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CHAPTER ONE 1.

0 Background Information Examination leakages have for many years continued to dent the credibility of our education system in Zambia. The standards of education have continued to improve but the progression raises more questions than answers. For more than a decade now at the end of each year when most educational institutions are conducting end of year examinations, examination malpractices become regular news headlines. The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb this vice but all in vain. Generally, the Zambian populace refers to examination malpractices as leakages. A visit to most schools which have been approved as examination centres by the Examination Council of Zambia show that, strong rooms have been erected in most schools for the safe keeping of examination papers, until the day on which the paper is supposed to be written by the pupils. According to Mwenya Chileshe (2010:2) Most students go to the extreme end of using money, sex, bullying, extortion and blackmail or whatever tool that comes their way to obtain prior knowledge of questions. Lecturers too, in almost all tertiary institutions in Zambia, receive heat from students or relatives who want to have access to what may come in the dreaded examinations. Mwenya observation can be confirmed with Post News paper (2007) dated 28th April in which it was reported that, It is not only Colleges and Universities suffering from examinations malpractices - it happens even with professional bodies! On 28th April 2007, the Attorney-General, Mumba Malila, stated that it was shameful that even some learners of the legal profession at the Zambia Institute of Advanced Legal Education (ZIALE) cheated their way into the profession by helping themselves to leaked

examination papers. There had been examinations leakages at ZIALE earlier in the year. Nevertheless, examination malpractices have too much to do with the minds of all people involved from preparation of questions, printing, delivery and finally storage at the last stage which is the school. If any of the individuals involved in this chain is dishonest, the efforts of all stakeholders become irrelevant. Examinations Council of Zambia (ECZ) whose mission is to set and conduct examinations of high and comparable standards that reflect the quality of educational system in Zambia has not been spared. In The Zambia Daily Mail of Wednesday 11th November 2009, ECZ stated that a total of 327 cases of examinations malpractices and leakages were recorded during the 2008 examination session. Of these, 5 cases were at Grade 7, 55 at Grade Nine, and 267 cases occurred at Grade twelve level. Results were nullified in all subjects and 57 people involved in these practices were convicted. All provinces recorded one or more cases of malpractice with Luapula recording 75 cases, the highest number at Grade 12. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Of late, Grade 9 and 12 final examination malpractices have become rampant in Zambia especially in high schools. This scourge has become a worrisome problem to the Ministry of Education and the Examination Council of Zambia, whose aim is to conduct examinations without prior knowledge to them by the supposed to be candidates throughout the country. To this date it affects to be little on accurate and reliable information to show the actual causes and sources of examination leakages. Therefore, this study will investigate factors causing examination malpractices.

1.3 HYPOTHESIS It was hypothised that teachers are the sources of examination leakages in Zambia. 1.4 IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES Independent Variable: - Teachers Dependent Variable: - Examination Leakages 1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To identify the causes and sources of examination leakages in Zambia. 2. To identify the role played by key stakeholders in the administration of Examinations. 3. To investigate if the economic status of officers in charge of examinations could contribute towards their in efficiency work culture and examination leakages. 4. To formulate mitigation measures of ending examination leakages in Zambia. 1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What patterns have changed in the education sector in Zambia between 1995 and 2012 which might have led to mal practices? 2. To establish and identify patterns of examinations conduct and the possible loop holes through examinations materials may leak to the candidates in basic and High School? 3. Is there any relationship between economic status of Teachers and Examination officers and their attitudes towards work? 4. What is the attitude of pupils, teachers, DEBS towards examination leakages in Zambia?

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1. The findings will contribute to the already existing literature on examination leakages in Zambia. 2. The research results will provide a bench mark for future researchers on the same subject. 3. The research report will be a partial fulfilment of the requirement of the award of a Bachelor Degree in Education (secondary). 1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Undoubtedly, a study of this magnitude and sensitivity would be confronted at two major fronts, by respondents not being willing or free to tell the truth by way of protecting their self image or may fear to expose their superiors weaknesses. 1.8 METHODOLOGY 1.8. 1Study Design The study used both the qualitative and quantitative designs in order to give accurate information on examination leakages at Grade 12 level of final examination. The process depicted the prevailing situation using stratified random sampling method. 1. 8.2 Sample size The sample size consisted of 50 respondents that will include of 20 Grade 9 and 20 Grade 12 Pupils,8 teachers and 2 DEBS Officers. 1.8.3 Target Population The research intends to cover Grade 9 and 12 Pupils at Chinyongola Basic School and Kafunshi High School in Chibombo respectivel of Chibombo District of Zambia, Teachers and District Education Board Secretary (DEBS) officials at Chibombo District education offices.

