ositions wi th g overnment ag encies, f oundations, ba nks, p rivate de velopers, t hink t anks, h uman s ervice o rganizations, chambers o f co mmerce, o r co nsulting gr oups. S omeone, for example, might become an economic developer for a city, a research associate for a think tank, or a partner in a consulting group.

Salaries
Salaries f or C ommunity D evelopment A ssociates a nd other en try-level p ositions in CD Cs g enerally ra nge from $25,000 t o $40,000, acco rding to NeighborWorks America; project managers and other midlevel staff in CDCs might earn $40,000 to $55,000. Individuals with masters degrees often st art at hig her le vels t han t hose with bachelors degrees, industry specialists say.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood b ecause co mmunity development is a gr owing f ield t hat provides a va riety of o pportunities. N ew CD Cs ha ve f ormed, a nd o lder ones ha ve expa nded t heir a rray o f s ervices. H owever, financial pressures offset expansion, as some CDCs are unable to raise the funds needed to survive.

Education and Training


A co llege degr ee o r eq uivalent in exp erience usuall y qualifies indi viduals f or en try-level p ositions in co mmunity de velopment. I nternships a re hig hly r ecommended. Because the field of community development encompasses a va riety o f di sciplines, s ome sp ecialists recommend working in the field for a couple of years to pinpoint areas of interest for further education, including a masters degree in public administration or policy, urban and regional planning, social work, architecture, or business administration.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause co mmunity development is a f ield with a lo t of dif ferent paths for

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A mast ers degr ee ca n hel p indi viduals st art a t a higher le vel o r ad vance t heir ca reers. F or in stance, someone w ho wa nts t o ad vance t o a p osition as p rogram manager mig ht f ind it helpful to e arn a mast ers degree in urba n p lanning o r p ublic administra tion. Someone more interested in direct service, on the other hand, might pursue a masters degree in social work. Training programs, t oo, have de veloped t o provide the technical skills and knowledge needed for this rapidly e volving f ield, s ometimes constituting a n alternative to further academic s chooling. Practitioners often turn t o tra ining p rograms t o u pdate t heir kno wledge of sp ecialized areas such as ho using f inance as w ell as more general concepts and strategies.

in order to solve problems like what to do if t he property insurance is canceled. On a mo re p ersonal le vel, C ommunity D evelopment A ssociates m ust b e a ble t o w eather t he u ps a nd downs of the field. They face the challenge of overcoming t he c ycle o f p overty, w hich ca n o ften o verwhelm even t he b est ef forts. Dis appointments a re ine vitable, although they are often softened by the satisfaction that results from improving lives and neighborhoods. Many Community Development Associates work long hours, including nights and weekends.

Unions and Associations


NeighborWorks Amer ica is a na tional nonprofit organization f or co mmunity-based r evitalization ef forts. The N eighborWorks N etwork co nsists o f mo re t han 240 community-level organizations in 50 states.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many C ommunity D evelopment A ssociates g et t heir start t hrough grass-r oots v olunteering, in ternships, o r other w ork r elated t o im proving co mmunity lif e. An entry-level position may require a f ew years of unpaid or pa id exp erience. V olunteering a t a f ood ba nk o r working on a church program, for instance, might provide relevant experience. Community de velopment r equires ma ny o f t he same skills needed t o succeed in ad vocacy a nd b usiness. C ommunity D evelopment A ssociates m ust ha ve a keen interest in improving local communities and the entrepreneurial skills needed to get the work done. Primarily, C ommunity D evelopment A ssociates must be problem solvers. In the course of a typical day, a C ommunity D evelopment A ssociate mig ht t ackle a problem lik e g etting ho using r ehabilitated o n a tig ht budget or getting zoning approved for a new building. Good co mmunication skills, t oo, a re a m ust, as Community D evelopment A ssociates o ften wr ite reports, make presentations, and interact with a variety of p eople, inc luding lo w-income r esidents, a rchitects, contractors, public officials, and bankers. Strong a nalytical skills a re als o im portant. M any positions in co mmunity de velopment in volve w ork with sp readsheets, o r ass et ma nagement o r a t le ast some familiarity with financial programs and practices

Tips for Entry

1. Read mo re a bout ca reers, in ternships, a nd ed ucation in co mmunity de velopment. H elpful resources inc lude A Guide to C areers in C ommunity Development by Paul C. Brophy and Alice Shabecoff (Island Press, 2001) and the website of NeighborWorks America (http://www.nw.org). 2. Look into internship possibilities. 3. Take co urses in urba n a nd r egional p lanning, government, and related disciplines. 4. Contact y our ci tys co mmunity de velopment department to find out about CDCs in your area. Attend a CDC meeting and volunteer to help out with ac tivities s uch as r enovating b uildings o r serving on the board of directors. 5. Volunteer for a national organization such as Habitat for Humanity or a local church, synagogue, or other fa ith-based gr oup in volved in hel ping t o improve the lives of community residents. 6. Explore the AmeriCorps program (see the entry in the Service Programs section) if you are interested in a na tional s ervice p rogram t hat p laces volunteers with community development corporations and other nonprofits.

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COMMUNITY ORGANIZER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Researching issues; talking to people; attending meetings; communicating with the media Alternate T itle(s): G rassroots Or ganizer, F ield Or ganizer, Campus Organizer, Political Organizer, Activist, Advocate Salary Range: $18,000 to $45,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): None Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingBachelors degr ee s ometimes preferred, but not always required

CAREER LADDER
Program Director or Public Official Community Organizer Student, Volunteer, or Intern

ExperienceOrganizing experience preferred Special Sk ills and P ersonality TraitsPassionate; patient; o utgoing; r esourceful; mo tivated; co mmitted to social change; knowledge of Spanish a plus

Position Description
Community Organizers work on the front lines to persuade o thers t o t ake u p t heir ca use. Or ganizing is s o fundamental to social change that some call it the backbone of activism. The two functions often are joined in one heading: Activism/Organizing. Whether ad vocating f or a ffordable ho using, u tility-rate fa irness, v oter r egistration, o r s omething els e, Community Or ganizers r ely la rgely o n t he p ower o f persuasion. The y need t o list en as w ell as t alk. The y must co nnect wi th o thers in o rder t o mob ilize t hem into action. Typically, co mmunity ac tivists c hampion t he ca use of social a nd eco nomic j ustice. The y f ight f or t he underdogthe p oor a nd p owerless. The y o rganize against w ealthy, p owerful f oes b ecause t hey b elieve there is strength in numbers. The w ork o f C ommunity Or ganizers falls r oughly into t hree a reas: r esearch, f ieldwork, a nd meetin gs. A Community Or ganizer in volved in w elfare-to-work issues, for example, might follow the issue in the media and summa rize legisla tion, p roducing fac t sheets a nd other inf ormation. N ext, t he C ommunity Or ganizer might go around to area businesses to inform them of training o ptions. F inally, he o r she mig ht ra ise a p roposal before the city council. Increasingly, gr oups r epresenting lo w- a nd mo derate-income ci tizens a re f orming coali tions t o incr ease their inf luence. A f ew neig hborhood gr oups, f or instance, might join to form their own nonprofit orga-

nization and hire a C ommunity Organizer. Or a gr oup working f or s ocial c hange mig ht la unch a va riety o f campaigns: a p etition dr ive t o p revent p ublic hosp itals from converting to for-profit status, an educational campaign to help Native American schools, and a housing initiative to promote resident councils. Whereas C ommunity Or ganizers o ften de al wi th grass-roots neig hborhood ef forts, ma ny gr oups us e similar organizing strategies, hiring individuals as Campus Or ganizersto f orm s tudent c hapters o f national o rganizations suc h as t he Pub lic I nterest Research Group Political Or ganizersto b uild su pport f or r eferendum a nd ca ndidate ca mpaigns, v oter-registration, and other issues Field Or ganizersto mobilize s upport f or issues o n a regional level Whatever the focus of the group, Community Organizers w ork t o g et t heir issues in t he sp otlight. The y organize news conferences, write press releases, prepare flyers, a nd g enerate o pinion p ieces a nd let ters t o t he editor. They might also coordinate a grass-r oots letterwriting campaign to public officials. Organizing stra tegies va ry f rom gr oup t o gr oup. Community Or ganizers ad vocating f or a ne w s chool, for example, might spend much of their time talking to parents at p laygrounds. Many C ommunity Or ganizers knock o n do ors t o dis cuss issues, r ecruit ne w members, a nd iden tify p otential le aders. The y als o sp read

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the word by s ending e-mails, making countless phone calls, a nd co ordinating he adline-grabbing e vents s uch as demo nstrations a nd ma rches. Of ten C ommunity Organizers work to nurture leadership in t he community. By identifying and training grass-roots leaders, the organization builds a stronger base of support. As C ommunity Or ganizers ga in exp erience, t hey often seek new challenges, moving into more policy-oriented and supervisory roles. Many seek new challenges by t aking a hig her p osition wi thin t he o rganization, accepting a job wi th another organization, or r unning for political office.

public policy at the University of California at Berkeley, for exa mple, ca n t ake ad vantage o f i ts a ffiliation wi th the Institute for the Study of Social Change. Other institutes and organizations offer nonaccredited p rograms in o rganizing a nd ac tivism. T raining programs for community organizers include the Social Action a nd L eadership S chool f or A ctivists (SALSA), offering classes in Washington, D.C.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Community Organizers often have experience as volunteers w orking f or s ocial a nd/or p olitical c hange. Many ha ve gr own u p s eeing in justice in t heir o wn lives a nd t he w orld a round t hem. S uch s ensitivity can be an asset on the job, as are the two pspassion and patience. Community Organizers also need to be hard-working, dependable, and accepting of diversity. Knowledge o f a nother la nguage, suc h as S panish, is a plus. Community Or ganizers a re lik ely t o enco unter disagreements wi thin t he gr oup a nd b etween o rganizations. H ours ca n b e lo ng, a nd t he w ork f rustrating and stressful. Community Organizers commonly work nights and weekends. On t he plus side, work environments are often close-knit and casual.

Salaries
Salaries f or C ommunity Or ganizers t end t o b e lo w, because there is an abundance of part-time, temporary, and volunteer positions. Large, well-established organizations tend to pay higher salaries than small, start-up groups. S till, n o o ne m akes a n en ormous sala ry a s a Community Organizer. The salary of a long-time Community Organizer might top out at around $45,000.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood b ecause n umerous types o f o rganizations hir e C ommunity Or ganizers, including en vironmental gr oups, w omens o rganizations, and antipoverty groups. Many grass-roots organizations are forming coalitions to increase their strength, pooling their resources for Community Organizers.

Unions and Associations


The National Organizers Alliance is a gr oup of people working f or s ocial, eco nomic, a nd en vironmental j ustice. The C enter f or C ampus Or ganizing is a na tional organization dedica ted t o b uilding p rogressive mo vements o n co llege ca mpuses. C ommunity Or ganizers also commonly participate in lo cal alliances (e.g., D.C. Cares) o r issue-bas ed coali tions (e .g., C olorado En vironmental Coalition).

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good. A Community Organizer might branch into a r elated activity, such as r unning f or ci ty co uncil o r b ecoming a p olitical a ide, o r move up within the organization or to a slightly different position in ac tivism. Someone might, for example, move from community to union organizing. Although some Community Organizer positions are temporary, o thers p rovide mo re st ability b ut a re ne vertheless sub ject t o eco nomic ebbs a nd f lows. M any longtime C ommunity Or ganizers ha ve w orked f or organizations that no longer exist.

Tips for Entry

Education and Training


Some p ositions call f or a bac helors degr ee; o thers do not. I n t his f ield, dr ive, passio n, a nd r esourcefulness count for more than a formal degree. Nevertheless, many universities offer undergraduate and/or graduate degrees in s ubjects related to community o rganizing suc h as s ocial w ork, h uman s ervices, public p olicy, a nd urba n a ffairs. G raduate st udents in

1. Get in volved in y our co mmunity. Of ten v olunteer positions lead the way to paid employment. 2. Browse the National Organizers Alliance website (http://www.noacentral.org) 3. Browse I nternet job si tes suc h as I dealist.org (http://www.idealist.org) t o g et a n o verview o f positions in the field. 4. Check listin gs f or pa id in ternships a nd o ther temporary p ositions. C ommunity o rganizing is a f ield t hat lends i tself t o internships a nd o ther temporary employment opportunities. 5. Work f or mo re t han o ne o rganization t o g et a sense o f t he dif ferences in o rganizing stra tegies and to learn as much as possible.

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CONFLICT RESOLUTION SPECIALIST


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Communicating with disputants; developing and maintaining r elationships wi th r eferring a gencies; supervising v olunteer media tors; ma naging cas es; fostering public awareness of conflict resolution Alternate Title(s): Intake C oordinator, C ase Manager, Program Coordinator, Director of Training Salary Range: $17 to $19 an hour to $35,000+ a year Employment Prospects: Fair to poor Advancement Prospects: Fair Best G eographical L ocation(s): States with a high degree o f co mmitment t o co mmunity media tion (New York, North Carolina, California, and Oregon) Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingForty ho urs o f tra ining and/or academic degr ee in co nflict r esolution o r peace studies

CAREER LADDER
Executive Director or Consultant Conflict Resolution Specialist Volunteer Mediator

ExperienceOne year as volunteer mediator Special Sk ills and P ersonality T raitsNonjudgmental attitude; good listening and communication skills; comfort with situations characterized by conflict; commitment to peacemaking

Position Description
Conflict Res olution S pecialists p rovide a n a lternative t o s ettling dis putes t hrough f orce o r legal ac tion. Unlike the traditional, adversarial win-lose approach to settling disputes, conflict resolution relies on a winwin model to arrive at a m utually beneficial solution. The t erm conflict r esolution enco mpasses a va riety o f methodologies (including mediation, conciliation, and arbitration) us ed in s chool a nd co mmunity p rograms throughout t he na tion. M any st udents a re in troduced to p eer media tion in elemen tary s chools, t hanks, in part, t o t he su pport o f co mmunity media tion cen ters. Since the early 1990s the number of community mediation centers has m ushroomed from about 150 t o more than 550, acco rding t o t he N ational A ssociation f or Community Mediation. Much o f t his gr owth, ho wever, has cr eated o pportunities f or v olunteers ra ther t han pa id st aff. U sually trained volunteers conduct t he ac tual mediations. Paid staffers do all the preparation work and follow-up. They set up the sessions, schedule and train volunteers, manage cases, do community outreach, and administer programs. Many cases are referred to community mediation centers b y t he p olice, co urts, o r o ther a gencies s uch as t he housing authority or human r ights commission.

Community mediation centers deal with conflicts ranging f rom mild dis agreements t o ass aults, t hreats, a nd harassment. The y addr ess la ndlord/tenant, co nsumer/ merchant, fa mily/custody, a nd va rious o ther typ es o f disputes. F or in stance, s omeone mig ht call t he p olice to co mplain a bout t he no ise next do or. The next-do or neighbors, ho wever, in sist t hat t hey w ere no t b eing noisy. The two parties might be referred to mediation. The N ational A ssociation f or C ommunity M ediation des cribes t he typ ical co mmunity media tion p rogram as ha ving 30 v olunteer media tors a nd 1.5 p aid staff (often a full-time executive director and part-time intake co ordinator o r cas e ma nager). Ot her co mmon staff p ositions inc lude p roject ma nagers a nd tra iners. Specialists s ay t hat e ach media tion s ession in volves about six hours of preparation. Most C onflict Res olution S pecialists b egin t heir careers as volunteer mediators. After a year of mediating cases, a v olunteer may b e o ffered a pa id p osition, as a part-time or full-time employee, depending on the organization of the center. Common responsibilities include Case management Volunteer management Outreach

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Conflict Resolution Specialists spend much of their time o n t he p hone, t alking t o c lients a nd ha ndling referrals. The y s chedule media tions a nd a nswer q uestions f rom disp utants lik e, W hat will t his [t he mediation] me an f or m y co urt cas e? Of ten media tion t akes the p lace o f p rosecution, al though t hat is no t al ways the cas e. C onflict Res olution S pecialists s erve as lia isons b etween t he cen ter a nd r eferring ag encies. The y also prepare statistical and program reports on matters such as cas eload, the volunteer mediator pool, referral sources, and the outcome of cases. In t heir r esponsibilities f or v olunteer ma nagement, Conflict Resolution Specialists schedule volunteer mediators and debrief them after sessions to find out about how t he ma tter was r esolved. The y als o r ecruit, tra in, and su pervise v olunteers. I f, f or in stance, t he co mmunity has a large Spanish population, the Conflict Resolution Specialist might recruit bilingual volunteers. Conflict Res olution S pecialists als o co mmonly do outreach w ork. I n t his ca pacity, t hey p romote mediation to community groups, develop and maintain relationships wi th ne w a nd existin g referral ag encies, a nd foster public awareness of conflict resolution. As Conflict Res olution S pecialists ga in exp erience, t hey ma y be given additional responsibilities involving fiscal and program management. Many community mediation centers provide not only mediation but also other forms of conflict resolution such as arbitration and conciliation. For example, community mediation cen ters mig ht b e r esponsible f or a rbitrating cases in volving t he st ates lemo n la w. An indep endent arbitrator would listen to b oth sides in t he dispute and render a decisio n m uch as a j udge w ould. C onciliation (co mparable t o shuttle di plomacy) is us ed w hen one disp utant ca nnot meet wi th t he o ther; facili tation involves resolving conflicts among a group of people.

They might, for instance, work 20 ho urs a w eek at the center and earn the rest of their income by conducting trainings a nd sp ecializing in a n a rea suc h as di vorce mediation. An executive director, too, might work fulltime at the center and do p rivate mediations and consulting work on the side.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir t o p oor b ecause o f the r elative s carcity o f f ull-time pa id p ositions. H owever, individuals committed to conflict resolution can, with time, establish careers in t he field. Many Conflict Resolution Specialists have w orked t heir way u p f rom volunteer t o pa rt-time t o f ull-time p ositions. Ot hers have entered the field after working in o ther nonprofit organizations. Someone who ran a womens shelter, for example, might have important nonprofit management skills for a co mmunity mediation center. Usually these individuals, t oo, a re tra ined in co nflict r esolution a nd work as volunteers before joining the staff.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are fair because Conflict Resolution S pecialists ca n mo ve in a va riety o f dir ections. Rather than move up to the level of executive director, a Conflict Resolution Specialist might leave a community mediation center to begin private practice and/or consulting. Ano ther p ossibility is t o mo ve into a p osition such as diversion coordinator in the court system. Conflict Res olution S pecialists in p rivate p ractice have a variety of backgrounds, including law and social work as well as community mediation. A divorce mediator, for instance, might have a background in law. Many private p ractitioners co mbine a va riety o f ende avors related to conflict resolution, including designing programs, p roviding tra ining, wr iting, a nd t eaching. One former ex ecutive dir ector o f a co mmunity media tion center, for instance, is a consultant on training matters. Another co nsultant r ecently tra veled t o Ca mbodia t o help develop a system for resolving land disputes. Other C onflict Res olution S pecialists mo ve in to higher-paying p ositions in t he p rivate s ector. M any large corporations incorporate conflict resolution practices and/or programs in t heir personnel departments, as do federal agencies. Yet another possibility is to work for a n o rganization, suc h as t he U nited N ations, t hat addresses wide-s cale, ra ther t han co mmunity-based, conflicts.

Salaries
Many p ositions a re pa rt-time d ue t o f inancial co nstraints. Part-timers commonly earn $17 to $19 an hour. A f ull-time C onflict Res olution Specialist w ho handles intake a nd ed ucation f or t he cen ter mig ht e arn in t he $35,000-$40,000 range, according to the National Association for Community Mediation. Because community mediation centers provide low- or no-cost services to the public, they rely largely on volunteers and relatively lowpaid staffers. Some centers, however, have larger budget: A community mediation center that receives state subsidies and/or provides fee-for-service training might have a large enough budget to hire several staffers. As C onflict Res olution S pecialists ga in exp erience, many develop private consulting practices on the side.

Education and Training


Conflict r esolution has b lossomed as a n a rea o f ed ucation a nd tra ining. The ma jority o f C onflict Res olu-

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tion Specialists have completed a basic 40-hour training program. Family mediators often have 40 to 60 hours of special fa mily tra ining. Training p rograms a re o ffered by a va riety o f s ources (e .g., no nprofit o rganizations, professional ass ociations) t hroughout t he na tion. The National A ssociation f or C ommunity M ediation, f or instance, p rovides co nflict r esolution tra ining a t i ts regional institutes. At colleges and universities, the number of academic programs in co nflict r esolution (o ften in co njunction with peace studies) has grown steadily since 1980. Programs offered include Undergraduate classes, concentrations, and/or degree programs in peace resolution programs M.S. or M.A. degr ee programs in co nflict resolution or in peace studies (with some conflict resolution) Graduate certificate programs in co nflict resolution Ph.D. programs in co nflict resolution Some programs are particularly well known. Among them are the Institute on Conflict Analysis and Resolution (ICAR) at George Mason University, the Program in t he Anal ysis a nd Res olution o f C onflict (PARC) a t Syracuse University, the Kroc Institute of International Peace Studies at Notre D ame University, a nd t he P rogram on Negotiation at Harvard University. In addi tion, s ome p rofessional s chools (la w, b usiness, ed ucation) o ffer sp ecialization in co nflict r esolution. P eer media tion p rograms, t oo, ha ve b ecome increasingly co mmon a t co lleges a nd uni versities, as have internship programs t hat gi ve students hands-on experience in conflict resolution.

whether o r no t t hey a re co mfortable in si tuations t hat entail co nflict. W hat mig ht s eem a f rivolous ma tter t o outsiders is likely to be a grave concern to the disputants. Conflict Resolution Specialists must b e able to susp end judgment. They should be good listeners who are willing to let disp utants r each t heir o wn agr eements. P erhaps most im portant o f all , C onflict Res olution S pecialists should be committed to the peacemaking process.

Unions and Associations


The N ational A ssociation f or C ommunity M ediation and t he A ssociation o f C onflict Res olution a re t he two ma in p rofessional ass ociations r epresenting p rofessionals in t his f ield. C onflict Res olution S pecialists also might be involved in t he Peace and Justice Studies Association.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Most C onflict Res olution S pecialists ha ve acq uired a t least a y ear of volunteer mediating experience. Working as a v olunteer media tor ca n hel p indi viduals dis cover

1. Look into academic programs in conflict resolution a nd p eace s tudies. I nternet dir ectories o f undergraduate a nd grad uate p rograms inc lude the student section of the Five College Program in Peace and World Security Studies (http://www. pawss.hampshire.edu) a nd CRInfo, t he C onflict Resolution I nformation S ource (h ttp://www. crinfo.org). 2. Become a v olunteer media tor. I f y ou a re a s tudent, look into peer mediation programs in your school o r co llege. To r eceive t he necess ary 40hour tra ining f or co mmunity media tion, c heck the website of the National Association for Community M ediation (w ww.nafcm.org) o r lo ok in t he y ellow pag es o f y our p hone b ook under Mediation to contact local centers. 3. Browse t he job o penings list ed o n t he N ational Association for Community Mediation website. 4. Attend conferences and gain additional training in conflict resolution to develop your skills.

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HUMAN RIGHTS ADVOCATE


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: P articipating in h uman r ights ef forts suc h as organizing p ublic ed ucation ca mpaigns a nd fac tfinding missions; conducting research; coordinating services for affected groups; monitoring legislation Alternate T itle(s): Human Rig hts A ssistant, D evelopment A ssociate, P rogram C oordinator, C ampaign Coordinator, P rogram Manager, P rogram Dir ector, Executive Director Salary Range: $18,000 to $85,000 Employment Prospects: Fair to good Advancement Prospects: Fair to good Best G eographical L ocation(s): N ew York; Washington, D .C.; M inneapolis; o ther ma jor ci ties; va rious locations abroad Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingBachelors degr ee o r higher

CAREER LADDER
Consultant, Lawyer, or Position with Related Organization Human Rights Advocate Volunteer, Intern, or Fellow

ExperienceTwo to four years Special Skills and Personality TraitsPassion and commitment; strong research, writing, and communications skills; familiarity with human rights mechanisms a nd p rocesses; a bility t o b uild a nd sust ain coalitions; knowledge of second language and willingness to travel or live abroad sometimes required

Position Description
Human Rig hts Advocates promote equality and justice for people around the world. Since the United Nationss passage of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, hundreds of nonprofit human rights groups have sprung up to further the cause. Human Rights Advocates in nonprofit organizations such as the Campaign to Ban Landmines, have spurred initiatives leading to the adoption o f in ternational tr eaties. The co ntinually e volving field of nonprofit human rights groups includes Multi-issue r esearch a nd ad vocacy gr oups, (e .g., Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch) Relief a nd de velopment o rganizations (e .g., CARE, Oxfam America) Legally oriented organizations (e.g., Center for Constitutional Rights, Center for Justice and Accountability) Organizations f ocused o n a pa rticular issue (e .g., Center f or V ictims o f T orture, Amer ican Ref ugee Committee) Organizations focused on a geographical region (e.g., Kurdish Human Rig hts P roject, Res ource C enter o f the Americas) Although t he mo dern human r ights movement has its r oots in la w a nd di plomacy, in siders ha ve s een a

general broadening of the field since t he early 1990s t o include more positions for nonlawyers. Many organizations t hat once focused primarily on civil and p olitical rights ha ve expa nded t heir ag endas t o addr ess s ocial, cultural, and economic rights both at home and abroad. Proponents o f t his ne w ho listic approach t o human rights explain that complex problems like discrimination cannot be solved through such strategies as lawsuits alone. New human rights groups and programs have formed to promote human rights education in U.S. schools, reform the World Trade Organization, protest U.S. business connections t o sw eatshops a broad, ass ess h uman r ights in the United States, and link human rights to the womens movement and various other causes. Because the field is so broad, many Human Rights Advocates specialize in a particular issue or geographical region. Human Rig hts A dvocates co mmonly r efer t o t heir employers as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to distinguish them from intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) s uch as t he United N ations. A s do o ther no nprofits, t hese NGOs generally employ f und-raisers and other administra tive st affers as w ell as H uman Rig hts Advocates involved in the organizations programs. Entry-level st affers, w ho mig ht b e called assist ants or coordinators, are commonly involved in general constituency outreach and education. Of ten groups sp on-

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sor events such as lec tures and film screenings to raise public awareness of human rights issues. I f the organization o ffers s ervices t o r efugees o r o ther c lients, t he assistant o r co ordinator mig ht a rrange f or tra nslators, doctors, a ttorneys, a nd/or o ther p rofessionals t o hel p. Entry-level staffers als o commonly do r esearch, maintain w ebsites, w ork o n mem bership, assis t wi th f undraising, and coordinate volunteers. Human Rig hts Advocates in a hig her-level p osition, such as program manager and division director, are more likely t o b e in volved in lobb ying a nd tra veling a broad. In some organizations, policy and lobbying staffers are a group unto themselves, whereas in others they are under the direction of a program manager. Some organizations look for Human Rights Advocates knowledgeable about a particular regionsuch as L atin America or the Middle Eastto work from offices either in the United States or a broad. A H uman Rig hts A dvocate in t he U nited States might coordinate fact-finding missions and other research-oriented ac tivities, w hereas s omeone a broad would compile information from the field. Positions also vary according to the orientation of the group, whether it be research, organizing, economic development, social service, legal advocacy, or a combination of strategies. A typ ical da y f or a mid- t o u pper-level st affer in a h uman r ights gr oup mig ht in volve g oing t o t he state legisla ture t o lobb y f or f unds r elated t o h uman rights (e.g., s ervices for ne w immigrants), conducting research, and writing reports. Other common responsibilities include Collaborating with affected communities to highlight grass-roots concerns Developing p lans f or o rganizing ca mpaigns, fac tfinding missions, and other activities Writing fac t sheets, p ress r eleases, a nd o ther p ublic education materials Fostering and maintaining relationships with related organizations to build coalitions Preparing budgets, fund-raising proposals, and other material Working with lawyers or other service providers Promoting a wareness o f t he o rganization t hrough public s peaking, radio in terviews, a nd o ther ac tivities Monitoring legislation and advocating for alternative policies

lowships offer a stipend or part-time wage of $8 to $10 an hour. Salaries for full-time positions vary by level of experience a nd ed ucation. En try-level st affers g enerally earn in t he $18,000 t o $25,000 ra nge, compared to $25,000 to $45,000 for midlevel and $45,000 to $85,000 for upper-level Human Rights Advocates, according to industry experts.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir t o g ood. Al though t he field of human rights is expanding, the number of fulltime salaried positions is limited because organizations rely he avily o n un paid st affs a nd p ro b ono assist ance. On t he p lus side , v olunteer p ositions, inc luding summer in ternships a nd un paid ac tivism, o ften in volve high degr ees o f r esponsibility, allo wing indi viduals t o gain valuable experience.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are fair to good because Human Rights A dvocates ca n mo ve in a va riety o f dir ections. Some en ter la w s chool t o b ecome b etter q ualified f or legal w ork in h uman r ights. Ot hers, w ho may alr eady have advanced degrees, move to higher-level positions in la rger o rganizations o r st art t heir o wn p rivate o r nonprofit organization. Still others find positions with a variety of related organizations, including Consulting groups involved in human rights Charitable foundations that fund human rights work Research-oriented human rights centers, think tanks, and academic programs Intergovernmental organizations s uch as t he United Nations Governmental o rganizations, inc luding co ngressional committees involved in human rights

Education and Training


A bachelors degree is generally required for entry-level positions. A la w degr ee o r mast ers degr ee in in ternational r elations, ed ucation, eco nomics, h uman r ights, public p olicy, o r a r elated dis cipline is o ften r ecommended or required for mid- t o upper-level p ositions. In some cases, a la w degree is r equired. In other cases, particularly in grassr oots-organizing gr oups, exp erience is g enerally mo re im portant t han a n ad vanced degree, ind ustry in siders s ay. Ot her indi viduals en ter human rights work from a clinical background in social work, p ublic he alth, o r a r elated f ield, w hich q ualifies t hem for p ositions such as w orking with refugees. Requirements vary from organization to organization.

