© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.

-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 1

One-Way Independent ANOVA
There goes my hero !. Watch him as he goes (to hospital)
Chlldren wearlng superhero cosLumes are more llkely Lo harm Lhemselves because of Lhe unreallsLlc lmpresslon of
lnvlnclblllLy LhaL Lhese cosLumes could creaLe: lor example, chlldren have reporLed Lo hosplLal wlLh severe ln[urles
because of Lrylng 'Lo lnlLlaLe fllghL wlLhouL havlng planned for landlng sLraLegles' (uavles, Surrldge, Pole, & Munro-
uavles, 2007). l can relaLe Lo Lhe lmaglned power LhaL a cosLume besLows upon you, even now, l have been known Lo
dress up as llsher by donnlng a beard and glasses and Lralllng a goaL around on a lead ln Lhe hope LhaL lL mlghL make
me more knowledgeable abouL sLaLlsLlcs. lmaglne we had daLa abouL Lhe severlLy of !"#$%& (on a scale from 0, no
ln[ury, Lo 100, deaLh) for chlldren reporLlng Lo Lhe emergency cenLre aL hosplLals and lnformaLlon on whlch superhero
cosLume Lhey were wearlng ('(%)): Splderman, superman, Lhe hulk or a Leenage muLanL nln[a LurLle. 1he uaLa are ln
1able 1 and Lhere are descrlpLlve sLaLlsLlcs ln CuLpuL 1.
Effect Sizes: Cohen’s d
We dlscussed earller ln Lhe module LhaL lL can be useful noL [usL Lo rely on slgnlflcance LesLlng buL also Lo quanLlfy Lhe
effecLs ln whlch we're lnLeresLed. When looklng aL dlfferences beLween means, a useful measure of effecL slze ls
Cohen's #" 1hls sLaLlsLlc ls very easy Lo undersLand because lL ls Lhe dlfference beLween Lwo means dlvlded by some
esLlmaLe of Lhe sLandard devlaLlon of Lhose means:
! !
!
!
! !
!
!

l have puL a haL on Lhe # Lo remlnd us LhaL we're really lnLeresLed ln Lhe effecL slze ln Lhe populaLlon, buL because we
can'L measure LhaL dlrecLly, we esLlmaLe lL from Lhe samples (1he haL means 'esLlmaLe of'). 8y dlvldlng by Lhe
sLandard devlaLlon we are expresslng Lhe dlfference ln means ln sLandard devlaLlon unlLs (a blL llke a 1 -score). 1he
sLandard devlaLlon ls a measure of 'error' or 'nolse' ln Lhe daLa, so # ls effecLlvely a slgnal-Lo-nolse raLlo. 1he haL
means 'esLlmaLe of'.
Powever, lf we're uslng Lwo means, Lhen Lhere wlll be a sLandard devlaLlon assoclaLed wlLh each of Lhem so whlch
one should we use? 1here are Lhree cholces:
1. lf one of Lhe group ls a conLrol group lL makes sense Lo use LhaL groups sLandard devlaLlon Lo compuLe # (Lhe
argumenL belng LhaL Lhe experlmenLal manlpulaLlon mlghL affecL Lhe sLandard devlaLlon of Lhe experlmenLal
group, so Lhe conLrol group Su ls a 'purer' measure of naLural varlaLlon ln scores)
2. SomeLlmes we assume LhaL group varlances (and Lherefore sLandard devlaLlons) are equal (homogenelLy of
varlance) and lf Lhey are we can plck a sLandard devlaLlon from elLher of Lhe groups because lL won'L maLLer.
3. We use whaL's known as a 'pooled esLlmaLe', whlch ls Lhe welghLed average of Lhe Lwo group varlances. 1hls
ls glven by Lhe followlng equaLlon:
!
!
!
!
!
! ! !
!
!
! !
!
! ! !
!
!
!
!
! !
!
! !