1.8.4 Data Collection Both primary and secondary data will be used in collecting information. 1.8.5 Data Collection Instruments Interview Guide The study covered a wide range of questions on examination leakages. It was designed and administered to those who were willing to be interviewed at their own convenient time. Questionnaires Self administered questionnaires and interview guides were used in data collection where it was not possible to meet all the respondents at one point. 1.8.6 Sampling Procedures The simple random sampling procedures were used in this research for its high degree of representatives. In this particular case, stratified random sampling method of sampling was applied. In an attempt to choose 40 pupils from 2 schools without bias.

1.9

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Candidate: An officially authorised person to sit for an examination at a particular time and centre. Copying: Reproduction of another candidates work with or without permission. District Education Board Secretary: An officer in charge of the education system in a district. Invigilator: An officer working under oath to conduct examination to the public prior to the examination date. Leakage: Disclosure of any part of the examination to the public prior to the examination date. Malpractices: A deliberate act of wrong doing, contrary to the official examination rules and is designed to place a candidate at an advantage.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Sadly, no examination session comes to an end without nullifying, suspending or expelling some students for examinations leakages and related malpractices. Most students go to the extreme end of using money, sex, bullying, extortion and blackmail or whatever tool that comes their way to obtain prior knowledge of questions. Lecturers too, in almost all tertiary institutions in Zambia, receive heat from students or relatives who want to have access to what may come in the dreaded examinations. Widespread malpractices It is not only Colleges and Universities suffering from examinations malpractices - it happens even with professional bodies! On 28th April 2007, the Attorney-General, Mumba Malila, stated that it was shameful that even some learners of the legal profession at the Zambia Institute of Advanced Legal Education (ZIALE) cheated their way into the profession by helping themselves to leaked examination papers. There had been examinations leakages at ZIALE earlier in the year. Examinations Council of Zambia (ECZ) whose mission is to set and conduct examinations of high and comparable standards that reflect the quality of educational system in Zambia has not been spared. In The Zambia Daily Mail of Wednesday 11th November 2009, ECZ stated that a total of 327 cases of examinations malpractices and leakages were recorded during the 2008 examination session. Of these, 5 cases were at Grade 7, 55 at Grade Nine, and 267 cases occurred at Grade twelve level. Results were nullified in all subjects and 57 people involved in these practices were convicted. All

provinces recorded one or more cases of malpractice with Luapula recording 75 cases, the highest number at Grade 12. Why is our education system haunted with examinations leakages? Why is it that most of our students, young and old alike, think, behave, act, believe, and conceptualise that having leakages is the best way of going through an education system? Do they seriously think about the damage leakages cause to society? What about themselves being expelled or contracting deadly diseases in the process of getting a leakage? Zambias education system A critical look at our general education system may help us answer the question. Zambia inherited a highly academic and segregationist education system based on race, intelligence, sex, religion, fees and ethnicity. Mention has to be made that before independence, the education offered to an average Zambian was of poor quality and not every Zambian had access to it. The idea was to give indigenous people basic education to make them efficient labourers on farms, in government offices, in industry, or as Bible readers. It has been noted that education was determined by the needs of traders, settlers, administrators and missionaries and not by the indigenous people themselves. Over the years the system evolved based on examinations as a means of selecting few Zambians to meet the demands of the settlers. Consequently, the system began to acknowledge only those students who managed to pass in academic subjects as suitable to proceed for further training. These went on to tertiary education, got diplomas and degrees. Equipped with such papers, one was assured of employment; and the more advanced the academic qualification, the more chances of getting a lucrative job. Today, even to become a Zambian president, one may soon be required