Salaries
In the field of human rights, many positions are unpaid or part-time. In general, internships are unpaid and fel-

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Courses in human rights are becoming increasingly common at all le vels of education, as s ome elementary and secondary schools are incorporating human rights into s ocial st udies, la nguage a rts, a nd o ther c urriculums. I ncreasingly, co lleges a nd uni versities a re o ffering classes, self-designed majors, or entire programs in human rights. Courses in human rights generally introduce students to four documents known collectively as the International Bill of Human Rights. Graduate p rograms in h uman r ights a re g enerally offered through law schools or schools of international relations. Thes e inc lude, b ut a re no t limi ted t o, la w school programs at American University, Harvard University, Yale University, and the University of Minnesota; masters degr ee p rograms a t t he University o f Chicag o and the University of Denver; and both law school and masters degree programs at Columbia University. At t he under graduate le vel, co lleges a nd uni versities o ffering p rograms in h uman r ights list ed o n t he Derechos Human Rights website include Bard College, Colby College, Purdue University, Trinity College, Tufts University, t he U niversity o f Chicag o, a nd W ebster University. M any o ther co lleges a nd uni versities o ffer courses or self-designed majors in human rights. Internships are a common way to acquire hands-on experience in h uman r ights. M any in ternships o ffer high levels of responsibility, as h uman rights organizations rely heavily on unpaid staff. Fellowships offering part-time pay are also common in this field.

their work, Human Rights Advocates need to know when to compromise and w hen to hold f irm. Knowledge of a second la nguage is s ometimes r equired, pa rticularly in positions abroad. Many relief and development organizations, for instance, hire individuals to work in the field. Like other activists, Human Rights Advocates must be willin g t o w eather t ough ba ttles t hat ma y end in defeat. Arguing for immigrant rights, for example, can be dif ficult in a t ime o f incr eased na tional s ecurity. The breadth and depth of t he work can s ometimes b e overwhelming. Human Rights Advocates should value making a co ntribution to s ocial justice over monetary gain, as pay in this field is relatively low.

Unions and Associations


Industry in siders kno w o f no p rofessional ass ociation specifically o rganized f or H uman Rig hts A dvocates. Internet-based organizations such as D erechos Human Rights (h ttp://www.derechos.org) a nd t he H uman Rights I nternet (h ttp://www.hri.ca) s erve as c learinghouses for the broad human rights community, providing information about internships, jobs, and the issues.

Tips for Entry

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Human rights organizations often look for volunteer or intern experience as an indication of passion and commitment. As mentioned earlier, human rights organizations dep end he avily o n v olunteers a nd in terns, o ften giving t hem hig h le vels o f r esponsibility. I nterns a nd volunteers a re co mmonly involved in grassr oots o rganizing, h uman r ights ed ucation, fac t-finding ef forts, and va rious o ther le adership-building r esponsibilities. Human r ights w ork in troduces ne wcomers t o e verything from the plight of the Kurds in I ran to the business practices of corporate America. In t he f ield o f h uman r ights, r esearch a nd wr iting skills are important, as indi viduals must b e able to craft a mess age t hat is b oth kno wledgeable a nd co nvincing. Many p ositions in h uman r ights r equire a s olid kno wledge o f co mplex g overnment p rocedures a nd p ractices. For example, someone working for a group to prevent the sexual exploitation of children might be involved in monitoring the implementation of an international plan that calls for, among other things, promoting extradition and other arrangements to curb sex tourism. In the course of

1. Look into courses or programs in h uman rights. If y our s chool do es no t o ffer o ne, r esearch a human r ights t opic f or a pa per o r design y our own major, combining courses from a variety of disciplines, including p olitical s cience, economics, anthropology, and law or legal studies. 2. Pinpoint a n a rea in h uman r ights most in line with y our o wn in terests. B rowse t he University of M innesotas H uman Rig hts C enter lib rary (http://www.umn.edu/humanrts) a nd/or D erechos (h ttp://www.derechos.org/links) listin g o f issueschildrens r ights, r eparations, t orture, and s o o nand g eographical a reascountries, regions, and so on. 3. Find o ut a bout v olunteer jobs, in ternships, a nd fellowships, as w ell as pa id p ositions, in h uman rights. Helpful websites include the University of Minnesotas Human Rig hts C enter (http://www. hrusa.org), D erechos H uman Rig hts (h ttp:// www.derechos.org), ReliefW eb (h ttp://www. reliefweb.int), One W orld.net (h ttp://www. oneworld.net), a nd t he H uman Rig hts I nternet (http://www.hri.ca). 4. Study a f oreign la nguage o r tw o. I nsiders r ecommend languages spoken by large numbers of people, including French, Spanish, Chinese, Russian, and Arabic. 5. Get in volved. V olunteer o pportunities in t his field abound.

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PEACE WORKER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: P olicy r esearch; lo bbying; p ublic ed ucation; petitioning a nd p rotest ac tion; co mmunity s ervice; intercultural citizen-to-citizen diplomacy Alternate T itle(s): P rogram A ssistant, G rassroots Organizer, Peace Educator Salary Range: $18,000 to $35,000 Employment Prospects: Fair to good Advancement Prospects: Fair to good Best G eographical L ocation(s): W ashington, D .C., New En gland; Philadel phia; N orthern C alifornia; and major cities Prerequisites: Education or TrainingCollege degree or higher

CAREER LADDER
Position with Larger Organization Peace Worker Intern, or Volunteer

ExperienceEntry-level or some experience Special Sk ills a nd P ersonality T raitsResearch, writing, administra tive, a nd gras sroots o rganizing skills; strong sense of commitment to world peace

Position Description
Peace Workers ad vocate no nviolent s olutions t o co nflicts b etween na tions. Al though t hey w ork f or o rganizations t hat va ry in f ocus, t hey sha re a co mmon idealism. Peace Workers give a high degree of commitment to their jobs, which tend to be relatively low-paying, if t hey pa y a t all , since m uch o f t he w ork in t his field is done by volunteer activists. A church-sponsored organization, for example, might offer a P eace Worker room and board in place of a modest salary. The jobs o f P eace W orkers va ry s omewhat f rom organization t o o rganization. A p eace o rganization in Washington, D .C., f or exa mple, mig ht f ocus o n lobbying C ongress, w hereas o ne els ewhere mig ht de vote more attention to educational activities. Most p eace organizations, t hough, combine a va riety of activities, as staffers generally do a little of everything: Producing posters and newsletters Organizing protests Arranging lobbying activities Holding meetings Doing mailings for fund-raising and other activities

and developing strategy. For example, he o r she mig ht organize a campaign to block development and deployment o f a ne w n uclear missile , a n ac tivity t hat w ould necessitate lobbying, petition drives, press conferences, and demonstrations.

Salaries
Salaries ra nge f rom a bout $18,000 t o $35,000. S omeone st arting out with a small o rganization mig ht e arn in t he $18,000 t o $23,000 ra nge, compared to $23,000 to $30,000 a t a mid-sized a nd $30,000 t o $35,000 a t a larger organization.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re fa ir t o g ood. Al though t he number o f sala ried jo bs i s r elatively sm all beca use o f the high reliance on volunteers, jobs open up regularly, creating o pportunities f or ne wcomers. P eace Workers tend to be young people who leave after a f ew years to continue their education or seek other positions. Many who work for peace see themselves as pa rt of a mo vement for social change involving issues such as poverty and hunger as w ell as wa r. Some Peace Workers go on to law school or other graduate training.

Someone j ust st arting o ut mig ht do mo re kno cking o n do ors a nd st uffing en velopes t han s omeone in a midlevel position, although both would have a co mbination o f r esponsibilities. S omeone in a hig her-level position w ould b e in volved in o verseeing t he b udget

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re fa ir t o g ood. Al though there a re no t ma ny s enior-level p ositions in t he f ield, the types of advocacy skills one acquires in peace organizations are valued in o ther settings. A P eace Worker

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might move on to a public interest group or humanitarian-aid organization, for example.

Education and Training


Students interested in p eace can major in a tradi tional discipline suc h as p olitical s cience o r o pt f or o ne o f more than 100 undergraduate degree or certificate programs specifically in p eace studies. This r elatively new discipline emer ged as a s cholarly r eaction t o W orld War I and World War II, according to the Five College Program in Peace and World Security Studies (PAWSS), based at Hampshire College in Amherst, Massachusetts. Peace studies take a widel y interdisciplinary approach, drawing o n t he s ocial s ciences, lib eral a rts, a nd in ternational r elations. O ver t he y ears, t he dis cipline has evolved t o inc lude dis cussion o f no t o nly p eace b ut also issues suc h as p overty and oppression underlying human conflict. Many people in the field of peace studies share an interest in suc h related t opics as en vironmental studies, womens studies, human rights, religion, ethics, international law, and social movements. Programs in p eace st udies o ften b egin wi th t he teachings o f suc h w ell-known p roponents o f no nviolence as M ohandas Ga ndhi a nd M artin L uther K ing, Jr. C ourses als o exa mine past in ternational ef forts t o prevent war and promote p eace, including t he L eague of N ations a nd t he U nited N ations, a nd ass ess p ossible new approaches to peacemaking. Many programs also p lace pa rticular em phasis o n t he p rinciples a nd methods of conflict resolution, encouraging students to participate in workshops and training sessions in negotiation and mediation. Programs in p eace and conflict studies reflect this growing trend. Most programs in p eace studies extend beyond the classroom. P rograms typ ically s ponsor lec ture a nd seminar series and encourage students to assume more active roles as citizens. At t he grad uate le vel, p rograms fall in to six b road areas: p eace and justice in t he religious context, general peace and conflict studies, mediation and conflict resolution, citizen participation in socioeconomic development, arms co ntrol a nd in ternational s ecurity, a nd/or p ublic interest law and alternative dispute resolution. Many programs combine two or more areas. Traditional graduate programs in in ternational r elations, eco nomic de velopment, p olitical s cience, s ociology, psychology, and other relevant fields also address issues related to peace.

From there, they might volunteer at a local peace organization, t hen b ecome a mem ber o f t he st aff. P eace Workers commonly move from local to national organizations. As do o ther positions in ac tivism, peace work calls for a va riety o f skillsr esearching, wr iting, f undraising, grassr oots o rganizing, a nd lo bbying. P eace Workers p ore o ver g overnment do cuments a nd da ta, produce newsletters and press releases, raise funds and manage b udgets, a nd o rganize ac tivities a nd lobb ying campaigns. Insiders say that Peace Workers should have a strong degree o f co mmitment b ecause ma ny jobs a re un paid or p oorly paid. Peace Workers derive their motivation less f rom a pa ycheck t han f rom a co mmon desir e t o prevent wa r, cr eate a mo re demo cratic a nd eq uitable society, and promote human rights and economic wellbeing a round t he w orld. P eace Workers, t hough, ca n feel o verwhelmed b y t he eno rmity o f t he c hallenge. Gains a re o ften f ollowed b y s etbacks. One wa r ends, and another begins. Funding is scarce. Instead of trying to s olve all t he worlds problems at once, Peace Workers should be able to divide up their work into discrete tasks and believe in t he long-term importance of what they are doing.

Unions and Associations


Peace Workers mig ht b elong t o t he P eace a nd J ustice Studies Association.

Tips for Entry

1. Volunteer for a local peace group. Check out college bulletin boards, area chapters of the American Friends Service Committee or Peace Action, or lo cal no tices t o f ind o ut a bout wa ys t o g et involved. 2. Check o ut lis tings o f o rganizations a nd p eace studies programs on the students section of the website o f t he F ive C olleges P rogram in P eace and World Security Studies (http://pawss.hampshire.edu). 3. Look f or p eace-oriented p ositions o n em ployment websites (e.g., http://www.idealist.org) specializing in the nonprofit sector. 4. Browse the website of the U.S. Institute for Peace (http://www.usip.org), est ablished b y t he U .S. government in 1984 t o su pport r esearch a nd education on peace studies.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many individuals become involved in t he peace movement b y a ttending a p rotest rall y, lec ture, o r s eminar.

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WOMENS RIGHTS ACTIVIST


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Vary by position but may include policy work, advocacy, research, and/or direct services as w ell as administrative support Alternate Title(s): Regional Organizer, Advocate, Program Specialist, Policy Associate, Research Specialist, Government Relations Director Salary Range: $32,000 to $75,000 Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Fair to good Best Geographical Location(s): Major cities Prerequisites: Education o r T rainingBachelors o r grad uate degree ExperienceEntry level or two to five years

CAREER LADDER
Executive Director Womens Rights Activist Student, Intern, or Volunteer

Special S kills a nd P ersonality T raitsCommitment to womens rights; excellent verbal and written communication skills; cr itical t hinking; co mputer literacy; willingness to work long hours

Position Description
Womens Rig hts A ctivists f ight f or g ender eq uality o n a n umber o f dif ferent f ronts: legal , p olitical, a nd economic, t o na me j ust a f ew. F rom winnin g t he r ight to vote in 1920, W omens Rig hts Activists have fought forand w onthe Eq ual P ay A ct, a bortion r ights, seats in Congress, sports programs for girls, and prohibitions against sexual harassment. Now Womens Rights Activists a re tr ying t o a ppeal t o a ne w g eneration o f women, many of whom may be reluctant to call t hemselves feminists. Some bristle at the word itself, which they see as o verly strident. Others believe that women already have equal rights. In a n a rticle in Ms. ma gazine, t he w ell-known Womens Rig hts A ctivist Glo ria S teinem r esponds t o the q uestion, W here a re all t he y oung f eminists? S he answers that, whereas males tend to be rebellious when young a nd mo re co nservative wi th ag e, w omen o ften start out conservative but get radicalized by experience. Problems at home and/or in t he workplace spur many women to activism. Over the past few decades, t he feminist movement has b ranched o ut t o inc lude a va riety o f ca uses a nd agendas. Womens Rig hts A ctivists dif fer o n a nswers to questions like, Should men be included in the organization? , W hat sho uld t he missio n o f t he o rganization be?, and Which is more importantthe economic concerns of t he general public or t he agenda of longtime members?

Womens Rig hts Activists s ay t hat gender dis crimination has b ecome mo re sub tle a nd co mplex over t he years. For example, although men and women must be paid the same wages for equal jobs, they can be paid different salaries for equivalent work. Activists believe that maids are paid less than housemen in the hotel industry because womens labor is val ued less t han mens. The y also sp eak a bout a glass ceilin g, a le vel a bove w hich few professional women are able to rise. Since the 1970s, myriad organizations have sprouted up to advance the causes of women. Insiders says that categories of womens rights organizations include Legal advocacy Single issue constituency Multi-issue advocacy Research and think tanks Political advancement Direct service

The f irst ca tegory, legal ad vocacy gr oups (e .g., t he National Womens L aw C enter, Womens Eq ual Rig hts Advocates), litigate cases to change laws and break new legal ground. Next are the groups that deal with either a single issue (e.g., Planned Parenthood) or a particular constituency (e.g., Black Women United for Action). Third on the list: multi-issue advocacy groups such as the National Organization for Women (NOW), the largest f eminist o rganization in t he co untry, a nd um brella

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groups such as t he National Council of Womens Organizations. S maller, grassr oots gr oups als o ad vocate f or women, as do o rganizations not specifically devoted to gender such as labor unions and antipoverty groups. Fourth a re r esearch in stitutes o r t hink t anks, s uch as t he I nstitute f or Womens P olicy Res earch a nd t he Center for Advancement of Public Policy, that conduct studies on issues suc h as vio lence against women and affirmative ac tion. Next on t he list: p olitical advancement groups (e.g., the National Womens Political Caucus, the Womens Campaign Fund) that help women get elected t o o ffice a nd mak e p olitical p rogress. F inally, direct s ervice o rganizations, suc h as lo cal w omens shelters a nd y outh o rganizations, p rovide ha nds-on care to clients as well as outreach work and advocacy. Womens r ights ac tivism is suc h a b road f ield t hat responsibilities va ry wi th t he na ture o f t he p osition. Someone working in a lo cal womens shelter, for example, is bound to perform a different array of tasks than a project manager for a large national organization. Such dif ferences no twithstanding, Womens Rig hts Activists often do p olicy work, advocacy, research, and some lo wer-level administra tive t asks. F or exa mple, someone w orking o n t he pa y ga p b etween men a nd women mig ht do r esearch a nd o rganize su pport f or a b ill t o c hange i t. I n addi tion t o do ing elec toral a nd lobbying work, a W omens Rig hts Activist mig ht wr ite press releases and coordinate headline-grabbing events such as marches, rallies, and/or pickets.

for exa mple, mig ht o rganize a n exhib it o n t extiles t o highlight the lives of the women who made them.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are fair to good. As one moves up the career ladder, prospects get tighter. Insiders say that many top leaders, particularly founders of organizations, stay in their positions for a long time. On a mo re p ositive no te, t he va riety o f p ositions within the womens movement creates opportunities for growth. A s W omen Rig hts A ctivists ga in exp erience, they ma y ad vance t o ma nagement p ositions. S omeone wi th a lo ng hist ory o f w omens r ights ac tivism, for example, might become political director of a la rge group such as the National Organization for Women. Another p ossibility is usin g w omens r ights ac tivism as a stepping stone to a related career. For instance, someone might go from researching womens issues t o working f or a t hink t ank in volved in a b roader a rray of issues. S imilarly, a W omens Rig hts A ctivist mig ht decide to run for political office.

Education and Training


Many W omens Rig hts A ctivists ha ve t aken co urses dealing with t he inf luence of gender in s ociety. In t he past 30 years, the number of womens studies programs has gr own almost t enfold, acco rding t o a n a rticle in Newsweek magazine . W omens st udies p rograms va ry from college to college but typically draw on a va riety of dis ciplines, inc luding a nthropology, s ociology, economics, and history. Although supporters praise these programs for filling a ga p in ed ucation, s ome sk eptics fa ult t hem f or b eing more about camaraderie than about scholarship. Decades of criticism, though, have not slowed the growth of womens studies. From 78 womens studies programs, centers, or depa rtments in 1973, t he n umber t oday has gr own to some 736, according to an article in Newsweek. Some programs inc lude a v olunteer co mponent, in troducing students to a variety of womens rights organizations. But indi viduals need no t major in w omens studies to em bark o n a ca reer in t he f ield. Ot her lib eral a rts majors, such as English, history, or political science, are also useful. Any discipline that trains students to think critically and analytically provides a g ood background for work in social change, insiders say. Some p ositions in w omens r ights ac tivism call f or graduate-level tra ining. A p osition in legal ad vocacy, for example, might call for a law degree; a think tank, a graduate degree in p ublic policy or a r elated field; and direct service, a degree in social work.

Salaries
Salaries generally fall into the $32,000 to $75,000 range, rising with levels of experience and responsibility. In a large o rganization suc h as t he N ational Or ganization for Women, a p rogram assist ant w ould w ork under a program coordinator, who, in t urn, would work under a director.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood b ecause o f t he vast number of nonprofit organizations devoted to womens issues. Positions a re s omewhat dep endent o n p olitical times, as ne w jobs are created in response to perceived threats t o w omens r ights. A t hreat t o a bortion r ights, for example, is likely to trigger activity in the field. Nonpaying a nd pa rt-time o pportunities als o abound. I nsiders s ay t hat ma ny f eminists vie w ac tivism as a state of mind rather than a career choice. They help the womens movement with organizing and other activities w hile b ringing a feminist co nsciousness t o whatever they do t o make a li ving. A museum curator,

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Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Because the field of womens rights is so broad, experience, skills, and personality traits depend largely on the nature o f t he p osition in q uestion. S omeone co unseling c lients, f or exa mple, needs a dif ferent s et o f skills than s omeone managing projects. Direct s ervice p ositions may require knowledge of Spanish, and a lobbying position might call for political or legal experience. An organizing position, in turn, may call for a few years of grassroots experience. A belief in social change is crucial for anyone interested in womens rights activism. Also important: excellent o ral a nd wr itten co mmunication skills, b ecause whether o ne is hel ping vic tims o f do mestic a buse o r lobbying C ongress o n em ployment issues, o ne needs to be able to connect with others. Computer skills have become increasingly important, as virtual organizing by Internet now links activists around the world. Political savvy, too, comes in ha ndy whether one is lo oking for increased funding for a womens shelter or advocating for reproductive freedom.

more than 100 w omens organizations, or the National Organization f or Women, t he la rgest f eminist o rganization in t he na tion, wi th mo re t han half a millio n contributing mem bers. The N ational Womens Studies Association represents colleges, universities, and others involved in feminist education.

Tips for Entry

1. Determine y our own a reas o f interest a nd skills to gi ve t o a job . Ar e y ou co ncerned a bout economic eq uity, do mestic vio lence, elec toral p olitics, or something else? Do you want to work on the front lines o r behind the scenes? What type of skills (e .g., wr iting, co unseling, o rganizing) would you like to develop? 2. Read books and articles about the womens movement. B rowse dir ectories o f w omens o rganizations in libraries and on-line. 3. Volunteer for a local womens organization. 4. Look in to co llege a nd grad uate p rograms in womens studies and related fields.

Unions and Associations


Individuals mig ht b elong t o t he N ational C ouncil o f Womens Or ganizations, a b ipartisan o rganization o f

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LOBBIES, UNIONS, AND ASSOCIATIONS

LABOR UNION ORGANIZER


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Educating workers about their rights; explaining the union organizing process; recruiting, developing, and mobilizing worker organizing committees; developing and carrying out plans for union campaigns Salary Range: $22,000 to $70,000 Employment Prospects: Excellent Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best Geographical Location: None Prerequisites: Education or TrainingVarious backgrounds ExperienceSix months preferred Special S kills and P ersonality T raitsCommitment t o w orkers r ights; ener gy a nd en thusiasm;

CAREER LADDER
Lead Organizer Labor Union Organizer Recent College Graduate or Union Member

leadership q ualities; g ood list ening a nd co mmunication skills; willin gness to work long and irregular hours

Position Description
Labor Union Organizers help groups of workers, ranging from janitors to airplane pilots, obtain union representation to improve their working conditions. After years of declining membership due to Americas shrinking industrial base, unions are looking beyond the traditional men in hard hats to recruit new members. Hotel and restaurant workers, health care workers, government employees, and, most recently, doctors are joining unions, changing the face of American labor. The vast majority of groups are affiliated with one of two um brella o rganizations: t he Amer ican F ederation of L aborCongress o f I ndustrial Or ganizations (AFL CIO) o r Cha nge t o W in (f ounded in 2005). The r est are independent. Whether working for an independent union o r a n AFL -CIO o r Cha nge t o Win a ffiliate, t he Labor Union Organizer has the same basic role of educating and mobilizing workers. Labor Union Organizers b egin t heir careers in different ways: Some workers become activists on the job; other individuals become Labor Union Organizers after being exposed to labor issues through campus activities and/or jobs in ac tivism. S omeone mig ht, f or exa mple, be a co mmunity organizer involved in a li ving-wage campaign. From there, the individual might hear about a national union looking for Organizers or apply to the AFL-CIOs Organizing Institute. An individuals first assignment might involve a local organizing drive lasting a few months. Typically, a drive begins after someone has called t he union to complain

about w orking co nditions. P erhaps s alaries ha ve b een cut or benefits revoked. The new organizer might begin by calling the person who lodged the complaint. Can he or she f ind five fellow workers to take to an organizing meeting? B ecause L abor Union Organizers are usually not allowed in t he workplace, t hey meet wi th workers outside the facility or at their homes. Much o f t he w ork o f L abor U nion Or ganizers involves list ening t o a nd enco uraging w orkers. Of ten new L abor U nion Or ganizers a re pa ired wi th mo re experienced le ad o rganizers, w ho acco mpany t hem to ho use meetin gs. A s t he ca mpaign de velops, L abor Union Organizers might prepare and distribute leaflets, meet with workers in their homes, and lead organizing meetings. The next step is to persuade one-third of workers to sign union cards. Once that is accomplished, the Labor Union Organizer can petition the National Labor Relations Board for an election. Often management opposes the dr ive. Workers ini tially fa vorable t o t he ca mpaign might back away from the union, afraid of losing their jobs or seeing conditions worsen in a heated battle. Each ca mpaign p resents i ts o wn c hallenges. L abor Union Organizers often need to devise innovative strategies to mobilize workers and hold employers accountable. I n a r estaurant in L as Vegas, f or exa mple, L abor Union Organizers orchestrated a sip-in, during which members took over a r estaurant, ordering nothing but water f or t hree ho urs b efore ti pping t he s ervers a nd leaving. S uch ac tions ma y r esult in vic tories f or t he

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union t hat o ccur a fter mo nths, if no t y ears, o f u phill battles.

Salaries
Salaries f or L abor U nion Or ganizers g enerally ra nge from $22,000 to $70,000, according to industry sources. Labor Union Organizers for low-paying industries like farmwork pay less than those for high-paying ones like aviation.

ship a s a s hop s teward while s till dra wing a pa ycheck from the company. A variety of backgrounds and experiences ca n hel p s omeone b ecome a successf ul L abor Union Organizer.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Labor unions generally look for individuals with organizing exp erience, ei ther wi th a la bor unio n o r in a comparable group. Student and community organizing may s atisfy exp erience r equirements. I ndividuals als o can gain experience by volunteering or participating in training p rograms suc h as t he AFL -CIOs Or ganizing Institute. Union o rganizing is a nything b ut a 9-t o-5 job . Individuals m ust b e p repared t o w ork lo ng a nd o ften irregular ho urs. The y o ften meet wi th w orkers in t he evenings and at the beginnings or ends of shifts. Many Labor Union Organizers sp end much of their time o n the road, traveling from one campaign to another. Although some think of Labor Union Organizers as individuals who make speeches, insiders say that union organizers sp end m uch mo re o f t heir time listening than talking. They work with diverse groups of people and should be sensitive to their concerns. Labor Union Or ganizers als o sho uld have a s trong commitment t o s ocial a nd eco nomic c hange, as ca mpaigns ca n b e long a nd he ated. Unions a re controversial, criticized by some people as too big and powerful. To hold their own, Labor Union Organizers must have energy and enthusiasm, le adership qualities, resourcefulness, and strong communication skills. B eing bilingual can be a plus.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re ex cellent b ecause, a fter years of decline, the labor movement is trying to attract new mem bers. A s a r esult, ma ny unio ns a re cr eating new positions for Labor Union Organizers. The Service Employees International Union is a prime example.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re ex cellent b ecause L abor Union Or ganizers can r ise t o hig her le vels of pay and responsibility within the labor movement. Many Labor Union Organizers move up to positions like lead organizer after a year on the job. The le ad organizer makes key decisio ns a nd su pervises o thers. S ome indi viduals b ecome lo ng-time o rganizers w hile o thers c hoose a variety of paths, including jobs in p olitics and social justice.

Education and Training


Labor U nion Or ganizers ha ve a va riety o f bac kgrounds, as o n-the-job exp erience can b e as val uable as a co llege degree. Many college graduates le arn t he ropes of organizing workers through union-sponsored training p rograms. S ome unio ns co nduct t heir o wn training, b ut ma ny o f t he 65 unio ns under t he AFL CIO um brella r efer indi viduals t o t he o rganizations Organizing Institute. The AFL-CIOs Organizing Institute includes classroom training, field training, and job p lacement. Individuals accepted into this paid training program begin with a t hree-day weekend training session. Those who do w ell g o o n t o a pa id 10-da y o rientation a nd t hen three months of fieldwork. Field training offers a weekly salary, ho using, tra nsportation, a nd he alth in surance. Those w ho successf ully co mplete t he p rogram a re placed in permanent positions. Labor Union Organizers also take other paths. Someone w ho has w orked as a co mmunity o rganizer, f or example, might be a good candidate for a union looking for roughly equivalent skills. Someone else might have a masters degree in labor studies. Still another candidate might be a ra nk-and-file worker who assumed le ader-

Unions and Associations


The AFL -CIO is a n um brella o rganization t hat tra ins individuals t hrough i ts Or ganizing I nstitute. S ome Labor U nion Or ganizers als o b elong t o t he N ational Organizers Allia nce. Ano ther um brella o rganization, Change t o Win, was f ounded in 2005 a nd co nsists o f seven unions, including the Service Employees International Union.

Tips for Entry

1. Participate in a student group dealing with issues like o pposition t o t uition hik es o r sw eatshops. Many st udent gr oups de al wi th eco nomic a nd labor issues. 2. Check o ut I nternet w ebsites f or job p ostings. Several si tes de aling wi th t he no nprofit s ector list unio n o rganizing jobs; o ne si te in pa rticularhttp://www.unionjobs.comspecializes in the area.

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3. Get a t le ast six mo nths o f unio n o rganizing experience. C andidates ca n ga in exp erience through o pportunities p rovided b y t he AFL CIOs Or ganizing I nstitute (h ttp://www.aflcio. org) o r unio n dr ives lo oking f or t emporary o r volunteer organizers.

4. Read u p o n t he la bor mo vement. H elpful resources inc lude t he L abornet w ebsite (h ttp:// www.labornet.org). 5. Check o ut t he J ob Op portunities pag e o n t he Change to Win website: http://www.changetowin. org.

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LOBBYIST
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Res earching a nd a nalyzing legisla tion a nd/or regulatory proposals; attending legislative he arings; providing inf ormation; b uilding su pport f or issues of concern Alternate T itle(s): G overnment Af fairs Rep resentative, Government Relations Manager, Legislative Associate Salary Range: $30,000 to $250,000+ Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geo graphical L ocation: Washington, D.C., st ate capitals Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors, masters, or law degree

CAREER LADDER
Partner; Government Relations Director Lobbyist Legislative Staffer or Government Relations Coordinator

ExperienceThree t o f ive y ears o f legisla tive experience Special Skills and Personality TraitsStrong publicspeaking skills; energy; charisma; connections

Position Description
Lobbyists g et t heir na me f rom t heir p ractice o f b uttonholing lawmakers in the lobbies of state legislatures and C ongress. All s orts o f o rganizationstrade a nd professional ass ociations, la bor unio ns, p ublic in terest groups, corporations, even state, local, and foreign governmentshire L obbyists t o ad vocate f or t heir points o f vie w. L obbyists ba ttle f or o r aga inst ha ndguns. They skirmish over smoking, foreign trade, and oil rights. Although some people might think Lobbyists spend most of their time talking to lawmakers, such exchanges represent o nly a small pa rt o f t he job , acco rding t o the Amer ican L eague o f L obbyists. I nstead, L obbyists spend the bulk of their time researching and analyzing legislation, attending congressional or regulatory hearings, w orking wi th coali tions in terested in t he s ame issues, a nd ed ucating o thers a bout t he implications o f various changes. Lobbyists can work either for a p rofessional lobbying firm that represents a variety of clients or for a particular organization. In the first case, the Lobbyist acts as a hired gun on an issue of concern to the client. In the second, he o r she w orks on public-policy issues o f concern t o t he o rganization. The lo bbyist mig ht have a ti tle lik e g overnment r elations ma nager ra ther t han Lobbyist when working for an organization.

