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¯ MR MOTHER’S MANSION: . GARA’S (∗) ´U ¯ NYAT ˜ ¯ SUTRA ¯ EMPTINESS AND THE S A S
su˜ nn ˜at¯ avih¯ aren¯ aham ¯nanda etarahi bahulam ami / . a . vihar¯ C¯ u. lasu˜ nn ˜ata-sutta ayam ananda, vih¯ aro tath¯ agatena abhisambuddho yadidam . kho pan¯ . - sabbanimitt¯ anam amanasik¯ ar¯ a ajjhattam . . su˜ nn ˜atam . upasampajja viharitum . / Mah¯ asu˜ nn ˜ata-sutta
¯ In the Lesser Emptiness S¯ utra, the Buddha tells Ananda that he dwells regularly in the ‘habitude of emptiness’ (´ su ¯nyat¯ a-vih¯ ara ), and that he has done so in the past and does so at ¯ present. In the Greater Emptiness S¯ utra, the Blessed One describes, again to Ananda, how he himself has understood the ‘habitude of emptiness’. These statements place emptiness at the centre of the Buddha’s thought and his mode of living, and indeed, many scholars, past and present, have considered emptiness to be the ‘central philosophy of Buddhism’, the very heart of the Buddha’s teaching. Emptiness did not belong to the philosophical terminology of the Buddha’s contemporaries, or, as far as can be gauged, to that of his predecessors. The concept of emptiness seems to have been one of the unique contributions that the Buddha made to Indian - and world - thought. But what is ´ su ¯nyat¯ a ? Does it have a single meaning, acceptable to all Buddhists, to all
∗ This is a revised version of a lecture given at Ryukoku University on 14 July 2005. I am grateful to Prof. Shoryu KATSURA for inviting me to lecture, and to Profs. KATSURA, YOSHIMOTO, WAKAHARA, and ARAMAKI and other members of the audience for their questions and comments, which have made this a ¯ much better paper. I also thank Ven. ANALAYO for his close reading and comments, and John MCRAE and FUKITA Takamichi for illuminating discussions. Nonetheless, I fear that the paper is not entirely empty of errors and obscurities - for those that remain I alone am responsible. I deeply regret that, owing to my own linguistic limitations, I am unable to take advantage of the rich literature on this subject in Japanese. (1) Citations from the two S¯ ´ unyat¯ a S¯ utras are from SKILLING 1994, by Mah¯ as¯ utra number and section, in this case Mah¯ as¯ utra 3, §I.4, and Mah¯ as¯ utra 4, §III.2, respectively.
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Buddhist schools of thought? Is ´ su ¯nyat¯ a a description of phenomena? Is it a mode of being? Is it an abstract noun, or is it an entity in itself? Is it a negation? Or is it an attainment? The very idea of emptiness confronts fundamental questions of being and appearance, of ontology and epistemology. It has inspired many of the greatest thinkers that Buddhism has produced. Emptiness has elicited the highest praise - as the peerless key to understanding the true nature of things - and the gravest condemnation, from both Buddhists and from ‘outsiders’ - as a nihilistic doctrine of nothingness. Emptiness is a common or shared term in the vocabulary of Buddhism. For the Sarv¯ astiv¯ adins and S¯ am ıyas - two of the main philosophical schools of north India . mit¯ and for the Mah¯ avih¯ arav¯ asin Therav¯ adins of Sri Lanka, emptiness was an important concept in their descriptions of the path of realization. Emptiness meant that all phenomena are empty of self or anything belonging to self. The term was used in speciﬁc contexts, and in the early phase did not function as an overarching category applied to all things. The term ‘empty’ does not seem to have enjoyed any special prominence in the early Vaibh¯ as astiv¯ adin fold. Rather, it was the equal . ika school, which developed within the Sarv¯ of terms like ‘impermanent’ or ‘without self’. For example, among the sixteen aspects (¯ ak¯ ara ) of the four truths, there are four for the truth of suﬀering: anitya, duh su ¯nya, . kha, ´ and an¯ atmaka. In the M¯ argavarga of the Ud¯ anavarga (XII, 5-8), we ﬁnd the following set of four verses: anity¯ am ar¯ am nay¯ a pa´ syate yad¯ a . sarvasam . sk¯ . , praj˜ atha nirvidyate duh ad es argo vi´ suddhaye. . kh¯ . a m¯ duh am ar¯ am nay¯ a pa´ syate yad¯ a . kh¯ . sarvasam . sk¯ . , praj˜ atha nirvidyate duh kh¯ a d es a m¯ a rgo vi´ s uddhaye. . . ´ sunyatah ar¯ am nay¯ a pa´ syate yad¯ a . sarvasam . sk¯ . , praj˜ atha nirvidyate duh kh¯ a d es a m¯ a rgo vi´ s uddhaye. . . sarvadharm¯ a an¯ atm¯ anah nay¯ a pa´ syate yad¯ a . , praj˜ atha nirvidyate duh kh¯ a d es a m¯ a rgo vi´ s uddhaye. . . The Dhammapada parallel (vv. 277-79) gives only the ‘canonical’ triad of anicca, dukkha, and anatta. Emptiness is not included: sabbe sankh¯ ˙ ar¯ a anicc¯ a ti, yad¯ a pa˜ nn ˜a ¯ya passati atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiy¯ a. sabbe sankh¯ ˙ ar¯ a dukkh¯ a ti, yad¯ a pa˜ nn ˜a ¯ya passati atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiy¯ a. sabbe dhamm¯ a anatt¯ a ti, yad¯ a pa˜ nn ˜a ¯ya passati atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiy¯ a.
and apran ihita ) categories that highlight the fact that emptiness plays . and that diﬀerent schools and thinkers became concerned to deﬁne their interpretations more precisely and to integrate ‘emptiness’ into their systems.(2) and argued for the absence of svabh¯ ava (2) The equation of dependent arising with the middle path is already found in the Sam agama : see . a role in meditation practice and in the process of liberation. I will brieﬂy examine the concept of emptiness according to N¯ ag¯ arjuna and Maitreya. who lived. Before returning to the S¯ a S¯ utras. where the question was raised: what is the diﬀerence between a Sr¯ realization of emptiness and that of a bodhisattva? The problem is discussed. am¯ N¯ ag¯ arjuna.2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy ´U ¯ ¯ NYAT ˜ ¯ SUTRA ¯ MR MOTHER’S MANSION: EMPTINESS AND THE S A S . philosophers of Buddhist India was N¯ ag¯ arjuna. ca / ek¯ artham ada pran ami tam apratimabuddham // . it seems that with the passage of time the idea of emptiness gained increased currency as a tool of understanding in early Indian Buddhism. remains a signiﬁcant topic up to the present. the term ‘empty’ was on a par with other aspects of the four . in Gelukpa compendia of tenets studied as part of monastic curricula to this day. For the S¯ am ıya school. He equated emptiness with dependent arising and with the middle path. both Sr¯ early systemization of Mah¯ ay¯ ana thought . yukt¯ . for all of these schools emptiness was also one of the three concentrations (sam¯ adhi ) and one of the three entrances of liberation (vimoks .along with other examples of manipulation of ‘canonical’ scriptures to ﬁt them to doctrinal formulations . N¯ ag¯ arjuna used emptiness as a conceptual tool in his scrutiny of Buddhist and non-Buddhist thought. ´ . approximately. ika theory? This . ikas. madhyam¯ . Needless to say. We might be forgiven for asking whether this debate is not merely formal. but in very diﬀerent ways. S¯ utra usage tends to be unsystematic. ´ avaka path continued in Tibetan Debates on the nature and role of emptiness in the Sr¯ ´ avaka’s scholasticism. In any case. and one of the seven aspects of the truth of the path. both of whom accord emptiness a key role. In the to codify the terminology and thought of the s¯ utras. amukha: ´ su ¯nyat¯ a. 53 One of the earliest. prat¯ . as it was for the Vaibh¯ as . It was left to the ¯ abhidharmikas and ´ sa ¯strak¯ aras ´ avaka and Bodhisattva. nijag¯ . ‘Empty’ was one of the four aspects of the truth of suﬀering. a rehearsal of issues centuries old. between 150 and 250 CE. animitta. GARA’S 227 Is it possible that the editors of the Sarv¯ astiv¯ adin versions added the verse on emptiness in order to make the text conform to Vaibh¯ as . II yah su ¯nyat¯ am ıtyasamutp¯ adam am . for example.in the works of N¯ ag¯ arjuna and in Maitreya’s Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga-k¯ arik¯ a -´ su ¯nyat¯ a became a primary category employed to explain the ´unyat¯ nature of things. pratipadam . and for many the greatest. mit¯ truths. but nonetheless it demonstrates how achieving a ‘correct’ understanding of emptiness. Vigrahavy¯ avartan¯ ı p. while at the same time realizing that there is more than one understanding. one of the seven aspects of the truth of cessation.is a topic for further research.