to have a degree. This shows the seriousness some Zambian people attach to academic qualification. Discrimination Education reforms after independence and to date can rightly be viewed from the anti-colonial discourse perspective. The anti-colonial discursive framework acknowledges the roles educational systems play in producing and reproducing racial, ethnic, religious, linguistic, gender, sexual, and class-based inequalities. In the case of Zambia, the minority elite Zambians - who have replaced the colonisers - have manipulated the education system to safeguard their interests. Only rich Zambians can afford to send their children to well equipped, staffed, resourced, and expensive schools like Chengelo in Mkushi or Baobab in Lusaka. Many missionary schools, which where once 100% open to poor Zambians, have almost become a domain for rich Zambians. An analysis of their fee structures and their academic entry requirements favours those who have received privileged basic education rather than those coming from humble backgrounds. Schools now discriminate based on gender (Chipembi Girls or Matero Boys) or intelligence (David Livingstone) - to mention a few. Kabaso (2012:6) argues that, The system further favours an academic approach to learning over the hands-on skills approach. In view of the above, passing examinations is highly emphasised. Those who cannot score very high in this system are abandoned along the way and labelled as failures or drop-outs. The government has not put in place policies which promote pupils with other interests not related to academics, policies such as carpentry, bricklaying, music, football, dancing or farming.

For many years, such skills have been looked upon as fit for failures. Since few Zambians want to be failures, they fight main and might to do well in academics. Given this scenario, pupils and students are under pressure to perform well in academic subjects so that they may have a better future. Those who think they cannot succeed the conventional way resort to leakages! Lack of political will and vision Some pronouncements made by our politicians, and the manner in which they are implemented, adversely affect and exacerbate the demand for leakages and examination malpractices. Mention is made here of two former Ministers of Education, themselves former teachers and administrators before ascending to positions of political authority. Honourable Andrew Mulenga (2002-2004) made a pronouncement that all those who failed to meet a minimum 40% pass mark in English, but managed to score a pass grade in five other subjects, should proceed to Grade 10. Good as the policy was, nothing was put in place to help these pupils reach a minimum level of language proficiency. It is difficult to predict that if a student failed at Grade 9 in English that s/he will pass next time around at Grade 12. I fear to say the obvious that such students will look for other ways of passing the subject s/he failed at Grade Nine. It is now common to find students with excellent grades in English at Grade 12 who fail to express themselves intelligibly to others in English. It is no longer strange to find students even in some of our renowned universities failing to differentiate between a verb and a noun. Professor Geoffrey Lungwangwa, Minister of Education in 2009, decreed that as long as a pupil at Grade nine meets mere passes in six subjects, s/he should be enrolled in Grade 10. No consideration was made for pupil-

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teacher ratio, class space, funding to such - schools especially rural schools; no improvements to existing infrastructure were made. Little or no learning and teaching materials had been bought. The result is that some schools now have a ratio of 85 pupils per teacher. This has radically reduced the teacher-pupil contact resulting in poor delivery on the part of the teacher and poor pupil self-actualisation. Only bright learners benefit. Children will be going through an education system without receiving an equitable and quality education. Since pupils want to pass and go to colleges, many will be forced to look for leakages. Our politicians and policy makers probably need to carry out researches before they make certain pronouncements. Additionally, they should not only busy themselves pleasing donors and voters at the expense of destroying the same future of the people voting for them. The community Kabaso (2012:28) notes that, There is an increased pressure from the community on pupils to perform better in academics regardless of their abilities and academic history. Parents, guardians, teachers and friends want to see their wards get good marks during the initial years of their education in the hope that they will go to colleges or universities and get high paying job. Moral, financial and spiritual resources are dispensed in abundance to pupils so that they can achieve this golden goal with ease. Tuition centres, private tuitions, examination coaching centres, and private schools have become the order of the day. Pupils no longer break for holidays to rest but to go through yet another rigorous drilling at some coaching centre. The objective of such help is simple - to pass examinations at any cost! Some tuition centres are actually sources of leakages. They buy examination

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papers which they use to drill their pupils in order to attain a 100% pass in examinations. This way, parents are duped and send more and more children to these centres thinking real teaching goes on. Parents, guardians, friends, relatives, and teachers need to have realistic expectations from their children. They should understand that it is not a diploma or degrees which count in life. Many of us wouldnt be around if parenting required degrees! Effects of leakages Simple as it may appear, leakages affect the smooth running of society. Firstly, individuals involved in leakages lose their moral direction. They no longer recognise ethics as a value. In discharging their duties, such individuals become mediocre, corrupt, bootlickers, rumour mongers, faultfinders and grossly inefficient. Their self confidence is gone as they will want others to think, talk or work for them. If they become politicians, they will want to win their way through rigging elections. Their policies will be warped and visionless. If they become medical doctors, they will wrongly diagnose their patients and send them to the grave. If they are lawyers, they would corrupt justice and promote unjust causes. As professionals, they will fail to comprehend the complex rules of business and lead a country into underdevelopment.There is need to emphatically tell our children that the means does not justify the end - or is it the other way around! Evidence has been emerging indicating the precarious position of

examinations which has to be defended at four fronts: against the teachers, pupils, general, public and the examination council of Zambia. Literature supports that examination leakages is common in primary, secondary and