Lobbying can be either direct or indirect, and many positions en tail b oth. I n dir ect lobb ying, L obbyists focus their efforts on influencing government decision makers. In indirect lobbying, also known as grassr oots lobbying, L obbyists o rganize o thers, o ften v olunteer activists, t o wr ite let ters, sign p etitions, a ttend meetings, jo in p rotests, a nd o therwise sp eak o ut o n issues of concern. Because government officials often lack the resources to do their own in-depth research, they commonly turn to trusted Lobbyists for information. Lobbyists compile information, often including charts, data from p olls, a nd r eports, o n ho w g overnment p olicies will affect their organizations. Few f ields ha ve g enerated mo re co ntroversy. S ome lobbying ac tivities, s uch as t estifying b efore a legislative committee, occur in the open, whereas others take place in p rivate, ra ising et hical q uestions. D epending on ones p oint of vie w, a L obbyist is ei ther an unscrupulous influence p eddler o r a ha rdworking activist. In keeping with Americas tradition of free speech, any citizenrich or poor, liberal or conservativecan lobby the government. Paid Lobbyists typically keep fast-paced s chedules. Many in Washington, D.C., have offices on K S treet, a location that allows them to bound over to Capitol Hill quickly if a b usy mem ber o f C ongress has a f ew f ree minutes. At any given time, Lobbyists know the status

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of bills affecting their issues. W hich ones are before a committee? Which ones are up for a floor vote? Lobbyists testify before committees, distribute press releases, chat wi th r eporters, a nd tr y t o meet wi th p oliticians and aides. A L obbyist r epresenting a b usiness in terest, f or instance, mig ht wa nt t o meet wi th s enators a nd r epresentatives w hose distr icts em ploy a lo t o f p eople in that ind ustry. I f a pa rticular r egulation g oes t hrough, the L obbyist mig ht a rgue, t housands o f p eople in t he district could lose their jobs. Back in t he o ffice, L obbyists r esearch issues a nd phone staffers to check Legislators positions on various bills. The y w ork o n stra tegies. A grassr oots L obbyist might collect signatures on a petition in favor of certain legislation. If the Lobbyist can produce thousands of signatures, the legislator is bound to take notice or risk the possibility of losing valuable votes come election time.

bying to practice law, take high-level government positions, o r r etire, ena bling o thers t o r ise t o hig her-level positions within their organizations.

Education and Training


Educational requirements vary, depending on the firm or gr oup. P rofessional lobb ying f irms do minated b y lawyers usuall y r equire la w degr ees f or t op p ositions. Most o ther p ositions r equire a t le ast a co llege degr ee, with experience on Capitol Hill a definite plus. Political science courses are useful, as are new programs in political management. Such programs include the Lobbying Institute, a tw o-week in tensive co urse o ffered twice a year by t he C enter f or P residential a nd C ongressional Studies at American University in Washington, D.C.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Many L obbyists have held p ositions such as legisla tive aide, committee staffer, or chief of staff in the legislative sector. Because Lobbyists must thoroughly understand the legislative process, employers often look for experience on Capitol Hill. Some indi viduals, t hough, b ecome L obbyists wi thout such experience. In the world of trade a nd professional ass ociations, f or exa mple, a n indi vidual mig ht rise u p t he ra nks f rom g overnment r elations co ordinator t o g overnment r elations dir ector. An ac tivist involved in lobbying can advance similarly in his or her organization. In this personality-driven field, it helps to have charisma. L obbyists need t o b e co nfident a nd p ersuasive enough to convince people to do w hat they want them to do. Yet, they should be low-key enough that Legislators f eel inf ormed a nd p ersuaded ra ther t han co erced and threatened by their actions. Insiders say that a soft sell approach works b etter than a ha rd s ell. L egislators wa nt inf ormation f rom L obbyists t o b e r eliable even if it is favorable to a particular point of view.

Salaries
Salaries va ry gr eatly, as w ell-funded p rivate ind ustries pay considerably more than nonprofit advocacy groups. Someone wi th limi ted exp erience w orking f or a small organization mig ht e arn $30,000, co mpared t o mo re than $100,000 f or someone with a f ew years of Capitol Hill experience, according to the Center for Responsive Politics. Legislative staffers who have worked in high-profile positions, suc h as o n t he a ppropriations co mmittee, generally e arn mo re t han t hose w ho ha ve less visib le jobs. Lawyers, too, are often in demand, as are individuals who have held political office. In W ashington, D .C., w ell-connected mem bers o f Congress who go into lobbying might earn $500,000 to $1 million a y ear, according to the Center for Responsive P olitics. I ndividuals w ho ha ve es tablished visib le careers on Capitol Hill can skip the middle rungs of the career ladder, jumping right to partner or head of their own lobbying firms. Some Lobbyists are paid a straight salary; others work on a contract or commission basis.

Unions and Associations


Associations of interest to Lobbyists include the American League of Lobbyists, the American Society of Association Ex ecutives, a nd t he Amer ican A ssociation o f Political Consultants.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re g ood b ecause o f t he va riety o f o rganizationsprofessional a nd trade ass ociations, co rporations, a nd p ublic in terest a nd no nprofit groupsthat hir e L obbyists. I n C ongress, L obbyists need to register with the Senate Public Records Office and/or the House Legislative Resource Center.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re g ood b ecause t urnover creates new opportunities. Some individuals leave lob-

1. Hone y our p ublic-speaking skills b y jo ining a debate team or otherwise developing ease in talking about political issues. 2. Get legislative experience to develop an insiders knowledge o f la wmaking. C apitol H ill exp erience is particularly useful.

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3. Develop grassr oots lo bbying skills b y w orking as a ca nvasser, o r f ield o rganizer, o r ca mpaign volunteer. These entry-level positions help individuals ho ne t he b asic p ersuasive skills needed by Lobbyists.

4. Volunteer to work on a p olitical campaign. Lobbying and mobilizing support for a candidate or issue require similar skills.

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MEMBERSHIP DIRECTOR, ASSOCIATION


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Identify and acquire new members; retain existing members; manage membership database Alternate T itle(s): Recr uitment Dir ector, Ret ention Director, M embership a nd M arketing Dir ector, Membership Service Representative Salary Range: $40,000 to $92,000 Employment Prospects: Excellent Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geo graphical L ocation: Washington, D.C.; st ate capitals Prerequisites: Education or TrainingBachelors degree ExperienceTwo to five years

CAREER LADDER
Position with Larger Association or Executive Director Membership Director Entry Level in Related Field

Special Skills and Personality TraitsUnderstanding of ma rketing t asks suc h as p ublic r elations, ad vertising, and copywriting; ability to communicate well with members; belief in and commitment to the association

Position Description
Membership Dir ectors he ad u p ef forts t o r ecruit ne w members and retain the old, knowing that the larger the membership, the more powerful the association. An association is basicall y a c lub organized to promote the interests of members, often through lobbying. Some 70 percent of all Americans belong to at least one association, acco rding t o Ro nald K rannich a nd C aryl Krannich, Ph.D .s, a uthors o f The Co mplete G uide t o Public E mployment. Em ployers b elong t o ass ociations, as do mem bers o f va rious p rofessions a nd c haritable groups; as a r esult, ass ociations a re im portant sp ecial interest groups. Associations va ry b y o rientation. T rade ass ociations suc h as t he N ational A utomobile D ealers A ssociation a re made u p o f b usinesses t hat meet t o sha re information about legislation and trends affecting their industry. Professional ass ociations, on t he other hand, represent individuals in a pa rticular field, such as do ctors o r t eachers, co ncerned a bout p rofessional st andards and practice. In addition, there are a n umber of philanthropic a nd c haritable ass ociations suc h as t he National S ociety to Prevent Blindness and t he Amer ican Cancer Society. Membership Dir ectors k eep co nstant wa tch o n their n umbers. H ow ma ny mem berships ha ve b een renewed? I s t he ass ociation losin g o r ga ining members? What kind o f mes sage mig ht appeal t o sp ecific

types o f mem bers? F or exa mple, t he M embership Director o f a n ass ociation de aling wi th v ocational education might launch a recruitment drive by replacing t he w ord vocational wi th vocational/technical to update the groups image. Members o f ass ociations va ry in t heir le vels o f involvement. S ome a ttend co nferences a nd s et p olicy; others do little more than read notices, which, in itself, can be a challenge in this age of information overload. For exa mple, M embership Dir ectors ask t hemselves, Does a nyone r ead mem bership-renewal let ters? T o reach individuals who might not have the time to read a letter, an association might attach a gummed no tice on the invoice for renewal. The n umber o f ha ts a M embership Dir ector w ears depends la rgely o n t he size o f t he o rganization. I n a large o rganization, a M embership Dir ector mig ht b e involved in a sp ecific ac tivity, suc h as r ecruitment o r retention. I n a small o rganization, o n t he o ther ha nd, the Membership Dir ector mig ht als o b e involved in a host of other activities such as meetings and training. Common responsibilities of Membership Directors include Implementing a mem bership campaign, using direct mail, telemarketing, and other techniques Promoting the annual conference Developing new-member orientation programs

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Providing information about the profession or trade Conducting s urveys, e valuations, a nd needs ass essments Resolving member inquiries and concerns

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Because M embership Dir ector is a ma nagement p osition, most indi viduals ha ve a t le ast a f ew y ears in t he field. Some Membership Directors have held p ositions in allied f ields, suc h as ma rketing a nd dir ect ma il, before becoming involved with an association. Membership Dir ectors m ust b e willin g t o lis ten t o members. I f, f or exa mple, mem bers o f a p rofessional association wa nt t o c hange t heir cer tification p rocess, the M embership Dir ector sho uld b e willin g t o lis ten. Flexibility counts f or a lo t in t his f ield. Times c hange, technology c hanges, a nd s o, t oo, do mem ber needs. Membership Dir ectors sho uld b e w ell-organized a nd able to roll with the punches. Believing in t he work of the association also leads to success in this field.

Salaries
Salaries for Membership Directors in associations range from $40,000 t o $92,000, acco rding t o t he Amer ican Society of Association Executives. L arge organizations generally pay higher salaries than smaller ones. Salaries also tend to be higher for trade a nd professional associations than for charitable or philanthropic groups.

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re ex cellent b ecause ass ociations a re mem bership-based o rganizations in w hich Membership Directors play a key role. Nonprofit charitable organizations (e.g. YMCA) also hire Membership Directors. Many indi viduals t ake jobs wi th ass ociations wi thout setting out to make a career of association management. Either they become involved in an association in their line of work or they take a job with an association, find they like it, and move up to increased responsibility f rom ass ociation t o ass ociation, f inding t hat, accidentally, theyve developed a career.

Unions and Associations


The Amer ican S ociety o f A ssociation Ex ecutives (ASAE) r epresents M embership Dir ectors as w ell as other association executives.

Tips for Entry

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are good because Membership Directors ca n mo ve f rom smaller t o la rger ass ociations and/or to higher-level positions such as executive director.

Education and Training


A bac helors degr ee in co mmunication, ma rketing, o r a r elated f ield w orks w ell f or p ositions as M embership Director. As t he nonprofit s ector has gr own, ne w programs ha ve sp rung u p in no nprofit ma nagement, primarily at the graduate level, through public administration or business administration departments. The Amer ican S ociety o f A ssociation Ex ecutives (ASAE) identifies core competencies leading to the designation of C ertified Association Executive (CAE). T o qualify, indi viduals m ust ha ve t hree t o f ive y ears o f experience in ass ociations, co mplete 75 ho urs o f co ntinuing ed ucation o r p rofessional de velopment, a nd pass a written examination.

1. Get in w here y ou ca n. An en try-level job as a Membership assist ant o r in a r esearch depa rtment, f or exa mple, ca n hel p s omeone g et o n a career path in as sociations leading to a p osition as Membership Director. 2. Take stock of your interests. If, for example, you care about health, you may want to work for an association representing doctors, nurses, or others in the industry. 3. Check o ut t he w ebsite o f t he Amer ican S ociety of A ssociation Ex ecutives (h ttp://www.asaenet. org), w hich lists jobs a nd p rovides inf ormation about careers. 4. Browse t hrough o ne o f t he tw o dir ectories, National T rade a nd P rofessional Ass ociations of the U nited Sta tes by C olumbia B ooks or Encyclopedia o f A ssociations b y Gale Res earch, widely a vailable in p ublic lib raries t o r esearch the activities of associations and see what interests you. 5. Find associations in y our local area by checking your p hone b ook under t he listin gs American, Association, International, Society, and/or United. The names of many associations begin with these words.

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POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE (PAC) PROFESSIONAL


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: C onducting f und-raising a nd r ecognition drives; filing compliance reports; researching political issues; ed ucating mem bers; p erforming va rious other government relations tasks Alternate Title(s): PAC Assistant, PAC Manager, Government Rela tions M anager, P olitical Ed ucation Manager, Political Involvement Director, Grassroots Manager Salary Range: $28,000 to $100,000+ Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Good Best Geographical Location(s): Washington, D.C., and other cities. Prerequisites: Education o r TrainingBachelors degr ee in g overnment, political management, political science, or related field

CAREER LADDER
Lobbyist or Government Relations Director Political Action Committee (PAC) Professional College Student or Legislative Staffer

ExperienceEntry-level o r o ne t o t hree y ears experience o n C apitol H ill o r wi th p olitical ca mpaigns Special Skills and Personality TraitsEnthusiasm; ability t o mo tivate o thers; en gaging p ersonality; belief in the issues; interest in the political process

Position Description
Political A ction C ommittee (P AC) P rofessionals hel p businesses, associations, labor unions, and other interest gr oups ra ise f unds t o c hannel in to p olitical ca mpaigns. Most PACs represent business, labor, or ideological interests. Both liberal and conservative groups, including w ell-known o rganizations suc h as t he S ierra Cl ub and the National Rifle Association, operate PACs, as do some co ngressional a nd pa rty le aders. PACs typ ically get their money from individuals who are employees or members of the group that formed the PAC. Usually, according to PAC consultant Peter Kennerdell, PAC p ositions fall under t he b roader he ading o f government relations, and individuals assume r esponsibilities aside f rom t hose dir ectly r elated t o t he PAC. In addi tion t o administ ering t he PAC, ma ny P olitical Professionals are involved in grassroots lobbying. The PAC pa rt o f t he job in volves askin g p eople t o donate mo ney. The grassr oots co mponent in volves motivating people to donate time. Grassroots lobbyists encourage members to participate in ac tivities such as writing let ters, makin g p hone calls, a nd s ending t elegrams. Fund-raising and grassroots lobbying constitute

political in volvement. B oth en tail mob ilizing c ustomers, members, and/or supporters to take action. PACs are permitted under federal law to make larger contributions t han indi viduals t o p olitical ca ndidates: Individuals may donate no more than $1,000 to any single candidate, whereas a PAC may donate up to $5,000. PACs, like lobbies, are often controversial, as opponents contend t hat PACs allo w in terest gr oups t o inf luence politicians unfa irly wi th la rge co ntributions. S upporters, o n t he o ther ha nd, a rgue t hat PACs r epresent t he legitimate r ole o f b usiness, la bor, a nd/or ideo logical interests in the political process. Because PACs are regulated by the government, PAC Professionals sp end a t le ast pa rt o f t heir time k eeping records and filing reports. Much of their time also goes to planning and conducting fund-raising drives. In addition to direct-mail and e-mail campaigns, PAC Professionals organize raffles, auctions, booths at annual conventions, cocktail parties, and other fund-raisers intended to make the process fun for prospective donors. Insiders say that fund-raising is closely linked to political education because prospective contributors are more willing t o do nate mo ney if t hey under stand t he issues involved. A PAC Professional might edit a ne wsletter to

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keep members politically informed and give talks such as The Political Realities of the Upcoming Year. PAC P rofessionals als o co nduct r esearch, w hich insiders call p olitical in telligence. The y r eview v oting records and other matters of importance to determine which p olitical o fficials a re friends a nd w hich a re foes. I ndividuals t hen co mmunicate t heir f indings to PAC B oard Members, w ho ultimately decide w hich candidates a re des erving o f f unds. I n addi tion, P AC Professionals p lan r ecognition e vents a nd a wards f or donors. For instance, the PAC might buy small gifts for contributors. In addi tion, P AC P rofessionals co mmonly assume other g overnment r elations r esponsibilities suc h as coordinating a let ter-writing dr ive as pa rt o f a grassroots lobb ying ef fort. PAC P rofessionals ra nge in le vels o f r esponsibility f rom fa irly lo w-level em ployees responsible f or b ookkeeping o r co mpliance r eporting to hig h-level p olitical managers. As PAC Professionals gain experience, they generally become more involved in formulating political strategy.

within w hich P ACs o perate. The r elatively ne w academic f ield o f p olitical ma nagement als o de als wi th issues of concern to PACs.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Because this field relies heavily on social contacts, some employers lo ok f or exp erience o n C apitol H ill; o thers, however, are willing to hire an enthusiastic college graduate wi th limi ted exp erience. V olunteering o n a political ca mpaign ca n b e hel pful, as ca mpaign v olunteers le arn t he skills needed t o mo tivate p eople t o donate mo ney a nd/or time . P AC P rofessionals m ust have a s ales-oriented p ersonality. Vibrant, c harismatic people do best in this field.

Unions and Associations


The N ational A ssociation o f B usiness P olitical A ction Committees (N ABPAC) is a n o rganization r epresenting PAC Professionals in business. The American Society of Association Executives deals with PACs in trade and p rofessional ass ociations, w hile t he Pub lic Af fairs Council is a n o rganization r epresenting indi viduals employed in g overnment, community and public relations activities. The American Federation of Labor and Congress o f I ndustrial Or ganizations (AFL -CIO) a nd Change to Win are umbrella organization representing labor unions, many of which have PACs.

Salaries
Salaries vary according to the type of organization and the P AC P rofessionals le vel o f r esponsibility. En trylevel P AC P rofessionals e arn a bout $28,000, w hereas individuals in hig h-level p ositions ma y e arn $100,000 or more.

Tips for Entry

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are good because this is a f ield with a lot of movement, which creates opportunities for newcomers. D epending o n t he le vel o f t he p osition, a PAC P rofessional ma y b e a r ecent co llege grad uate o r have a bac kground in a r elated field such as ma rketing or legislative affairs. Prospects may be particularly good for someone with Capitol Hill experience.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are fair to good. Although PAC Professionals a re o ften in volved in lobb ying, t hey a re sometimes no t r egarded as r eal lobb yists, es pecially if they lack experience on Capitol Hill, insiders say. However, individuals who prove themselves on the job often move u p. Of ten, P AC P rofessionals wi th ass ociations move to higher-paying positions with corporate PACs.

Education and Training


A bachelors degree in any field generally qualifies individuals f or p ositions wi th P ACs. C ourses in g overnment a nd p olitical s cience ca n b e pa rticularly us eful in fa miliarizing indi viduals wi th t he p olitical syst em

1. Ask yourself whether you are interested in fundraising. I f s o, t his mig ht b e a g ood p osition f or you. 2. Browse t he C enter f or Resp onsive P olitics website (h ttp://www.opensecrets.org) t o vie w PAC listin gs b y ca tegory suc h as Ideological/ Single I ssue, L abor, and Miscellaneous B usiness. Another resource for PAC listings: the Almanac of F ederal PACs b y Ed ward Z uckerman, a vailable in s ome la rge p ublic lib raries a nd ma ny college libraries. 3. Volunteer to work on a p olitical campaign, particularly in a fund-raising capacity. 4. Check t he jobs listin gs o n t he w ebsites o f t he following t hree o rganizations: Pub lic Af fairs Council (h ttp://www.pac.org), t he N ational Association of Business Political Action Committees (http://www.nabpac.org), and the American Society o f A ssociation Ex ecutives (h ttp://www. asaecenter.org). 5. Look for PACs in your state by checking with the secretary of states office, which may list PACs on its website.

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SERVICE PROGRAMS

AMERICORPS MEMBER
CAREER PROFILE
Duties: P articipating in p rograms t hat t utor c hildren, build affordable homes, respond to natural disasters, and otherwise improve communities throughout the United States Alternate T itle(s): Amer icorps*VISTA (Volunteers in Service t o Amer ica), Amer icorps*NCCC (National Civilian Community Corps) Salary R ange: M onthly li ving allo wance; ed ucation award at end of service Employment Prospects: Excellent Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best G eographical L ocation(s): P rograms lo cated throughout the United States Prerequisites: Education or TrainingVaries by program; training provided

CAREER LADDER
College or Graduate Student or Position in Education or Other Career AmeriCorps Member Student, Recent College Graduate, Entry-Level or Midlevel Employee, Retiree

ExperienceVaries by program; volunteer or work experience required or preferred Special S kills a nd P ersonality T raitsCommitment t o na tional s ervice; dedica tion; dr ive; g ood communication skills; flexibility; resilience

Position Description
AmeriCorps is o ften called the do mestic P eace Corps. While Peace C orps Volunteers travel to countries a round t he w orld, Amer iCorps M embers s erve in in tensive, r esults-driven p rograms t hroughout t he nation. They tutor children, clean up the environment, build a ffordable ho uses, r espond t o na tural dis asters, and empower communities to help themselves. AmeriCorps ex emplifies t he r ecent r esurgence of co mmunity s ervice. Y oung p eople ma y b e c ynical a bout p olitics a nd p oliticians, obs ervers s ay, b ut they are passionate about helping others. Unlike their predecessors o f t he 1960s, w ho s ought t o change th e world, pa rticipants t oday a re lo oking f or wa ys t o improve it. AmeriCorps M embers gi ve a y ear o f t heir li ves t o one o f f our a reas o f na tional co ncern: ed ucation, t he environment, public safety, and health and other human needs. P rograms a re ini tiated b y sp onsorsnonprofit organizations lik e t he Amer ican Red Cr oss or Habitat for Humanity, the mayor of a city, a lo cal organization, or s omeone els ebut, in o rder t o b e a pproved, t hey must live up to AmeriCorpss results-driven philosophy of getting things done. Founded in 1993 b y t he National C ommunity S ervice Trust Act, Amer iCorps encompasses hundreds of projects, inc luding tw o p reexisting p rograms: V olun-

teers in S ervice to Amer ica (VISTA) and t he National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC). VISTA is the older of the two, established in 1965 as part o f P resident L yndon J ohnsons war o n p overty. Throughout t he 1960s, VIS TA hel ped de velop s ome of t he f irst H ead S tart p rograms a nd J ob C orps si tes. Unlike o ther Amer iCorps p rograms, VIS TA r equires a college degree or at least a f ew years of work experience, pa ys r elocation exp enses, a nd o ffers t he o ption of a mo nthly s alary in stead o f a n ed ucation a ward. AmeriCorps*VISTA M embers de velop p rojects t hat can continue after they complete their service. They act more as o rganizers than as dir ect care providers, often grooming citizens for leadership roles in k eeping with VISTAs em phasis o n co mmunity s elf-empowerment. A VISTA Member involved in a n after-school tutoring program, for instance, might tutor one or two students but sp end mos t o f t he time r ecruiting, tra ining, a nd supervising volunteers. Unlike VIS TA, w hich has no u pper a ge limi t, t he National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC) requires participants to be between the ages of 18 a nd 24. With its team spirit and hands-on approach to service, NCCC harks back to the Civilian C onservation C orps (CCC) of t he G reat D epression. M embers li ve a nd w ork as teams assigned t o f ive r egional bas esDenver, C olorado; Cha rleston, S outh C arolina; Sa n Dieg o, C alifor-

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nia; Perry Point, Maryland; and Washington, D.C.but spend m uch o f t heir time tra veling t o s ervice si tes around the nation. NCCC appeals to young people with a t hirst f or ad venture. An indi vidual assigned t o t he base in Cha rleston, S outh C arolina, mig ht t utor c hildren on-site, then go on the following assignments: Five w eeks o f b uilding ho uses in r ural G eorgia f or Habitat for Humanity Six w eeks o f p roviding h urricane r elief in Puer to Rico Eight weeks of clearing trails for a state park Some Amer iCorps p rograms co mbine t he ha nds-on work of NCCC with the permanence of VISTA. AmeriCorps encompasses thousands of opportunities, including an Amer iCorps P romise F ellows P rogram f or indi viduals wi th demo nstrated le adership a nd co mmunity s ervice skills. I ndividuals of all bac kgrounds can search for AmeriCorps p rograms b y sub ject a rea a nd lo cation. I f, for exa mple, a p rospective Amer iCorps M ember wa nts to w ork in he alth in C alifornia, he o r she co uld c hoose from programs such as he alth education, immunization outreach, and infant-mortality prevention.

for exa mple, r eceives ma ny mo re a pplications t han i t can accept because of its popularity among young people eager to travel. AmeriCorps recruiters advise applicants to be flexible about their choice of program rather than put all their eggs in one basket.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re ex cellent b ecause exp erience in Amer iCorps hel ps indi viduals de velop skills needed for success in almost any field: teamwork, dedication, and flexibility, among them. AmeriCorps experience can be helpful on employment forms and college applications.

Education and Training


Although some assignments require a bachelors degree or related experience, many others require only motivation and commitment. All Amer iCorps programs provide tra ining. B ecause Amer iCorps M embers r eceive funds for college tuition or student loans at the end o f their s ervice, t he p rogram co mbines na tional s ervice with education. Often, indi viduals c hoose Amer iCorps as a wa y to exp erience s omething ne w b efore g oing o n t o co llege, grad uate s chool, o r a ca reer. S omeone in terested in medicine , f or in stance, mig ht t ake a n assignmen t in Appalachia to learn about the health needs o f rural America b efore a pplying t o medical s chool. Ot her AmeriCorps M embers wa nt t o do s omething t otally outside their field of interest.

Salaries
AmeriCorps M embers r eceive a mo dest li ving allo wance. After completing a 10-month to one-year term of service, AmeriCorps members receive a $4,725 ed ucation a ward t o hel p pa y f or s chool t uition o r st udent loans. AmeriCorps M embers w ho s erve pa rt-time g et a portion of the amount, and those in Volunteers in S ervice t o Amer ica (VIS TA) ca n o pt f or a cash pa yment of $100 p er month of s ervice instead of t he education award. All other AmeriCorps Members are eligible only for t he education award. A f ew programs, suc h as t he National Civilian Community Corps, provide housing, but most p rograms are nonresidential. Applicants who already have demonstrated leadership and community service skills can apply for the Americorps Promise Fellows Program, which offers a $13,000 li ving allowance and other benefits.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Although some AmeriCorps programs call f or specialized experience, many others require only commitment and a desire to serve. AmeriCorps includes people from a va riety o f bac kgrounds. I ndividuals, t hough, m ust be committed to national service. They should believe in makin g p ersonal s acrifice f or t he co mmon g ood. AmeriCorps M embers tra nscend t he pa rochialism o f their own li ves t o exp erience, u p c lose, t he needs a nd promises of the nation. Programs can be challenging, so dedication and resourcefulness are vital. Specific r equirements va ry f rom p rogram t o p rogram. Volunteers in S ervice t o Amer ica (VIS TA), f or instance, must be patient enough to work on a p roject that mig ht no t q uickly p roduce visib le r esults. To s ee whether an individual is r ight for the program, VISTA asks, Are y ou a n organizer, a r esource-builder, a s elfstarter? The N ational Ci vilian C ommunity C orps (N CCC) appeals mo re t o y oung p eople w ho t hrive o n va riety. Participants li ve in do rmitories, w ear unif orms, a nd

Employment Prospects
Employment p rospects a re ex cellent b ecause Amer iCorps enco mpasses h undreds o f p rograms t hroughout t he na tion. O ver 40,000 Amer icans s erve a y ear in Amer iCorps p rograms, w hich have ga rnered b road bipartisan support. Some Amer iCorps p rograms a re mo re co mpetitive than others. The N ational Civilian Community Corps,

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travel from site to site, always doing something different: c learing tra ils, r enovating ho using, t utoring kids. Individuals sho uld b e b etween t he ag es o f 18 a nd 24 years old and enjoy active assignments. Whatever t he p rogram, all Amer iCorps M embers take the same pledge at the start of their s ervice. New recruits m ust dedica te t hemselves t o s trengthening communities, b uilding co mmon gr ound, a nd t aking action t o get t hings do ne. Amer iCorps M embers pledge: Faced wi th a pathy, I will t ake ac tion. F aced with conflict, I will seek common ground.

that administ er lo cal p rograms. F ormer Amer iCorps Members might belong to AmeriCorps Alums.

Tips for Entry

Unions and Associations


The Corporation for National Service oversees AmeriCorps as w ell as L earn a nd S erve Amer ica a nd t he National S enior S ervice C orps. The C orporation f or National Service has st ate offices, and most states have governor-appointed co mmissions f or na tional s ervice

1. Learn mo re a bout Amer iCorps b y b rowsing i ts website (http://www.americorps.org). 2. Get in volved in y our co mmunity b y v olunteering. 3. Find t he r ight s ervice program for y ou. D o y ou prefer variety or consistency? Hands-on work or empowerment of others? Would you like a li ttle of e ach? An Amer iCorps r ecruiter in y our a rea can help you get the most out of the program. 4. Request a n a pplication pac ket b y callin g 1-800942-2677 or download one off the website (http:// www.americorps.org). 5. Be sure to convey your motivation and commitment on the application.