For dependent arising in Madhyamaka thought. debate in the Land of Snows up to the time of Mipham (1846-1912). giving rise to diverse and often conﬂicting interpretations and evaluations. developing into the several lineages of Madhyamaka in India and then Tibet. but not entirely successfully. see now LOPEZ 2005. For early contributions to the problem of the identity of Maitreya. For this paper I follow convention and describe the author as ‘Maitreya’ and the commentators as ‘Vasubandhu’ and ‘Sthiramati’ (about the last. Numerous studies have been made of N¯ ag¯ arjuna’s thought. is that given in the Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga or ‘Discrimination of Middle and Extremes’. Chapter 1. as far as I know. For Mipham see especially PHUNTSHO 2005.(4) Emptiness in general was a subject of lively. Phenomena come into being and cease being through interdependence. WALSER’s (2005) recent study on N¯ ag¯ arjuna raises interesting questions and attempts to explore new avenues.(3) The inﬂuence of N¯ ag¯ arjuna’s philosophy was enormous. although the transmission of the text is attributed with Asanga. there is not much doubt) in order to invest the work with agency. (3) (4) (5) For a useful survey see DE JONG 1972. Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga I. I have been surprised. 2004). After the works of N¯ ag¯ arjuna and Aryadeva. 2 The study of the evolution of Buddhist thought in India is not easy. U I 1929). or for Maitreya as an author.2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy 228 インド学チベット学研究 11 inherent nature . I will not go into any detail here. the next exposition of emptiness.(5) III abh¯ utaparikalpo ’sti dvayan tatra na vidyate // ´ su ¯nyat¯ a vidyate tv atra tasy¯ am api sa vidyate // Maitreya. For a bibliography of Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga see NAKAMURA 1980: 259-260 and POWERS 1991: 42-44. None of the English translations of the work . to the twentieth century. and not through the oﬃce of any svabh¯ ava or of any internal or external agency.of any sort. ˙ to whom it was revealed.in . and in most cases we do not even ¯ know where they lived and wrote. We have no hard dates or reliable biographies for early Buddhist philosophers. I believe. WAYMAN 1978: 195-214. in the recent Encyclopedia of Buddhism (BUSWELL ed. and sometimes vituperative. see NAGAO 1989. N¯ ag¯ arjuna was followed by his direct student Aryadeva ¯ (circa 170-270) who also wrote on emptiness. the relation between dependent arising and emptiness. In his Lam rim chen mo. (6) This is not the place to go into the question of the identity of the reputed author (see e. or dismayed. One of the best studies of the text-historical evolution of the concept of emptiness in a Western language remains that published by LAMOTTE (1976: 1995-2027). Therefore they are empty. TSONG-KHA-PA 2002: 135-153.g. which is ascribed by both Chinese and Tibetan tradition to Maitreya.(6) LAMOTTE 1976: 2067-2069. and to the present day. For Gendun CHOPEL’s radical work on Madhyamaka. Tsongkhapa (1357-1419) discusses. inter alia. see UI 1929 and TUCCI 1930. to ﬁnd that there is no entry for the Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga.
after those of N¯ ag¯ arjuna and Aryadeva .2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy ´U ¯ ¯ NYAT ˜ ¯ SUTRA ¯ MR MOTHER’S MANSION: EMPTINESS AND THE S A S . and all are conﬁdent and articulate expositions which advocate the bodhisattva path and the Mah¯ ay¯ ana. Jina. but this is problematic. as well as that of other schools. a ). then ´ su ¯nyat¯ a. KOCHUMUTTOM 1982. the Tath¯ a gatagarbha (Ratnagotravibh¯ aga ) and . ˙ which places it. Mi-pham notes that in Tibet the ‘Five Dharmas of Maitreya’ were classed in diﬀerent ways by diﬀerent traditions. The ﬁrst chapter of the Madhy¯ anta-vibh¯ aga explains the relationship between false or falsifying ideation (abh¯ utaparikalpa ) and emptiness. FRIEDMANN 1937. an . (8) MATHES 1996: 182. but their prehistory and individuality are occluded when they are treated as part of a static or abstract ‘Yog¯ ac¯ ara system’. They are all remarkable texts.(7) The works do share important classiﬁcation systems . Tradition reports that the future Buddha Maitreya transmitted texts to Asanga ˙ in an encounter or vision in Tus antavibh¯ aga . The ‘Five Dharmas of Maitreya’ are ¯ among the earliest verse ´ sa ¯stra of Indian Mah¯ ay¯ ana . The ﬁve texts are often classiﬁed as ‘Yog¯ ac¯ arin’. Questions of date. in the fourth century. GARA’S 229 The Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga is available in Sanskrit.see NAKAMURA 1980: 253 n. authorship.such as the three svabh¯ ava . sya by Vasubandhu and a t¯ ık¯ a by Sthiramati. and Ye ´ mitra.(8) For the purposes of this essay I regard the Madhy¯ anta-vibh¯ aga as an independent or ‘unaﬃliated’ treatise. S¯ ses sde. the Abhidharma of the Sarv¯ astiv¯ ada or Vaibh¯ as . By the time these ´ sa ¯stra were written. The Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga is a mature and self-assured text. WOOD 1991). The chapter ﬁrst introduces abh¯ utaparikalpa. and that among them the Madhy¯ anta-vibh¯ aga could be classed as Cittam¯ atrin by some or as Madhyamaka by others. the message of the Mah¯ ay¯ ana s¯ utras (Mah¯ ay¯ anas¯ utr¯ alam k¯ a ra ). ´urendrabodhi.inevitably . relation to the other four of the ‘Five Dharmas of Maitreya’. had been codiﬁed in numerous manuals. and it will take a great deal of further research and collation before we can begin to understand their signiﬁcance in the development of Indian Buddhist thought in relation to Abhidharma. part or in whole . the Madhy¯ must fall within the lifetime of Asanga. ita heaven. ANACKER 1984. ara ). ˙ To attempt to date ‘Maitreya’ at all is problematic. it can stand on its own. 264) 310-390 to Asanga. All ‘Five Dharmas of Maitreya’ are composed in verse. Nakamura (1980: 256) assigns the dates 270-350 CE to Maitreya and (p. All three texts were translated into Tibetan by the same team. The author has his own agenda. given that the idea that he was a human and historical teacher of Asanga ˙ is an invention of early twentiethcentury historicism. circa 800. with a bh¯ a. from the perspective of diﬀerent themes: the Perfection of Wisdom (Abhisamay¯ alam k¯ . the distinction between phenomena and reality (Dharmadharmat¯ avibh¯ aga ). SCOTT 2004: 58-61. which he formulates lucidly and eloquently into a distinctive philosophical statement.including an enormous number of studies in Japanese . In any case. If I hesitate to categorize the Madhy¯ anta-vibh¯ aga as Yog¯ ac¯ arin. The section on ´ su ¯nyat¯ a discusses the deﬁnition (laks .shares ideas or categories with other texts. while it . to Bodhisattva s¯ utras.and they are certainly some of the earliest to survive. It presents its thesis and its description of the bodhisattva path systematically and coherently in ﬁve chapters. and relation to Asanga ˙ are convoluted and remain intractable. very broadly. (7) For a bibliography of Yog¯ ac¯ ara studies . ikas. and to M¯ adhyamika treatises. I am not the ﬁrst to do so.and they are seen as foundational in later Yog¯ ac¯ ara literature. LEVINSON 2001: 117-118. in the sense that. and the practice of composing verse manuals and treatises was well-established. 1. .is satisfactory (STCHERBATSKY 1936.