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higher institutions in Zambia. Examination Papers tend to come reach candidates before the actual day. Why is our education system haunted with examination leakages? Why is it that most of our students, young and old alike, think, behave, act, believe, and conceptualise that having leakages is the best way of going through an education system? Do they seriously think about the damage leakages cause to society? What about themselves being expelled or contracting deadly diseases in the process of getting a leakage? Impersonation: This is where someone will write an exam on behalf of somebody else. This is common especially among external candidates who just register for some subjects at GCE centres. It is important that a candidates identity is scrutinised before registering for an exam and just before sitting for an exam. Teachers also play a negative role sometimes in assisting their learners to answer examination questions. This is common in some private schools were the pass rate in an examination is a tool of advertising. It can no longer be denied that establishing a private school is good business. Therefore, owners of schools are sometimes under pressure if their school results are poor (Mwenya,2010). Honestly, no parents will take children to a school associated with failure. Nonetheless, teachers entrusted to invigilate exams ought to be honest when carrying out their duties. The best a teacher can do is to teach well before an exam so that the learners perform well during exams. Additionally, only diligent teachers should be involved in examinations and those found wanting should be punished severely. Smuggling in of foreign materials in an exam room which will assist an individual to answer questions is another vice common among the examination candidates. Sometimes, these foreign materials can be already

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answered questions. It is therefore cardinal that invigilators are vigilant in ensuring that no candidate enters an examination room with foreign papers. Motivation of invigilators is also important but the government has never appreciated invigilators for many years now. It is important that incentives are given to all people entrusted to conduct examinations so that they are motivated to work well in accordance with the stipulated conditions (Kabaso,2012:7). Examinations play a very important role in the education system. It is the best tool to evaluate the performance of learners, teachers and the curriculum. Malpractices deny the nation to have a genuine gauge of our progress. The University of Zambia has in the recent years recorded a very high failure rate for first year students. It is surprising that some pupils who have very good grades at grade twelve fail to perform well at tertiary level of education. This is a very serious warning that we need to curb examination malpractices in order to produce learners who will acquire the necessary knowledge in order to help our country develop. Leakages lead to having workers who are functionally illiterate. Can you imagine having teachers who cheat instead of teaching, Doctors who administer wrong medication and kill patients. Our country needs highly qualified manpower in order to develop. We all have a personal role to play and assist curb examination leakages at all levels of our educational system. It is meaningless to continue having graduates who are functionally illiterate. Qualifications obtained by exam malpractices are just as bad as those obtained from Matero University (forged). Lastly, the media is challenged to follow up cases of exam malpractices so that we get to know if those caught are prosecuted. We hear of culprits being arrested as headlines but rarely do we hear of any outcome of the cases from the police and the courts of law.

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The more the public hear of punishments given to offenders, the better the chances of malpractices being reduced.

CHAPTER THREE PRESENTATION OF THE RESEARCH FINDINGS 3.0 3.1 Introduction to the chapter Background Information of the research setting The research was done in Chibombo at Chinyongola Basic Kafunshi High School. Chibombo District is a district of Central Province, Zambia. As of the 2000 Zambian Census, the district had a population of 241,612 people. Its headquarters are at Chibombo, and it lies between the Lukanga Swamp in the west and the end of the Luangwa Valley in the east. It includes good commercial farmland north of Lusaka. and

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Figure 1: Location of Chibombo District on the map of Zambia

3.2

Research findings in relation to the research objectives

3.2.1 Causes and sources of examination leakages in Zambia. In line with the above objective, the researcher interviewed the all total sample size of 50 respondents in ascertaining the major causes of Examination mal- practices in Zambia and the following were the results.

Causes of Exams Leakages

20 15 10 5 0 Laziness Sylabus Laziness Corruption Sylabus Pressure

Figure 2: Causes of Examination leakages in Zambia

As shown above, four man causes of examination leakages were found, in which 20 respondents said that, laziness of pupils in study as the major contributing factor to examination leakages in Zambia.