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CITY YEAR CORPS MEMBER


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Working o n a t eam in volved in t utoring a nd mentoring s chool c hildren a nd pa rticipating in physical s ervice t o r evitalize co mmunity cen ters, parks, and schools Alternate Title(s): None Salary Range: Weekly stipend (e.g., $250 in New York); $4,725 for college costs Employment Prospects: Good Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best G eographical L ocation(s): 17 lo cations (B oston, MA; Chica go, IL; Cle veland, O H; C olumbia, SC; Columbus, O H; D etroit, MI; L ittle Ro ck, AR; L os Angeles, CA; Louisiana; New Hampshire; New York, NY; Philadel phia, P A; R hode I sland; Sa n An tonio, T X; Sa n J ose/Silicon Valley, CA; S eattle/King County, WA; and Washington D.C.) Prerequisites: Education or TrainingMust be between the ages of 17 and 24; comprehensive training provided

CAREER LADDER
Senior Corps Member, College or Graduate Student, Job Seeker City Year Corps Member High School or College Student

ExperiencePrevious volunteer or work experience helpful. Special Sk ills and P ersonality T raitsDemonstrates co mmitment t o co mmunity s ervice; willin g to w ork as pa rt o f a t eam; p ositive r ole mo del f or children; resourcefulness; competency; accepting of diverse populations

Position Description
City Year C orps M embers f ill a s pecial nic he in t he world o f co mmunity s ervice. Al though Ci ty Year falls under the AmeriCorps umbrella, its a unique program that handles its own application process. City Year Corps Members work in teams of eight to 12 members, becoming a c lose-knit group. They serve primarily as mentors to school children in underserved neighborhoods, helping the students with their schoolwork, r unning a fter-school p rograms, hostin g da y camps, and leading young people in community service projects. In N ew York Ci ty, f or in stance, a Ci ty Year C orps Member might spend the day at P.S. 48, w orking oneon-one wi th st udents t o im prove t heir r eading skills, then hel p o rganize a s cience fa ir o r da nce show, catalogue books in t he library, and co-lead an after-school program. The teams are lead by a senior corps member and program manager. Corps members are easy to recognize in their City Year uniforms: khakis, T-shirt, and the trademark red jackets. Many Ci ty Y ear C orps M embers li ve t ogether, coming f rom o ut o f t own o r o ut o f st ate f or a y ear o f challenging w ork t hat f osters ca maraderie. The p ro-

gram b egins with four weeks of training, including an intensive one-week retreat, at City Years 17 si tes: B oston, MA; Chicag o, IL; Cle veland, O H; C olumbia, SC; Columbus, OH; Detroit, MI; Little Rock, AR; Los Angeles, CA; L ouisiana; N ew H ampshire; N ew Y ork, NY ; Philadelphia, PA; Rhode Island; San Antonio, T X; San Jose/Silicon Valley, CA; S eattle/King C ounty, WA; and Washington D .C. Corps mem bers g et co mprehensive training for working with children and are assigned t o teams organized t o en sure di versity, bringing t ogether young people from a variety of backgrounds. All teams are in volved in men toring c hildren a nd p erforming some p hysical s ervice, b ut s ome gr oups ha ve a mo re specialized f ocus. I n addi tion t o hel ping s chools a nd students, City Year Corps Members participate in physical s ervice p rojects suc h as pa inting m urals, p lanting gardens, and creating play spaces. One t eam, f or in stance, mig ht w ork sp ecifically on a fter-school a nd t he Y oung H eroes p rograms. A corps member in t his t eam w ould visit public s chools to recruit middle-school students for the Young Heroes Program, a co mmunity s ervice ini tiative. Together, as a t eam, t he co rps mem bers o rganize ac tivities f or t he students t heyve r ecruited. The y mig ht, f or exa mple,

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219

learn a bout ho melessness f rom a f ormerly ho meless person and then serve at a lo cal shelter to addr ess the problem. On a typ ical Sa turday mo rning, a gr oup o f Young H eroes f rom dif ferent s chools w ould a rrive a t City Y ear he adquarters f or a p rogram t he t eam has organized. After the morning program, everyone would have lunch together. After lunch, the group might participate in a r elated community service project such as stocking a f ood pa ntry a nd/or c leaning a shel ter. The day w ould typ ically end wi th a gr oup dis cussion a nd reflection. Leadership development is a large component of the program. Corps members participate in regular leadership de velopment da ys t hat de velop t heir str engths as leaders suc h as p roject ma nagement a nd e vent p lanning. City Year allows corps members who show exceptional leadership qualities to return for a second year as a senior corps member. These second-year participants help lead a team along with a staff person called a p rogram manager, who is also apt to be a City Year alum.

bers b egin t heir s ervice either b efore, during, or after college. To b e accep ted in to t he p rogram, indi viduals must ha ve a hig h s chool degr ee, GED , o r b e w orking t oward a GED . Once admi tted, co rps mem bers receive f our w eeks o f in tensive tra ining. The y le arn to work together as a t eam despite differences in t heir backgrounds. M onthly le adership de velopment da ys throughout t he p rogram hel p co rps mem bers le arn skills s uch as p ublic s peaking, f inancial li teracy, a nd designing youth programs that balance education with entertainment.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


City Year lo oks f or y oung p eople w ho a re willin g t o commit t o a y ear o f dema nding f ull-time co mmunity service. Once accep ted in to t he p rogram, p rospective corps mem bers m ust sign a nd r eturn a co mmitment letter. The p rogram is a c hallenging o ne, r equiring physical, mental, and emotional stamina. City Y ear des cribes t he q ualities i t lo oks f or in its co rps mem bers as the f our Cs : c haracter, co mmitment, co mpetency, a nd co operation. Thes e f our qualities come together to give corps members the temperament a nd skills needed t o meet t he c hallenges o f the program. C orps members know not to give up on children w ho a re ha ving a ha rd time . F or in stance, a child who is getting poor grades may act out in frustration and/or drop out of school. A corps member might go to the home of a child who has been skipping school. City Year Corps Members get training in specific areas, such as r eading a nd math, a nd t urn t o e ach o ther f or support. B ecause City Year Corps Members are different from parents and teachers, children often confide in them, forging a special relationship. In t heir b logs, Ci ty Year C orps M embers des cribe how t heir w ork is b oth c hallenging a nd emo tionally rewarding. One corps member described turning a gray and dra b pa rk in to a ra inbow o f co lors a nd m urals. The M onday af ter, w hen t he k ids c ame to s chool, a couple of t hem came up gushing and s aying t hat t hey couldnt wait to go and play, the corps member wrote.

Salaries
City Year Corps Members receive a modest stipend for living expenses, which varies according to site. Because stipends a re low, ma ny City Year C orps Members li ve together in gr oup ho uses o r a partments. I ncoming corps mem bers ca n p ost t heir ho using needs o n Ci ty Years online message board, thus quickly finding prospective roommates.

Employment Prospects
Employment P rospects a re g ood. Al though t he p rogram has expa nded in r ecent years, City Year has o nly 17 locations, which limits its number of openings. City Year applicants can apply to a specific location, or they can ask t o b e p laced w here needed , t hus o pening u p new possibilities.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement prospects are excellent. Because City Year provides i ts o wn le adership o pportunities wi thin t he organization, ma ny C orps M embers r eturn as s enior corps members or st affers. Als o, t he City Year alumni association posts career and service opportunities on its website. Finally, City Year hones leadership skills val uable in a va riety of fields, including education, government, law, and nonprofit activism.

Unions and Associations


The City Year Alumni Association oversees a worldwide network of more than 10,000 alumni of the program.

Tips for Entry:

Education and Training


Because Ci ty Y ear is a p rogram f or y oung p eople between t he ag es o f 17 a nd 24, ma ny co rps mem-

1. Apply e arly in t he y ear t o ha ve t he b est c hance of accep tance. I ndividuals w ho a pply la ter in the year typically compete with a la rger p ool of applicants.

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2. Look into volunteer or paid positions that involve working wi th c hildren, demo nstrating r esponsibility, a nd/or makin g a co ntribution t o y our community. 3. Check o ut t he w ebsite, h ttp://www.cityyear.org, for more information about the program as w ell

as links t o i ts 17 si tes. E ach o f t he si tes hosts visitor programs for those interested in le arning more about City Year.

SERVICE PROGRAMS

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PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER


CAREER PROFILE
Duties: Living in a nother country for three months of training and two years of s ervice; le arning another language; b ecoming pa rt o f a nother c ulture; w orking in o ne o f a va riety o f f ields suc h as ed ucation, health, or environment to improve the human condition at the grassroots level Salary R ange: S tipend t o co ver basic necessi ties suc h as food, housing, and local transportation; readjustment allo wance o f $225 f or e ach mo nth s erved $6,075 f or co mpletion o f t he f ull t hree mo nths o f training and two years of service Employment Prospects: Excellent Advancement Prospects: Excellent Best G eographical L ocation: V olunteer p ositions a re located in co untries t hroughout t he w orld: Af rica, Inter-America and the Caribbean, the Pacific, Europe and the Mediterranean, Central and East Asia Prerequisites: Education or TrainingMost assignments call f or a bac helors degr ee; mo re sp ecialized assignmen ts

CAREER LADDER
Educator or Peace Corps Recruiter Peace Corps Volunteer Recent College Graduate, Entry or Midlevel Employee, or Retiree

require a mast ers degree and/or t hree to f ive years of r elated w ork exp erience; all V olunteers r eceive three months of preservice training ExperienceVolunteer experience as a t utor, clinic worker, o r o ther w orker, f or most p ositions; mo re extensive background for specialized positions Special Skills and Personality TraitsDetermined; self-motivated; pa tient; s elf-sacrificing; cr eative; compassionate; resourceful; well-organized

Position Description
The Peace C orps bills itself as the toughest job y oull ever lo ve. P eace C orps V olunteers le ave b ehind t he comforts o f t heir Amer ican lif estyle t o hel p p eople in developing nations build a better future for themselves, their c hildren, a nd t heir co mmunities. I n t he p rocess, many volunteers find that they receive as much as they give. Peace Corps Volunteers not only get the adventure of w orld tra vel b ut als o dis cover str engths t hey ne ver knew they had. Over o ne-third o f P eace C orps V olunteersthe largest single categorywork as educators. Many teach English as a foreign language to give people around the world access to the global economy. As the primary language of the Internet, English has become an important asset worldwide. Other Peace C orps programs include environment, health, business, and agriculture. In addi tion t o t heir p rimary assignmen t, P eace Corps Volunteers t ake on a s econdary project of t heir own choosing. An En glish teacher, for example, might organize a sewing coop for local women or start a baseball lea gue f or a rea c hildren. E ach v olunteers exp erience is unique.

Peace Corps Volunteers without specialized training typically w ork in a f ield in w hich t heyve b een v olunteers f or a t le ast t hree mo nths. S omeone w ho w orked at a n acq uired imm unodeficiency syndr ome (AIDS) clinic in co llege, for example, might qualify as a he alth educator with the Peace Corps. Applying t o t he P eace C orps is a len gthy p rocess. Applicants need t o wr ite p ersonal ess ays, ga ther u p educational transcripts, detail their work histories, and provide t hree r eferences. U sually wi thin a mo nth o f sending in their applications, applicants are interviewed by a P eace C orps recruiter. At this point, the recruiter may ad vise t he a pplicant t o g et addi tional v olunteer experience t o b ecome b etter q ualified f or t he P eace Corps. Once a n indi viduals skills ma tch a v olunteer opening, t he r ecruiter nominates t he a pplicant f or an assignmen t, p ending legal a nd medical c learance. Assignments a re bas ed p rimarily o n w here t he a pplicants s kills a re m ost n eeded, al though th e v olunteers preferences are taken into consideration. Peace C orps Volunteers settle into their new countries with three months of training in la nguage, cross-

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cultural understanding, and practical skills. M any stay with host families during this training period. Once t heir assignments b egin, Peace C orps Volunteers need to be flexible and resourceful, as commercial supplies s uch as t extbooks t end t o b e in s cant s upply. S ometimes t he ef forts o f P eace C orps Volunteers are gr eeted wi th indif ference o r misunder standing. Patience and creativity can help Volunteers succeed in their assignments. For exa mple, a P eace C orps Volunteer in t he c lassroom might use games like Simon Says and Bingo to teach English skills. P eace Corps Volunteers work closely with local t eachers t o de velop t eaching ma terials. The y als o promote adult literacy and improve education for women and girls. If need be, Peace Corps Volunteers might build schoolhouses and find books to stock libraries. The skills o f a g ood P eace C orps V olunteer resourcefulness, f lexibility, a nd pa tiencetranslate readily t o ma ny o ther p ositions. B ecause t he p rogram is highly regarded by employers in various fields, serving in the Peace Corps can further ones career. Former Peace Corps Volunteers include the former health and human s ervices s ecretary D onna S halala (I ran, 1962 to 1964), t he C onnecticut s enator Chr istopher D odd (Dominican Republic, 1966 to 1968), and the television personality Bob Vila (Panama, 1969 to 1970). Peace C orps Volunteers typ ically w ork lo ng ho urs. During their stays, they learn to do without many of the things t hey ha ve co me t o t ake f or gra nted. I n villag es without r efrigerators, f or in stance, v olunteers need t o adjust to life without cold drinks. Some volunteers live in r ural co mmunities, ho urs o r e ven da ys a way f rom the nearest Peace Corps worker.

Advancement Prospects
Advancement p rospects a re ex cellent b ecause s ervice in t he Peace C orps helps a r sum t o b e noticed. The flexibility and resourcefulness a Volunteer learns in the Peace Corps are valuable in any career. Fluency in a foreign la nguage a nd cr oss-cultural kno wledge a re es pecially valuable in certain fields. The Peace Corps Office of Ret urned Volunteer S ervices p rovides ca reer co unseling and publishes a newsletter featuring employment opportunities for returned volunteers.

Education and Training


Most assignments require at least a co llege degree and some v olunteer exp erience, b ut t he P eace C orps als o takes into account an applicants life experiences, community in volvement, a nd ho bbies. B ecause t he P eace Corps p rovides in tensive la nguage in struction d uring its preservice training, applicants need no t be fluent in a foreign language. S ome volunteers combine international service with graduate school through admission to t he M asters I nternational P rogram, a pa rtnership between t he P eace C orps a nd mo re t han 20 s chools offering masters level studies.

Experience, Skills, and Personality Traits


Peace Corps Volunteers need t o demonstrate maturity, adaptability, a nd f lexibility t o succeed in t heir assignments. Applicants should want to join the Peace Corps for the right reasonsto serve others, to make a difference, to change the world for the better.

Unions and Associations


Peace Corps Volunteers are nonCivil Service government employees. The National Peace Corps Association is a nonprofit organization dedicated to teaching Americans about other cultures through the Peace Corps.

Salaries
The P eace C orps p rovides a sti pend f or basic li ving expenses, such as food, housing, and transportation, so Volunteers can live at the same level as the people they serve in their communities. Stipends vary from country to country. Peace C orps Volunteers receive a r eadjustment allo wance o f $6,075 a t t he co mpletion o f t heir three months of training and two years of service.

Tips for Entry

Employment Prospects
Employment prospects are excellent because of the revolving na ture o f t he w ork. N ew v olunteers a re co nstantly needed to replace those who have completed their assignments. Although the Peace Corps tries to accommodate the requests of applicants, it cannot guarantee placement in any specific country or region. Applicants are encouraged to be flexible, so the Peace Corps can place volunteers in the countries where their skills are most needed.

1. Read up on the Peace Corps to find out about the programs where you would best qualify. Contact a lo cal uni versity o r t he P eace C orps r egional office or website (http://www.peacecorps.gov). 2. Volunteer in any capacity: as a tutor, a member of a student group, or in another activity. 3. Take courses in foreign languages. 4. Make sur e t he len gthy a pplication p rocess is as smooth as possible by checking to see that all forms and recommendations have been sent, but be p repared t o wa it six mo nths t o a y ear f or a final decision. 5. Meet a Peace Corps regional recruiter to discuss ways of enhancing your application.

SERVICE PROGRAMS

223

APPENDIXES
I. Frequently Asked Questions about the Civil Service and Federal Employment II. Federal Pay Scale and Federal Employment III. Federal Government Agency Organizational Chart IV. Federal Government Jobs V . Employment Websites VI. Graduate School Programs A. Public Affairs, Public Administration, Public Policy B. N onprofit Management C. Urban and Regional Planning D. P olitical/Campaign Management E. P olitical Science F. I nternational Affairs VII. Advocacy Groups A. Political Parties and Government Reform B. Environment and Consumer Advocacy C. Community and Social Issues D. Civil Rights and Liberties E. Peace and International Affairs VIII. How to Run for Political OfficeThe Basics IX. X. Trade Publications Associations

APPENDIX I
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT THE CIVIL SERVICE AND FEDERAL EMPLOYMENT
1. What is the civil service?
The t erm civil ser vice g enerally r efers t o no nmilitary employment in no nelective o ffice in t he ex ecutive branch of government. In the United States, the civil service was developed in t he 19t h cen tury in r esponse t o widesp read p ublic diss atisfaction with p olitical patronage. In 1881, a n unsuccessful ca ndidate f or a federal p ost ass assinated President J ames Ga rfield. T wo y ears la ter, C ongress passed the Civil Service Act. established for the civil service. Some federal agencies, including t he C entral I ntelligence A gency, ha ve o nly excepted s ervice p ositions. I n o ther in stances, cer tain groups of jobs within an agency may be excepted from civil s ervice p rocedures. S ome indi viduals en ter g overnment t hrough sp ecial p rograms, suc h as t he P residential Management Internship, w hich p ut t hem o n a fast track to higher civil service status.

3. Is the employment process different for civil service positions and excepted positions?
Yes, in g eneral, ci vil s ervice p ositions a re list ed centrally a nd ex cepted p ositions a re ha ndled dir ectly b y the agency or the individual doing the hiring. However, many ag encies allo w a pplicants t o co ntact t he ag ency directly for job information and application processing. At the federal level, all ci vil service positions are listed through t he Of fice o f P ersonnel M anagements USA Jobs da tabase. The Of fice o f P ersonnel M anagements website (w ww.usajobs.opm.gov) als o p rovides links t o excepted agencies.

2. Are all government jobs civil service?


No. S ome jobs a re classified as excepted, meaning that agencies set their own qualification requirements. The word exempt is s ometimes us ed sy nonymously w ith excepted. M any sp ecialists, ho wever, p refer t he t erm excepted bec ause exempt o ften a pplies s pecifically t o overtime regulations. Federal agencies in t he civil service are required by law t o p ost t heir vaca ncies wi th t he Of fice o f Personnel M anagement (O PM), al though O PM is m uch less of a cen tral co ntrol ag ency t han i t us ed t o b e. M any vacancy announcements refer applicants directly to the agency with the opening, and job s eekers interested in working for a pa rticular agency can often f ind helpful information on its website. State and local jurisdictions vary widely in their definitions of those jobs covered by the civil service. For example, a relatively newly created position such as management analyst might be outside the realm of the civil service in one jurisdiction but covered by it in another. Civil s ervice r egulations sti pulate t hat a pplicants and em ployees r eceive fa ir a nd eq ual tr eatment. F or example, if an election creates a shift in administration, civil service employees cannot be replaced by new hires, whereas p olitical a ppointeeslegislative assist ants, f or examplecan. Agencies maintaining excepted positions are allowed to set their own qualification requirements and are not subject to the appointment, pay, and classification rules

4. Do all civil service jobs require a standardized test?


No. Although civil service exams are still co mmon for some jobssuc h as f or p olice a nd f irefightersmany professional p ositions do no t r equire t hem. Personnel specialists o bserve t hat q ualifications f or p rofessional positions are particularly dif ficult t o me asure t hrough standardized tests. At the federal level, most st andardized written tests have b een elimina ted, acco rding t o t he Of fice o f P ersonnel Management. Positions are filled, much as t hey are in t he p rivate s ector, b y ass essing t he indi viduals personal, educational, and work-history qualifications. One ex ception is t he F oreign S ervice, w hich r equires applicants to take a comprehensive written exam. State and municipal personnel agencies, too, have been moving a way f rom st andardized wr itten exa ms. S tates that once tested for positions such as p ublic information

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officer might now gauge candidates simply by evaluating their educational backgrounds and experience.

application and hope that it will b e kept on file. Agencies ma y lac k t he r esources t o accep t a pplications f or positions for which they are not actively recruiting.

5. How will I know whether a particular position requires applicants to take a test?
The p osition des cription, als o kno wn as t he vacancy announcement, wil l des cribe t he r equirements. F or instance, a p osition may require applicants to write an essay in r esponse t o a pa rticular q uestion ra ther t han take a standardized exam.

9. What are the federal governments outstanding scholar and bilingual/bicultural programs (luevano consent decree)?
The Outstanding Scholar Program is for college graduates who have maintained a grade point average (GPA) of 3.5 o r b etter o n a 4.0 s cale f or all under graduate course w ork o r w ho ha ve grad uated in t he u pper 10 percent o f t heir grad uating c lass o r ma jor uni versity subdivision suc h as t he S chool o f B usiness A dministration. Ou tstanding S cholar p ositions a re o ffered through t he federal g overnment at t he GS-5 t hrough GS-7 levels in a variety of career fields, including economics, f oreign a ffairs, in telligence, pa ralegal sp ecialist, p ersonnel st affing, p rogram ma nagement a nd analysis, a nd p ublic a ffairs. The B ilingual/Bicultural program involves the use of an alternative examining procedure. P ositions f or b oth p rograms a re p osted through USAJOBS (http://www.usajobs.opm.gov).

6. If no test is required, how are applicants ranked?


Agencies g enerally ra nk a pplicants b y assignin g p oint values to their qualifications, with more points assigned to direct t han indirect exp erience. S omeone wi th a degree in jo urnalism and experience as a ne wspaper reporter, f or exa mple, w ould have more direct exp erience for the position of public information officer than a fellow applicant who majored in music and worked as a bike messenger. Federal vacancy announcements commonly include a s ection o n KSA s, t he K nowledge, S kills, a nd A bilities a n a pplicant sho uld p ossess. The a pplicant t hen addresses t hese KSA s in a n ess ay acco mpanying his or her a pplication. A r ecent KSA f or t he p osition o f human r esource sp ecialist, f or exa mple, ask ed a pplicants, Describe t he va riety a nd typ es o f st affing, pa y issues, and federal recruitment and/or special emphasis programs with which you have experience.

10. Where does the federal government provide information about internship and apprenticeship opportunities?
These are posted centrally on the e-Scholar page of the Office of Personnel Managements Student Jobs website (http://www.studentjobs.gov/e-scholar.asp). In addition to internship and apprenticeship opportunities, this site also lists cooperative education, fellowships, grants, and scholarships. Agencies als o commonly p ost internship and employment opportunities on their own websites.

7. Are applicants for civil service positions still put on a register of eligibles and required to wait for a position to open in their job category?
At t he f ederal le vel, t he Of fice o f P ersonnel M anagement has elimina ted t he r egister sys tem. J ob s eekers apply directly for a specific position instead of an entire category of jobs. Personnel p olicies va ry a t t he st ate a nd m unicipal levels. A state personnel agency may, for example, rank applicants for eligibility by job gr ouping but allow certain p ositions t o b e f illed wi thout us e o f a r egister, specialists say. Municipalities, in turn, may contact state personnel ag encies f or lists o f eligibles f or s ome b ut not all jobs.

11. Who qualies for positions categorized by the federal government as Entry-Level Professional?
Applicants w ho ho ld a bac helors degr ee, o ne y ear of p rofessional exp erience, o r t hree y ears o f g eneral experience a re eligib le f or En try-Level P rofessional positions, w hich st art a t a round $26,000 t o $46,000. Applicants ca n b rowse p ositions b y t he f ollowing job types: En gineering, Ar chitecture, a nd T ransportation; Medical and Health; Financial and Budgeting; Administrative; S ocial S cience a nd Welfare; L egal, I nvestigative, L aw Enf orcement, a nd Sa fety; C omputers a nd Mathematics; Physical and Biological S ciences; and/or All. The f ederal g overnment us es t he s ame ca tegories for p rofessional p ositions, w hich r equire hig her le vels of education and experience.

8. Is it best to apply for a specic position or just send in a rsum or completed application to an agency of interest?
In general, it is b est to apply for a sp ecific p osition or group of positions rather than to send out a rsum or

APPENDIX I

227

APPENDIX II
FEDERAL PAY SCALE AND FEDERAL EMPLOYMENT
Federal s alaries va ry acco rding t o t he q ualifications o f applicants. The general qualifications needed are as follows, but job seekers should also check the specific education and experience requirements for desired positions listed on the Office of Personnel Managements (OPMs) USAJOBS website (www.usajobs.opm.gov). $17,000 to $24,000 Three months of general exp erience or a high school diploma (including or equivalent to GS-1 through GS-2) $20,000 t o $27,000 Six mo nths o f g eneral exp erience o r o ne y ear o f ed ucation b eyond hig h s chool (including or equivalent to GS-3) $23,000 to $31,000One year of general experience or one year of education beyond high school (including or equivalent to GS-4) $26,000 to $49,000Three years of general experience or at le ast one y ear of professional exp erience or a bachelors degr ee (inc luding o r eq uivalent t o GS-5 and GS-8) $39,000 t o $75,000 One o r mo re y ears r esponsible and independent experience related to the job o r a masters o r hig her degr ee (inc luding o r eq uivalent to GS-9 through 12) $68,000 t o $105,000 One o r mo re y ears hig hly responsible a nd indep endent exp erience dir ectly related to the job to be filled (including or equivalent to GS-13 to GS-14) $95,000 or moreMore than one year of highly responsible and independent experience directly related to the job t o be filled; supervisory or managerial skills frequently required

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

APPENDIX III
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AGENCY ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

APPENDIX III

229

This chart shows only some of the more important agencies of the government.

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES THE CONSTITUTION EXECUTIVE BRANCH


THE PRESIDENT THE VICE PRESIDENT
EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT

LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
THE CONGRESS SENATE HOUSE
Architect of the Capitol United States Botanical Garden General Accounting Office Government Printing Office Library of Congress Congressional Budget Office

JUDICIAL BRANCH
THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES
U.S. Courts of Appeals U.S. District Courts Territorial Courts U.S. Court of International Trade U.S. Court of Federal Claims U.S. Court of Appeals for the Allied Forces U.S. Tax Court U.S. Court of Appeals for Veteran Claims Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts Federal Judicial Center U.S. Sentencing Commission

White House Office Office of the Vice President Council of Economic Advisers Council on Environmental Quality National Security Council Office of Administration Office of Management and Budget Office of National Drug Control Policy Office of Policy Development Office of Science and Technology Policy Office of the U.S. Trade Representative

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

DEPARTMENT OF STATE

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY

DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS

INDEPENDENT ESTABLISHMENTS AND GOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS


African Development Foundation Central Intelligence Agency Commodity Futures Trading Commission Consumer Product Safety Commission Corporation for National and Community Service Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Environmental Protection Agency Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Export-Import Bank of the United States Farm Credit Administration Federal Communications Commission Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Federal Election Commission Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Housing Finance Board Federal Labor Relations Authority Federal Maritime Commission Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission Federal Reserve System Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board Federal Trade Commission General Services Administration Inter-American Foundation Merit Systems Protection Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Archives and Records Commission National Capital Planning Commission National Credit Union Administration National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities National Labor Relations Board National Mediation Board National Railroad Passenger Corp. (AMTRAK) National Science Foundation National Transportation Safety Board Nuclear Regulatory Commission Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission Office of Government Ethics Office of Personnel Management Office of Special Counsel Overseas Private Investment Corporation Peace Corps Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Postal Rate Commission Railroad Retirement Board Securities and Exchange Commission Selective Service System Small Business Administration Social Security Administration Tennessee Valley Authority Trade and Development Agency U.S. Agency for International Development U.S. Commission on Civil Rights U.S. International Trade Commission U.S. Postal Service

SOURCE: U.S. Government Manual, 20022003

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APPENDIX IV
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT JOBS
I. EXECUTIVE BRANCH
USAJOBS DATABASE
The U.S. Ofce of Personnel Management (OPM) Search f or jobs t hree wa ys b y usin g t he USA JOBS database:

I nternetJob s eekers can access c urrent job vaca ncies as w ell as a pplications a nd r esources s uch as the On-line Rsum B uilder at http://www.usajobs. opm.gov. The USAJOBS website als o provides links to f ederal ex ecutive ag encies no t co vered b y t he database. Submit questions about the on-line application process and forms to usajobshelp@opm.gov. For problems ass ociated wi th ag ency-specific application forms, links, or systems, contact the agency involved. Touch S creen C omputer Ki oskA n etwork of self-service information kiosks in O PM o ffices and

many federal buildings nationwide. At the touch of a finger, job seekers can access current job vacancies and other information. Automated Telephone SystemAn interactive voice response telephone system, which can be reached at (478) 757-3000 or TDD (478) 744-2299 or at 17 OPM service cen ters lo cated na tionwide. F or lo cal p hone numbers, co nsult t he b lue pag es o f y our t elephone book.

The U .S. Of fice o f P ersonnel M anagement do es no t provide a pplication f orms o r inf ormation o n jobs in excepted service agencies or organizations. The following list is ex cerpted from the studentjobs.gov section of the USAJOBS website.

EXCEPTED AGENCIES

Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts


http://www.uscourts.gov

International Finance Corporation


http://www.ifc.org

Postal Rates Commission


http://www.prc.gov

Agency for International Development


http://www.usaid.gov

International Monetary Fund


http://www.imf.org http://www.loc.gov

Postal Service

http://www.usps.gov

Library of Congress Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (World Bank Group)


http://www.miga.org

Tennessee Valley Authority


http://www.natasha.tva.gov/

Central Intelligence Agency


http://www.cia.gov

United Nations Childrens Fund


http://www.unicef.org

Defense Intelligence Agency


http://www.dia.mil

United Nations Development Program


http://www.undp.org

Federal Bureau of Investigation


http://www.fbi.gov

NASA JOBS

http://www.nasa.gov

Federal Reserve
http://www.federalreserve.gov

National Security Agency


http://www.nsa.gov

United Nations Institute for Training and Research


http://www.unitar.org

General Accounting Office


http://www.gao.gov

Pan American Health Organization


http://www.paho.org

United Nations Population Fund


http://www.unfpa.org

APPENDIX IV

231

United Nations Secretariat

http://www.un.org/documents/st.htm

U.S. Mission to the United Nations


http://www.un.int./usa

U.S. Senator Barbara Boxer


http://www.senate.gov/~boxer/

U.S. Court of Federal Claims


http://www.uscfc.uscourts.gov

U.S. Department of State


http://www.state.gov

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission


http://www.nrc.gov

U.S. Supreme Court World Bank

http://www.supremecourtus.gov http://www.worldbank.org

U.S. House of Representatives


http://www.house.gov

U.S. Senate

http://www.senate.gov

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APPENDIX V
EMPLOYMENT WEBSITES
The f ollowing a re w ebsites us eful t o job s eekers, b ut keep in mind that information on the Internet is always changing. If a pa rticular si te p roves unavailable at t he URL listed, try a web search using keywords to find its new location or a similar resource.

I. POLITICAL
Political ResourcesPolitical Job Board Politix Group
http://www.politixgroup.com

http://www.politicalresources.com

II. GOVERNMENT
Careers in Government
http://www.careersingovernment.com

Government Job.net
http://www.govtjob.net

Govtjobs.com

http://www.govtjobs.com

III. PUBLIC SERVICE (INCLUDING NONPROFIT JOBS)


Community Career Center
http://www.nonprofitjobs.org

Non-Profit Career Network

http://www.nonprofitcareer.com

Public Service Careers

http://www.publicservicecareers.org

Idealist.org

http://www.idealist.org

IV. ENVIRONMENTAL JOBS


Environmental Jobs and Careers
http://www.ejobs.org

Environmental Career Center


http://www.environmentalcareer. com

Environmental Career Opportunities


http://www.ecojobs.com

V. HUMAN RIGHTS
Derechos Human Rights
http://www.derechos.org http://www.hri.ca

OneWorld.net ReliefWeb

http://www.oneworld.net http://www.reliefweb.int

Human Rights Internet

University of Minnesota Human Rights Center Training & Field Opportunities


http://www.hrusa.org

APPENDIX V

233

VI. SERVICE OPPORTUNITIES


Corporation for National and Community Service
http://www.nationalservice.org

ServeNet

http://www.servenet.org

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

APPENDIX VI
GRADUATE SCHOOL PROGRAMS
A. PUBLIC AFFAIRS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, PUBLIC POLICY
The following schools offer programs in p ublic affairs, public administration, or public policy. For more information, check out the websites of the National Association o f S chools o f Pub lic Af fairs a nd A dministration (http://www.naspaa.org) a nd/or t he A ssociation o f Schools o f Pub lic P olicy Anal ysis a nd M anagement (http://www.appam.org).