LeL's look aL an example. Say we wanLed Lo esLlmaLe # for Lhe effecL of Superman cosLumes compared Lo nln[a 1urLle
cosLumes. CuLpuL 1 shows us Lhe means, sample slze and sLandard devlaLlon for Lhese Lwo groups:
• Superman: 2 = 60.33, 3 = 6, % = 17.83, %
4
= 318.62
• nln[a 1urLle: 2 = 26.23, 3 = 8, % = 8.16, %
4
= 66.30
nelLher group ls a naLural conLrol (you would need a 'no cosLume' condlLlon really), buL lf we declded LhaL nln[a 1urLle
(for some reason) was a conLrol (perhaps because 1urLles don'L fly buL supermen do) Lhen # ls slmply:
! !
!
!"#$%&'$()*+
! !
!"#$%"&
!
!"#$%"&
!
!"!!! ! !"!!"
!!!"
! !!!"


© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 2

1able 1: uaLa showlng Lhe severlLy of ln[ury susLalned by 30 chlldren wearlng superhero cosLumes
+),-$.( /"#$%&

Splderman
31
31
38
20
47
37
49
40

Superman
69
32
83
66
38
32

Pulk
26
43
10
43
30
33
33
41

nln[a 1urLle
18
18
30
30
30
41
18
23
ln oLher words, Lhe mean ln[ury severlLy for people wearlng superman cosLumes ls 4 sLandard devlaLlons greaLer Lhan
for Lhose wearlng nln[a 1urLle cosLumes. 1hls ls a preLLy huge effecL.
Cohen (1988, 1992) has made some wldely used suggesLlons abouL whaL consLlLuLes a large or small effecL: # = 0.2
(small), 0.3 (medlum) and 0.8 (large). 8e careful wlLh Lhese benchmarks because Lhey encourage Lhe klnd of lazy
Lhlnklng LhaL we were Lrylng Lo avold and lgnore Lhe conLexL of Lhe effecL such as Lhe measuremenL lnsLrumenLs and
general norms ln a parLlcular research area.

© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 3

LeL's have a look aL uslng Lhe pooled esLlmaLe.
!
!
!
! ! ! !"!!"
!
! ! ! ! !!!"
!
! ! ! ! !
!
!"#$!!! ! !""!!"
!"
! !"!!!" ! !"!!"
When Lhe group sLandard devlaLlons are dlfferenL, Lhls pooled esLlmaLe can be useful, however, lL changes Lhe
meanlng of # because we're now comparlng Lhe dlfference beLween means agalnsL all of Lhe background 'nolse' ln Lhe
measure, noL [usL Lhe nolse LhaL you would expecL Lo flnd ln normal clrcumsLances. uslng Lhls esLlmaLe of Lhe sLandard
devlaLlon we geL:
! !
!
!"#$%&'$()*+
! !
!"#$%"&
!
!"#$%"&
!
!"!!! ! !"!!"
!"!!"
! !!!"
noLlce LhaL # ls smaller now, Lhe ln[ury severlLy for Superman cosLumes ls abouL 2 sLandard devlaLlons greaLer Lhan
for nln[a 1urLle CosLumes (whlch ls sLlll preLLy blg)

SLLl-1LS1: CompuLe Cohen's # for Lhe effecL of Superman cosLumes on ln[ury severlLy compared Lo
Pulk and Splderman cosLumes. 1ry uslng boLh Lhe sLandard devlaLlon of Lhe conLrol (Lhe non-
Superman cosLume) and also Lhe pooled esLlmaLe.
l

Running One-Way Independent ANOVA on SPSS
LeL's conducL an AnCvA on Lhe ln[ury daLa. We need Lo enLer Lhe daLa lnLo Lhe daLa edlLor uslng a codlng varlable
speclfylng Lo whlch of Lhe four groups each score belongs. We need Lo do Lhls because we have used a beLween-group
deslgn (l.e. dlfferenL people ln each cosLume). So, Lhe daLa musL be enLered ln Lwo columns (one called '(%) whlch
speclfles Lhe cosLume worn and one called !"#$%& whlch lndlcaLes Lhe severlLy of ln[ury each chlld susLalned). ?ou can
code Lhe varlable '(%) any way you wlsh buL l recommend someLhlng slmple such as 1 = Splderman, 2 = Superman, 3
= 1he Pulk, and 4 = nln[a 1urLle.
! Save Lhese daLa ln a flle called 0$1(%'(%)2,34 - you wlll need Lhem ln fuLure weeks.