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10 respondents said that, examinations leakages are as a result of the corrupt invigilators who are mainly teachers. 12 respondents reviewed that failure to finish syllabus in class forces students to seek for examination leakages and sometimes teachers often contribute so as to compensate what they did not cover in the class. The research also revealed that, pressure from the community to work hard and pass with good marks often makes the pupils victims of the examination mal practices. 3.2.1 b Sources of examination Leakages According to the research findings done at the two schools, Chinyongola Basic School and Kafunshi High School in Chibombo. Out of the all 50 respondents (100%) of the respondents said that both and internal causes results in mal practices. The internal sources includes those from Examnination Council of Zambia and teachers in charge of handling and receiving examination papers. Then external courses includes people from the outside who have access to Examination council of Zambia data base or assist in transporting the boxes for exams. The respondents indicated that: the major sources of examination leakages are teachers, pupils themselves and Examination Council of Zambia IT staffs.

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3.2.2 Role played by key stakeholders in the administration of Examinations.


Preventive measures
10% 50% 40% Security Sensitization Law

Figure 2: Preventive measures The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders such as the Examination council of Zambia, Zambia Police and Parent Teacher Associations (PTA)s has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb these vices as shown above on Figure 2. The findings showed that out of 10 Teachers and DEBS representative interviewed, the Ministry of education has ensured that the rooms are secured with the strong locks and strong rooms have been erected in most schools for the safe keeping of examination papers, until the day on which the paper is supposed to be written by the pupils. 4 respondents representing 40% showed that the Ministry of education conducts sensitization and swearing ceremonies to all invigilators so that if one is found is dealt by the Laws of Zambia.

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1 respondent representing 10% from Figure 2 shows that the Ministry of Education in conjunction with the Zambia Police service prosecute every wanting person found with examination papers before the date of the examination. 3.2.3 Investigation on whether the economic status of officers in charge of examinations could contribute towards their in efficiency work culture and examination leakages.

Do economic status of Frequency officers in charge of examinations contribute examination leakages.

Percentage

Yes..poor salaries and 36 allowances. Social standing No do not Total 14 50

72%

28% 100%

Table 1 : Investigation of economic status of officers contribution to examination mal practices. As shown above, the researcher found that social and economic status of individual in charge of examinations such as IT specialists, markers, police officers and Headteachers and in general teachers do contribute to

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examination

mal

practices

this

was

supported

by

36

respondents

representing 72% of the respondents. Whilst 14 respondents representing 28% denied of examination

administrators to be responsible for the examination leakages, however, the findings attribute examination leakages to be rampart from the outside school practices. 3.2.4 Solutions to examination leakages in Zambia.

Enforce security measures Strengthern Law 12% Involve Guidance 24% Teachers 64%

Involve Guidance Teachers Strengthern Law Enforce security measures

Figure 3. Solutions to Examination leakages in Zambia. The research also aimed at coming up with sustainable measures in ensuring free examinations in Zambia. Recommendations, opinions and suggestions from respondents brought fourth sustainable measures as shown on Figure 3 above. Out of the 50 (100%) interviewed, 32 respondents representing 64% on Figure 3 showed that involving guidance teachers from the onset will reduce examination malpractices. It was proposed that if guidance teachers help students on developing study skills and successful examination habits will help in reducing examination malpractices.

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On the other hand, 12 respondents representing 24 % above, proposed that: the Goverment of Zambia should develop strong Laws concerning examination malpractices so that everyone fears to curb into it. The other 6 respondents representing 12% suggested of developing efficient security measures to examination classrooms, store houses, by incorporating Zambia Police Officers in guarding the place and invigilations.

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CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS 4.0 Introduction to the chapter

The aim of this chapter is to analyse the research findings presented in the previous chapter, in relation to the literature review and research findings. 4.1 Causes and sources of examination leakages in Zambia. The fact remains that examination malpractice has become usual practice in Zambia. Examination has been recognized as forming the nucleus of education without which the enterprise will be incomplete. Empiricism shows that examinations indicate the extent of factual knowledge acquired by students, predict future educational achievement and provide a means of selecting suitable candidates for certain educational courses or occupation. One of the principal aim of examination is to assess how much learning has taken place and to what extent the educational objectives and goals have been achieved. One serious problem plaguing Zambias system of education today is large examination malpractice coupled with intellectual dishonesty. Our pupils and students devise as a daily routine, new tricks to beat genuine supervisors and examiners. The incidence of examination malpractice is multi dimensional in nature. Smuggling of prepared notes into examination hall. They insult, embarrass, threaten and even assault invigilators and supervisors who failed to cooperate with them in their unholy and nefarious acts. Cheating behaviour exhibited by the school, population is a big problem to our people. School administrators were recently called upon to desist from helping their students to perpetrate in examination malpractice.