Emptiness is ¯ animitta because it is the cessation of signs (tan-nirodha ). LAMOTTE also discusses the important categories of sattva´ su ¯nyat¯ a or pudgalanair¯ atmya and dharma´ su ¯nyat¯ a or dharmanair¯ atmya. . tasm¯ . 17).asti in line a. . meaning (artha ) of the synonyms.for . // Suchness. . Here. In k¯ arik¯ a 15. / hetutv¯ ac c¯ aryadharmm¯ an ¯m ay¯ artho yath¯ akramam // . the signless. of the ’wisdom of the noble ones. klis . and d. k¯ arik¯ a 2. pary¯ This leads us to the following understanding of emptiness: Emptiness is tathat¯ a because it is not otherwise (ananyath¯ a ). = ku´ the beneﬁt of beings (satvahit¯ aya ). which I cannot venture into here. the dharmadh¯ atu : These in brief are the synonyms of emptiness. it is noteworthy that a verb for ‘exist’ occurs in each line .¯ . and can mean ‘be known’.2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy 230 インド学チベット学研究 11 synonyms (pary¯ aya ). (10) Vidyate is from the root vid. The section ends by giving the ‘summarized meaning’ (pin artha ) of emptiness. . Emptiness is param¯ artha because it is the resort of the noble ones (a ¯ryagocara : or according to Vasubandhu. i´ . One of the best treatments of the lists of emptiness that I know of is LAMOTTE 1976: 1995-2151. There are sixteen types of emptiness (v. however.although the unraveling of the ontological and the epistemological is one of the constant challenges of texts in the Yog¯ ac¯ ara lineage. Emptiness appears to be a state or an existent rather than a relationship. ). Maitreya conceives of false ideation and emptiness in terms of existence and nonexistence. 16). vidh¯ sattv¯ a-asattv¯ at sattv¯ ac ca madhyam¯ a pratipac ca s¯ a // That is. ¯ arya-j˜ na ¯na. Emptiness is bh¯ utakot i because it is not distorted ( avipary¯ a sa ). the paramount meaning. n¯ . . its association with the opening asti and the following sattva suggest that it has an ontological rather than a epistemological application . Maitreya gives the synonyms (pary¯ aya ) of emptiness: tathat¯ a bh¯ utakot s c¯ animittam arthat¯ a/ . param¯ dharmadh¯ atu´ s ca pary¯ ay¯ ah ´ s u ¯ nyat¯ a y¯ a h sam¯ asatah . In the following k¯ arik¯ a he gives the meaning of the synonyms (pary¯ ay¯ artha ): ananyath¯ a ’vipary¯ asa-tan-nirodh¯ aryagocaraih .. categories (prabheda ) and the s¯ adhana of ´ su ¯nyat¯ a.d . since it is the parama-j˜ na ¯na-vis aya ). . the limit of reality. c.(9) The aim of realizing emptiness is to obtain the two goodnesses (´ subham sala ) . (9) For an early study see OBERMILLER 1933.¯ In Chapter 1.(10) K¯ arik¯ a 3 uses the noun sattva and its negative asattva in the sense of existence: abh¯ utaparikalpo ’sti dvayan tatra na vidyate / ´ su ¯nyat¯ a vidyate tv atra tasy¯ am api sa vidyate // na ´ su ¯nyam api c¯ a´ su ¯nyam at sarvam ıyate // . and vidyate in lines b (with a negative).the constructed and the unconstructed . according to whether emptiness has impurities (samal¯ a ) or is free of impurities (nirmal¯ a) (v.a . The categories (prabheda ) are deﬁled (sam ta ¯ ) or pure (vi´ suddh¯ a ). Emptiness is dharmadh¯ atu because it is the source of the dharmas of the noble ones (hetutv¯ ac c¯ aryadharmm¯ an am . in the sense of ¯ alambate. ‘Les dix-huit vacuit´ es’. .
p¯ . asam . All things are empty of svabh¯ ava : emptiness is a term. ayam . gr¯ ahya-gr¯ ahaka ]. It is suchness. na ´ . etc. . this is the middle way. nirv¯ . Because of the fact of existence [of false ideation]. that the basic mechanism of the three laksana or svabh¯ ava of Yog¯ ac¯ ara thought. the unconstructed. which state that ‘This totality is neither empty nor non-empty’: yat sarvvam antena ´ su ¯nyam anten¯ a´ su ¯nyam a. Unlike N¯ ag¯ arjuna. tam . / evam . not a Ding an sich. for interactions or interrelations of phenomena. the paramount meaning. of non-existence [of duality of perceptibles and perceiver. naik¯ . Emptiness is not an entity. This. naik¯ . the dharmadh¯ atu. accords with the Praj˜ na ¯p¯ aramit¯ a and other texts. the unceasing. Sthiramati adds further synonyms from the ‘word of the Buddha’ (pravacana ): advayat¯ a avikalpadh¯ atuh a anabhil¯ apyat¯ a anirodhah an ¯di.(11) N¯ ag¯ arjuna also identiﬁes the middle practice with emptiness: they are one in meaning (ek¯ artha ). the sphere of non-mentation. . he asserts. even in its denial of ontology. ) [both conditioned and unconditioned] are explained to be neither empty nor non-empty. a. . thah . The former emphasizes contingency. The emptiness of Maitreya seems to me to be more substantial. however. It is a modality of relationship rather than a mode of being. It exists in (or is perceived in) the false imagination (´ su ¯nyat¯ a vidyate tv atra ). . especially paratantra and parikalpita. nirv¯ an . IV sarvam idam su ¯nyam api c¯ a´ su ¯nyam / . . The source of the terms in the pravacana is not given. and of existence [of emptiness in false ideation and false ideation in emptiness]. GARA’S 231 Commenting on k¯ arik¯ a 15. true nature. the inexpressible. more ontological.a Non-duality. Vasubandhu explains that it is the middle way because it is neither exclusively empty nor exclusively non-empty. Maitreya does not explicitly identify emptiness with dependent arising. n¯ Praj˜ na ¯p¯ aramit¯ a I do not see much in common between N¯ ag¯ arjuna’s emptiness and that of Maitreya. skr . is dependence and conditionality. n¯ iti / (11) It is true. na ´ . Praj˜ na ¯p¯ aramit¯ adis su ¯nyam api c¯ a´ su ¯nyam’ . Some of the terms are more easily found in Mah¯ ay¯ ana s¯ utra s. Emptiness is a remedy for all views. dharmat¯ . a convention. the limit of reality. v anulomito bhavati ‘sarvam idam .2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy ´U ¯ ¯ NYAT ˜ ¯ SUTRA ¯ MR MOTHER’S MANSION: EMPTINESS AND THE S A S . conditionality. an intellectual approach . a tool for understanding reality. Maitreya’s deﬁnition of the middle way is diﬀerent: For this reason all things (sarvam .and an insight derived from reﬂection and meditation that leads to liberation. but others are shared vocabulary. the signless.