! lndependenL varlables are someLlmes referred Lo as 536-)%,.
1o conducL one-way AnCvA we have Lo flrsL access Lhe maln dlalogue box by selecLlng
(llgure 1). 1hls dlalogue box has a space where you can llsL one or more
dependenL varlables and a second space Lo speclfy a grouplng varlable, or 5.&-'*. lacLor ls anoLher Lerm for
lndependenL varlable. lor Lhe ln[ury daLa we need selecL only !"#$%& from Lhe varlable llsL and Lransfer lL Lo Lhe box
labelled 6)7)+#)+- 8$%- by cllcklng on (or dragglng lL Lhere). 1hen selecL Lhe grouplng varlable '(%) and Lransfer lL
Lo Lhe box labelled 9.&-'* by cllcklng on (or dragglng lL). lf you cllck on you access Lhe dlalog box LhaL
allows you Lo conducL planned comparlsons, and by cllcklng on you access Lhe posL hoc LesLs dlalog box.
1hese Lwo opLlons wlll be explalned durlng Lhe nexL pracLlcal class.

© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 4


llgure 1: Maln dlalogue box for one-way AnCvA
Options
1he addlLlonal opLlons for one-way AnCvA are falrly sLralghLforward.
1he dlalog box (llgure 2) Lo access Lhese opLlons can be obLalned by
cllcklng on . llrsL you can ask for some descrlpLlve sLaLlsLlcs,
whlch wlll dlsplay a Lable of Lhe means, sLandard devlaLlons, sLandard
errors, ranges and confldence lnLervals for Lhe means of each group.
1hls ls a useful opLlon Lo selecL because lL asslsLs ln lnLerpreLlng Lhe flnal
resulLs. ?ou can also selecL :'/',)+)$-;<'5<(.*$.+&) LesLs. Larller ln Lhe
module we saw LhaL Lhere ls an assumpLlon LhaL Lhe varlances of Lhe
groups are equal and selecLlng Lhls opLlon LesLs Lhls assumpLlon uslng
Levene's LesL (see your handouL on blas). SÞSS offers us Lwo alLernaLlve
verslons of Lhe 9-raLlo: Lhe 8rown-lorsyLhe 9 (1974), and Lhe Welch 9
(1931). 1hese alLernaLlve 9s can be used lf Lhe homogenelLy of varlance
assumpLlon ls broken. lf you're lnLeresLed ln Lhe deLalls of Lhese
correcLlons Lhen see lleld (2013), buL lf you've goL beLLer Lhlngs Lo do
wlLh your llfe Lhen Lake my word for lL LhaL Lhey're worLh selecLlng [usL
ln case Lhe assumpLlon ls broken. ?ou can also selecL a 2).+% 7='- whlch
wlll produce a llne graph of Lhe means. Agaln, Lhls opLlon can be useful
for flndlng general Lrends ln Lhe daLa. When you have selecLed Lhe
approprlaLe opLlons, cllck on Lo reLurn Lo Lhe maln dlalog box.
Cllck on ln Lhe maln dlalog box Lo run Lhe analysls.