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Individual however put the blame on lack of proper social value system; the high premium attached to paper qualifications as prerequisite for admission and gainful employment. On the causes of examination malpractice in Zambia, the researcher learnt that the laziness is the major cause of examination mal practice in Zambia. When one is lazy in every way, both mentally and physically, he could be described as being digitally lazy. That is to say, the person is lazy in a calibrated manner. No doubt, one who is as lazy as this finds it difficult to engage in those things that could bring him true benefits. Instead, such people prefer to waste their time on other pastimes such as gambling, which always constitute a waste of mental and physical resources. Such people do not make good students because, they will never take time to listen to their teacher, spend time in reading their books or even carry out useful functions in the home. When exams come, however, they want to pass by all means. Such people go to lengths to make sure they pass their tests or examinations through the back door. And when their parents aid them, they could do awful things in this direction. In order to help ourselves, therefore, it is very important that we should avoid all forms of laziness when it comes to our studies. For lazy people will always find it difficult to make good academic students. The other inclinations. When one is negatively inclined or when one becomes evil minded, he will always want to take dangerous short cuts in order to achieve his objectives. This ugly tendency is one of the basic causes of examination malpractices. A student who has lost the correct perception of the differences between right and wrong, good and evil or uprightness and causes of examination mal practices include corrupt

invigilators, which the researcher has described as the evil or negative

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perverseness will not see anything wrong in using any and every means at his disposal to acquire a certificate, even if it involves shedding of blood. Hence, stories have been told about students who conspired and stabbed their examiner to death because he prevented them from carrying out their unwholesome practices in the examination hall. When people lose their perceptions of the differences between good and evil, right or wrong, they become more interested in special examination centres where they will be free to do as they like than in studying their subjects well in order to pass through their examinations in a dignifying manner. When students become negatively inclined, they no longer see the actual acquisition of knowledge as the more important thing to passing the examination while yet passing for illiterates persons in the subjects of their choice. When the society, parents and teachers lose their ability to see the difference between right and wrong, they even help their children, pupils and students to perpetrate their negative inclinations in this direction. We must endeavour to run away from such ugly things if we wish to reap the benefits of genuinely acquired knowledge. For he who cheats in examination simply betrays the fact that he does not know the true meaning and value of genuine education which is to polish an individual into a competent and productive human being within his given environment. The researcher also generalised the findings in relation to failure to finish syllabus in time by teachers and pressure from the community. In which the researcher supported Kabaso (2012:28) views which are reflected in the literature review in which it was asserted that: There is an increased pressure from the community on pupils to perform better in academics regardless of their abilities and academic history . It is therefore supported that, parents, guardians, teachers and friendswant

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to see their wards get good marks during the initial years of their education in the hope that they will go to colleges or universities and get high paying job. Moral, financial and spiritual resources are dispensed in abundance to pupils so that they can achieve this golden goal with ease. Tuition centres, private tuitions, examination coaching centres, and private schools have become the order of the day. Pupils no longer break for holidays to rest but to go through yet another rigorous drilling at some coaching centre. On the sources of examination leakages, it is generalised that they stem from Examination Council of Zambia staffs, Teachers, invigilators and external sources that includes, those involves in transporting or preparing examination papers or in publishing the papers. 4.2 Role played by key stakeholders in the administration of Examinations. The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders such as the Examination council of Zambia, Zambia Police and Parent Teacher Associations (PTA)s has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb these vices as shown above on Figure 2 of the previous chapter. The findings showed that,the Ministry of education has ensured that the rooms are secured with the strong locks and strong rooms have been erected in most schools for the safe keeping of examination papers, until the day on which the paper is supposed to be written by the pupils. Ministry of education conducts sensitization and swearing ceremonies to all invigilators so that if one is found is dealt by the Laws of Zambia. Ministry of Education in conjunction with the Zambia Police service prosecute every wanting person found with examination papers before the date of the examination.