ALABAMA Auburn University at Auburn


Dept. of Political Science 8030 Haley Center Auburn, AL 36849 http://www.auburn.edu/mpa

http://sciences.aum.edu/popa/ index.htm

ARIZONA Arizona State University


School of Public Affairs P.O. Box 870603 Tempe, AZ 85287-0603 http://www.asu.edu/copp/ publicaffairs/

Jacksonville State University

Department of Political Science Jacksonville, AL 36265 http://www.jsu.edu/depart/polsci

Birmingham-Southern College

Office of Graduate Programs 900 Arkadelphia Road Box 549052 Birmingham, AL 35254 http://www.bsc.edu/programs/mppm

Troy University

Master of Public Administration Program Troy, AL 36082 http://www.troy.edu

The University of Arizona

The University of Alabama at Birmingham

University of South Alabama

Dept. of Government and Public Service U238, 1530 3rd Avenue South Birmingham, AL 35294-3350 http://www.uab.edu/graduate/ documents/areas/publicad.htm

Dept. of Political Science/Criminal Justice Room 226 Mobile, AL 36688-0002 http://www.southalabama.edu/ graduateprograms/artsandsci. html

School of Public Administration and Policy 405 McClelland Hall Tucson, AZ 85721 http://www.bpa.arizona.edu/ programs/spa

ARKANSAS University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

ALASKA
Dept. of Public Administration 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508 http://mpa.alaska.edu

Dept. of Political Science Box 870213 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0213 http://www.as.ua.edu/psc/grad.html

University of Alaska

Dept. of Political Science 428 Old Main Fayetteville, AR 72701 http://www.uark.edu/depts/plscinfo

University of Arkansas at Little Rock


Graduate Program in Public 2801 S University Avenue Little Rock, AR 72204-1099 http://www.ualr.edu/~iog Dept. of Political Science P.O. Box 1750

Auburn University at Montgomery

University of Alaska Southeast


Public Administration Program 11120 Glacier Highway Juneau, AK 99801 http://www.uas.alaska.edu/uas/ padmintro.html

Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration P.O. Box 244023 Montgomery, AL 36124-4023

Arkansas State University

APPENDIX VI

235

State University, AR 72467-1750 http://graduateschool.astate.edu/

Fullerton, CA 92834-6848 http://hss.fullerton.edu/polsci/mpa_ home.htm

Turlock, CA 95380 http://www.csustan.edu/ppa/index. html

CALIFORNIA California State Polytechnic University

California State University, Hayward

Golden Gate University

Political Science Department 3801 West Temple Avenue Building 94, Room 303 Pomona, CA 91768-4055 http://www.class.csupomona.edu/ pls/pls.html

Dept. of Public Administration 25800 Carlos Bee Boulevard Hayward, CA 94542 http://www.csuhayward/alss/puad

California State University, Long Beach

Graduate School of Liberal Studies and Public Affairs 536 Mission Street San Francisco, CA 94105-2968 http://www.ggu.edu/schools/ls&pa/ public_admin/home.html

California State University, Bakersfield


Dept. of Public Policy and Administration 9001 Stockdale Highway Bakersfield, CA 93311-1099 http://www.csubak.edu/BPA/ pagehome.ht

Graduate Center for Public Policy and Administration 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Long Beach, CA 90840-4602 http://www.csulb.edu/~chhs/ dptframes.ht

The Monterey Institute of International Studies

California State University, Los Angeles

Graduate School of International Policy Studies 425 Van Buren Street Monterey, CA 93940 http://fgsib.miis.edu/

California State University, Chico


Dept. of Political Science Chico, CA 95929-0455 http://www.csuchico.edu/pols/ about-public-admin.html

Dept. of Political Science 5151 State University Drive Los Angeles, CA 90032-8226 http://www.calstatela.edu/dept/pol_ sci/MSPA1.html

The Naval Postgraduate School

Department of Systems Management 555 Dyer Road Monterey, CA 93943-5000 http://web.nps.navy.mil/~sm

Pepperdine University

California State University, Northridge

California State University, Dominguez Hills

Dept. of Public Administration, SBS D311 School of Business and Public Administration 1000 E Victoria Street Carson, CA 90747 http://som.csudh.edu/depts/pub_ admin/Index.htm

The Tseng College MPA Program 18111 Nordhoff Street Northridge, CA 91330-8343 http://tsengcollege.csun.edu/mpa

School of Public Policy 24255 Pacific Coast Highway Malibu, CA 90263 http://pepperdine.edu/PublicPolicy

The RAND Graduate School

California State University, Sacramento


MPPA Program 6000 J Street Sacramento, CA 95819-6081 http://www.csus.edu/mppa

RAND Graduate School of Policy Studies Ph.D. in Policy Analysis 1700 Main Street P.O. Box 2138 Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 http://www.rgs.edu

Cal State University, Fresno

Dept. of Political Science 5340 North Campus Drive Fresno, CA 93740-0019 http://www.csufresno.edu/Political Science/requirements/mpa.html

California State University, San Bernardino


Dept. of Public Administration Jack Bown Hall, Room 456 San Bernardino, CA 92407-2397 http://www.sbpa.csusb.edu/pa

San Diego State University

School of Public Administration and Urban Studies 5500 Campanile Drive San Diego, CA 92182-4505 http://www.sdsu.edu/academicprog/ publcadm.html

California State University, Fullerton

Division of Criminal Justice and Political Science P.O. Box 6848

California State University, Stanislaus


Dept. of Political and Public Administration 325 North Broadway

San Francisco State University


Dept. of Public Administration 1600 Holloway Avenue San Francisco, CA 94132 http://bss.sfsu.edu/~mpa

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San Jose State University

Dept. of Political Science One Washington Square San Jose, CA 95112-0119 http://www.sjsu.edu/depts/PoliSci

Denver, CO 80217-3364 http://www.cudenver.edu/public/ gspa

Washington, DC 20007 http://www.georgetown.edu/grad/ gppi

University of Denver

University of California, Berkeley

Richard and Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy 2607 Hearst Avenue Berkeley, CA 94720-7320 http://www.berkeley.edu

Graduate Program in Public Policy Mary Reed Building Suite 107 2199 S University Boulevard Denver, CO 80208 http://www.du.edu/mpp

Howard University

Department of Political Science 112 Douglas Hall Washington, DC 20059 http://www.howard.edu/polisci/ graduate/gradhome

CONNECTICUT
Department of Public Policy Storrs Mansfield, CT 06269-1106 http://www.dpp.uconn.edu

Southeastern University

University of California, Los Angeles

University of Connecticut

Dept. of Public Administration Washington, DC 20024-2788 http://www.seu.edu

School of Public Policy and Social Research 3284-D Public Policy Building Box 951656 Los Angeles, CA 90095-1656 http://www.sppsr.ucla.edu

Strayer University

University of New Haven

University of La Verne

Dept. of Public Management 300 Orange Avenue West Haven, CT 06516-1999 http://www.newhaven.edu

Master of Public Administration Washington, DC 20005 http://www.strayer.edu

University of the District of Columbia


School of Business and Public Administration Washington, DC 20008 http://www.udc.edu

Dept. of Public Administration 2220 3rd Street La Verne, CA 91750 http://www.ulv.edu/acdem/dept/ padm/padmp.html

DELAWARE
School of Urban Affairs and Public Policy 182 Graham Hall Newark, DE 19716-7301 http://www.udel.edu/suapp

University of Delaware

University of San Francisco


College of Professional Studies Dept. of Public Management 2130 Fulton Street San Francisco, CA, 94117-1080 http://www.cps.usfca.edu

FLORIDA Florida Atlantic University


School of Public Administration 220 SE 2nd Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33301 http://fau.edu/divdept/caupa/

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Dept. of Public Administration Ward Circle Building, Room 322 Washington, DC 20016-8011 http://www.american.edu/academic. depts/spa/spa-home.htm

American University

University of Southern California

Florida Gulf Coast University

School of Policy, Planning, and Development Ralph and Goldy Lewis Hall, Room 312 650 Childs Way Los Angeles, CA 90089-0626 http://www.usc.edu/dept/sppd/ index.html

Division of Public Administration 10501 FGCU Boulevard, South Fort Myers, FL 33965-6565

The George Washington University

Florida International University

COLORADO University of Colorado at Denver

Dept. of Public Administration 805 21st Street, NW Washington, DC 20052 http://www.gwu.edu/~pad

College of Health and Urban Affairs North Miami Campus, ACI-281 3000 NE 151st Street North Miami, FL 33181 http://www.fiu.edu/~cupa

Georgetown University
Public Policy Institute 3600 N Street, NW Room 200

The Florida State University


Askew School of Public Administration and Policy 614 Bellamy Building

Graduate School of Public Affairs P.O. Box 173364, Campus Box 142

APPENDIX VI

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Tallahassee, FL 32306-2250 http://www.fsu.edu/~spap

Augusta State University

Nova Southeastern University


3100 SW Ninth Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 http://www.sbe.nova.edu

Dept. of Political Science 2500 Walton Way Augusta, GA 30904 http://www.aug.edu/political_ science

Savannah State University


P.O. Box 20385 Savannah, GA 31404 http://www.savstate.edu/mpa

State University of West Georgia


Dept. of Political Science 1500 Maple Street Carrollton, GA 30118 http://www.westga.edu/~polisci

University of Central Florida


Dept. of Public Administration HPA 343 Orlando, FL 32816-1395 http://www.cohpa.ucf.edu

Clark Atlanta University

Dept. of Public Administration 223 James P. Brawley Drive, SW Atlanta, GA 30314 http://www.cau.edu

The University of Georgia


Dept. of Political Science Baldwin Hall Athens, GA 30602-1615 http://www.uga.edu/~pol-sci

University of Miami

Columbus State University

Public Administration Program P.O. Box 248047 Coral Gables, FL 33124 http://www.miami.edu/ politicalscience.htm

Dept. of Political Science 4225 University Avenue Columbus, GA 31907-5645 http://polsci.colstate.edu/pg7.htm

Valdosta State University

University of North Florida

Georgia College and State University

Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration 4567 St. Johns Bluff Road, S Jacksonville, FL 32250 http://www.unf.edu/coas/ polsci-pubadmin

Dept. of Government and Sociology Campus Box 18 Milledgeville, GA 31061-0490 http://www.gcsu.edu/acad_affairs/ coll_artsci/gov_soc

Dept. of Political Science 1500 N Patterson Valdosta, GA 31698-0056 http://www.valdosta.edu/mpa/ online

GUAM University of Guam


Dept. of Public Administration UOG Station Mangilao, GU 96923 http://uog2.uog.edu/cbpa/index. html

Georgia Institute of Technology


School of Public Policy 685 Cherry Street Campus Box 0345 Atlanta, GA 30332-0345 http://www.gatech.edu/spp

University of South Florida

Dept. of Government and International Affairs 4202 E Fowler Avenue, SOC 107 Tampa, FL 33620-8100 http://www.cas.usf.edu/pad/index. html

HAWAII University of Hawaii


Public Administration Program 2424 Maile Way Honolulu, HI 96822 http://www.puba.hawaii.edu/ ProgramOverview.htm

Georgia Southern University

The University of West Florida


Division of Administrative Studies Building 85, Room 160 11000 University Parkway Pensacola, FL 32514-5750 http://www.uwf.edu/~justice

M.P.A. Program Dept. of Political Science P.O. Box 8101 Statesboro, GA 30460 http://www2.gasou.edu/facstaff/mpa

Georgia State University

IDAHO Boise State University


Dept. of Public Policy and Administration 1910 University Drive Boise, ID 83725 http://www.ppa.boisestate.edu

GEORGIA Albany State University


Dept. of History and Political Science 504 College Drive Albany, GA 31705 http://argus.asurams.edu/asu/ Academics/pols.htm

Dept. of Public Administration and Urban Studies University Plaza Atlanta, GA 30303-3083 http://www.gsu.edu/~wwwsps

Kennesaw State University


M.P.A. Program 1000 Chastain Road Kennesaw, GA 30144-5591 http://www.kennesaw.edu

Idaho State University

Department of Political Science Pocatello, ID 83209-0009 http://www.roosevelt.edu

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University of Idaho

Dept. of Political Science Admin. 205 Moscow, ID 83844 http://www.class.uidaho.edu/pols/ degree.htm

Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville

Dept. of Public Administration and Policy Analysis Box 1457 Edwardsville, IL 62026 http://siue.edu/papa

Gary, IN 46408 http://www.iun.indiana.edu/spea/ spea.htm

Indiana University-Purdue University, Fort Wayne


Division of Public and Environmental Affairs 2101 Coliseum Boulevard, E Fort Wayne, IN 46805-1499 http://www.ipfw.edu/spea

ILLINOIS DePaul University


Public Services Graduate Program 243 S Wabash Avenue Room 700 Chicago, IL 60604 http://www.depaul.edu/~pubser

University of Chicago

Harris School of Public Policy Studies 1155 East 60th Street Suite 151A Chicago, IL 60637 http://www.uchicago.edu

Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis

Governors State University

The University of Illinois at Chicago

College of Business and Public Administration Graduate Program in Public Administration University Park, IL 60466 http://www.govst.edu/users/gcbpa

M.P.A. Program (M/C278) 412 South Peoria Chicago, IL 60607-7064 http://www.uic.edu/cuppa/mpa

SPEA 3025B, IUPUI 801 W Michigan Street Indianapolis, IN 46202-5152 http://www.iupui.edu/home/env.html

Indiana University South Bend Campus


SPEA 1800 Mishawaka Avenue South Bend, IN 46615 http://www.iusb.edu/~spea

University of Illinois at Springfield

Illinois Institute of Technology


M.P.A. Program IIT Downtown Campus Room 659 Chicago, IL 60661-3691 http://www.grad.iit.edu/ graduatecollege/programs/ pubadmin.html

School of Public Affairs and Administration PAC 440, Sheppard Road Springfield, IL 62794-9243 http://www.uis.edu/~ipa/mainhtm. htm

IOWA Drake University


Dept. of Public Administration College of Business and Public Administration Aliber Hall Des Moines, IA 50311 http://www.drake.edu/cbpa

INDIANA
Department of Political Science Muncie, IN 47306-0515 http://www.bsu.edu/politicalscience

Ball State University

Northern Illinois University

Division of Public Administration DeKalb, IL 60115 http://www.niu.edu/pub_ad/paweb. html

Iowa State University

Indiana State University

Roosevelt University

School of Policy Studies 430 S Michigan Avenue Chicago, IL 60605-1394 http://www.roosevelt.edu/cas/pspa/ mpa.htm

Dept. of Political Science Terre Haute, IN 47809 http://web.indstate.edu/polisci

515 Ross Hall Ames, IA 50011-1204 http://www.iastate.edu/~polsci/ mpa.html

Indiana University, Bloomington


School of Public and Environmental Affairs 1315 E Tenth Street Bloomington, IN 47405-2100 http://www.indiana.edu/~speaweb/ index.html

Upper Iowa University

Master of Public Administration Program West Des Moines, IA 50265 http://www.uiu.edu

Southern Illinois University, Carbondale

KANSAS Kansas State University


226 Waters Hall Manhattan, KS 66506 http://www.ksu.edu/polsci

M.P.A. Program Carbondale, IL 62901 http://www.siu.edu/departments/ cola/polysci/mpa.html

Indiana University, Northwest


Division of Public and Economic Affairs 3400 Broadway

APPENDIX VI

239

The University of Kansas

Dept. of Public Administration 318 Blake Hall Lawrence, KS 66045 http://www.ukans.edu/~kupa

426 W Bloom Louisville, KY 40208 http://cbpa.louisville.edu/ AcademicPrograms/MPA.htm

Orono, ME 04469-5754 http://www.ume.maine.edu/ pubadmin

Western Kentucky University

University of Southern Maine

Wichita State University

Hugo Wall School of Urban and Public Affairs 1845 N Fairmount Street Wichita, KS 67260-0155 http://www.mrc.twsu.edu/kpfc

Public Administration Program Dept. of Government Bowling Green, KY 42101-3576 http://www.wku.edu/Dept/ Academic/AHSS/Government/ govt.htm

Public Policy and Management Program 96 Falmouth Street PO Box 9300 Portland, ME 04104-9300 http://www.muskie.usm.maine.edu

KENTUCKY Eastern Kentucky University


Dept. of Government 113 McCreary Hall Richmond, KY 40475-3122 http://www.socialscience.eku.edu/ GOV/MPA/MPAn.htm

LOUISIANA
Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration Grambling, LA 71245 http://www.gram.edu/COLA/ department_of_political_ science.htm

MARYLAND Bowie State University


Dept. of Management, Marketing, and Public Administration Bowie, MD 20715 http://www.bowiestate.edu/ community/business.asp

Grambling State University

Kentucky State University

Johns Hopkins University


Institute of Policy Studies 3400 N Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21218 http://www.jhu.edu/~ips

School of Public Administration 400 E Main Street Frankfort, KY 40601 http://www.kysu.edu/PublicAdmin/ Default.html

Louisiana State University

Public Administration Institute 3200 CEBA Baton Rouge, LA 70803 http://www.bus.lsu.edu/pai

University of Baltimore

Murray State University

Southern University

Dept. of Political Science and Legal Studies 553 Business Building Murray, KY 42071-3314 http://www.mursuky.edu/qacd/ cbpa/bpa-web.htm

Nelson Mandela School of Public Policy and Urban Affairs Box 9656 Baton Rouge, LA 70816 http://publicpolicy.subr.edu

Dept. of Government and Public Administration School of Public Affairs 1420 N Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21201-5779 http://www.ubalt.edu/cla_dgpa

University of New Orleans

Northern Kentucky University


Dept. of Political Science Landrum 217K, Nunn Drive Highland Heights, KY 41099-2207 http://www.nku.edu/~mpa

College of Urban and Public Affairs New Orleans, LA 70148 http://www.uno.edu

University of Maryland, Baltimore County

MAINE The University of Maine at Augusta

Policy Science Graduate Program 1000 Hilltop Circle 626 Administration Building Baltimore, MD 21250 http://www.umbc.edu

University of Kentucky

Martin School of Public Policy and Administration 415 Patterson Office Tower Lexington, KY 40506-0027 http://www.uky.edu/rgs/ martinschool

Dept. of Public Administration 46 University Drive Augusta, ME 04330 http://www.uma.maine.edu/ academics/uacadprograms.html

University of Maryland, College Park

School of Public Affairs 2101G Van Munching Hall College Park, MD 20742-1821 http://www.puaf.umd.edu

University of Louisville

University of Maine

College of Business and Public Administration

Dept. of Public Administration 5754 N Stevens Hall Room 239

MASSACHUSETTS Bridgewater State College


Dept. of Political Science

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Summer Street House Bridgewater, MA 02325 http://www.bridgew.edu/DEPTS/ POLISCI/index.HTM

MICHIGAN
Dept. of Political Science 245 Anspach Hall Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 http://www.cmich.edu/PSC.HTML

Central Michigan University

University of Michigan, Dearborn

Clark University

COPACE 950 Main Street Worcester, MA 01610-1477 http://www.copace.clarku.edu

Public Administration Program 4901 Evergreen Road Dearborn, MI 48128-1491 http://umd.umich.edu

Eastern Michigan University


Dept. of Political Science 601 Pray-Harrold Ypsilanti, MI 48197 http://www.emich.edu/public/ polisci/mpaprog.htm

University of Michigan, Flint


Department of Public Administration Flint, MI 48502 http://www.umflint.edu/ graduateprograms/public_ admin.htm

Harvard University

The John F. Kennedy School of Government 79 JFK Street Cambridge, MA 02138 http://www.ksg.harvard.edu

Grand Valley State University


School of Public and Nonprofit Administration 401 W Fulton Street 2nd Floor Grand Rapids, MI 49504-4100 http://www.gvsu.edu/spna

Wayne State University

Northeastern University

Dept. of Political Science 303 Meserve Hall Boston, MA 02115 http://www.casdn.neu.edu/~ polisci

Graduate Program in Public Administration 2049 FAB Detroit, MI 48202 http://www.pol.sci.wayne.edu/pol. sci.2/grad/mpa.html

Michigan State University

Western Michigan University


School of Public Affairs and Administration Kalamazoo, MI 49008-3899 http://www.wmich.edu/spaa

Suffolk University

School of Management 8 Ashburton Place Boston, MA 02108-2770 http://www.sawyer.suffolk.edu

Public Policy Program 324 South Kedzie Hall East Lansing, MI 48824-1032 http://www.polisci.msu.edu/mpa

Northern Michigan University


Dept. of Political Science 1401 Presque Isle Avenue 259 Magers Hall Marquette, MI 49855-5257 http://www.nmu.edu/mpa

MINNESOTA Hamline University


Graduate School of Public Administration and Management 1536 Hewitt Avenue, N St. Paul, MN 55104-1284 http://web.hamline.edu/graduate/ gpam

University of Massachusetts, Amherst


Center for Public Policy and Administration 416 Thompson Hall Amherst, MA 01003 http://pubpol1.sbs.umass.edu

Oakland University

University of Massachusetts at Boston


John W. McCormack Institute of Public Affairs 100 Morrissey Boulevard Boston, MA 02125-3393 http://www.mccormack.umb.edu

Dept. of Political Science 418 Varner Hall Rochester, MI 48309-4401 http://www.oakland.edu/ political-science/mpa/index. htm

University of Minnesota

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Westfield State College

Div. of Graduate and Continuing Education Westfield, MA 01086-1630 http://www.wsc.ma.edu/dgce

The Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy 440 Lorch Hall 611 Tappan Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1220 http://www.Fordschool.umich.edu

Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs 300 Humphrey Center 301 19th Avenue, S Room 163 Minneapolis, MN 55455 http://www.hhh.umn.edu

Walden University

School of Management Minneapolis, MN 55401 http://www.waldenu.edu

APPENDIX VI

241

MISSISSIPPI Jackson State University


Dept. of Public Policy and Administration 3825 Ridgewood Road Box 18 Jackson, MS 39217 http://www.jsums.edu/liberalarts/ pubpolicy/index.html

University of Missouri, Kansas City


Bloch School of Business and Public Administration 5100 Cherry Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 http://www.bsbpa.umkc.edu

Kean University

Dept. of Public Administration Morris Avenue Union, NJ 07083 http://www.kean.edu/Academic Schools/BusGovTech.htm

University of Missouri, St. Louis

Princeton University

Mississippi State University


Dept. of Political Science P.O. Box PC 121 Bowen Hall Mississippi State, MS 39762 http://www.msstate.edu/Dept/ PoliticalScience

Public Policy Administration Program 406 Tower 8001 Natural Bridge Road St. Louis, MO 63121-4499 http://www.umsl.edu/divisions/ graduate/mppa

Woodrow Wilson School Robertson Hall Princeton, NJ 08544-1013 http://www.wws.princeton.edu

Rutgers University, Camden

Mississippi Valley State University

MONTANA
Dept. of Political Science Bozeman, MT 59715 http://www.montana.edu/wwwpo

Montana State University

Graduate Department of Public Policy and Administration 401 Cooper Street Camden, NJ 08102 http://camden-www.rutgers.edu/ ~publicad

Social Science Building, Office A Box 7273 Itta Bena, MS 38941 http://www.msvu.edu

Rutgers University, Newark

NEBRASKA University of Nebraska at Omaha

MISSOURI Park College


Graduate School of Public Affairs 934 Wyandotte Kansas City, MO 64105 http://www.park.edu/pubadm/ pubadm.htm

Southwest Missouri State University

College of Public Affairs and Community Service 60th and Dodge Street Omaha, NE 68182-0276 http://cid.unomaha.edu/~wwwpa/ pahome.html

Graduate Department of Public Administration 360 Dr. Martin L. King Boulevard Room 701 Newark, NJ 07102 http://rutgers-newark.rutgers.edu/ pubadmin

Seton Hall University

Center for Public Service Kozlowski Hall South Orange, NJ 07079 http://artsci.shu.edu/cps

901 S National Avenue Springfield, MO 65804-0094 http://www.smsu.edu/PolSci/MPA. htm

NEVADA
M.P.A. Program 4505 Maryland Parkway Las Vegas, NV 89154 http://www.nscee.edu/unlv/ Colleges/Business/PublicAdmin/ pubadmn.html

NEW MEXICO New Mexico State University


M.P.A. Program Dept. of Government Las Cruces, NM 88003-0001 http://www.nmsu.edu/~mpa

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

St. Louis University

Dept. of Public Policy Studies and Administration 3663 ODonnell Hall St. Louis, MO 63103 http://www.slu.edu/colleges/cops

The University of New Mexico


School of Public Administration 3016 Social Sciences Building Albuquerque, NM 87131 http://www.unm.edu/~spagrad

NEW JERSEY
Public Administration Institute Mailstop H-DH2-13 1000 River Road Teaneck, NJ 07666 http://www.fdu.edu/centers/pai.html

University of Missouri, Columbia

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Graduate School of Public Affairs 265 McReynolds Hall Columbia, MO 65211-2015 http://gspa.missouri.edu

NEW YORK Baruch College, CUNY


School of Public Affairs

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

17 Lexington Avenue Box C-0305 New York, NY 10010 http://www.baruch.cuny.edu/spa

Marist College

Binghamton University

3399 North Road Poughkeepsie, NY 12601 http://www.marist.edu/graduate/ pa.html

State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany


Dept. of Public Administration and Policy 135 Western Avenue Albany, NY 12222 http://www.albany.edu/gspa

Dept. of Political Science P.O. Box 6000 Binghamton, NY 13902 http://www.binghamton.edu/mpa/ index.html

Medgar Evers College

Columbia University

Social Science Division 1650 Bedford Avenue Office B-2015H Brooklyn, NY 11225 http://www.mec.cuny.edu/administ. htm

State University of New York (SUNY) College at Brockport


255 Faculty Office Building Brockport, NY 14420-2961 http://cc.brockport.edu/ ~pubadmin/index.html

Graduate Program in Public Policy and Administration 420 West 118th Street, #1417 New York, NY 10027 http://www.columbia.edu/cu/sipa

Metropolitan College of New York


School for Public Affairs and Administration New York, NY 10013-1010 http://www.metropolitan.edu

Syracuse University

Cornell University

Institute for Public Affairs 472 Hollister Hall Ithaca, NY 14853 http://www.cfe.cornell.edu/cipa

New School University

John Jay College, CUNY

445 West 59th Street Room 3254, North Hall New York, NY 10019 http://www.jjay.cuny.edu/academic/ graduate/pub_admin/pub_ admin.html

R. J. Milano Graduate School of Management and Urban Policy 66 Fifth Avenue 7th Floor New York, NY 10011 http://www.newschool.edu/milano

Dept. of Public Administration The Maxwell School 215 Eggers Hall Syracuse, NY 13244-1090 http://www.maxwell.syr.edu/pa/ papage.ht

NORTH CAROLINA Appalachian State University


Dept. of Political Science and Criminal Justice P.O. Box 32107 Boone, NC 28608 http://www.pscj.appstate.edu/ contact.html

New York University

Long Island University, Brooklyn

Wagner Graduate School of Public Service 4 Washington Square North New York, NY 10003 http://www.nyu.edu/wagner

Public Administration Program Brooklyn Campus, University Plaza School of Business, Public Administration and Information Science Brooklyn, NY 11201 http://www.brooklyn.liunet.edu/ cwis/ bklyn/sbpais/business.html

Duke University

Pace University

Long Island University, C. W. Post Campus

Dept. of Public Administration Lubin Graduate Center 1 Martine Avenue Room 324 White Plains, NY 10606-1909 http://www.pace.edu/dyson/ graduate/ ms_public_admin.htm

Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy Box 90239 Durham, NC 27708-0239 http://www.pubpol.duke.edu

East Carolina University

Health Care and Public Administration Dept. 720 Northern Boulevard Brookville, NY 11548 http://www.cwpost.liunet.edu/cwis/ cwp/colofman/public/public.html

The Sage Colleges

Department of Management Public Administration, MS 140 New Scotland Avenue Albany, NY 12208 http://www.sage.edu/divisions/ mcls/Welcome.html

Dept. of Political Science A-124 Brewster Greenville, NC 27858-4353 http://www.ecu.edu/polsci/mpa_ in$9elht

North Carolina Central University

Public Administration Program P.O. Box 19552

APPENDIX VI

243

Durham, NC 27707 http://www.nccu.edu/artsci/polysci/ gprog_pa.htm

http://www.wcu.edu/as/ politicalscience

The University of Akron

North Carolina State University


Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration Campus Box 8102 Raleigh, NC 27695-8102 http://www.chass.ncsu.edu/pa/ index.html

NORTH DAKOTA
Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration Box 8379 University Station Grand Forks, ND 58202-8379 http://www.und.edu/dept/collegeb

University of North Dakota

Dept. of Public Administration and Urban Studies 265 Polsky Building Akron, OH 44325-7904 http://www.uakron.edu/paus

University of Dayton

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


Institute of Government CB#3330 Knapp Building Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3330 http://ncinfo.iog.edu/uncmpa

Dept. of Political Science MPA Program Dayton, OH 45469-1425 http://www.udayton.edu/~mpa

OHIO
Masters Program in Public Administration and International Affairs 124 Williams Hall Bowling Green, OH 43403 http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/ pols/mpa/index.html

The University of Toledo

Bowling Green State University

University of North Carolina at Charlotte


Dept. of Political Science 9201 University City Boulevard Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 http://www.uncc.edu/gradmiss

Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration 2801 W Bancroft Street Toledo, OH 43606-3390 http://www.utoledo.edu/www/ poli-sci/pshome.html

Wright State University

Cleveland State University

University of North Carolina at Greensboro


Dept. of Political Science P.O. Box 26170 Greensboro, NC 27402-6170 http://www.uncg.edu/psc/mpa

Levin College of Urban Affairs 1717 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115 http://urban.csuohio.edu

Dept. of Urban Affairs and Geography 166 Millett Hall 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway Dayton, OH 45435-0001 http://www.wright.edu/cupa/ graduate.htm

Kent State University

University of North Carolina at Pembroke


Master of Science in Organizational Leadership and Management P.O. Box 1510 Pembroke, NC 28372-1510 http://www.uncp.edu

Dept. of Political Science 302 Bowman Hall Kent, OH 44242-0001 http://www.kent.edu/mpa.htm

OKLAHOMA The University of Oklahoma


Public Administration Program 455 W Lindsey Street Room 305 Norman, OK 73019-2003 http://www.ou.edu/cas/psc/ mpaprog.htm

The Ohio State University

University of North Carolina at Wilmington


Dept. of Political Science 601 S College Road Wilmington, NC 28403-3297 http://www.uncwil.edu/mpa

School of Public Policy and Management College of Social and Behavioral Sciences 60 Medbrook Way Columbus, OH 43214 http://ppm.ohio-state.edu

OREGON Portland State University


Dept. of Public Administration 730 SW Mill Street P.O. Box 751 Portland, OR 97207 http://www.upa.pdx.edu/PA

Ohio University

Western Carolina University

Dept. of Political Science and Public Affairs Cullowhee, NC 28723

Dept. of Political Science 222 Bentley Hall Athens, OH 45701-2979 http://www-as.phy.ohiou.edu/ Departments/ PoliSci/mpa.html

University of Oregon

Dept. of Planning, Public Policy and Management

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Eugene, OR 97403-1209 http://utopia.uoregon.edu

University of Pittsburgh
GSPIA 3G07 Posvar Hall Pittsburgh, PA 15260 http://www.gspia.pitt.edu

The University of Charleston

Willamette University

Atkinson Graduate School of Management 900 State Street Salem, OR 97301-3931 http://www.willamette.edu/agsm

Masters of Public Administration 66 George Street Charleston, SC 29424 http://www.cofc.edu

