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Food hygiene is important to be applied by food producers in order to provide foods that are safe and suitable for consumption. They also need to ensure that consumers are provided with clear and easily understood information - by way of labeling or other appropriate means - on storage, handling and preparation of the food.

I. There are several key principles that are critical to assure food hygiene. Firstly, emphasis should be on primary production, which should be carried out in an area where the presence of potential harmful substances does not contaminate the food until it reached unacceptable level. 1) The fundamental is that hygienic practice should reduce the likelihood of introducing hazards which may adversely affect the safety of foods at later stage of the food chain, for example hazards from pesticides, antibiotics or microorganisms. 2) Ensure adequate and appropriate maintenance and cleaning program, pest control system, waste removal and storage, and sanitation systems. Establishments or premises where food is produced ought to be located in areas free from potential sources of contamination, such as areas that are prone to pest infestation. 1) Equipment and facilities should be located, designed and constructed to ensure minimum contamination, easy maintenance and cleaning, and regularly disinfected and protected against pest. Overall the layout of the establishment should be able to promote hygienic practices and at the same time able to reduce cross contamination during production. 2) Personnel hygiene facilities such as wash hand sinks, hand dryers, toilets, and changing rooms should be adequate. Control of operation through preventive measures is consistently implemented throughout the system to reduce the risk from food hazards at the appropriate stages of the production. 1) Food business operators can control food hazards through the application of management systems such as HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point). Codex Alimentarius Commission, in 1993, has endorsed HACCP system as an effective means in assuring food safety. 2) The HACCP System is a scientific, rational and systematic approach to identification, assessment and control of hazards during production, processing,



manufacturing, preparation and use of food to ensure that food is safe when consumed (i.e. it does not present an unacceptable risk to health). IV. Other hygiene measures include control on length and temperature of cooking, cooling, processing and storage. 1) This will prevent food spoilage and contamination by physical,chemical or microbiological, incoming materials (including packaging materials), water supply, air and steam. 2) Endure adequate control measures during transportation to prevent contamination from dust, fumes, or fluctuation of temperature and humidity. 3) Workers who are in direct or indirect contact with food should be trained and/or instructed in food hygiene to a level appropriate with the operations they are performing.

In summary, food hygiene contain steps and procedures that control the operational conditions within a food establishment, allowing for favorable environmental conditions for production of food that are safe and suitable for human consumption. Food hygiene is the basis for the production and preparation of safe food. Unsafe food may cause food poisoning and food borne illnesses. Thus food safety has impact on individual health.