in the M¯ ulasarv¯ astiv¯ adin Mahas¯ utra collection preserved in Tibetan.1. prat¯ ıtyasamutp¯ ad¯ anulomat¯ a ayam ucyate prat¯ ıtyasamutp¯ adah . to search for sources that might have inspired N¯ ag¯ arjuna’s or Maitreya’s thought. Also important for the study of emptiness is Majjhimanik¯ aya 151. we note that several of the synonyms of emptiness given by Maitreya are often used in connection with (12) dependent arising.(15) The two middle-length s¯ utra s cited at the beginning of this essay bear the term ‘emptiness’ in their titles: Lesser Emptiness S¯ utra and Greater Emptiness S¯ utra. H¯ I 1962: §14. there was a tendency to reify such terms into solid abstractions. LAMOTTE’s translations of the Da zhidu lun and other works trace sources meticulously. sk¯ Nid¯ anasam .¯ (13) (14) ¯ . sam ar¯ a y¯ avat samudayo bhavati / .4 ¯ It is natural that modern scholars should turn to the Agamas and the Nik¯ aya s. for example in the Nid¯ anasam . CHOONG MUN-KEAT 2004: 5-9).existence and non-existence. as well as in the Vy¯ akhy¯ ayukti-t ık¯ a and Siks asamuccaya. which might be described as contingent existence-cumnon-existence. Can Maitreya’s formulation. (16) For bibliographical details see SKILLING 1997. the compilations of the ‘word of the Buddha’ (buddhavacana ). ap¯ . For some of the interpretations of the formula in the Vibh¯ a. H¯ TRIPAT I 1962: §14. Da´ sottara. But the terms are diﬃcult and multivalent. s¯ a compendia. the two s¯ utra s are always paired: in the Sarv¯ astiv¯ adin Madhyam¯ agama preserved in Chinese. into ‘absolutes’ and ‘essences’.d . Table 25. in the P¯ ali Majjhimanik¯ aya of the Mahavih¯ arav¯ asins. and in the Nges don mdo compiled in Tibet. see FUKUDA 2003: 268-271.(16) (12) TRIPAT ´alistamba ¯ . In extant collections.but it is not non-emptiness. katam¯ .(14) V mah¯ a´ su ¯nyat¯ adharmapary¯ ay¯ ah ah asmin sat¯ ıdam . yukta 15. especially since. yukta. ? yad ut¯ . and they require a thorough study. bhavaty asyotp¯ describes dependent or conditioned arising. . For related strings of terms in the M¯ ay¯ aj¯ ala. we may propose that there is a relation between ´ prat¯ ıtyasamutp¯ ada. Prat¯ ıtya. Pin atap¯ arisuddhi-sutta. and its Chinese parallel (tr.6. yukta from Central Asia: y¯ atra dharmat¯ a dharmasthitit¯ a dharmaniy¯ amat¯ a dharmayath¯ atath¯ a avitathat¯ a ananyath¯ a bh¯ utam satyat¯ a tattvat¯ a y¯ a th¯ a tath¯ a avipar¯ ıtat¯ a aviparyastat¯ a idam pratyayat¯ a . What is its relation to dependent arising? Even though no explicit relation is drawn. The s¯ utra formula .2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy 232 インド学チベット学研究 11 Maitreya’s middle path. . is not emptiness . and S¯ ´ . bhavaty asyotp¯ ad¯ ad idam utpadyate / yad ut¯ avidy¯ apratyay¯ ah . then. be ﬁtted to the general s¯ utra statement of the principle of dependent arising: asmin sat¯ ıdam ad¯ ad idam utpadyate ?(13) I do not think so. . while Maitreya’s formula describes dependent or contingent . (15) GOMEZ 1976 is one of the classic studies. see SKILLING 1997. in the scholarship of the last century. . If we propose that these terms are used by Maitreya with the same sense that they are used in the Nid¯ anasam su ¯nyat¯ a and . A number of studies on this subject have been made.¯ S¯ utras.and simultaneous .
I frequently dwell in emptiness’ (§1.it is exactly like that. . pays homage. Emerging from solitary meditation in the evening. Here I summarize or translate the ‘M¯ ulasarv¯ astiv¯ adin’ Mah¯ as¯ utra version preserved in Tibetan. ‘I. In the sense that the Buddha refers to his own experience in the ﬁrst person. He then relates that once. ‘Ananda.hermeneu- tical traditions at a given time.these understandings have evolved over time. The sole exception is the reference in Bhavya’s Tarkajv¯ al¯ a. The s¯ utra s seem to be unfamiliar terrain: no connections are drawn between emptiness and dependent arising or the middle path in either s¯ utra. this portion of the dialogue may be described as autobiographical. What is the relation between the two s¯ utras and later formulations of emptiness? Is there a rupture between emptiness as revealed in the two s¯ utra s and the thought of N¯ ag¯ arjuna or Maitreya? Are early conceptions of emptiness more complex than modern scholarship has allowed? Do received ideas about emptiness .the community of modern scholars . their message does not leap oﬀ the page. one of the chief supporters of the Buddha: for P¯ ali accounts. and NYANAPONIKA and HECKER 1997: 247-255. which often diﬀers in phrasing from the familiar P¯ ali Majjhima-nik¯ aya version. (19) Mrg¯ sa ¯kh¯ a. as far as I know neither s¯ utra is treated as a signiﬁcant source in Madhyamaka writings . Mah¯ as¯ utra 3. aka traditions? Do we not risk imposing (sam¯ aropa ) received views and later interpretations? Do we not risk ﬁnding the emptiness we expect.whether as a result of the dynamics of internal evolution or of dialogue with others .inhibit the understanding of earlier texts? VI ´unyat¯ The Lesser S¯ a S¯ utra (18) ´ avast¯ The Lesser Emptiness S¯ utra is delivered in the Eastern Pleasance at Sr¯ ı. see .(17) In contrast. Furthermore. (17) . but the reference concerns textual transmission rather than the hermeneutics of emptiness. and emptiness is not the only subject discussed in the Greater Emptiness S¯ utra. (18) NAGAO (1978) and WOOD (1991) have examined the relations between the Lesser Emptiness S¯ utra and the Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga. you have comprehended it correctly and not ¯ otherwise .approach the emptiness of the Pit . it is so: you heard what I said correctly. he goes to the Buddha. in a building donated to the sam gha by Mr g¯ a ra’s Mother and hence known as ‘Mr g¯ a ra’s Mother’s Man. and not seeing other emptinesses? How can we retrieve the meaning of emptiness in the two Emptiness S¯ utra s? If we approach them with Madhyamaka thought in mind. FALK 1990. and sits to one side.(19) Ananda initiates the discourse.2-7). ara’s mother is Vi´ MALALASEKERA  1983 II 900-904. ¯ S¯ dwell regularly in ¯ ¯ emptiness’. the Blessed One had said. you apprehended it correctly. I have yet to see any explicit reference or even indirect allusion to the either s¯ utra in Madhyamaka writings. in the ´akyan market town of Nagaraka. Why is this? Ananda. at that time and at present. GARA’S 233 If emptiness was understood diﬀerently by diﬀerent . ¯ sion’. .and often competing . by section number. you have recalled it correctly.2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy ´U ¯ ¯ NYAT ˜ ¯ SUTRA ¯ MR MOTHER’S MANSION: EMPTINESS AND THE S A S . the Lesser Emptiness looms large in the Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga and in Yog¯ ac¯ ara and Tath¯ agatagarbha thought. and the Blessed One replies. how should we .in fact.as developed in later Madhyamaka and Yog¯ ac¯ ara writings and in modern manuals . References are to SKILLING 1994. and if . you have born it in mind correctly. Ananda asks if his memory is correct. Ananda.