Villanova University

PENNSYLVANIA Carnegie Mellon University


5000 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 http://www.heinz.cmu.edu

Dept. of Political Science 800 Lancaster Avenue Villanova, PA 19085 http://www.psc.villanova.edu

The University of South Carolina

Widener University

Master of Public Administration Chester, PA 19085 http://www.widener.edu/mpa

Dept. of Government and International Studies 349 Gambrell Hall Columbia, SC 29208 http://www.cla.sc.edu/gint/gradmpa/ mpa.html

SOUTH DAKOTA The University of South Dakota


Dept. of Political Science 414 E Clark Street Vermillion, SD 57069-2390 http://www.usd.edu/polsci

Marywood University

PUERTO RICO
Graduate School of Public Administration Box 21839 San Juan, PR 00931-1839 http://upracd.upr.clu.edu:9090/ ~admipubl

Dept. of Public Administration 2300 Adams Avenue Scranton, PA 18509 http://www.marywood.edu/gas/ departments/

University of Puerto Rico

The Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg


M.P.A. Program 777 W Harrisburg Pike Middletown, PA 17057-4898 http://www.hbg.psu.edu/spa

TENNESSEE East Tennessee State University

RHODE ISLAND
Taubman Center for Public Policy Providence, RI 02912 http://www.brown.edu/Departments/ Taubman_Center

Brown University

Shippensburg University

Dept. of Political Science 1871 Old Main Drive Grove Hall 420 Shippensburg, PA 17257-2299 http://www.ship.edu

Master of Public Management Program P.O. Box 70699 Johnson City, TN 37614 http://pub-mgmt.etsu.edu

University of Rhode Island and Rhode Island College


Political Science Dept. 600 Mt. Pleasant Avenue Providence, RI 02908 http://nick.uri.edu/prov/mpa/mpa. html http://www.ric.edu/polisci

Tennessee State University

Slippery Rock University

Institute of Government 330 10th Avenue, N Nashville, TN 37203-3401 http://duke.tnstate.edu/pubadmin

Dept. of Government and Public Affairs 209 Spotts World Culture Building Slippery Rock, PA 16057-1326 http://www.sru.edu

The University of Memphis

SOUTH CAROLINA
Dept. of Political Science Brackett Hall 230 Clemson, SC 29634-1354 http://www.business.clemson. edu/mpa

University of Pennsylvania
School of Arts and Sciences 3814 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19104-6197 http://www.upenn.edu/fels

Clemson University

Division of Public Administration 136 McCord Hall Memphis, TN 38152-6108 http://www.memphis.edu/ ~gapubaddm/mps.html

The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga


Dept. of Political Science 615 McCallie Avenue

APPENDIX VI

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Chattanooga, TN 37403 http://www.utc.edu/~mpa

College Station, TX 77843-4220 http://bush.tamu.edu/home

http://www.utdallas.edu/dept/ socsci

The University of Tennessee at Knoxville

Texas Tech University

Dept. of Political Science 1001 McClung Tower Knoxville, TN 37996-0410 http://www.utk.edu/~lilliard/polisci.html

Dept. of Political Science Lubbock, TX 79409-1015 http://www.ttu.edu/~cps

University of Texas at El Paso

University of Houston

Dept. of Political Science Benedict Hall El Paso, TX 79968-0547 http://www.utep.edu/~librats/mpa. htm

TEXAS Midwestern State University


Public Administration Program College of Health and Human Services 3410 Taft Boulevard Wichita Falls, TX 76308-2099 http://www.mwsu.edu/~hsa/ hsaintro.html Dept. of Political Science, PA Program Huntsville, TX 77341 http://www.shsu.edu

Central Campus Public Administration Program Dept. of Political Science Houston, TX 77204-3474 http://www.uh.edu

University of Texas Pan American

University of Houston at Clear Lake


Programs in Government and Public Management 2700 Bay Area Boulevard Houston, TX 77058 http://www.cl.uh/grad/majors/ pubadmin.ht

Dept. of Political Science 1201 W University Drive Edinburg, TX 78539-2999 http://www.panam.edu/dept/ polsci

University of Texas at San Antonio

Sam Houston State University

University of North Texas

Southwest Texas State University

Dept. of Political Science LA 266 San Marcos, TX 78666-4616 http://www.swt.edu/acad_depts/ public_admin.html

Dept. of Public Administration P.O. Box 310617 Denton, TX 76203-0617 http://www.scs.unt.edu/depts/ padm

Dept. of Public Administration 501 West Durango San Antonio, TX 78207 http://csbs.utsa.edu/divisions/ socrpol/ MPA/frames.htm

UTAH Brigham Young University


Romney Institute of Public Management P.O. Box 23161 760A TNRB Provo, UT 84602-3161 http://msm.byu.edu/dept/pm

The University of Texas at Arlington


Institute of Urban Studies P.O. Box 19588 Arlington, TX 76019 http://www.uta.edu/supa

Stephen F. Austin State University

The University of Utah

Dept. of Political Science 1936 North Street Liberal Arts North Building Room 124 Nacogdoches, TX 75962-3045 http://titan.sfasu.edu/~f_ sementelAJ/MPASFA.html

The University of Texas at Austin

Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs 2315 Red River Austin, TX 78705 http://www.utexas.edu/lbj

Public Administration Program 260 S Central Campus Drive Room 205 Salt Lake City, UT 84112-9154 http://www.cppa.utah.edu/cppa/ cppa-index.html

VERMONT University of Vermont


M.P.A. Program 503 Old Mill Burlington, VT 05405 http://www.uvm.edu

Texas A&M University

The George Bush School of Government and Public Service Bush Academic West Suite 1098

The University of Texas at Dallas


School of Social Sciences P.O. Box 830688 Richardson, TX 75083-0688

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VIRGIN ISLANDS University of the Virgin Islands


Division of Social Sciences St. Thomas, VI 00802 http://www.uvi.edu/ pub-relations/divsosci.htm

Richmond, VA 23284 http://www.vcu.edu/hasweb/pos/ masters.html

WEST VIRGINIA Marshall University


Department of Political Science Huntington, WV 25755 http://www.marshall.edu/polsci

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University


Center for Public Administration and Policy 104 Draper Road Blacksburg, VA 24061 http://civnet.com/cpap

West Virginia University

VIRGINIA The College of William and Mary

Thomas Jefferson Public Policy Program Morton Hall P.O. Box 8795 Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795 http://www.wm.edu/publicpolicy

Virginia State University

Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration Box 9062 Petersburg, VA 23806 http://www.vsu.edu/politic.html

School of Applied Social Sciences P.O. Box 6322 209 Knapp Hall Morgantown, WV 26506-6322 http://www.25.wvu.edu/coll03/ pubadm/www

WISCONSIN University of Wisconsin, Madison

George Mason University

Dept. of Public and International Affairs 4400 University Drive MSN 3F4 Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 http://www.gmu.edu/departments/ pia

WASHINGTON
Public Administration Program 668 N Riverport Boulevard Suite A Spokane, WA 99204-1660 http://www.cbpa.ewu.edu Graduate Program in Public Administration 2700 Evergreen Parkway, NW Olympia, WA 98502 http://www.evergreen.edu/mpa

Eastern Washington University

Robert M. LaFollette School of Public Affairs 1225 Observatory Drive Madison, WI 53706 http://www.lafollette.wisc.edu

James Madison University

University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Public Administration Program Dept. of Political Science Harrisonburg, VA 22807 http://www.jmu.edu/polisci

The Evergreen State College

Old Dominion University

Dept. of Political Science Public Administration and Public Policy P.O. Box 413 Milwaukee, WI 53201 http://www.uwm.edu

Dept of Economics, Public Administration and Urban Studies Hughes Hall Room 2049 Norfolk, VA 23529-0224 http://www.odu-cbpa.org/uspa/ mpa.htm

Seattle University

Institute of Public Service 900 Broadway Seattle, WA 98122-4460 http://www.seattleu.edu

University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh

University of Washington

Regent University

Robertson School of Government 1000 Regent University Drive Virginia Beach, VA 23464-9800 http://www.regent.edu/acad/schgov

Daniel J. Evans Graduate School of Public Affairs Box 353055 Seattle, WA 98195-3055 http://www.gspa.washington.edu

Dept. of Political Science, MPA Program 800 Algoma Boulevard Oshkosh, WI 54901 http://www.uwosh.edu/grad_ school/prog-mpa.html

WYOMING University of Wyoming


Dept. of Political Science Box 3197 Arts and Sciences Building Laramie, WY 82071-3197 http://www.uwyo.edu/A&S/pols/ Mpa/index.htm

Virginia Commonwealth University

Washington State University

Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration P.O. Box 842028

Dept. of Public Administration 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue Vancouver, WA 98686 http://baron.vancouver.wsu.edu/fac/ steel/pgm/mpa/frame.htm

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B. NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT
The following schools offer graduate (degree or certificate) programs specifically in nonprofit management. Many o ther s chools o ffer grad uate a nd/or under graduate co urses r elated t o no nprofit ma nagement through t heir p ublic administra tion, s ocial w ork, o r other departments. Courses and seminars in nonprofit management als o a re o ffered t hrough co ntinuingeducation departments and professional ass ociations. The Society for Nonprofit Organizations, for instance, offers ad ult co ntinuing ed ucation o nline t hrough i ts Learning I nstitute (h ttp://www.nonprofitcourses.org/ li). To s earch o nline f or grad uate p rograms in N onprofit Management, check out Petersons (http://www. petersons.com).

CALIFORNIA Hope International University


School of Graduate Studies Program in Business Administration Nonprofit Management Fullterton, CA 92831-3138 Phone: (800) 762-1294 http://www.hiu.edu

Department of Public Administration Washington, DC 20052 Phone: (202) 994-6584 http://www.gwu.edu

ILLINOIS DePaul University


College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Program in Public Services Chicago, IL 60604-2287 Phone: (312) 362-5367 http://www.depaul.edu

Trinity College

San Francisco State University


Graduate Division College of Behavioral and Social Sciences Public Administration Program San Francisco, CA 94132-1722 Phone: (415) 338-2023 http://www.sfsu.edu

School of Professional Studies Programs in Administration Washington, DC 20017-1094 Phone: (202) 884-9400 http://www.trinitydc.edu

North Central College

FLORIDA
School of Public Administration Program in Nonprofit Management Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 Phone: (954) 762-5664 http://www.fau.edu

Graduate Programs Department of Leadership Studies Naperville, IL 60566-7063 Phone: (630) 637-5840 http://www.noctrl.edu

Florida Atlantic University

Northwestern University
The Graduate School Kellogg Graduate School of Management Programs in Management Evanston, IL 60208 http://www.nwu.edu

University of San Francisco

College of Professional Studies Department of Public Management Institute for Nonprofit Administration San Francisco, CA 94117-1080 Phone: (415) 422-6000 http://www.usfca.edu

University of Central Florida

INDIANA Indiana University Northwest


Division of Public and Environmental Affairs Gary, IN 46408-1197 Phone: (219) 980-6737 http://www.iun.indiana.edu

COLORADO Regis University


School of Professional Studies Program in Nonprofit Management Denver, CO 80221-1099 Phone: (800) 677-9270 http://www.regis.edu

College of Health and Public Affairs Program in Public Administration Orlando, FL 32816 Phone: (407) 823-2604 http://www.ucf.edu

GEORGIA
Graduate School School of Social Work Institute for Non-Profit Organizations Athens, GA 30602 Phone: (706) 542-5463 http://www.uga.edu

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis


Center on Philanthropy Indianapolis, IN 46202 Phone: (317) 274-4200 http://www.iupui.edu

University of Georgia

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA The George Washington University

IOWA University of Northern Iowa


Graduate College

School of Business and Public Management

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Program in Philanthropy and Nonprofit Development Cedar Falls, IA 50614 Phone: (319) 273-6475 http://www.uni.edu

Phone: (617) 627-3700 http://www.tufts.edu

NEW YORK The College of Saint Rose


Graduate Studies School of Business Not for Profit Management Department Albany, NY 12203-1419 Phone: (518) 454-5137 http://www.strose.edu

Worcester State College

MARYLAND College of Notre Dame of Maryland


Graduate Studies Program in Nonprofit Management Baltimore, MD 21210-2476 http://www.ndm.edu

Graduate Studies Program in Non-Profit Management Worcester, MA 01602-2597 Phone: (508) 929-8120 http://www.worcester.edu

MINNESOTA
Graduate School of Public Administration and Management St. Paul, MN 55104-1284 Phone: (651) 523-2284 http://www.hamline.edu

Columbia University

Hamline University

MASSACHUSETTS Boston University


School of Management Program in Public and Nonprofit Management Boston, MA 02215 Phone: (612) 353-2312 http://www.bu.edu

School of Continuing Education Program in Fundraising Management New York, NY 10027 Phone: (212) 854-9699 http://www.columbia.edu

New School University

Metropolitan State University


College of Management St. Paul, MN 55106-5000 Phone: (612) 373-2724 http://www.metrostate.edu

Brandeis University

Robert J. Milano Graduate School of Management and Urban Policy Program in Nonprofit Management New York, NY 10011-8603 Phone: (212) 229-5462 http://www.newschool.edu

Heller Graduate School Program in Management Waltham, MA 02454-9110 Phone: (800) 279-4105 http://www.brandeis.edu

St. Cloud State University

New York University

Lesley University

School of Management Cambridge, MA 02138-2790 Phone: (617) 349-8690 http://www.lesley.edu

School of Graduate Studies College of Social Studies Program in Public and Nonprofit Institutions St. Cloud, MN 56301-4498 Phone: (320) 255-2113 http://www.stcloudstate.edu

Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service Program in Public Administration New York, NY 10012-1019 Phone: (212) 998-7414 http://www.nyu.edu

University of St. Thomas

Pace University

Suffolk University

Frank Sawyer School of Management Department of Public Management Boston, MA 02108-2770 Phone: (617) 573-8302 http://www.suffolk.edu

Graduate Studies Graduate School of Business St. Paul, MN 55105-1096 Phone: (651) 962-4226 http://www.stthomas.edu

White Plains Campus Dyson College of Arts and Sciences Department of Public Administration White Plains, NY 10603 Phone: (914)-422-4283 http://www.pace.edu

NEW JERSEY
College of Arts and Sciences Center for Public Service Program in Management of Nonpofit Organizations South Orange, NJ 07079-2697 Phone: (973) 761-9510 http://www.shu.edu

Tufts University

Seton Hall University

OHIO Case Western Reserve University


Weatherhead School of Management Mandel Center for Nonprofit Organizations Cleveland, OH 44106 Phone: (216) 368-58566 http://www.cwru.edu

Division of Graduate and Continuing Studies and Research Professional and Continuing Studies Management of Community Organizations Program Medford, MA 02155

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John Carroll University

Graduate School Program in Nonprofit Administration University Heights, OH 44118-4581 Phone: (216) 397-1835 http://www.jcu.edu

Salem, OR 97301-3931 Phone: (503) 370-6167 http://www.willamette.edu

TEXAS St. Edwards University


College of Professional and Graduate Studies Program in Business Administration Austin, TX 78704-6489 Phone: (512) 448-8600 http://www.stedwards.edu

PENNSYLVANIA
Division of Professional Leadership Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3165 Phone: (412) 578-8764 http://www.carlow.edu

Carlow College

OKLAHOMA Oral Roberts University


School of Business Tulsa, OK 74171-0001 Phone: (918) 495-6236 http://www.oru.edu

WASHINGTON Seattle University


College of Arts and Sciences Institute of Public Service Program in Not-for-Profit Leadership Seattle, WA 98122 Phone: (206) 296-5900 http://www.seattleu.edu

Eastern College

OREGON Willamette University


George H. Atkinson Graduate School of Management

Graduate Business Programs Program in Nonprofit Management St. Davids, PA 19087-3696 Phone: (610) 341-5972 http://www.eastern.edu

C. URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING


The f ollowing is a list o f uni versities in N orth Amer ica o ffering p rograms in p lanning accr edited b y t he Planning Accreditation Board (PAB). Most are masters degree programs, but the list also includes undergraduate programs in p lanning. The lis t is r evised annually. Changes are updated on t he PABs website, w hich can be access ed t hrough t he Amer ican Pla nning A ssociations education section (http://www.planning.org).
Tucson, AZ 85721-0075 Phone: (520) 621-9597 http://capla.arizona.edu/planning Master of Science in Planning

ALABAMA Alabama A&M University


Department of Community Planning and Urban Studies School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 308 Dawson Building Normal, AL 35762 Phone: (256) 858-4990 http://www.aamu.edu/saes/ HTDOCS/Departments.htm Bachelor of Science in Urban Planning, Master of Urban and Regional Planning

Phone: (334) 844-4516 http://www.auburn.edu Master of Community Planning

ARIZONA
School of Planning and Landscape Architecture College of Architecture and Environmental Design Architecture Building North, Room 158 Tempe, AZ 85287-2005 Phone: (480) 965-7167 Master of Environmental Planning

Arizona State University

CALIFORNIA California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo


City and Regional Planning Department College of Architecture and Environmental Design San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 Phone: (805) 756-1315 http://www.calpoly.edu/~crp/ Bachelor of Science in City and Regional Planning Master of City and Regional Planning

Auburn University

School of Architecture Graduate Program in Community Planning 104 Dudley Hall Auburn, AL 36849

The University of Arizona

School of Planning College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape Architecture Architecture Building, Room 214

250

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Department of Urban and Regional Planning College of Environmental Design 3801 W Temple Avenue Pomona, CA 91768-4048 Phone: (909) 869-2688 http://www.csupomona.edu/~urp Bachelor of Science in Urban and Regional Planning Master of Urban and Regional Planning

Los Angeles, CA 90095-1656 Phone: (310) 825-4025 http://www.sppsr.ucla.edu Master of Arts in Urban Planning

Tallahassee, FL 32306-2280 Phone: (850) 644-4510 http://www.fsu.edu/~durp Master of Science in Planning

University of Southern California

University of Florida

San Jose State University

Urban and Regional Planning Department College of Social Work One Washington Square San Jose, CA 95192-0185 Phone: (408) 924-5882 Master of Urban Planning

School of Policy, Planning and Development Ralph and Goldy Lewis Hall, Room 108 University Park Campus Los Angeles, CA 90089-0626 Phone: (213) 740-6842 http://www.use.edu\sppd Master of Planning

Urban and Regional Planning Department College of Architecture P.O. Box 115706 Gainesville, FL 32611-5706 Phone: (352) 392-0997, x423 http://www.arch.ufl.edu/arc/urp Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning

GEORGIA Georgia Institute of Technology


Graduate Program in City Planning College of Architecture 245 Fourth Street, NW, Room 204 Atlanta, GA 30332-0155 Phone: (404) 894-2350 http://www.arch.gatech/cp Master of City Planning

COLORADO University of Colorado at Denver

University of California at Berkeley

Department of City and Regional Planning College of Environmental Design 228 Wurster Hall Berkeley, CA 94720-1850 Phone: (510) 642-3256 http://www.ced.berkeley.edu/city_ planning Master of City Planning

Department of Planning and Design College of Architecture and Planning Campus Box 126, P.O. Box 173364 Denver, CO 80217-3364 Phone: (303) 556-4866 http://www.cudenver.edu/public/ AandP Master of Urban and Regional Planning

HAWAII University of Hawaii at Manoa


Department of Urban and Regional Planning College of Social Sciences 2424 Maile Way, Room 107 Honolulu, HI 96822 Phone: (808) 956-7381 http://www.durp.hawaii.edu Master of Urban and Regional Planning

FLORIDA
Department of Urban and Regional Planning College of Architecture, Urban and Public Affairs 220 SE 2nd Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33301 Phone: (954) 762-5652 http://www.fau.edu/divdept/cupa/ depts/urp.htm Master of Urban and Regional Planning

University of California, Irvine

Florida Atlantic University

Department of Urban and Regional Planning School of Social Ecology Social Ecology I, Room 202 Irvine, CA 92697-7075 Phone: (949) 824-3480 http://www.seweb.uci.edu/dept/ urp_home.html Master of Urban and Regional Planning

ILLINOIS University of Illinois at Chicago


Urban Planning and Policy Program College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs 412 S Peoria Street, Suite 215 Chicago, IL 60607-7065 Phone: (312) 996-5240 http://www.uic.edu/cuppa/upp Master of Urban Planning and Policy

University of California, Los Angeles

Department of Urban Planning School of Public Policy and Social Research 3250 Public Policy Building

Florida State University

Department of Urban and Regional Planning College of Social Sciences 311 Bellamy Building

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University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign


Department of Urban and Regional Planning College of Fine and Applied Arts 111 Temple Buell Hall, 611 Taft Drive Champaign, IL 61820 Phone: (217) 333-3890 http://www.urban.uiuc.edu Bachelor of Arts in Urban Planning Master of Urban Planning

KANSAS
Department of Landscape Architecture/ Regional and Community Planning College of Architecture, Planning and Design 302 Seaton Hall Manhattan, KS 66506 Phone: (785) 532-2440 Master of Regional and Community Planning

Kansas State University

http://jewel.morgan.edu/~iap/ programs/programs_CRP Master of City and Regional Planning

University of Maryland at College Park

INDIANA Ball State University


Department of Urban Planning College of Architecture and Planning Architecture Building 327 Muncie, IN 47306-0315 Phone: (765) 285-1963 Bachelor of Urban Planning and Development Master of Urban and Regional Planning

University of Kansas

Graduate Program in Urban Planning School of Architecture and Urban Design 317 Marvin Hall Lawrence, KS 66045 Phone: (785) 864-4184 http://www.arch.ukans.edu/urban/ new/ index.htm Master of Urban Planning

Program of Urban Studies and Planning Caroline Hall 0129 College Park, MD 20742-9150 Phone: (301) 405-6791 Fax: (301) 314-9897 http://www.arch.umd.edu/URSP/ Academics Master of Community Planning

MASSACHUSETTS Harvard University


Department of Urban Planning and Design Graduate School of Design 48 Quincy Street, Room 312 Cambridge, MA 02138 Phone: (617) 495-2521 http://www.gsd.harvard.edu Master in Urban Planning

IOWA Iowa State University


Department of Community and Regional Planning College of Design 126 College of Design Ames, IA 50011 Phone: (515) 294-8958 http://www.public.iastate.edu/ ~design/crp/crp.html Bachelor of Science in Community and Regional Planning Master of Community and Regional Planning

LOUISIANA
Urban and Regional Planning Program College of Urban and Public Affairs New Orleans, LA 70148 Phone: (504) 280-6277 or (504) 280-5473 http://www.uno.edu/~cupa Master of Urban and Regional Planning

University of New Orleans

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Urban Studies and Planning 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Bldg. 7, No. 337 Cambridge, MA 02139 Phone: (617) 253-1907 http://www.web.mit.edu/dusp/www Master in City Planning

Tufts University

MARYLAND
Graduate Program in City and Regional Planning Institute of Architecture and Planning 1700 E Cold Spring Lane and Hillen Road Montebello, Room B107 Baltimore, MD 21251 Phone: (443) 885-3225

University of Iowa

Morgan State University

Graduate Program in Urban and Regional Planning 347 Jessup Hall Iowa City, IA 52242 Phone: (319) 335-0032 http://www.uiowa.edu/~urp Master of Arts or Master of Science in Urban and Regional Planning

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning 97 Talbot Ave. Medford, MA 02155 Phone: (617) 627-3394 http://ase.tufts.edu/uep Master of Arts in Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

University of MassachusettsAmherst
Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning College of Food and Natural Resources 109 Hills North Amherst, MA 01003-4010 Phone: (413) 545-2255 http://www.umass.edu/larp Master of Regional Planning

Wayne State University

Department of Geography and Urban Planning College of Urban, Labor and Metropolitan Affairs 225 State Hall Detroit, MI 48202 Phone: (313) 577-2701 http://www.culma.wayne.edu Master of Urban Planning

NEW JERSEY Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey


Department of Urban Planning and Policy Development Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy 33 Livingston Avenue, Suite 302 New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1987 Phone: (732) 932-3822 x741 http://www.policy.rutgers.edu Master of City and Regional Planning

MINNESOTA
Master of Urban and Regional Planning Program Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs 301 Nineteenth Avenue, S Minneapolis, MN 55455 Phone: (612) 625-8092 http://www.hhh.umn.edu/gpo/ degrees/murp Master of Urban and Regional Planning

MICHIGAN Eastern Michigan University


Urban and Regional Planning Program Department of Geography and Geology College of Arts and Sciences Ypsilanti, MI 48197-2219 Phone: (734) 487-8656 http://planning.emich.edu Bachelor of Science/Major in Urban and Regional Planning

University of Minnesota

NEW MEXICO University of New Mexico


Community and Regional Planning Program School of Architecture and Planning 2414 Central, SE Albuquerque, NM 87131 Phone: (505) 277-5068 http://www.unm.edu/~saap/crp Master of Community and Regional Planning

Michigan State University

MISSOURI
College of Natural and Applied Sciences Department of Geography, Geology, and Planning 901 S. National Springfield, MO 65897 Phone: (417) 836-5800 http://www.missouristate.edu Bachelor of Science in Planning

Urban and Regional Planning Program Department of Geography College of Social Science 201 UPLA Building East Lansing, MI 48824-1221 Phone: (517) 353-9054 http://www.ssc.msu.edu/~urp Bachelor of Science in Urban and Regional Planning Master in Urban and Regional Planning

Missouri State University

NEW YORK Columbia University


Urban Planning Program Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation 1172 Amsterdam Avenue, Avery Hall 413 New York, NY 10027 Phone: (212) 854-3513 http://www.arch.columbia.edu/UP Master of Science in Urban Planning

NEBRASKA University of NebraskaLincoln

University of Michigan

Urban and Regional Planning Program A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning 2000 Bonisteel Boulevard Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2069 Phone: (734) 764-1300 http://www.caup.umich.edu Master of Urban Planning

Department of Community and Regional Planning College of Architecture 302 Architecture Hall Lincoln, NE 68588-0105 Phone: (402) 472-9280 http://www.unl.edu/archcoll/crp/ index.html Master of Community and Regional Planning

Cornell University

Department of City and Regional Planning College of Architecture, Art, and Planning 105 West Sibley Hall Ithaca, NY 14853 Phone: (607) 255-4331 http://www.crp.cornell.edu Master of Regional Planning

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Hunter College, CUNY

Graduate Program in Urban Planning Department of Urban Affairs and Planning 695 Park Avenue New York, NY 10021 Phone: (212) 772-5518 http://maxweber.hunter.cuny.edu/ urban Master of Urban Planning

NORTH CAROLINA
Thomas Harriot College of Arts and Sciences Department of Geography Urban and Regional Planning Program Rawl Annex 139 Greenville, NC 27858 Phone: (252) 328-6465 http://ecu.edu/plan Bachelor of Science in Urban and Regional Planning

University of Cincinnati

East Carolina University

School of Planning College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning 6210 DAAP Building Cincinnati, OH 45221-0016 Phone: (513) 556-4943 http://ucplanning.uc.edu Bachelor of Urban Planning Master of Community Planning

New York University

OKLAHOMA University of Oklahoma


Regional and City Planning Division College of Architecture 162 Gould Hall Norman, OK 73019-0263 Phone: (405) 325-2444 http://www.ou.edu/Architecture/ RCPL Master of Regional and City Planning

Program in Urban Planning Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service 4 Washington Square, N New York, NY 10003 Phone: (212) 998-7400 http://www.nyu.edu/wagner Master of Urban Planning

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Pratt Institute

Graduate Center for Planning and the Environment School of Architecture 200 Willoughby Avenue Brooklyn, NY 11205 Phone: (718) 399-4314 http://www.pratt.edu/arch/gcpe Master of Science in City and Regional Planning

Department of City and Regional Planning College of Arts and Sciences New East Building, Campus Box 3140 Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3140 Phone: (919) 962-3983 http://www.unc.edu/depts/dcrpweb Master of Regional Planning

OREGON Portland State University


School of Urban Studies and Planning College of Urban and Public Affairs P.O. Box 751-USP Portland, OR 97207-0751 Phone: (503) 725-4045 http://www.upa.pdx.edu/USP/ murp.htm/ Master of Urban and Regional Planning

OHIO
Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs Department of Urban Studies 1717 Euclid Avenue, UB112E Cleveland, OH 44115 Phone: (216) 687-2136 http://www.urban.csuohio.edu Master of Urban Planning, Design, and Development

Cleveland State University

State University of New York at Albany


Department of Geography and Planning College of Arts and Sciences Earth Science 218 Albany, NY 12222 Phone: (518) 442-4770 http://www.albany.edu/gp Master of Regional Planning

University of Oregon

The Ohio State University

State University of New York at Buffalo

Department of Planning School of Architecture and Planning 3435 Main Street, 116 Hayes Hall Buffalo, NY 14214-3087 Phone: (716) 829-2133, x109 http://www.ap.buffalo.edu/planning Master of Urban Planning

City and Regional Planning Program Knowlton School of Architecture 109 Brown Hall, 190 W 17th Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 Phone: (614) 292-1012 http://www.crp.ohio-state.edu Master of City and Regional Planning

Graduate Program in Community and Regional Planning Department of Planning, Public Policy and Management School of Architecture and Allied Arts Hendricks Hall Eugene, OR 97403-1209 Phone: (541) 346-3635 http://utopia.uoregon.edu Master of Community and Regional Planning

254

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

PENNSYLVANIA University of Pennsylvania


Department of City and Regional Planning Graduate School of Fine Arts 127 Meyerson Hall Philadelphia, PA 19104-6311 Phone: (215) 898-8329 http://www.upenn.edu/gsfa/cpln Master of City Planning

TENNESSEE
Graduate Program in City and Regional Planning 226 Johnson Hall Memphis, TN 38152 Phone: (901) 678-2161 http://planning.memphis.edu Master of City and Regional Planning

University of Memphis

Austin, TX 78712-1160 Phone: (512) 471-1922 http://www.ar.utexas.edu/Planning/ index.html Master of Science in Community and Regional Planning

VIRGINIA University of Virginia


Department of Urban and Environmental Planning Campbell Hall, P.O. Box 400122 Charlottesville, VA 22904-4122 Phone: (804) 924-1339 http://minerva.acc.Virginia.EDU/ ~arch/ dep t/urban.html Bachelor of Urban and Environmental Planning Master of Urban and Environmental Planning

PUERTO RICO University of Puerto Rico


Graduate School of Planning P.O. Box 23354 San Juan, PR 00931 Phone: (787) 764-0000 x5010 Master in Planning

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

School of Planning College of Arts and Sciences 1401 Cumberland Avenue, 108 Hoskins Library Knoxville, TN 37996-4015 Phone: 423/974-5227 http://www.planning.cap.utk.edu Master of Science in Planning

RHODE ISLAND University of Rhode Island


Department of Community Planning and Landscape Architecture College of the Environment and Life Sciences Rodman Hall, 94 West Alumni Avenue, Suite 1 Kingston, RI 02881-0815 Phone: (401) 874-2248 http://www.uri.edu/cels/cpla Master of Community Planning

TEXAS
Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning College of Architecture MS 3137 College Station, TX 77843-3137 Phone: (409) 845-1019 http://taz.tamu.edu/LAUP Master in Urban Planning

Virginia Commonwealth University

Texas A & M University

Department of Urban Studies and Planning 812 W Franklin Street VCU Box 842008 Richmond, VA 23284-2008 Phone: (804) 828-2489 http://www.has.vcu.edu/usp Master of Urban and Regional Planning

University of Texas at Arlington


City and Regional Planning Program School of Urban and Public Affairs P.O. Box 19588 Arlington, Texas 76019-0588 Phone: (817) 272-3340 http://www.uta.edu/supa/03 academics/cirp.htm Master of City and Regional Planning

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

SOUTH CAROLINA Clemson University


Department of Planning and Landscape Architecture College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities 121 Lee Hall, Box 340511 Clemson, SC 29634-0511 Phone: (864) 656-3926 http://www.clemson.edu/aah/pla Master of City and Regional Planning

The University of Texas at Austin

Department of Urban Affairs and Planning College of Architecture and Urban Studies 201 Architecture Annex Blacksburg, VA 24061 Phone: (540) 231-5485 http://www.uap.vt.edu Master of Urban and Regional Planning

Graduate Program in Community and Regional Planning School of Architecture and Planning Goldsmith Hall 2.308 B7500

WASHINGTON Eastern Washington University


Department of Urban Planning, Public and Health Administration

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College of Business and Public Administration 668 N Riverpoint Boulevard, Suite A Spokane, WA 99202-1660 Phone: (509) 358-2230 http://www.ebpa.ewu.edu/~planning Bachelor of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning Master of Urban and Regional Planning

WISCONSIN University of WisconsinMadison

University of Washington

Department of Urban Design and Planning College of Architecture and Urban Planning 410 Gould Hall, Box 355740 Seattle, WA 98195-5740 Phone: (206) 543-4190 http://www.caup.washington.edu/ html/urbdp/ Master of Urban Planning 1999; 1941

Department of Urban and Regional Planning College of Letters and Science and College of Agriculture and Life Sciences 925 Bascom Mall/Old Music Hall Madison, WI 53706 Phone: (608) 262-1005 http://www.wisc.edu/urpl Master of Science in Urban and Regional Planning

Milwaukee, WI 53201-0413 Phone: (414) 229-5563 http://www.uwm.edu/SARUP// planning/index.html Master of Urban Planning

CANADA BRITISH COLUMBIA The University of British Columbia

University of WisconsinMilwaukee

Department of Urban Planning School of Architecture and Urban Planning P.O. Box 413

School of Community and Regional Planning 433-6333 Memorial Road Vancouver, B C Canada V6T 1Z2 Phone: (604) 822-3276 http://www.scarp.ubc.ca Master of Arts or Master of Science (Planning)

D. POLITICAL/CAMPAIGN MANAGEMENT
New p rograms a nd s eminars in p olitical/campaign management have sprung up in r esponse to t he growing co mplexity o f p olitical ca mpaigns. P rograms fall into two basic types: degree-granting and shorter intensive courses. Political s cience and related departments also o ffer us eful co urses, as do p rofessional ass ociations. For updated information, check out the Education a nd Training P rograms ca tegory o f t he P olitical Pages Dir ectory o f Campaigns & E lections ma gazine (http://www.campaignsandelections.com).
two-week campaign management certification programs in January and May, which are taught by campaign professionals. Participants prepare campaign plans for actual candidates.