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However, despite all the above measures examination mal practices continues in Zambia. 4.3 Investigation on whether the economic status of officers in charge of examinations could contribute towards their in efficiency work culture and examination leakages. The findings show that economic status of officers involved in the administration of examination do causes examination mal practices in that, no one wants to fail in life as education is concerned. The literature supports the above findings in that; teachers also play a negative role sometimes in assisting their learners to answer examination questions. This is common in some private schools were the pass rate in an examination is a tool of advertising. It can no longer be denied that establishing a private school is good business. Therefore, owners of schools are sometimes under pressure if their school results are poor (Mwenya,2010). Kabaso (2012:6) argues that, The system further favours an academic approach to learning over the hands-on skills approach. In view of the above, passing examinations is highly emphasised. Those who cannot score very high in this system are abandoned along the way and labelled as failures or drop-outs. The government has not put in place policies which promote pupils with other interests not related to academics, policies such as carpentry, bricklaying, music, football, dancing or farming.

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4.4 Solutions to Examination leakages in Zambia. The research also aimed at coming up with sustainable measures in ensuring free examinations in Zambia. Recommendations, opinions and suggestions from respondents brought fourth sustainable measures as shown on Figure 3 in the previous chapter shows three sustainable measures to include: 1. Strengthening guidance counselling in schools 2. Ensuring security measures 3. Strengthening Law to punish offenders. The researcher generalised the above findings in that, since the major cause of examination leakages is laziness of pupils and failure to finish syllabuses by teachers in time contribute to examination malpractices.Therefore the solution is to help students understand their subject, increasing number of school, employing more teachers and help students with problems that student face.

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CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary Examination leakages have for many years continued to dent the credibility of our education system in Zambia. The standards of education have continued to improve but the progression raises more questions than answers. For more than a decade now at the end of each year when most educational institutions are conducting end of year examinations, examination malpractices become regular news headlines. The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb this vice but all in vain. Generally, the Zambian populace refers to examination malpractices as leakages. Nevertheless, examination malpractices have too much to do with the minds of all people involved from preparation of questions, printing, delivery and finally storage at the last stage which is the school. If any of the individuals involved in this chain is dishonest, the efforts of all stakeholders become irrelevant. The researcher claimed that the government and the Examination Council of Zambia (ECZ) were to blame for the spate of examination malpractices recorded countrywide. "Unlike lawyers and other professionals, teaching and lecturing in Zambia does not belong to the accreditation body and as such teachers are not scared to commit an offence. It is so because they know that if today they are found giving pupils leakages and later being reprimanded, the following year the same teachers will be found teaching somewhere else in other schools," he said.

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5.2 Conclusion Having known the causes and sources of examination mal practices in Zambia. The researcher concludes that, there is a need for the government to introduce a Bill to Parliament that would seek to form an accreditation body for the teaching profession so that teachers who would be found abrogating the rules and regulations could be barred from practising anywhere in the country. Right now teachers are engaging in leakages because there are no stiffer laws that stop them from doing so. And with the existing high poverty levels, teachers are not afraid to engage in the business of selling of examination papers to parents and pupils at any price they feel like. The local examination body was also to blame for the high wave of examination leakages. The ECZ also should share the blame about the examination malpractices that we are seeing now. This is so because of the loose linkage that exists between the ECZ and the Ministry of Education. In conclusion, solutions are only possible where there are Examination Halls, large classrooms, adequate seats and adequate number of teachers in a school. A class where theft are 150 students sitting on the floor and windows with some armed with knives and locally made pistols, an invigilator will not risk his life to prevent examination malpractice. The government can play a very big role in curbing this menace by providing enough classrooms, desks and employing qualified teachers. And also, during an examination, the school should ensure that each student gets his/her own question paper and provide enough invigilators.

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5.3 Recommendations In relation to the number of observable challenges, the researcher recommends the following:1. Teachers should he trained properly in their fields. They will then have the tactics to follow on how to finish the syllabus for a particular term or at least cover a large part of it. 2. Holidays may be more in number but reduced in length as students are reluctant to resume from long holidays. 3. Guidance Counselors should be employed in all schools to guide the students on study habits, career prospects and requirement for various careers. 4. Continuous assessment should be practiced correctly. It will reduce examination malpractices as 40% of marks are accumulated from various assessment techniques such as projects and assignments before actual examinations. 5. The number of invigilators and supervisors should be increased in the exam halls. Exam officers, School managers and Principals should occasionally pay visits to exam halls to observe what is going on. In this way, they could notice any cheating behaviour. 6. The students should be thoroughly searched before entering the hall. Apart from photographs, finger prints on certificates should be used for identification as no two persons; even identical twins could have the same finger print. That is why it is used in crime detection.