llgure 2: CpLlons for Cne-Way AnCvA
Bootstrapping
Also ln Lhe maln dlalog box ls Lhe allurlng buLLon. We have seen ln Lhe module LhaL booLsLrapplng ls a good
way Lo overcome blas, and Lhls buLLon gllsLens and LempLs us wlLh Lhe promlse of unLold rlches, llke a dlamond ln a
bull's recLum. Powever, lf you use booLsLrapplng lL'll be as dlsappolnLlng as lf you reached for LhaL dlamond only Lo
dlscover LhaL lL's a plece of glass. ?ou mlghL, noL unreasonably, Lhlnk LhaL lf you selecL booLsLrapplng lL'd do a nlce
booLsLrap of Lhe 9-sLaLlsLlc for you. lL won'L. lL wlll booLsLrap confldence lnLervals around Lhe means (lf you ask for
descrlpLlve sLaLlsLlcs), conLrasLs and dlfferences beLween means (l.e., Lhe posL hoc LesLs). 1hls, of course, can be
useful, buL Lhe maln LesL won'L be booLsLrapped.

© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 3

Output from One-Way ANOVA
Descriptive Statistics
llgure 3 shows Lhe 'means ploL' LhaL we asked SÞSS for. A few lmporLanL Lhlngs Lo noLe are:
! lL looks horrlble.
! SÞSS has scaled Lhe y-axls Lo make Lhe means look as dlfferenL as humanly posslble. 1hlnk back Lo week 1
when we learnL LhaL lL was very bad Lo scale your graph Lo maxlmlse group dlfferences - SÞSS has noL read
my handouL"
! 1here are no error bars: Lhe graph [usL lsn'L very lnformaLlve because we aren'L glven confldence lnLervals for
Lhe mean.
ÞasLe someLhlng llke Lhls lnLo one of your lab reporLs and waLch your LuLor recoll ln horror and your mark plummeL!
1he moral ls, never leL SÞSS do your graphs for you"

! uslng whaL you learnL ln week one draw an error bar charL of Lhe daLa. (?our charL
should ldeally look llke llgure 4).



llgure 3: Crap graph auLomaLlcally produced by SÞSS llgure 4: nlcely edlLed error bar charL of Lhe ln[ury daLa
llgure 4 shows an error bar charL of Lhe ln[ury daLa. 1he means lndlcaLe LhaL some superhero cosLumes do resulL ln
more severe ln[urles Lhan oLhers. noLably, Lhe nln[a 1urLle cosLume seems Lo resulL ln less severe ln[urles and Lhe
Superman cosLume resulLs ln more severe ln[urles. 1he error bars (Lhe l shapes) show Lhe 93° confldence lnLerval
around Lhe mean.

! 1hlnk back Lo Lhe sLarL of Lhe module, whaL does a confldence lnLerval represenL?
lf we were Lo Lake 100 samples from Lhe same populaLlon, Lhe Lrue mean (Lhe mean of Lhe populaLlon) would lle
somewhere beLween Lhe Lop and boLLom of LhaL bar ln 93 of Lhose samples. lf Lhese do noL overlap Lhen we expecL Lo
geL a slgnlflcanL dlfference beLween means because lL shows LhaL Lhe populaLlon means of Lhose Lwo samples are
llkely Lo be dlfferenL (Lhey don'L fall wlLhln Lhe same llmlLs). So, for example, we can Lell LhaL nln[a 1urLle relaLed
ln[urles are llkely Lo be less severe Lhan Lhose of chlldren wearlng superman cosLumes (Lhe error bars don'L overlap)
and Splderman cosLumes (only a small amounL of overlap)

© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 6


CuLpuL 1
1he Lable of descrlpLlve sLaLlsLlcs verlfles whaL Lhe graph shows: LhaL Lhe ln[urles for Superman cosLumes were mosL
severe, and for nln[a LurLle cosLumes were leasL severe. 1hls Lable also provldes Lhe confldence lnLervals upon whlch
Lhe error bars were based.
Levene's test
Levene's LesL (Lhlnk back Lo your lecLure ln week 1 and your handouL on blas) ls deslgned Lo LesL Lhe null hypoLhesls
LhaL Lhe varlances of Lhe groups are Lhe same. ln Lhls case Levene's LesL ls LesLlng wheLher Lhe varlances of Lhe four
groups are slgnlflcanLly dlfferenL.