CALIFORNIA University of California/Davis


Political Campaign Management Institute University Extension, UC Davis Davis, CA 95616-4852 Phone: (530) 757-8878 http://universityextension.ucdavis. edu/pcm

http://www.yale.edu/wcsyale.org One-day and five-day sessions (cosponsored by Yale Law School and the Yale Women and Gender Studies Program) for women who wish to enter politics or move up the political ladder.

American University

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Campaign Management Institute 4400 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20016 Phone: (202) 885-6251 Fax: (202) 885-1038 E-mail: ccps@american.edu http://www.american.edu/ccps The Campaign Management Institute (CMI) offers intensive

CONNECTICUT Yale University


Womens Campaign School P.O. Box 3307 New Haven, CT 06515 Phone: (203) 734-7385 or 1-800-353-2878 Fax: (203) 734-7547 E-mail: wcsyale@aol.com

American University

Center for Congressional and Presidential Studies 4400 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20016 Phone: (202) 885-3491 Fax: (202) 885-1038 E-mail: ccps@american edu http://www.american.edu/ccps The Center for Congressional and Presidential Studies offers courses in campaign management and lobbying and forums throughout

256

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

the year. The center was awarded a grant from the Pew Charitable Trusts to study campaign conduct.

http://www.gwu.edu/~gspm/

FLORIDA University of FloridaPolitical Campaign Program

American University

Lobbying Institute 4400 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20016 Phone: (202) 885-6296 Fax: (202) 885-1038 E-mail: ccps@american.edu http://www.american.edu/ccps Twice a year Lobbying Institute offers students and professionals a two-week intensive course on the tactics and daily strategies of lobbying within the democratic political process.

New York, NY 10003 Phone: (212) 998-8530 Fax: (212) 995-4184 http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/ politics

3324 Turlington Hall Gainesville, FL 32611 Phone: (904) 392-0262 Fax: (904) 392-8127

NORTH CAROLINA University of North Carolina, Wilmington

MASSACHUSETTS Suffolk University Graduate Program in Political Science

Campaigns and Elections MagazineSeminar and Political Training Division

1414 22nd Street, NW Washington, DC 20037 Phone: (202) 887-8590 Fax: (202) 463-7085 http://www.campaignline.com A nonpartisan political training program with the Annual Political Campaign Training Seminar and Trade Show as well as private, customized training programs, seminars, conferences, and briefings are offered.

41 Temple Street Boston, MA 02114 Phone: (617) 573-8126 Fax: (617) 367-4623 E-mail: jberg@acad.suffolk.edu The program offers a oneyear masters degree in either professional politics (campaigning, advocacy/lobbying) or international relations (human rights, trade, nongovernmental organizations); study includes internship.

Institute of Political Leadership 601 S College Road, Westside Hall Wilmington, NC 28403 Phone: 910-962-7585 E-mail: iopl@uncwil.edu http://www.uncwil.edu/iopl

OHIO University of Akron


Bliss Institute of Applied Politics Akron, OH 44325-1914 Phone: (330) 972-5182 Fax: (330) 972-5479 E-mail: bliss@uakron.edu The Bliss Institute of Applied Politics at the University of Akron offers a masters degree in applied politics and certification in applied politics to graduate and undergraduate students interested in careers in campaign management, political parties, lobbying, and election of government officials.

NEW YORK
Department of Political Science Faber Hall 667 441 E. Fordham Road Bronx, NY 10485 Phone: (718) 817-3967 http://www.fordham.edu/campaigns Masters Program in Elections and Campaign Management

Fordham University

George Washington University


The Graduate School of Political Management 2147 F Street, NW Washington, DC 20052 Phone: (202) 994-8782 Fax: (202) 994-6000 E-mail: law@gwu.edu

VIRGINIA Regent University School of Government


1000 Regent University Drive Virginia Beach, VA 23464 Phone: (888) 800-7735 Fax: (757) 226-4536 E-mail: govschool@regent.edu

New York University

Political Campaign Management Department of Politics 715 Broadway, 4th Floor

E. POLITICAL SCIENCE
Because o f t he m ultitude o f under graduate p rograms in p olitical s cience, st udents ca n f ind p olitical s cience as a ma jor a t most co lleges o r uni versities. Pub lications available t hrough t he Amer ican Political S cience Associations w ebsite (h ttp://www.apsanet.org/pubs) include Political S cience: A n I deal L iberal A rts M ajor, Careers a nd t he S tudy o f P olitical S cience: A G uide f or Undergraduates, and Stu dying in Washington: A Gui de to Academic Internships in the Nations Capital. The f ollowing is a list o f mast ers degr ee p rograms (all also offer undergraduate majors) in political science provided b y t he Amer ican P olitical S cience A ssocia-

APPENDIX VI

257

tion. Schools not on this list may offer masters degrees in p ublic a ffairs, p ublic administra tion, o r p ublic p olicy a nd/or do ctoral p rograms in p olitical s cience. F or

updated information, check Petersons Guide to Graduate Pr ograms i n t he H umanity a nd S ocial S ciences in libraries and on-line (http://www.petersons.com)

ALABAMA Birmingham-Southern College


Behavioral and Social Sciences 900 Arkadelphia Road Birmingham, AL 35254 Phone: (205) 226-4847 http://www.bsc.edu

State University, AR 72467-1750 Phone: (870) 972-2720 http://www.cas.astate.edu/posc

California State UniversityNorthridge


Political Science 18111 Nordhoff Avenue Northridge, CA 91330-8254 Phone: (818) 677-4502 http://www.csun.edu

University of ArkansasFayetteville

Jacksonville State University

Political Science and Public Administration 221 Curtiss Hall Jacksonville, AL 36265 Phone: (256) 782-5669 http://www.jsu.edu/depart/polsci/ polsci.html

Political Science 428 Old Main Fayetteville, AR 72701 Phone: (501) 575-6432 http://www.uark.edu/depts/ plascinfo

California State UniversitySacramento

CALIFORNIA California State UniversityChico

Government Department 6000 J Street Sacramento, CA 95819-6089 Phone: (916) 278-6488 http://www.csus.edu/govt/index. html

University of AlabamaBirmingham

Government and Public Service U 238 1530 3rd Avenue, S Birmingham, AL 35294-3350 Phone: (205) 934-9896 http://www.uab.edu/gps

Political Science 1st and Normal Street Chico, CA 95929-0455 Phone: (530) 898-6910 http://www.csuchico.edu/pols

Monterey Institute of International Studies

California State UniversityFullerton


Political Science P.O. Box 6848 Fullerton, CA 92834-6848 Phone: (714) 278-3524 http://www.fullerton.edu

Graduate School of International Policy Studies 425 Van Buren Street Monterey, CA 93940 Phone: (831) 647-4199 http://www.miis.edu

University of AlabamaHuntsville
Political Science Morton Hall 250 Huntsville, AL 35899 Phone: (256) 824-6949 http://www.uah.edu

San Diego State University


Political Science 5500 Campanile Drive San Diego, CA 92182-4427 Phone: (619) 594-7302 http://www.sdsu.edu/dept/ polsciwb/ polsci.html

California State UniversityLong Beach


Political Science 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Long Beach, CA 90840-4605 Phone: (562) 985-4979 http://www.csulb.edu/~posc

University of South Alabama


Political Science and Criminal Justice Humanities Building 226 Mobile, AL 36688 Phone: (334) 460-6567 http://www.southalabama.edu/ polscie

San Francisco State University


Political Science 1600 Holloway Avenue San Francisco, CA 94132-4155 Phone: (415) 338-2391 http://www.sfsu.edu/~polisci

California State University-Los Angeles


Political Science 5151 State University Drive Los Angeles, CA 90032-8226 Phone: (213) 343-6452 http://www.calstatela.edu/dept/ polsci/index.html

Sonoma State University


Political Science 1801 East Cotati Avenue Rohnert Park, CA 94928 Phone: (707) 664-3920 http://www.sonoma.edu

ARKANSAS Arkansas State University


Political Science P.O. Box 1750

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

University of San Diego

Political Science and International Relations 5998 Alcala Park San Diego, CA 92110 Phone: (619) 260-6840 http://www.acusd.edu

University of Miami

Political Science P.O. Box 248047 314 Jenkins Building 5250 University Drive Miami, FL 33124-6534 Phone: (305) 284-3636 http://www.bus.miami.edu/~pol

Statesboro, GA 30460 Phone: (912) 681-5348 http://www.gasou.edu/psc

North Georgia College and State University


Political Science and Criminal Justice Young Social Science Center Dahlonega, GA 30597 Phone: (706) 864-1874 http://www.ngcsu.edu

COLORADO University of Colorado-Denver


Political Science 1200 Larimer Street CB 190 Denver, CO 80217 Phone: (303) 556-6041 http://www.cudenver.edu/public/ polisci/pols.html

University of South Florida

Government and International Affairs 4202 East Fowler Avenue, SOC 107 Tampa, FL 33620-8100 Phone: (813) 974-0832 http://www.usf.edu

State University of West Georgia

University of West Florida


Government 11000 University Parkway Pensacola, FL 32514 Phone: (850) 473-7001 http://www.uwf.edu/~govt

CONNECTICUT Southern Connecticut State University


Political Science 501 Crescent Street New Haven, CT 06515 Phone: (203) 392-5670 http://www.scsu.ctstateu.edu

Political Science 1601 Maple Street Carrollton, GA 30118 Phone: (770) 836-4665 http://www.westga.edu/~polisci

ILLINOIS Eastern Illinois University


Political Science 600 Lincoln Avenue Charleston, IL 61920 Phone: (217) 581-2926 http://www.eiu.edu/~polisci

GEORGIA
Political Science, Public Administration, International Studies, and Philosophy 2500 Walton Way Augusta, GA 30904-2200 Phone: (706) 667-4116 http://www.aug.edu/political_science

Augusta State University

FLORIDA Florida Atlantic University


Political Science 777 Glades Road P.O. Box 3081 Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 Phone: (561) 367-2997 http://www.fau.edu/polsci/index. html

Illinois State University

Georgia College and State University

Florida Atlantic University


Social Sciences 2912 College Avenue Davie, FL 33314 Phone: (954) 236-1150 http://www.fau.edu

Government and Sociology Milledgeville, GA 31061 http://www.gcsu.edu/acad_affairs/ coll_artsci/gov

Politics and Government 306 Schroeder Hall Campus Box 4600 Normal, IL 61790-4600 Phone: (309) 438-7638 http://www.ilstu.edu/depts/polisci/ pos.htm

Northeastern Illinois University


Political Science 5500 N St. Louis Avenue Chicago, IL 60625 Phone: (773) 442-4900 http://www.neiu.edu/~psci/

Georgia Institute of Technology


Sam Nunn School of International Affairs 781 Marietta Street, NW Atlanta, GA 30332-0610 Phone: (404) 894-1900 http://www.inta.gatech.edu

University of Central Florida


Political Science P.O. Box 161356 Orlando, FL 32816-1356 Phone: (407) 823-0051 pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~politics

Roosevelt University

Georgia Southern University


Political Science P.O. Box 8101

Political Science 430 S Michigan Avenue Chicago, IL 60605-1394 Phone: (312) 341-3762 http://www.roosevelt.edu/ academics/caas/sps

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University of IllinoisSpringfield

KANSAS
Political Science 226 Waters Hall Manhattan, KS 66506-4030 Phone: (785) 532-2339 http://www.ksu.edu/polsci

Political Studies Public Affairs Center P.O. Box 19243 Springfield, IL 62794-9243 Phone: (217) 206-7807 http://www.uis.edu/politicalstudies

Kansas State University

Phone: (502) 852-7923 http://www.louisville.edu/www/as/polisci

Western Kentucky University


Government Department 1 Big Red Way Bowling Green, KY 42101-3576 Phone: (270) 745-2945 http://www.wku.edu/dept/ academic/ahss/government/ govt.htm

Western Illinois University


Political Science Morgan Hall #422 Macomb, IL 61455-1390 Phone: (309) 298-1857 http://www.wiu.edu

Pittsburg State University

Social Science 235 Whitesit Hall Pittsburg, KS 66762 Phone: (316) 235-8020 http://www.pittstate.edu/sosci

LOUISIANA Grambling State University


Political Science and Public Administration GSU Box 4266 Grambling, LA 71245 Phone: (318) 274-3427 http://www.gram.edu

INDIANA Ball State University


Political Science Muncie, IN 47306-0515 Phone: (765) 285-5345 http://www.bsu.edu/poli-sci

Wichita State University


Political Science 1845 Fairmount Box 17 Wichita, KS 67260 Phone: (316) 978-7132 http://www.wichita.edu

Southern University

Indiana State University

Political Science Holmstedt Hall 301 Terre Haute, IN 47809 Phone: (812) 237-3445 http://web.indstate.edu/polisci

KENTUCKY
Government Department 113 McCreary Hall 521 Lancaster Avenue Richmond, KY 40475-3102 Phone: (859) 622-8019 http://www.government.eku.edu

Eastern Kentucky University

Political Science P.O. Box 9656 Baton Rouge, LA 70813 Phone: (225) 771-3105 http://www.subr.edu

University of Indianapolis
History and Political Science 1400 E Hanna Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46227-3264 Phone: (317) 788-3480 http://www.uindy.edu

MARYLAND University of Baltimore


Government and Public Administration 1304 St. Paul Street Baltimore, MD 21201 Phone: (410) 837-6094 or (410) 837-6175 http://www.ubalt.edu/cla_spa

Murray State University

IOWA Iowa State University


Political Science 503 Ross Hall Ames, IA 50011 http://www.iastate.edu/~polisci

Political Science and Legal Studies 553 Business Building Murray, KY 42071-3314 Phone: (270) 762-3482 http://www.murraystate.edu

Northern Kentucky University


Political Science Landrum Building 217 Highland Heights, KY 41099-2207 Phone: (606) 572-6184 http://www.nku.edu/~psc

MASSACHUSETTS Bridgewater State College


Political Science Summer Street House 180 Summer Street Bridgewater, MA 02325 Phone: (508) 279-6106 http://www.bridgew.edu

University of Northern Iowa


Political Science 321 Sabin Hall Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0404 Phone: (319) 273-7108 http://www.uni.edu/polisci

University of Louisville
Political Science Ford Hall Louisville, KY 40292

Suffolk University

Government Department

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

8 Ashburton Place Boston, MA 02108-2770 http://www.suffolk.edu

MICHIGAN Central Michigan University


Political Science 247 Anspach Hall Mount Pleasant, MI 4885 Phone: (989) 774-1136 http://www.chsbs.cmich.edu/ Political_Science

1400 J. R. Lynch Street P.O. Box 18420 Jackson, MS 39217 Phone: (601) 968-2904 http://www.jsums.edu

2-143 Wilson Hall Bozeman, MT 59717 Phone: (406) 994-6692 http://www.montana.edu/wwwpo

Mississippi College

University of Montana

History and Political Science Box 4006 Clinton, MS 39058 Phone: (601) 925-3932 http://www.mc.edu/organizations/ acad/his

Political Science Missoula, MT 59812 Phone: (406) 243-4076 http://www.umt.edu/polsci

NEBRASKA University of Nebraska-Omaha


Political Science 6001 Dodge Street Arts and Sciences 275 Omaha, NE 68182-0271 Phone: (402) 554-4860 http://www.unomaha.edu/~psci

Eastern Michigan University


Political Science 601 Pray-Harrold Ypsilanti, MI 48197 Phone: (734) 487-3340 http://www.emich.edu/public/ polisci/ polisci.htm Political Science 1401 Presque Isle Avenue Marquette, MI 49855 Phone: (906) 227-1819 http://www.nmu.edu/ politicalscience

University of Southern Mississippi

Political Science Box 5108 Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5108 Phone: (601) 266-4172 http://www.dept.usm.edu/~psc

Northern Michigan University

MISSOURI
Political Science One University Plaza, MS 2920 Cape Girardeau, MO 63701 Phone: (573) 651-2695 http://www.semo.edu

NEW HAMPSHIRE University of New Hampshire


Political Science 321 Horton Social Science Center 20 College Road Durham, NH 03824 Phone: (603) 862-0178 http://www.unh.edu/politicalscience

Missouri State University

Oakland University

Political Science Rochester, MI 48309-4488 Phone: (248) 370-4299 http://www.oakland.edu/polisci

Southwest Missouri State University

MINNESOTA Minnesota State UniversityMankato


Political Science and Law Enforcement 109 Morris Hall Mankato, MN 56001 Phone: (507) 389-6377 http://www.mankato.msus.edu/ dept/psle

Political Science Public Affairs Classroom Building 307 Springfield, MO 65804 Phone: (417) 836-6655 http://www.smsu.edu/polsci

NEW JERSEY Fairleigh Dickinson University


Political and International Studies 1000 River Road Teaneck, NJ 07666 Phone: (201) 692-9096 http://www.fdu.edu

Webster University

History, Politics and Law 470 East Lockwood Saint Louis, MO 63119-3194 Phone: (314) 968-7403 http://www.webster.edu/depts/ artsci/hpl/hpl.html

New Jersey Institute of Technology

Humanities and Social Sciences University Heights Newark, NJ 07102-1982 http://www.nit.edu

MISSISSIPPI Jackson State University


Political Science

MONTANA Montana State UniversityBozeman

Rutgers University

Political Science

Eagleton Institute and Public Policy New Brunswick, NJ 08901 http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/ ~eagleton

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Rutgers University-Newark
Political Science Hill Hall 360 M. L. King Boulevard Newark, NJ 07102 Phone: (973) 353-5103 http://www.tech.rutgers.edu/ politicalscience

University Plaza-Humanities Building Brooklyn, NY 11201 Phone: (718) 488-1086 http://www.liunet.edu

Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 Phone: (704) 687-3497 http://www.uncc.edu/polisci

Long Island University

University of North CarolinaGreensboro


Political Science P.O. Box 26170 Greensboro, NC 27402-6170 Phone: (336) 334-4315 http://www.uncg.edu/psc Political Science and Public Affairs Stillwell 101 Cullowhee, NC 28723 Phone: (828) 227-7647 http://www.wcu.edu/as/ politicalscience

NEW MEXICO New Mexico State University


Government Department P.O. Box 30001 Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 Phone: (505) 646-2052 http://www.nmsu.edu/~govdept

Political Science and International Studies C. W. Post Campus Brookville, NY 11548 http://www.liunet.edu.cwis/cwp/ post.html

Western Carolina University

NEVADA
Political Science 4505 Maryland Parkway Box 455029 Las Vegas, NV 89154-5029 Phone: (702) 895-1065 http://www.unlv.edu

University of Nevada-Las Vegas

NEW YORK College of Saint Rose


History and Political Science 432 Western Avenue Albany, NY 12203 Phone: (518) 458-5446 http://www.strose.edu

NORTH DAKOTA North Dakota State University


Political Science P.O. Box 5075 Fargo, ND 58105 Phone: (701) 231-6545 http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/ Political_Science

NORTH CAROLINA
Political Science and Criminal Justice College Street, Whitener Hall Boone, NC 28608 Phone: (828) 262-2947 http://www.acs.appstate.edu/dept/ ps-cj

CUNY-Brooklyn College
Political Science James Hall 2900 Bedford Street Brooklyn, NY 11210 Phone: (718) 951-4833 http://www.brooklyn.edu

Appalachian State University

OHIO Bowling Green State University

CUNY-City College of New York


Political Science 138th and Convent Avenue New York, NY 10031 Phone: (212) 271-7915 http://www.ccny.cuny.edu

East Carolina University


Political Science 125-A Brewster Building Greenville, NC 27858-4353 Phone: (252) 328-4134 http://www.ecu.edu/polsci

Fordham University

Fayetteville State University

Political Science 122 William Hall Bowling Green, OH 43403 Phone: (419) 372-8494 http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/ pols/index.html

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Dept. of Political Science Rose Hill Campus Bronx, New York 10458 Phone: (718) 817-3950 http://www.fordham.edu

Government and History 1200 Murchison Road Fayetteville, NC 28301 Phone: (910) 672-1090 http://www.uncfsu.edu/w4/ghp/ index.htm

Wright State University


Political Science 124 Allyn Hall Dayton, OH 45435-0001 Phone: (937) 775-3301 http://www.wright.edu

Long Island University


Political Science

University of North CarolinaCharlotte


Political Science 9201 University City Boulevard

Ohio University

Political Science 222 Bentley Hall Athens, OH 45701

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Phone: (740) 593-0394 http://www.ohio.edu/pols

Phone: (503) 725-8444 http://www.pdx.edu/POLISCI

RHODE ISLAND University of Rhode Island


Political Science Washburn Hall 80 Upper College Road Kingston, RI 02881-0817 Phone: (401) 874-4072 http://www.uri.edu/artsci/psc

University of Akron

Political Science Olin Hall, Room 237 Akron, OH 44325-1904 Phone: (330) 972-8841 http://www.uakron.edu/polisci

PENNSYLVANIA
Political Science 200 Prospect Street East Stroudsburg, PA 18301 Phone: (570) 422-3198 http://www.esu.edu

East Stroudsburg University

University of Dayton

Political Science 227 St. Joseph Hall 300 College Park Dayton, OH 45469 Phone: (937) 229-3900 http://www.as.udayton.edu/~polsci

SOUTH CAROLINA Clemson University


Political Science 232 Brackett Hall Clemson, SC 29634-1354 Phone: (864) 656-0690 http://www.business.clemson.edu/ business/polisci.html

Indiana University of Pennsylvania

University of Toledo

Political Science and Public Administration 2801 W Bancroft Street 1032 Scott Hall Toledo, OH 43606-3390 Phone: (419) 530-4199 http://www.utoledo.edu/poli-sci/ pshome.html

Political Science 390 Pratt Drive 103 E Annex Indiana, PA 15705-1069 Phone: (724) 357-3810 http://www.chss.iup.edu/ps

SOUTH DAKOTA University of South Dakota


Political Science 414 E Clark Street Vermillion, SD 57069-2390 Phone: (605) 677-6302 http://www.usd.edu/polsci

Kutztown University

OKLAHOMA Oklahoma State University


Political Science 519 Math Sciences Stillwater, OK 74078-1060 Phone: (405) 744-6534 http://www.okstate.edu

Political Science P.O. Box 730 Kutztown, PA 19530 Phone: (610) 683-4603 http://www.kutztown.edu/ academics/ liberal_arts

TENNESSEE University of Memphis


Political Science Clement Hall, Room 437 Memphis, TN 38152-3539 Phone: (901) 678-2983 http://www.memphis.edu

Lehigh University

University of Central Oklahoma

Political Science 9 W Packer Avenue Bethlehem, PA 18015 Phone: (610) 758-6554 http://www.lehigh.edu/~ingov/ homepage.html

Political Science 100 N University Drive Edmond, OK 73034-5209 Phone: (405) 974-3832 http://www.libarts.ucok.edu/ political

Shippensburg University
Political Science 1871 Old Main Drive Grove Hall 424 Shippensburg, PA 17257 Phone: (717) 477-4030 http://www.ship.edu

TEXAS Angelo State University


Government Box 10896 ASU Station 2601 W Avenue, N San Angelo, TX 76909 Phone: (915) 942-2307 http://www.angelo.edu/dept/gov

OREGON Portland State University


Political Science P.O. Box 751 Portland, OR 97207-0751

Villanova University

Political Science 800 Lancaster Avenue Villanova, PA 19085 Phone: (610) 519-7487 http://www.villanova.edu

Baylor University

Political Science P.O. Box 97276 500 Speight Waco, TX 76798-7264

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263

Phone: (976) 798-7276 http://www.baylor.edu/~Political_ Science/welcome.html

Alpine, TX 79832 Phone: (915) 837-8146 http://www.sulross.edu

Phone: (915) 747-5400 http://www.utep.edu/pols

Lamar University

Political Science P.O. Box 10030 211 Red Bird Lane Beaumont, TX 77710 Phone: (409) 880-8710 http://www.lamar.edu

Tarleton State University

Social Sciences Box T-0660 Stephenville, TX 76402 Phone: (254) 968-9798 http://www.tarleton.edu/~socsci

University of Texas-Pan American

Midwestern State University


Political Science 3410 Taft Boulevard Wichita Falls, TX 76308-2099 Phone: (940) 397-4865 http://www.mwsu.edu Political Science P.O. Box 2149 Huntsville, TX 77341-2149 Phone: (936) 294-4172 http://www.shsu.edu/~pol

Texas A&M International University


Social Sciences 5201 University Boulevard Laredo, TX 78041-1999 Phone: (956) 326-2464 http://www.tamiu.edu

Political Science 1201 W University Drive Edinburg, TX 78539 Phone: (956) 381-2805 http://www.panam.edu/dept/polsci. html

University of Texas-San Antonio

Sam Houston State University

Texas A&M UniversityKingsville


Political Science MSC 165 700 University Boulevard Kingsville, TX 78363 Phone: (361) 593-3502 http://www.tamuk.edu

Political Science and Geography 6900 N Loop 1604 W San Antonio, TX 78249-0655 Phone: (210) 458-5430 http://www.utsa.edu

University of Texas-Tyler
Social Sciences 3900 University Boulevard Tyler, TX 75799 Phone: (903) 566-7377 http://www.uttyler.edu

Southwest Texas State University

Political Science 601 University Drive San Marcos, TX 78666 Phone: (512) 245-7815 http://www.polisci.swt.edu

Texas Womans University

West Texas A&M University


History and Political Science WTAMU Box 60807 Canyon, TX 79016 Phone: (806) 651-2601 http://www.wtamu.edu

St. Marys University

History and Government P.O. Box 425889 Denton, TX 76204 Phone: (940) 898-2130 http://www.twu.edu/as/histgov

Political Science One Camino Santa Maria San Antonio, TX 78228-8571 Phone: (210) 431-4336 http://www.stmarytx.edu

University of Houston

UTAH Utah State University


Political Science 0725 Old Main Hill Logan, UT 84322-0725 Phone: (435) 797-3751 http://www.usu.edu/~polisci

Stephen F. Austin State University


Political Science Box 13045 SFA Station Nacogdoches, TX 75962 Phone: (936)-468-2732 http://www.sfasu.edu

African American Studies Program 4800 Calhoun Street Houston, TX 77004-3474 Phone: (713) 743-3927 http://www.uh.edu

University of Texas-Arlington

Political Science P.O. Box 19539 Arlington, TX 76019 Phone: (817) 272-2525 http://www.uta.edu/pols/pols.htm

VERMONT Goddard College


Social Inquiry Plainfield, VT 05667 Phone: (802) 454-8017 http://www.goddard.edu

Sul Ross State University

Behavioral and Social Sciences 208B Lawrence Hall Hwy 90 E

University of Texas-El Paso


Political Science Benedict Hall El Paso, TX 79968-0547

University of Vermont
Political Science

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94 University Place 532 Old Mill Burlington, VT 05405-0114 Phone: (802) 656-0758 http://www.uvm.edu/~polisci

Virginia Beach, VA 23464-9800 Phone: (757) 226-4643 http://www.regent.edu

Virginia Commonwealth University


Political Science and Public Administration 923 West Franklin Street Richmond, Va 23284-2028 Phone: (804) 828-7463 http://www.vcu.edu

805 21st Street, NW, Suite 401 Washington, DC 20052 Phone: (202) 994-6006 http://www.gwu.edu/~gspm

VIRGINIA College of William and Mary


Government P.O. Box 8795 Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795 Phone: (757) 221-1868 http://www.wm.edu

WEST VIRGINIA Marshall University


Political Science One John Marshall Drive Huntington, WV 25755-2668 Phone: (304) 696-3245 http://www.marshall.edu/polsci

Virginia Tech

George Mason University

Public and International Affairs Bldg. Robinson, Room A201 4400 University Drive MSN 3F4 Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 Phone: (703) 993-1399 http://www.gmu.edu/departments/ pia

Political Science 531 Major Williams Hall (mail code 130) Blacksburg, VA 24061 Phone: (540) 231-6078 http://www.vt.edu

WISCONSIN Marquette University


Political Science Wehr Physics 428 P.O. Box 1881 Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881 Phone: (414) 288-3360 http://www.marquette.edu/dept/ polisci

WASHINGTON
Political Science Arntzen Hall 415 516 High Street Bellingham, WA 98225-9082 Phone: (360) 650-2800 http://www.wwu.edu/~polsci

Western Washington University

James Madison University

Political Science MSC 1101 Harrisonburg, VA 22807 Phone: (540) 568-8021 http://www.jmu.edu/polisci/outline. html

WYOMING University of Wyoming


Political Science P.O. Box 3197 16th and Gibbon Laramie, WY 82071 Phone: (307) 766-6771 http://www.uwyo.edu/pols

WASHINGTON, D.C.
Graduate School of Political Management

Regent University

Robertson School of Government 1000 Regent University Drive

George Washington University

F. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
Graduate p rograms in in ternational a ffairs mig ht als o be called b y simila r ti tles suc h as in ternational st udies o r in ternational r elations. J oint degr ees wi th o ther academic programs, including business, law, and public a ffairs, a re co mmon. F or mo re inf ormation, s ee Petersons Graduate Programs in the Humanities, Arts & Social Sciences (http://www.petersons.com).