It is this refrain that is taken up by a number of ´ sa ¯strak¯ ara in the Yog¯ ac¯ ara lineage. The wording of the Bodhisattvabh¯ umi version. and pigs. and elements of any permanent. Samyaksambuddhas of the future (§10. g¯ Mansion is empty of elephants. It is empty of man-servants and maid-servants. it presents original rather than stock material. bhavati tat sad ih¯ . sense-bases. . that results from ¯ the destruction of the a ¯srava ’. praj¯ ´ su ¯nyat¯ avakr¯ antir yath¯ abh¯ ut¯ a avipar¯ ıt¯ a. a recognition of the absence or presence of states within the ﬁeld of awareness of the practitioner. This emptiness is a relational emptiness. horses.1). that it will be realized by the Tath¯ agatas. in accordance with reality. arhat.1). unchanging self or anything belonging to self. In this manner. money..2-3): ¯ In this way. The Ten-Powered One concludes the Lesser Emptiness S¯ utra by stating that ‘this entry into emptiness has been realized by the Tath¯ agatas. This is the emptiness. But with regard to one thing there is non-emptiness. that whatever remains there is ¯ there. iyam ucyate . Ananda.. is absent. (20) Pradhan 1950: 40. one sees accurately that that place is empty of whatever is absent there. and elements]. Ananda. with whatever troubles it may entail. roosters. yad yatra n¯ . cows. and that it is realized by myself. The passage is missing in the Sanskrit manuscript. should you train. of boys and girls. and one further knows. What is it that is present? It is the fact of non-self (nair¯ atmya ) in the same [aggregates. This entry into emptiness. speciﬁc to the s¯ utra : that is. Ananda. Samyaksambuddha’ ¯ (§10. is in accordance with reality and unmistaken.10 foll. sheep. . which strikes me as rather ﬂawed: Peking edition.2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy 234 インド学チベット学研究 11 The Buddha opens the discussion of emptiness with an example: Mr ara’s Mother’s . is very close to that of the Mah¯ as¯ utra : evam asti tat tena ´ su ¯nyam iti yath¯ abh¯ utam syati yat punar . 112. arhats. In his Abhidharmasamuccaya Asanga ˙ uses the formula in his characterization of emptiness. grain. No. li. It deals with emptiness throughout. Then comes what will be a refrain throughout the s¯ utra (§2. Samyaksambuddhas of the past (§10. He explains the formula as follows:(20) What is not-present there? It is the absence in the aggregates. of men and women. A. sense-bases. that is. with whatever troubles it may entail. 5550. An interesting feature of the Lesser Emptiness S¯ utra is that its contents are for the most part unique. samanupa´ atr¯ ava´ sis tam ast¯ ı ti yath¯ abh¯ utam an¯ at¯ ı ti.4): ’I will dwell having attained and realized with my body this same ultimate entry into emptiness: the liberation that is free of a ¯srava and is uncompounded. Rahula 1971: 64. stable. It is empty of wealth. the liberation of the mind from the a ¯srava.3). so I follow the Tibetan translation rather than Pradhan’s Sanskrit restoration. enduring.2). Vol. but B. remains. arhats. the present Tath¯ agata. for example. He then exhorts Ananda to train as follows (§10. the community of monks alone (§2. of workers and dependents. sems tsam. It is a sequence of meditations that lead progressively to the realization of ultimate emptiness. 90b1 foll. and gold. Otani Reprint Cat.
he also realizes the nevasa˜ nn ˜¯ an¯ asa˜ nn ˜¯ ayatana. he goes to the vih¯ ara of the S¯ ´ *K¯ alaks ara of another S¯ akyan.it is the most extensive treatment of the ¯ topic in the available Agama s or the four Nik¯ aya s. a topic also important to the Greater Emptiness S¯ utra ). (23) The names of the two S¯ ´ akyans occur only in this s¯ utra. a realization of a relational emptiness through manipulation of the perceptual ﬁeld. as a counterpart to the P¯ .3 and n. of endless consciousness. of which no Sanskrit fragments remain. The P¯ ali version reads here ‘in accordance with reality.the practitioner attains the bases of endless space.freedom from the ¯ asrava .(23) The Buddha addresses his discourse to (21) (22) In the P¯ ali (§VII). it opens in an unusual setting with an unusual narrative. in P¯ ali here animitta-cetosam¯ adhi ). he describes the entry as ‘in accordance with reality and unmistaken’. The Blessed One is staying at the Nyagrodha Pleasance at Kapilavastu. which emphasizes the cultivation and psychology of meditation. and param¯ anuttar¯ a in the P¯ ali. GARA’S 235 The formulation of emptiness presented in the Lesser Emptiness S¯ utra is not a minor or aberrant variation on the theme of emptiness . I summarize or translate the Tibetan Mah¯ as¯ utra version rather than the more familiar P¯ ali version. by section. As in the preceding section. this entry into emptiness is . If the s¯ utra deals with meditation and realization. the Tibetan translation has ‘S¯ ala (dus ) + ks . The ﬁnal realization of emptiness .akhemaka’ (with the variant ‘K¯ in the P¯ ali Text Society edition: see SKILLING 1994.2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy ´U ¯ ¯ NYAT ˜ ¯ SUTRA ¯ MR MOTHER’S MANSION: EMPTINESS AND THE S A S . and completely pure’ (yath¯ abhucc¯ a avipallatth¯ a parisuddh¯ a ).3-4. I have been unable to come . drawn in terms of a series of reﬂections which are to be taken metaphorically? Is it a blueprint for an ordered intellectual or spiritual exercise? Or is it a series of meditations. VII ´unyat¯ The Greater S¯ a S¯ utra (22) The Greater Emptiness S¯ utra is much longer than the Lesser Emptiness. and of nothingness. lTag pa ri. that leads to liberation? The last must be the case since in the s¯ utra the monk .(21) Furthermore. Nonetheless. and the realization leads directly to vimukti (§9. In the evening he goes to the vih¯ many monks have gathered to make robes. realizing their emptiness. unmistaken. For the ´akya dus bde’ for which one can propose k¯ ﬁrst. After gathering ´akyan alms-food in Kapilavastu (here stock formulas are used).realized by the Buddhas of the three times What is the message of the Lesser Emptiness S¯ utra ? Is it an ontological statement.the s¯ utra has been enormously important to the development of Buddhist thought. Mah¯ as¯ utra 4. p. 1). the answer is yes . the practice involves attention to the realm without mental signs (animitta-dh¯ atu : §8. ema (bde ) = *K¯ alaks ali ‘K¯ al ala-’ recorded in a footnote . where . The Blessed One himself lauds this ‘entry into emptiness’ (´ su ¯nyat¯ avat¯ ara ) in the highest terms. Furthermore. emaka. and unlike the latter it shares a number of stock passages with other s¯ utra s. which sets the occasion for a distinctive progression of thought.is described as anuttar¯ a in the Mah¯ as¯ utra. 191. emaka. In the Mah¯ as¯ utra refrain.in the hyperbolic phraseology of legitimation . References are to SKILLING 1994. does it have any ontological or philosophical consequences? For the Yog¯ ac¯ arin tradition. §1.