! lf Levene's LesL ls slgnlflcanL (l.e. Lhe value of slg. ls =)%% ->.+ "?@) Lhen we can conclude
LhaL Lhe varlances are slgnlflcanLly dlfferenL. 1hls would mean LhaL we had vlolaLed one
of Lhe assumpLlons of AnCvA and we would have Lo Lake sLeps Lo recLlfy Lhls maLLers by
(1) Lransformlng all of Lhe daLa (see your handouL on blas), (2) booLsLrapplng (noL
lmplemenLed ln SÞSS for AnCvA, or (3) uslng a correcLed LesL (see below). 8emember
LhaL how we lnLerpreL Levene's LesL depends on Lhe slze of sample we have (see Lhe
handouL on blas).

CuLpuL 2
lor Lhese daLa Lhe varlances are relaLlvely slmllar (hence Lhe hlgh probablllLy value). 1yplcally people would lnLerpreL
Lhls resulL as meanlng LhaL we can assume homogenelLy of varlance (because Lhe observed 7-value of .439 ls greaLer
Lhan .03). Powever, our sample slze ls falrly small (some groups had only 6 parLlclpanLs). 1he small sample (per group)
wlll llmlL Lhe power of Levene's LesL Lo deLecL dlfferences beLween Lhe varlances. We could also look aL Lhe varlance
raLlo. 1he smallesL varlance was for Lhe nln[a 1urLle cosLume (8.16
2 =
66.39) and Lhe largesL was for Superman
cosLumes (17.83
2
= 318.62). 1he raLlo of Lhese values ls 318.62/66.39 = 4.78. ln oLher words, Lhe largesL varlance ls
almosL flve Llme larger Lhan Lhe smallesL varlance. 1hls dlfference ls qulLe subsLanLlal. 1herefore, we mlghL wanL Lo
err on Lhe slde of cauLlon and assume LhaL varlances are noL homogenous.
lor Lhe maln AnCvA, we selecLed Lwo procedures (8rown-lorsyLhe and Welch) LhaL should be accuraLe when
homogenelLy of varlance ls noL Lrue. So, we should perhaps lnspecL Lhese 9-values ln Lhe maln analysls. lf we were
carrylng ouL posL hoc LesLs (nexL week), we mlghL choose a meLhod LhaL does noL rely on Lhe assumpLlon of equal
varlances (e.g., Lhe Cames-Powell procedure - see nexL week's handouL)

© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 7

The Main ANOVA
CuLpuL 3 shows Lhe maln AnCvA summary Lable. 1he Lable ls dlvlded lnLo beLween group effecLs (effecLs due Lo Lhe
experlmenL) and wlLhln group effecLs (Lhls ls Lhe unsysLemaLlc varlaLlon ln Lhe daLa). 1he beLween-group effecL ls Lhe
overall experlmenLal effecL (Lhe effecL of wearlng dlfferenL cosLumes on Lhe severlLy of ln[urles). ln Lhls row we are
Lold Lhe sums of squares for Lhe model (SS
M
= 4180.62). 1he sum of squares for Lhe model represenLs Lhe LoLal
experlmenLal effecL whereas Lhe mean squares for Lhe model represenLs Lhe average experlmenLal effecL. 1he row
labelled !$->$+ ,*'A7 glves deLalls of Lhe unsysLemaLlc varlaLlon wlLhln Lhe daLa (Lhe varlaLlon due Lo naLural lndlvldual
dlfferences ln physlque and Lolerance Lo ln[ury). 1he Lable Lells us how much unsysLemaLlc varlaLlon exlsLs (Lhe
resldual sum of squares, SS
8
). lL Lhen glves Lhe average amounL of unsysLemaLlc varlaLlon, Lhe resldual mean squares
(MS
8
). 1he LesL of wheLher Lhe group means are Lhe same ls represenLed by Lhe 9-raLlo for Lhe comblned beLween-
group effecL. 1he value of Lhls raLlo ls 8.32. 1he flnal column labelled %$,. lndlcaLes how llkely lL ls LhaL an 9-raLlo of aL
leasL LhaL slze would have occurred lf Lhere were no dlfferences beLween means. ln Lhls case, Lhere ls a probablllLy of
0.000 (LhaL's less Lhan a .1° chance!). We have seen LhaL, sclenLlsLs Lend Lo use a cuL of polnL of .03 as Lhelr crlLerlon
for sLaLlsLlcal slgnlflcance. Pence, because Lhe observed slgnlflcance value ls less Lhan .03 we can say LhaL Lhere was a
slgnlflcanL effecL of Lhe cosLume worn on Lhe severlLy of ln[urles susLalned. Powever, aL Lhls sLage we sLlll do noL know
exacLly whaL Lhe effecL of each cosLume was (we don'L know whlch groups dlffered). Also, we know from prevlous
lecLures LhaL Lhlnklng abouL slgnlflcance ln Lhls black and whlLe way ls noL always helpful and we should conslder
oLher evldence (such as Lhe effecL slzes we compuLed aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhls handouL).