Alliant International University

College of Arts and Sciences Department of Global Liberal Studies San Diego, CA 92131-1799

Phone: (858) 635-4772 http://www.alliant.edu

Phone: (202) 885-1599 http://www.american.edu

American University

School of International Service Washington, DC 20016-8001

Angelo State University

Graduate School College of Liberal and Fine Arts

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Department of Government San Angelo, TX 76909 Phone: (915) 942-2262 http://www.angelo.edu

Brock University

Antioch University McGregor


Graduate Programs Individualized Master of Arts Programs Department of Intercultural Relations Yellow Springs, OH 45387-1609 Phone: (937) 769-1825 http://www.mcgregor.edu

Graduate Studies and Research Division of Social Sciences Department of Political Science St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1 Canada Phone: (905) 688-5488 http://www.brocku.ca

Program in International Affairs Washington DC 20064 Phone: (202) 319-5057 http://www.cua.edu

Central Connecticut State University

California State University, Fresno

Arcadia University

Graduate Studies Program in International Relations and Diplomacy Glensdale, PA 19038-3295 Phone: (877) 272-2342 http://www.arcadia.edu

Division of Graduate Studies College of Social Sciences Department of Political Science Program in International Relations Fresno, CA 93740-8027 Phone: (559) 278-3005 http://www.scufresno.edu

School of Graduate Studies Program in Interdisciplinary Area Studies New Britain, CT 06050-4010 Phone: (860) 832-2921 http://www.ccsu.edu

Central Michigan University


College of Extended Learning Program in Administration Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 Phone: (800) 950-1144, x3865 http://www.cmich.edu

California State University, Sacramento

Baylor University

Graduate School Hankamer School of Business Department of Economics Waco, TX 76798 Phone: (254) 710-3588 http://www.baylor.edu

Graduate Studies College of Social Sciences and Interdisciplinary Studies Program in International Affairs Sacramento, CA 95819-6048 Phone: (916) 278-6557 http://www.csus.edu

City College of the City University of New York

Boston University

California State University, Stanislaus

Graduate School College of Liberal Arts and Science Division of Social Science Program in International Relations New York, NY 10031-9198 Phone: (212) 650-5846 http://www.ccny.cuny.edu

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Department of International Relations Boston, MA 02215 Phone: (617) 353-9349 http://www.bu.edu

Graduate Programs College of Arts, Letters, and Sciences Department of History Turlock, CA 95382 Phone: (209) 667-3238 http://www.csustan.edu

Claremont Graduate University


Graduate Programs School of Politics and Economics Department of Politics and Policy Claremont, CA 91711-6160 Phone: (909) 621-8699 http://www.cgu.edu

Carleton University

Brandeis University

Graduate School of International Economics and Finance Waltham, MA 02454-9110 Phone: (781) 736-4829 http://www.brandeis.edu

Brigham Young University

The David M. Kennedy Center for International and Area Studies Provo, UT 84602-1001 Phone: (801) 378-7402 http://www.byu.edu

Faculty of Graduate Studies Faculty of Public Affairs and Management Norman Paterson School of International Affairs Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6 Canada Phone: (613) 520-2600 ext. 6660 http://www.carleton.ca/npsia

Clark Atlanta University

School of International Affairs and Development Atlanta, GA 30314 Phone: (800) 688-3228 http://www.cau.edu

Columbia University

The Catholic University of America


School of Arts and Sciences Department of Politics

School of International and Public Affairs Program in International Affairs New York, NY 10027 Phone: (212) 854-6216 http://www.columbia.edu

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Cornell University

Graduate School Graduate Fields of Arts and Sciences Field of Government Ithaca, NY 14853-0001 Phone: (607) 255-3567 http://www.cornell.edu

Phone: (201) 692-2272 http://www.fdu.edu

Florida International University

Atlanta, GA 30332-0001 Phone: (404) 894-3195 http://www.gatech.edu

Harvard University

Creighton University

Graduate School College of Arts and Sciences Program in International Relations Omaha, NE 68178-0001 Phone: (402) 280-2870 http://www.creighton.edu

College of Arts and Sciences Department of International Relations Miami, FL 33199 Phone: (305) 348-2556 http://www.fiu.edu

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Department of Government Cambridge, MA 02138 Phone: (617) 496-6100 http://www.harvard.edu

Johns Hopkins University

Florida State University

DePaul University

College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Program in International Studies Chicago, IL 60604-2287 Phone: (773) 325-4548 http://www.depaul.edu

Graduate Studies College of Social Sciences Program in International Affairs Tallahassee, FL 32306 Phone: (850) 644-4418 http://www.fsu.edu

Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies Baltimore, MD 21218-2699 Phone: (202) 663-5700 http://www.jhu.edu

Kansas State University

George Mason University


School of Public Policy Program in International Commerce and Policy Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 Phone: (703) 993-8099 http://www.gmu.edu

Dominican University of California

Graduate School College of Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science Program in Political Science Manhattan, KS 66506 Phone: (785) 532-6842 http://www.ksu.edu

Graduate Programs School of Business and International Studies Program in International Economic and Political Assessment Bertrand Hall, Room 26B 50 Acacia Ave San Rafael, CA 94901-2298 Phone: (415) 485-3238 http://www.dominican.edu

Kent State University

Georgetown University

East Carolina University

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service Washington, DC 20057 Phone: (202) 687-5696 http://www.georgetown.edu

College of Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science Kent, OH 44242-0001 Phone: (330) 672-2060 http://www.kent.edu

Lesley University

Graduate School College of Arts and Sciences Program in International Studies Greenville, NC 27858-4353 Phone: (252) 328-6012 http://www.ecu.edu

The George Washington University

Graduate School of Arts and Social Sciences Program in Intercultural Relations Cambridge, MA 02138-2790 Phone: (800) 999-1959 http://www.lesley.edu

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Teaneck-Hackensack Campus University College Arts, Sciences, and Professional Studies School of Political and International Studies Program in International Studies Teaneck, NJ 07666-1914

Elliott School of International Affairs Program in International Affairs Washington, DC 20052 Phone: (202) 994-7050 http://www.gwu.edu

Long Island University

Georgia Institute of Technology


Graduate Studies and Research Ivan Allen College of Policy and International Affairs Sam Nunn School of International Affairs

C. W. Post Campus College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science/ International Studies Brookville, NY 11548-1300 Phone: (516) 299-3025 http://www.cwpost.liu.edu

Loyola University Chicago

Graduate School Department of Political Science Chicago, IL 60611-2196

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Phone: (773) 508-3068 http://www.luc.edu

Marquette University

Graduate School College of Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881 Phone: (414) 288-3360 http://www.mu.edu

Department of Political Science and Public Administration Program in International Studies Raleigh, NC 27695 Phone: (919) 515-3755 http://www.ncsu.edu

Princeton, NJ 08544-1019 Phone: (609) 258-4836 http://www.princeton.edu

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark


Graduate School Center for Global Change and Governance Newark, NJ 07102 Phone: (973) 353-5585 http://www.rutgers.edu

Northeastern University

Michigan State University


Graduate School College of Social Science Interdisciplinary Program East Lansing, MI 48824 Phone: (517) 355-0301 http://www.msu.edu

College of Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science Boston, MA 02115-5096 Phone: (617) 373-4404 http://www.neu.edu

Norwich University

St. John Fisher College

Monterey Institute of International Studies

Online Graduate Programs Program in Diplomacy Northfield, VT 05663 Phone: (802) 985-2287 http://www.norwich.edu

Ohio University

School of Adult and Graduate Education International Studies Program Rochester, NY 14618-3597 Phone: (716) 385-8344 http://www.sjfc.edu

Graduate School of International Policy Studies Monterey, CA 93940-2691 Phone: (831) 647-4123 http://www.miis.edu

Morgan State University

Graduate Studies Center for International Studies Program in Communications and Development Studies Athens, OH 45701-2979 Phone: (740) 593-1840 http://www.ohio.edu

St. Marys University of San Antonio


Graduate School Interdisciplinary Program in International Relations San Antonio, TX 78228-8507 Phone: (210) 436-3101 http://www.stmarytx.edu

School of Graduate Studies College of Liberal Arts Department of Political Science and International Studies Baltimore, MD 21251 http://www.morgan.edu

Oklahoma City University

New School University

Petree College of Arts and Sciences Program in Liberal Arts Oklahoma City, OK 73106-1402 Phone: (800) 633-7242 ext. 4 http://www.okcu.edu

Salve Regina University

New School Program in International Affairs New York, NY 10011-8603 Phone: (212) 229-5630 http://www.newschool.edu

Oklahoma State University

Graduate School Program in International Relations Newport, RI 02840-4192 Phone: (401) 847-6650 http://www.salve.edu

New York University

Graduate College Program in International Studies Stillwater, OK 74078 Phone: (405) 744-6606 http://www.okstate.edu

San Francisco State University


Graduate Division College of Behavioral and Social Sciences Department of International Relations San Francisco, CA 94132-1722 Phone: (415) 338-2234 http://www.sfsu.edu

Graduate School of Arts and Science Department of Politics New York, NY 10012-1019 Phone: (212) 998-8500 http://www.nyu.edu

Old Dominion University

College of Arts and Letters Programs in International Studies Norfolk, VA 23529 Phone: (757) 683-5700 http://www.odu.edu

North Carolina State University


Graduate School College of Humanities and Social Sciences

Princeton University

School for International Training

Graduate School Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs

Graduate Programs Masters Programs in Intercultural Management, Leadership, and Service

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Brattleboro, VT 05302-0676 Phone: (802) 258-3265 http://www.sit.edu

Seton Hall University

Program in International Affairs College Station, TX 77843 Phone: (979) 458-2276 http://www.tamu.edu

School of Diplomacy and International Relations South Orange, NJ 07079-2697 Phone: (973) 275-2515 http://www.shu.edu

Tufts University

Program in International Economics Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Phone: (831) 459-2301 http://www.ucsc.edu

Southwest Missouri State University

Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy Medford, MA 02155 Phone: (617) 627-3040 http://www.tufts.edu

University of Central Oklahoma

Graduate College College of Humanities and Public Affairs Department of Political Science Program in International Affairs and Administration Springfield, MO 65804-0094 Phone: (417) 836-8472 http://www.smsu.edu

The University of British Columbia


Faculty of Graduate Studies Institute of Asian Research Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 Canada Phone: (604) 822-2746 http://www.ubc.ca

College of Graduate Studies and Research College of Liberal Arts Department of Political Science Program in International Affairs Edmond, OK 73034-5209 http://www.ucok.edu

University of Chicago

Southwest Texas State University

University of California, Berkeley

Graduate School Interdisciplinary Studies Program in International Studies San Marcos, TX 78666 Phone: (512) 245-2107 http://www.swt.edu

Graduate Division Haas School of Business and Group in International and Area Studies Berkeley, CA 94720-1500 Phone: (510) 642-1405 http://www.berkeley.edu

Division of Social Sciences Committee on International Relations Chicago, IL 60637-1513 Phone: (773) 702-8415 http://www.uchicago.edu

University of Colorado at Boulder

Stanford University

School of Humanities and Sciences Program in International Policy Studies Stanford, CA 94305-9991 Phone: (650) 723-4547 http://www.stanford.edu

University of California, San Diego

Graduate School College of Arts and Sciences Department of Political Sciences Boulder, CO 80309 Phone: (303) 492-7872 http://www.colorado.edu

Graduate Studies and Research School of International Relations and Pacific Studies La Jolla, CA 92093-0520 Phone: (858) 534-5914 http://www.ucsd.edu

University of Connecticut

Syracuse University

Graduate School Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs Program in International Relations Syracuse, NY 13244-0003 Phone: (315) 443-9346 http://www.syr.edu

University of California, Santa Barbara


Graduate Division Department of Global and International Studies Santa Barbara, CA 93106 Phone: (805) 893-4299 http://www.ucsb.edu

Graduate School College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Department of International Studies Storrs, CT 06269 Phone: (860) 486-3617 http://www.uconn.edu

University of Delaware

Texas A&M University

College of Liberal Arts George Bush School of Government and Public Service

University of California, Santa Cruz


Graduate Division Division of Social Sciences

College of Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science and International Relations Newark, DE 19716 Phone: (302) 831-2355 http://www.udel.edu

University of Denver

Graduate School of International Studies

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Denver, CO 80208 Phone: (303) 871-2544 http://www.du.edu

University of Northern British Columbia


Office of Graduate Studies Prince George, BC Y2N 4Z9 Canada Phone: (250) 960-6336 http://www.unbc.ca

University of San Diego

University of Detroit Mercy

College of Liberal Arts Department of Political Science Program in International Politics and Economics Detroit, MI 48219-0900 Phone: (313) 993-1245 or (800) 635-5020 http://www.udmercy.edu

College of Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science San Diego, CA 92110-2492 Phone: (619) 260-4524 http://www.sandiego.edu

University of Notre Dame

University of South Carolina

University of Florida

Graduate School College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science Program in International Relations Gainesville, FL 32611 Phone: (352) 392-0262 ext. 282 http://www.ufl.edu

Graduate School College of Arts and Letters Division of Social Science Department of Government and International Studies Notre Dame, IN 46556 Phone: (219) 631-7706 http://www.nd.edu

Graduate School College of Liberal Arts Department of Government and International Studies Program in International Studies Columbia, SC 29208 Phone: (803) 777-6801 http://www.sc.edu

University of Oklahoma

University of Southern California

Graduate College International Academic Programs Norman, OK 73019-0390 Phone: (405) 325-1396 http://www.ou.edu

University of Kentucky

Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce Lexington, KY 40506-0032 Phone: (859) 257-4613 http://www.uky.edu

University of Oregon

Graduate School College of Letters, Arts and Sciences School of International Relations Los Angeles, CA 90089 Phone: (213) 740-8629 http://www.usc.edu

University of Miami

Graduate School College of Arts and Sciences Program in International Studies Eugene, OR 97403 Phone: (541) 346-3201 http://www.uoregon.edu

University of the Pacific


McGeorge School of Law Sacramento, CA 95817 Phone: (916) 739-7105 http://www.uop.edu

University of Toronto

Graduate School School of International Studies Coral Gables, FL 33124 Phone: (305) 284-3117 http://www.miami.edu

University of Pennsylvania
Feis Center of Government Philadelphia, PA 19104 Phone: (215) 898-6520 http://www.upenn.edu

University of Missouri-St. Louis


Graduate School College of Arts and Sciences Center for International Studies St. Louis, MO 63121-4499 Phone: (314) 516-6928 http://www.umsl.edu

University of Pittsburgh

Graduate School of Public and International Affairs International Affairs Division Pittsburgh, PA 15260 Phone: (412) 648-7643 http://www.pitt.edu

School of Graduate Studies Social Sciences Division Collaborative Program in International Relations Toronto, ON M5S 1A1 Canada Phone: (401) 926-2301 http://www.utoronto.ca

University of Virginia

University of New Orleans

Graduate School College of Liberal Arts Department of Political Science New Orleans, LA 70148 Phone: (504) 280-6671 http://www.uno.edu

University of Rhode Island

Graduate School College of Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science Kingston, RI 02881 Phone: (401) 874-2183 http://www.uri.edu

College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Department of Government and Foreign Affairs Program in Foreign Affairs Charlottesville, VA 22903 Phone: (804) 924-7184 http://www.virginia.edu

University of Washington
Graduate School College of Arts and Sciences

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies Seattle, WA 98195 Phone: (206) 543-6001 http://www.u.washington.edu

University of Wyoming

Graduate School College of Arts and Sciences Program in International Studies Laramie, WY 82071 Phone: (307) 766-3423 http://www.uwyo.edu

College of Architecture and Urban Studies Department of Urban Affairs and Planning Program in Public and International Affairs Blacksburg, VA 24061 Phone: (540) 231-8306 or (540) 231-6691 http://www.vt.edu

Phone: (314) 968-7100 http://www.webster.edu

West Virginia University

Eberly College of Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science Morgantown, WV 26506 Phone: (304) 293-3811 ext. 5271 http://www.wvu.edu

Webster University

Yale University

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University


Graduate School

College of Arts and Sciences Department of History, Politics and Law Program in International Relations St. Louis, MO 63119-3194

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Graduate Program in International Relations New Haven, CT 06520 Phone: (203) 432-3418 http://www.yale.edu

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APPENDIX VII
ADVOCACY GROUPS
What follows is a s ampling of advocacy groups chosen because t hey have st ate/regional c hapters, affiliates, or other indications of lo cal ac tivity. All ha ve websites to help you get involved. Many organizations list employment opportunities on their websites. Use this list only as a starting point. Follow the news to familiarize yourself wi th t he ac tivities o f o ther gr oups, pa rticularly a t the local level.

A. POLITICAL PARTIES AND GOVERNMENT REFORM


The Association of State Green Parties
Fax: (202) 429-0854 E-mail: 1wv@1wv.org http://www.1wv.org The League of Women Voters is a multi-issue organization dedicated to encouraging the informed and active participation of citizens in government.

Reform Party

P.O. Box 18452 Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 232-0335 http://www.greenparties.org The Green platform supports social justice and equal opportunity, nonviolence, and community-based economics.

National Libertarian Party

3281 N Meadow Mine Place Tucson, AZ 85745 Phone: (877) GO-REFORM http://www.reformparty.org The Reform Party works to reestablish trust in government by supporting political candidates dedicated to fiscal responsibility and political accountability.

Common Cause

1250 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 600 Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 833-1200 Fax: (202) 659-3716 http://www.commoncause.org Common Cause works to promote open, honest, and accountable government.

2600 Virginia Avenue, NW, Suite 100 Washington, DC 20037 Phone: (202) 333-0008 or (800) ELECT-US http://www.1p.org Libertarians advocate a system that encourages all people to choose what they want from life.

Republican National Committee

Democratic National Committee


430 S Capitol Street, SE Washington, DC 20003 Phone: (202) 863-8000 http://www.democrats.org Founded in 1792 by Thomas Jefferson, the Democratic Party, in its current platform, calls for prosperity, progress, and peace.

National Womens Political Caucus

League of Women Voters

1730 M Street, NW Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 429-1965, (800) 249VOTE

1630 Connecticut Avenue, NW Suite 201 Washington, DC 20009 Phone: (202) 785-1100 Fax: (202) 785-3605 E-mail: info@nwpc.org http://www.nwpc.org The National Womens Political Caucuss (NWPCs) mission is to identify, recruit, train, and support women seeking elected and appointed office, with the help of hundreds of state and local chapters.

310 First Street, SE Washington, DC 20003 Phone: (202) 863-8500 Fax: (202) 863-8820 E-mail: info@rnc.org http://www.rnc.org The Republican Party, over its 150-year history, has called for government based on the principles of freedom and personal liberty.

Rock the Vote

10635 Santa Monica Boulevard Box 22 Los Angeles, CA 90015 Phone: (310) 234-0665 Fax: (310) 234-0666 http://www.rockthevote.org Rock the Vote is dedicated to protecting freedom of expression and to helping young people realize and utilize their power to affect change in the civic and political lives of their communities.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

B. ENVIRONMENT AND CONSUMER ADVOCACY


Clean Water Action
4455 Connecticut Avenue, NW Suite A300 Washington, DC 20008-2328 Phone: (202) 895-0420 Fax: (202) 895-0438 http://www.cleanwateraction.org Clean Water Action is a national citizens organization working for clean, safe, and affordable water; prevention of healththreatening pollution; creation of environmentally safe jobs and businesses; and empowerment of people to make democracy work. http://www.audubon.org The National Audubon Society works to conserve and restore natural ecosystems, focusing on birds and other wildlife. Fax: (415) 977-5799 E-mail: information@sierraclub.org http://www.sierraclub.org The Sierra Club is a nonprofit, member-supported public interest organization that promotes conservation of the natural environment.

The Nature Conservancy

Greenpeace USA

1815 N Lynn Street Arlington, VA 22209 Phone: (703) 841-5300 or (800) 628-6860 Fax: (703) 841-1283 http://www.tnc.org The Nature Conservancy works to preserve habitats and species by buying the lands and waters they need to survive.

Student Environmental Action Coalition


P.O. Box 31909 Philadelphia, PA 19104-0609 Phone: (215) 222-4711 Fax: (215) 222-2896 http://www.seac.org The Student Environmental Action Coalition (SEAC) (pronounced seek) is a studentand youth-run national network of organizations and individuals working on environmental issues.

1436 U Street, NW Washington, DC 20009 Phone: (202) 462-1177 Fax: (202) 462-4507 E-mail: greenpeace.usa@ wdc.greenpeace.org http://www.greenpeace.org/index. shtml Greenpeace, which works to expose and solve global environmental problems, has offices in Washington, D.C., New York, San Francisco, Seattle, and Chicago, and throughout the world.

Public Citizen, Inc.

National Audubon Society


700 Broadway New York, NY 10003 Phone: (212) 979-3000 Fax: (212) 979-3188

1600 20th Street, NW Washington, DC 20009 Phone: (202) 588-1000 or (800) 239-3787 E-mail: public_citizen@citizen.org http://www.citizen.org Founded in 1971 by Ralph Nader, Public Citizen, Inc., works for safer drugs and medical devices, cleaner and safer energy sources, a cleaner environment, fair trade, and a more open and democratic government.

United States Public Interest Research Group

Sierra Club

85 2nd Street, Second Floor San Francisco, CA 94105-3441 Phone: (415) 977-5500

218 D Street, SE Washington, DC 20003-1900 Phone: (202) 546-9707 Fax: (202) 546-2461 E-mail: uspirg@pirg.org http://www.uspirg.org The United States Public Interest Research Group uses investigative research, media exposs, grass-roots organizing, advocacy, and litigation to fight dangers to public health and well-being.

C. COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL ISSUES


AIDS Action Council
1906 Sunderland Place, NW Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 530-8030 Fax: (202) 530-8031 E-mail: aidsaction@aidsaction.org http://www.aidsaction.org Founded in 1984, AIDS Action is dedicated to improved care and services for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as medical research and prevention of the disease. Washington, DC 20002 Phone: (202) 547-2500 Fax: (202) 546-2483 http://www.acorn.org The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) works to organize and win power for low- and moderateincome people, with offices in New

Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now


739 8th Street, SE

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York, Little Rock, New Orleans, and Washington, D.C.

Childrens Defense Fund

Habitat for Humanity members build houses in communities around the world.

25 E Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 Phone: (202) 628-8787 Fax: (202) 662-3510 http://www.childrensdefense.org The Childrens Defense Fund (CDF) works to provide a strong and effective voice for the children of America.

Mothers against Drunk Driving


P.O. Box 541688 Dallas, TX 75354-1688 Phone: (800) GET-MADD E-mail: info@madd.org http://www.madd.org Mothers against Drunk Driving (MADD) works to stop drunk driving and to support victims of the crime.

Phone: (202) 737-6444 Fax: (202) 737-6445 E-mail: info@nationalhomeless.org http://nationalhomeless.org The National Coalition for the Homeless is committed to ending homelessness through public education, policy advocacy, grass-roots organizing, and technical assistance.

USAction

Habitat for Humanity


121 Habitat Street Americus, GA 31709 Phone: (229) 924-6935 http://www.habitat.org

National Coalition for the Homeless


1012 14th Street, NW, #600 Washington, DC 20005-3410

1341 G Street, NW 10th Floor Washington, DC 20005 Phone: (202) 661-0216 Fax: (202) 737-9197 http://www.usaction.org USAction is a national coalition of social action organizations.

D. CIVIL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES


American Association for Retired Persons National Association for the Advancement of Colored People National Gay and Lesbian Task Force

601 E Street, NW Washington, DC 20049 Phone: (800) 424-3410 Fax: (202) 434-6484 E-mail: member@aarp.org http://www.aarp.org The American Association for Retired Persons (AARP) is dedicated to helping older Americans achieve lives of independence, dignity, and purpose.

American Civil Liberties Union


125 Broad Street New York, NY 10004-2400 Phone: (212) 944-9800 Fax: (212) 869-9065 E-mail: info@aclu.org http://www.aclu.org The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is involved in litigating, legislating, and educating the public on a broad array of issues affecting individual freedom in the United States.

4805 Mt. Hope Drive Baltimore, MD 21215 Phone: (410) 521-4939 Fax: (410) 486-9257 http://www.naacp.org The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) works to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of minority group citizens of the United States.

1700 Kalorama Road, NW Washington, DC 20009-2624 Phone: (202) 332-6483 Fax: (202) 332-0207 E-mail: ngltf@ngltf.org http://www.ngltf.org The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF) serves as a national lobbying, organizing, and resource center for gay and lesbian civil rights.

National Council of La Raza

1111 19th Street, NW, Suite 1000 Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 785-1670 Fax: (202) 776-1792 http://www.nclr.org The National Council of La Raza, which has affiliates throughout the nation, was established in 1968 to reduce poverty and discrimination and improve life opportunities for Hispanic Americans.

National Organization on Disability

910 16th Street, NW Washington, DC 20006 Phone: (202) 293-5960 Fax: (202) 293-7999 E-mail: ability@nod.org http://www.nod.org The National Organization on Disability promotes full and equal participation of Americas millions of men, women, and children with disabilities in all aspects of life.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIVISM

National Organization for Women

1000 16th Street, NW, Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 331-0066 Fax: (202) 785-8576 E-mail: now@now.org http://www.now.org

The National Organization for Women (NOW) is dedicated to legal, political, social, and economic equality for women.

National Urban League


120 Wall Street New York, NY 10005

Phone: (212) 558-5300 http://www.nul.org The mission of the National Urban League is to assist African Americans in the achievement of social and economic equality.

E. PEACE AND INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS


American Friends Service Committee
such as torture and imprisonment without trial. Washington, DC 20006 Phone: (202) 862-9740 Fax: (202) 862-9762 http://www.peace-action.org. Peace Action, with over 100 local chapters, works to promote global nuclear disarmament, cut military spending, and end the international arms trade.

1501 Cherry Street Philadelphia, PA 19102 Phone: 215-241-7000 Fax: 215-241-7275 E-mail: afscinfo@afsc.org http://www.afsc.org The American Friends Service Committee is an independent Quaker organization, supported by people of different persuasions, that carries out programs of service, development, justice, and peace, with several regional offices around the nation.

Bread for the World

50 F Street, NW Suite 500 Washington, DC 20001 Phone: (202) 639-9400 or (800) 82Bread Fax: 301-608-2401 http://www.bread.org Bread for the World advocates for the hungry people of the world.

United Nations Association of the United States of America


1779 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Suite 610 Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 462-3446 Fax: (202) 462-3448 E-mail: unadc@unausa.org http://www.unausa.org The United Nations Association of the United States of America (UNA-USA) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan national organization, with chapters throughout the nation, dedicated to enhancing U.S. participation in the United Nations and strengthening of the United Nations.

Human Rights Watch

Amnesty International, USA

322 Eighth Avenue New York, NY 10001 (212) 807-8400 Fax: (212) 627-1451 E-mail: amnestyis@amnesty.org or admin-us@aiusa.org http://www.amnesty.org or http:// www.aiusa.org Amnesty International opposes institutional abuses of human rights

1630 Connecticut Avenue, NW Suite 500 Washington, DC 20009 Phone: (202) 612-4321 Fax: (202) 612-4333 http://www.hrw.org Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

Peace Action (formerly SANE/ FREEZE)


1819 H Street, NW, #420

APPENDIX VII

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APPENDIX VIII
HOW TO RUN FOR POLITICAL OFFICETHE BASICS
Before deciding to r un for office, you should know what is involved in g etting your name on the ballot and your campaign of f to a r unning sta rt. For more infor mation, read How to Run for Local Office by Robert J. Thomas and H ow t o Win Your F irst E lection by Su san Gub er, which were both valuable sources for this Appendix. Also search the Internet for infor mation f rom l ocal and state election departments. This guide is not intended to be a substitute for seeking the services of political parties and/ or campaign professionals. Election cycle financial reports Nomination petitions Collect more than the number of signatures required for the position Inform a nyone co llecting signa tures f or y ou o f t he necessary requirements

STEP THREE: ORGANIZE YOUR CAMPAIGN


Although a c ampaign c ommittee m ay n ot be a bsolutely necessary, it will help you receive and disburse funds and handle record keeping: Choose a na me f or y our co mmittee (e .g., Ci tizens for Smith) Appoint your campaign manager and treasurer: organize other helpers Set up a bank account Ask the Clerks Office or Election Department about purchasing voter registration lists, ma ps, and s o on, to help target likely voters Set u p ca mpaign he adquarters in a ho me o r r ented office Write a campaign plan with your campaign manager

Insiders r ecommend t hat yo u as k yo urself t he f ollowing questions before deciding to run for office. If you answer no to any of them, you might want to think again: Do I have a background of community and/or political party involvement? Am I interested in issues of concern to most voters? Am I willing to ask people for money? Am I p repared f or t he r ough-and-tumble w orld o f politics?

STEP ONE: ASK YOURSELF THE HARD QUESTIONS

Your loc al Cler ks O ffice a nd/or Ele ction D epartment can provide valuable assistance to candidates running for public office. People in these offices can inform you of elected positions you might not have previously considered; po int o ut t he d ifferences be tween c ompeting for t he pa rtys n omination a nd r unning as a n i ndependent; p rovide l ists o f i tems f or sa le; a nd r efer yo u elsewhere if necessary for what you need to get started, including Election schedule Declaration of candidacy

STEP TWO: FILE THE NECESSARY PAPERWORK

STEP FOUR: CONDUCT A VIGOROUS CAMPAIGN


Typical activities for this phase of the campaign include Designing campaign literature, ads, and signs Knocking on doors and talking to peopl