the Greater Emptiness is a s¯ utra on training the mind. I dwell realizing with the body outward emptiness (*sarva´ so r¯ upasam na ¯m . according to the concluding verse udd¯ ana (§19).and diﬃcult . kings. laywomen. laymen. according to the P¯ ali). which.¯ . Ananda should settle the mind inwardly alone. that monk. .3). to his relations with ‘monks. j˜ .2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy 236 インド学チベット学研究 11 (24) ¯ Ananda. this is my abiding: going fully beyond all perceptions of matter. attena v¯ loko ti vuccati (Sam aya IV 54). and laywomen’ . despite its title. and the maintenance of mindfulness and awareness (§§7-8. settle it closely. ti-sam . royal ministers. This I understand and . Ananda. calm it. Tables 33 and 34. is a precondition for the attainment of the happiness of the noble ones (a ¯ryasukha ) and for the attainment of either temporary or enduring liberation of the mind (cetovimukti ). nuns. In an earlier study I concluded that. Like the Lesser Emptiness. which is central to the discourse. This sets the stage for the taming of the mind and the realization of emptiness (§§3-6). (26) (27) For the structure of the s¯ utra see SKILLING 1994. smr .(25) The Greater Emptiness S¯ utra is a complex . It is more pertinent to say that the relationship between the Buddha and his disciples brackets the theme of the practice of emptiness.5 for the Tibetan. according to the Tibetan) or simply awareness (sampaja˜ nn ˜a. make it one-pointed. ˙ The P¯ ali has four verbs. like the Lesser Emptiness. samatikramya bahirdh¯ a´ su ¯nyat¯ am ayena s¯ aks ıkr a upasampadya vihar¯ ami ). the Buddha describes his own experience: ¯ This being so. other teachers and auditors of other teachers’. settle it wholly.1-2).in this sense. In §§4 to 6 the Blessed One gives instructions on how to realize emptiness through the practice of dhy¯ ana : ¯ This being so. withdrawal from the chatter of society. for which the P¯ ali counterpart is the unusual name Ghat ¯ya.nineteen. . Ananda. mentions ‘monks.(27) up with a plausible Sanskrit equivalent for ‘lTag pa ri’. It also deals with proper comportment and etiquette. to his own practice. prajanya. may I dwell having attained and realized ¯ outer emptiness with the body’. The P¯ ali (§III. thoroughly calm it. the s¯ utra as a whole is not about emptiness. This variation of voice between Sarv¯ astiv¯ adin and Mah¯ avih¯ arin recensions occurs in other s¯ utra s. as far as I know.document. tame it. laymen. and that the relationship between the Buddha and his disciples is the main theme of the text (Skilling 1997: 394-395). su˜ nn ˜am a attaniyena v¯ a tasm¯ a su˜ nn ˜o . In §3. . it is autobiographical. See SKILLING 1997: 370-373. nuns. and concentrate it (§4. if a monk wishes. settle it completely. and it elaborates on a number of themes .(26) The ﬁrst theme is that seclusion.a (24) It is curious that some of the important statements on emptiness are addressed to Ananda: ¯ the two Emptiness s¯ utra s. tv¯ comprehend. have no special technical status in the Mah¯ avih¯ ara tradition. and uses Tath¯ agata rather than the ﬁrst person. yuttanik¯ (25) See §3. yasm¯ at ca kho ¯ ananda. It is noteworthy that at the beginning the Buddha refers to himself in the ﬁrst person. k¯ . The nine verbs represent the ‘nine stages of mental concentration’. ‘O. and. however. and each of the verbs is given a speciﬁc technical sense in the literature of the M¯ ulasarv¯ astiv¯ adins and Yog¯ ac¯ arins (the works attributed to Asanga). for example. and needs further investigation.
s¯ a see LAMOTTE 1976: 2013. by the Greater Emptiness S¯ utra itself (cf. a ) or person (pudgala ). or inward emptiness’ that is substantially diﬀerent from an ‘outer.v. *skandha ). penult. external.2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy ´U ¯ ¯ NYAT ˜ ¯ SUTRA ¯ MR MOTHER’S MANSION: EMPTINESS AND THE S A S . ˙ na’ir ˙ ’dzin pa dan. or outward emptiness’ or an ‘inner-outer emptiness’. ˙ srog dan.the realization of emptiness . In the Greater Emptiness S¯ utra. whether scholastic or popular.. . In any case. For the Sanskrit of nar ˙ ’dzin pa. ji skad du rnam pa thams cad du gzugs kyi ’du ´ ses rnams las yan ˙ dag par ’das pas phyi ston ˙ pa n ˜id lus kyis mnon ˙ sum du byas nas bsgrubs te gnas par bya’o ´ zes rgya cher gsuns ˙ pa lta bu’o. de’i ’du ´ ses las byun ˙ ba’i ’dod chags spans ˙ pa’i phyir te.avijj¯ sankh¯ ˙ ar¯ a .(31) I do not think either of the two Emptiness S¯ utra s deals with emptiness in the manner commonly understood in modern thought. and empty of delusion. GARA’S 237 After this he should attain inner emptiness. §12. nar ˙ ’dzin pa dan. to a state which is empty of desire. creature (pos It deﬁnes ‘inward empti. a. Mah¯ amakut . (32) (29) Pali Text Society edition IV 156. used adverbally. (31) For the Vibh¯ a. whether according ´ avaka or to Mah¯ ´unyat¯ to Sr¯ ay¯ ana schools. In both the Lesser and Greater S¯ a. k¯ mamam ar¯ asmim¯ an¯ abhinive´ s¯ anu´ saya. ˙ gan ˙ zag n ˜id med pa las brtsams nas sems kyi gnas pa rtse gcig pa gan ˙ yin pa’o. sa ¯. empty of aversion. ness’ as ‘the individual is empty of egotism. the a ¯srava. VIII ubho ante anupagamma majjhena tath¯ agato dhammam apaccay¯ a . deseti . internal. and outer-inner’ are. then outer-inner emptiness. a edition I 127. ˙ gso ba dan. aham ara. Sanskrit-W¨ orterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden (G¨ ottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht): 211a. see e. 162a8 nan ˙ ston ˙ pa n ˜id ni ’di lta ste. the section on emptiness concerns practice . the designations ‘outer’. k¯ (30) 162b1 phyi ston ˙ pa n ˜id ni ’di lta ste. soul (j¯ ıva ). the three ways of viewing emptiness were soon reiﬁed as the compounds adhy¯ atma´ su ¯nyat¯ a. ’dod pa’i ’dod chags kyis ston ˙ pa ste. k¯ the ﬁve modes of sense-pleasure are empty (or free) of sensual attachment (k¯ amar¯ aga ). or those listed in the Praj˜ na ¯p¯ aramit¯ a and the Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga. and adhy¯ atmabahirdh¯ a-´ su ¯nyat¯ a. ˙ na’o ˙ s˜ nam pa’i na ˙ rgyal mnon ˙ par ´ zen pa rnams kyis lus ston ˙ pa’o. etc. I believe. .. The Sam¯ ahitabh¯ umi gives a general deﬁnition of ‘concentration on emptiness’ (´ su ¯nyat¯ asam¯ adhi ) as one-pointed abiding of mind with reference to (a ¯rabhya ) absence of a sentient (28) being (sattva ). antepenult.(29) ‘Outward emptiness’ means that .rather than emptiness as a philosophical or ontological doctrine . I take lus here to mean ¯ atmabh¯ ava. bahirdh¯ a-´ su ¯nyat¯ a. de phyi ston ˙ pa n ˜id ces bya’o. and attachment to the conceit “I am”’ (aham ara-mamak¯ ara-asmim¯ an¯ abhinive´ sa ). and I do not think that the text originally proposed to set up types or categories of emptiness: an ‘inner.. possessiveness. which stand at the head of later lists of emptinesses. §11. For the Praj˜ n¯ ap¯ aramit¯ a see LAMOTTE’s thorough compilation of sources at ibid. evam etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hot¯ ı ti / (28) 162a5 ston ˙ pa n ˜id kyi tin ˙ ne ˙ ’dzin gan ˙ ´ ze na.(30) These deﬁnitions may have been inspired. such as the ten emptinesses listed in the Vibh¯ a. ipatti ). 2027 foll.and indeed the Papa˜ ncas¯ udan¯ ı refers to ‘the practice (32) of the Great Emptiness’ (mah¯ asu˜ nn ˜at¯ a-pat The practice leads to freedom from . ‘inner’. *k¯ amagun . sems can dan. ’dod pa’i yon tan lna ˙ po rnams.g. s. gzugs kyi ’du ´ ses ni ’dir ’dod pa’i yon tan gyi ’du ´ ses la bya ste. at least in part.