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References Mulenga Andrew (2009) Examination malpractices in Zambia whose

failure, Lusaka,Post Newspaper,Zambia. Mwenya Chileshe (2010) Zambia: Education - Culture of leakages, causes and effects Lusaka, NISTCOL- Chalimbana College .Zambia. Kabaso Sydney (2012)Examination malpractices: A threat to Zambian education, Chicago, Kabsy Digital Media. United States of America.

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APPENDIX SECTION APPENDIX A SELF ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS Instructions. Please answer all the questions carefully. Fill your answers in the blank spaces and boxes as provided below.

1. Background Information Gender: Male Age: Below 25 2. Education Level College University Others Female 26 -30 31-35 Above 36

3. Marital Status Single Married Divorced

4. For how long have you worked for Kafunshi High School/Chinyongola basic school ? . 5. How does your school define examination mal practices and leakages? 6. In your work as a Teacher at this institution how many cases of examination leakages have you recorded? Yes examination leakages? No 7. What do you think are the common causes and sources of

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............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ ........................................................... 8. What punishment do you put to culprits found with examination papers before the actual date? ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ ....................................................................................... 9. What has been the attitude of pupils towards leakages? ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ ........ 10. What measures have you put in place to fight/mitigate examination leakages at this school? Who are your cooperating partners in this fight? ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ .......................................................................................... 11. In your own opinion, what do you think should be done prevent/mitigate examination mal practices in Zambian Schools?.............................................................................................. ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ Thank you for your participation.

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APPENDIX B INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR GRADE PUPILS Respondent no........................................ 1. What have been the challenges/strengths you have so far experienced in Zambian education as a pupil? 2. How do you define an examination? 3. What do you think are the major purposes of sitting for an examination as a Grade 7,9 or 12 pupil? 4. Why pupils do often fears an examination? 5. What are examination malpractices and do they happen at this school? 6. Where do you think examination leakages come from? 7. How do pupils access examination leakages? 8. Which sexes (Gender) are more prone to leakages? 9. What do you think are the causes of leaking examinations considering both the leaker and the receiver? 10. 11. What really happens when a candidate is caught with an What do you think; Examination council of Zambia should do to examination leakage? reduce/minimize examination leakages.

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APPENDIX C INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR DEBS OFFICIALS Respondent no........................................ 1. What have been the challenges/strengths you have so far experienced in Zambian education? 2. What is the primary purpose of the Examination Council of Zambia (Mission statement/vision)? 3. When did the ECZ become a semi autonomous institution and why? 4. What have been the differences between Cambridge Overseas School Certificate with the current ECZ papers? 5. In your own way, what do you think are the common causes of examination leakages in Zambia? 6. How many cases have you reported so far for Grade 12 in the district in the last 2 years? 7. What measures have you put in place as an examination Council of Zambia and Ministry of Education? 8. What has been the attitude of the key stake holders in promoting education and mitigating examination leakage sin Zambia? 9. What policy has the Government put in place to minimise examination leakages in the education ministry? 10. 11. What are some of the positive observable changes you have In your opinion, what do you think should be done by the encountered as the education body? relevant key stakeholders to minimize examination leakages in Zambia?

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APPENDIX D WORK PLAN AND TIME SCHEDULES Activity 1 Description Activity Development of Data collection instruments 2 3 4 Data Collection Data processing and analysis Report writing, typing and editing 5 Production of the final draft and submission 3/05/2013 1 week 26/05/2013 4 days 22/06/2012 18/07/2012 2 weeks 1 week 10/06/2012 2 weeks of Dates Duration

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APPENDIX E BUDGET PLAN The following is an itemized list and amounts that was spent for the research to successfully carry out the research without any much financial constraint. S/N DESCRIPTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ream of A4 paper Pens Refreshments Data Transport Totals typing, binding 300 300 845 (ZMK). QUANTITY 4 10 Processing, UNIT PRICE (ZMK) 25 1.50 200 250 AMOUNT (ZMK) 80 15 300 250

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