Mah¯ as¯ utra 2.for example Candrak¯ ırti in his Prasannapad¯ a . this equation becomes prominent. ˙ de ni ston ˙ pa n ˜id du b´ sad. after all. (37) For these s¯ ¯ utras see LAMOTTE 1976: 2135-2137.2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy 238 インド学チベット学研究 11 Kacc¯ anagotta-sutta (33) I have noted above that the identiﬁcation of emptiness with dependent arising is central to the thought of N¯ ag¯ arjuna. therefore there is no such thing as a dharma which is not empty. of course. two short s¯ utra s unique to the Sarv¯ astiv¯ ada transmission. and it may have been the Sarv¯ astiv¯ adins who ﬁrst took the step. . 20. an old idea that prat¯ ıtyasamutp¯ ada is in particular the province of the Pratyekabuddha persisted in the scholastic literature. that we declare to be emptiness. chos ’ga’ yod pa ma yin pa de phyir ston ˙ pa ma yin pa’i.cite a (33) (34) Sam aya II 17. (36) For the Bimbis¯ arapratyudgamana-mah¯ as¯ utra see SKILLING 1994. ka´ That which is conditioned arising. Because there is no such thing as a dharma that is not dependently arisen. as ‘the middle path. in which each anga ˙ and its cessation is understood to be non-dual.(35) But does the equation predate N¯ ag¯ arjuna? What is the relation between dependent arising and emptiness? The two are not explicitly identiﬁed in the P¯ ali canon. Emptiness is a relational designation. bh¯ . as for (38) example in the K¯ aty¯ ayana-s¯ utra and other s¯ utra s in the Nid¯ ana-sam .14. The Vibh¯ a. For the Pratyekabuddha see KLOPPENBORG 1974 and NORMAN 1983. which describes a particular interpretation of prat¯ ıtyasamutp¯ ada. canonical. . s¯ a compendia show that within the Sarv¯ astiv¯ ada and among other schools there were many interpretations of dependent arising: see COX 2000. from the time of N¯ ag¯ arjuna on. a natural outcome of the concepts of non-self and dependent arising. chos ’ga’ yod pa ma yin no. prat¯ . yuttanik¯ rten cin ˙ ’brel par ’byun ˙ ba gan.6. de n ˜id dbu ma’i lam yin no. (24:18-19)(34) . or at least codiﬁed or canonized the concept. H¯ TRIPAT I 1962 §§19. which are already linked in such texts as the Bimbis¯ arapratyudgamana-mah¯ as¯ utra and its many parallels..a . while the equations of emptiness and dependent arising as essential understandings for a bodhisattva on the path to unsurpassed perfect awakening (anuttara-samyak-sambodhi ) became dominant paradigms in s¯ utra and ´ s¯ astra.(37) The idea is taken up in Bodhisattva s¯ utra s.8. 18. For terminological evolution in the Agama tradition see BABA 2004.¯ The identiﬁcation of the middle path with dependent arising is. who declares in his M¯ ulamadhyamaka-k¯ arik¯ a: yah ıtyasamutp¯ adah su ¯nyat¯ am am pracaks . and SKILLING 1997: 267333. gan ˙ phyir rten ’byun ˙ ma yin pa’i. . ´ . ka´ yasm¯ at tasm¯ ad a´ su ¯nyo hi dharmah scin na vidyate. for example the K¯ a´ syapa-parivarta. (35) It is interesting that. Later M¯ adhyamika masters . de ni brten nas gdags pa ste. (38) ¯ . colophon to §V) and the Param¯ artha´ su ¯nyat¯ a-s¯ utra.(36) This identiﬁcation becomes explicit in the Mah¯ a´ su ¯nyat¯ a-n¯ ama-dharmapary¯ aya (above. 7b. yukta.5b. the true understanding of phenomena’ (madhyam¯ a pratipad dharm¯ an ¯m utapratyaveks a ). mahe s¯ a praj˜ naptir up¯ ad¯ aya pratipat saiva madhyam¯ a aprat¯ ıtyasamutpanno dharmah scin na vidyate . and it is precisely the middle way. which is. 15. t¯ . Certainly.
by Bhavya in his Madhyamakahr dayavr tti-tarkajv¯ a l¯ a . Reat 1993: 70). yutta-nik¯ . functionally it is a commentary on prat¯ ıtyasamutp¯ ada rich in embedded citations of ¯ Buddhavacana. ye ’svabh¯ av¯ an na vidyante na tes a ¯ m sam . (39) (40) It is regrettable that REAT’s analysis of the s¯ utra is unsatisfactory. yutt¯ The suttantas spoken by the Tath¯ agata on the subject of emptiness are described as profound. LAMOTTE 1976: 2004 with reference to Sam aya II 267. profound in meaning.(39) The radical departure from the Agama-Nik¯ aya tradition in this and other Bodhisattva s¯ utra s is the description of prat¯ ıtyasamutp¯ ada as. . unmade. It is cited by title by Vasubandhu in his Abhidharmako´ sabh¯ a. It is cited or referred to by title in the commentaries on the Abhidhar´ mako´ sa by Samathadeva.2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy ´U ¯ ¯ NYAT ˜ ¯ SUTRA ¯ MR MOTHER’S MANSION: EMPTINESS AND THE S A S . portions of the refrain are incorporated into important texts of the Yog¯ ac¯ ara and Tath¯ agatagarbha streams of thought. . as far as I know.¯ . and in the S¯ a rasamuccaya-n¯ a ma-abhidharm¯ avat¯ ara. The ´ariputra to Bodhisattva Maitreya. This new vision of prat¯ ıtyasamutp¯ ada is expressed in Bodhisattva s¯ utra s like the S¯ agaramatiparipr a . . ‘unborn. The Lesser Emptiness is cited by Vasubandhu in his Vy¯ akhy¯ ayukti. together . Sections are paraphrased by Asa nga ˙ in several of his works. This certainly applies to the two Emptiness s¯ utra s. and transcendental. . j˜ . Neither is easy to understand. about a s¯ utra opens with a question put by the Elder S¯ statement reported to have been made by the Blessed One (Reat 1993: 27): yo bhiks ıtyasamutp¯ adam syati sa dharmam syati yo dharmam syati sa . avardhana. . prat¯ . pa´ . u varttate. Ya´ somitra. avah . . kvacit j¯ an¯ ıte ya im¯ am kot ¯ ım akot ¯ ım jagatas sam¯ a m . tti on Abhidharmad¯ ıpa. bhavah . inter alia. uncompounded’ (aj¯ atam abh¯ utam akr . cch¯ (Jacq Hergoual’ch 1992: 228-229) ye prat¯ ıtyasamutpann¯ a na te kecit svabh¯ avatah . The Greater Emptiness is cited (without title) in the Sam¯ ahitabh¯ umi of the Yog¯ ac¯ arabh¯ umi and by Vasubandhu in his Vy¯ akhy¯ ayukti. GARA’S 239 ´alistamba-s¯ passage from the S¯ utra to demonstrate the centrality of dependent arising. sya and by the anonymous author of the Vibh¯ a. s¯ aprabh¯ avr . and I suspect that further references to or citations of the s¯ utra s wait to be found. V 407. The philosophical literature of the (M¯ ula)Sarv¯ astiv¯ adins preserved in Tibetan and Chinese is vast. tam. Furthermore. pa´ ´alistamba is a challenging The remainder of the s¯ utra is taken up by Maitreya’s answer. The S¯ s¯ utra . tam asam . gatam . . pa´ buddham syati. The Emptiness s¯ utra s are both cited in important works of North Indian philosophy (never. sarvvadharmmes . skr . pa´ . as noted . above. IX suttant¯ a tath¯ agatabh¯ asit¯ a gambh¯ ır¯ a gambh¯ ıratth¯ a lokuttar¯ a su˜ nn ˜at¯ apat a / (40) . III 107. Anguttaranik¯ ˙ aya I 72. t ¯ ık¯ a . tasya kot ım na ¯nam . and Sthiramati. . unbecome. P¯ urn . . isam . they are put to diﬀerent purposes).that is.
kr¯ (43) (44) See for example CONZE 1951 and 1962. and it appears to have had several referents from the start. the Lesser Emptiness was fundamental to the development of the concept of emptiness in Yog¯ ac¯ ara and Tath¯ agatagarbha thought. . or ideas to speciﬁc ‘earlier’ or ‘primary’ sources is a necessary exercise. Phuntsho (2005: 5) notes that ‘Emptiness.assertions that are valid. as is seen in the two Emptiness S¯ utra s. This passage took on a life of its own . but through incorporation or appropriation . All schools. subjected to a rich hermeneutic enterprise. translated. ’Emptiness’ has clearly meant very diﬀerent things to diﬀerent schools of thought. ritual. Asanga ˙ as the ‘founder’ of Yog¯ ac¯ ara . To trace phrases.(42) Given that very few Mah¯ ay¯ ana s¯ utra s . if at all. similes. ¯ . any appositions or oppositions of interpretations of emptiness? Available histories of Buddhist thought tend to compartmentalize. One chapter will deal with the evolution of Madhyamaka. ar¯ ´ like the S¯ uram adhi and Suvarn asa. Furthermore. but we should not forget that the compartments are didactic or taxonomic conventions. WILLIAMS 2000. from text ‘a’ to text ‘b’ is an oversimpliﬁcation.needs further research. amukha.or re-contextualization . Instead of designating an invariant unitary concept.’ The term seems to have been introduced to the vocabulary of Indian thought by the Buddha himself. To assume a straightforward linear passage (sam anti ). similes. channetam anam ayatan¯ anam . ajjhattik¯ . or of Aryadeva or Asanga? ˙ Can we discern any dialogue. ar¯ The six internal sense bases are like an empty village: for the P¯ ali see su˜ nn ˜o g¯ amo ti kho bhikkhave. but it is also present in the Saddharmapun ıka. The evolution of the term ´ su ¯nyat¯ a . The compartmentalization may be suitable for textbooks. but we must be aware that the phrases. images. came to mean diﬀerent things in diﬀerent schools. images. Various interpretations of emptiness. . How are the terms used in Bodhisattva or Mah¯ ay¯ ana s¯ utra s? The theme of emptiness is developed most famously. where it frequently occurs in the triad of vimoks . perhaps.of a single passage. were confronted in Tibet: see for example HOPKINS  2003. In this it is not alone: another example of a signiﬁcant term which had radically diﬀerent meanings in diﬀerent traditions is param¯ artha. without intermediaries. What relations are ¯ there between the thought of Maitreya and that of N¯ ag¯ arjuna. only retrospectively. . It was connected with the practice of meditation and the dhy¯ anas. aprabh¯ have been edited. the adjective ´ su ¯nya and the noun ´ su ¯nyat¯ a . and sermons. By default ´ su ¯nyat¯ a is associated with Madhyamaka. thinkers. gamasam¯ . it came to refer to a wide range of contextually varying ontological positions. adhivacanam . ˙ (43) N¯ ag¯ arjuna is presented as the ‘founder’ of Madhyamaka.and is still alive in debates in Tibet. or studied. monastic curricula. This occurred not through explicit citation. starting with N¯ ag¯ arjuna. 2002. .d . the refrain mentioned above.2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy 240 インド学チベット学研究 11 The citations mentioned here are suﬃcient to show that the Emptiness S¯ utra s were important to some of the greatest thinkers of fourth to ﬁfth century Indian Buddhism.(44) These are oversimpliﬁcations of complex intellectual developments over centuries. (41) (42) For the Saddharmapun ıka-s¯ utra see DRAGONETTI 2000 and KAJIYAMA 2000.(41) The simile of the ‘empty village’ (´ su ¯nya-gr¯ ama ) is given in s¯ utra s .with necessary de. in the Praj˜ na ¯p¯ aramit¯ a. starting with Maitreya. while a separate chapter will discuss ‘Yog¯ ac¯ ara’ or ‘Vij˜ n¯ anav¯ ada’ or ‘Cittam¯ atr¯ a’. or ideas would have become part of an imagination that was articulated not only through ‘canonical’ texts but also through memory.d . including Madhyamaka and Yog¯ ac¯ ara. particularly those on the topic of g´ zan ston ˙ pa.or vij˜ napti-m¯ atrat¯ a is associated with Yog¯ ac¯ ara. Asanga. there is much work to be done. ˙ or Maitreya-Asanga.or better. by default citta .
gocaro a ¯k¯ ase va sakunt¯ anam a. To understand the development of Buddhist thought. and those over ‘mind’ to the Yog¯ ac¯ ara. One scholar who did study the development of Buddhist thought as a dynamic and dialectic process. durannay¯ Dhammapada 92 (cf. mentation.18 and Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga I. .18 and MV. was the late Gadjin M. sannicayo n’atthi ye pari˜ . gati tesam . Nagao in gratitude for his work on the Madhy¯ antavibh¯ aga and his many contributions to the understanding of the elaborations of emptiness. I oﬀer it in homage to Prof. of mind. Patna Dharmapada 87. and experience. His ‘From M¯ adhyamika to Yog¯ ac¯ ara: An Analysis of MMK. Ud¯ anavarga 29.(45) This paper is an imperfect attempt to understand the two Emptiness S¯ utra s in relation to the thought of N¯ ag¯ arjuna and Maitreya. Nagao. Things were never so tidy that exclusive rights over ‘emptiness’ were handed over to the Madhyamaka. beyond compartmentalization. GARA’S 241 philosophers had to wrestle with the questions of the nature of emptiness.1-2’ is a profound scrutiny and comparison of key ideas on emptiness expressed by N¯ ag¯ arjuna in M¯ ulamadhyamakak¯ arik¯ a XXIX.26) (45) See NAGAO 1991: 189-199. I.1-2. ***** yesam nn ˜a ¯tabhojan¯ a su˜ nn ˜ato animitto ca vimokho yesam .2009 copyright Association for the Study of Indian Philosophy ´U ¯ ¯ NYAT ˜ ¯ SUTRA ¯ MR MOTHER’S MANSION: EMPTINESS AND THE S A S . . of being and appearance. XXIV. we need to pay more attention to ideas than to schools and to assess the interpretations of diﬀerent traditions.
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