CuLpuL 4
We saw earller on LhaL Lhe assumpLlon of homogenelLy of varlance was quesLlonable (aL leasL ln Lerms of Lhe varlance
raLlo). 1herefore, we should lnspecL Lhe flnal Lable LhaL SÞSS produces, whlch has Lhe 8rown-lorsyLhe and Welch
verslons of Lhe 9-raLlo. lf you look aL Lhls Lable you should noLlce LhaL boLh LesL sLaLlsLlcs are sLlll hlghly slgnlflcanL (Lhe
value of B$,. ln Lhe Lable ls less Lhan .03). 1herefore, we can say LhaL Lhere was a slgnlflcanL effecL of Lhe cosLume worn
on Lhe severlLy of ln[urles.

CuLpuL 4
1o flnd ouL where Lhe dlfferences beLween groups lle, you need Lo carry ouL furLher comparlsons. 1here are Lwo
cholces of comparlson: Lhe flrsL ls a planned comparlson, ln whlch predlcLlons abouL whlch groups wlll dlffer were
made prlor Lo Lhe experlmenL, and posL hoc LesLs for whlch all groups are compared because no prlor hypoLheses
abouL group dlfferences were made. ?ou wlll learn abouL Lhese Lwo Lechnlques ln Lhe nexL class.
Reporting Results from One-Way Independent ANOVA
When we reporL an AnCvA, we glve deLalls of Lhe 9-raLlo and Lhe degrees of freedom from whlch lL was calculaLed.
lor Lhe experlmenLal effecL ln Lhese daLa Lhe 9-raLlo was derlved from dlvldlng Lhe mean squares for Lhe effecL by Lhe

© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 8

mean squares for Lhe resldual. 1herefore, Lhe degrees of freedom used Lo assess Lhe 9-raLlo are Lhe degrees of
freedom for Lhe effecL of Lhe model (#5
2
= 3) and Lhe degrees of freedom for Lhe reslduals of Lhe model (#5
C
= 26):
# 1here was a slgnlflcanL effecL of Lhe cosLume worn on Lhe severlLy of ln[urles susLalned, 9(3, 26) = 8.32, 7 <
.001.
noLlce LhaL Lhe value of Lhe 9-raLlo ls preceded by Lhe values of Lhe degrees of freedom for LhaL effecL. Powever, ln
Lhls example, we had some evldence LhaL homogenelLy of varlance was vlolaLed, so we mlghL reporL Lhe alLernaLlve
sLaLlsLlcs (whlch can be done ln Lhe same way). noLlce LhaL Lhe degrees of freedom have changed Lo reflecL how Lhe 9-
raLlo was calculaLed, and LhaL Lhe value of 9 lLself ls dlfferenL. noLe also LhaL unless 7 < .001 lL ls good pracLlce Lo
reporL Lhe exacL 7-value, Lhls ls because lL ls more lnformaLlve Lo know Lhe exacL value of 7 Lhan Lo known only LhaL lL
was blgger or smaller Lhan .03. 1he AÞA recommends reporLlng exacL 7-values.
# 1he assumpLlon of homogenelLy of varlance was vlolaLed, Lherefore, Lhe 8rown-lorsyLhe 9-raLlo ls reporLed.
1here was a slgnlflcanL effecL of Lhe cosLume worn on Lhe severlLy of ln[urles susLalned, 9(3, 16.93) = 7.68, 7 =
.003.
# 1he assumpLlon of homogenelLy of varlance was vlolaLed, Lherefore, Lhe Welch 9-raLlo ls reporLed. 1here was
a slgnlflcanL effecL of Lhe cosLume worn on Lhe severlLy of ln[urles susLalned, 9(3, 13.02) = 7.10, 7 = .002.
Guided Task
1he unlverslLy was lnLeresLed on Lhe effecLs of dlfferenL sLaLlsLlcs classes on aggresslon ln undergraduaLes. lollowlng
one of Lhree Lypes of sLaLlsLlc class (workshops, lecLures and an exam) 6 sLudenLs were placed ln a relaxaLlon room ln
whlch Lhere was a darLboard wlLh Lhe face of Lhelr lecLurer plnned Lo lL. 1he number of darLs LhaL each sLudenL Lhrew
aL Lhe darLboard was measured.
+73,, 83%-,
Workshop 10
8
13
26
28
12
LecLure 12
6
30
24
18
13
Lxam 18
40
33
29
30
23


© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 9


! LnLer Lhe daLa lnLo SÞSS.
! Save Lhe daLa onLo a dlsk ln a flle called 0-3-,+73,,2,34
! uraw an error-bar charL of Lhe daLa.
! Carry ouL one-way AnCvA Lo flnd ouL wheLher Lhe Lype of sLaLlsLlcs class affecLs
aggresslon.
! LxLra acLlvlLy lf you have: use whaL you learnL ln week 1 Lo screen Lhe daLa.

Are Lhe daLa normally dlsLrlbuLed? (8eporL some relevanL sLaLlsLlcs ln your answer ln AÞA
formaL)

9)$% :",;(%<

8ased on Lhe error bar charL, whlch groups (lf any) do you Lhlnk wlll be slgnlflcanLly dlfferenL
and why?
9)$% :",;(%<

WhaL ls Lhe assumpLlon of homogenelLy of varlance? Pas Lhls assumpLlon been meL (quoLe
relevanL sLaLlsLlcs ln AÞA formaL)? lf Lhe assumpLlon has noL been meL whaL acLlon should be
Laken?
9)$% :",;(%<

© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 10



uoes Lhe Lype of sLaLlsLlcs class slgnlflcanLly affecL aggresslon (quoLe relevanL sLaLlsLlcs ln AÞA
formaL)? WhaL does Lhe 9-value represenL?

9)$% :",;(%<
WhaL does Lhe 7 value reporLed above mean?
9)$% :",;(%<
Unguided Task 1
1he organlsers of Lhe 8ugby world cup were lnLeresLed ln Lhe paLLern of play amongsL dlfferenL naLlons. Speclflcally,
Lhey were lnLeresLed ln wheLher cerLaln Leams were more aggresslve Lhan oLhers. Cver Lhe course of Lhe
compeLlLlon, Lhey noLed Lhe ln[ury paLLerns of players ln Lhe Lngland squad afLer cerLaln games. 1he dependenL
varlable was Lhe number of ln[urles susLalned by each player ln a maLch, and Lhe lndependenL varlable was Lhe Leam
Lhey had played. ulfferenL players were used ln Lhe dlfferenL maLches (Lo avold ln[urles from prevlous maLches
carrylng over lnLo new maLches).
=(3. /"#$%!(,
!apan
0
33
31
29
20
7

© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 11



Unguided Task 2
l read a sLory ln a newspaper recenLly clalmlng LhaL sclenLlsLs had dlscovered LhaL Lhe chemlcal genlsLeln, whlch ls
naLurally occurrlng ln Soya, was llnked Lo lowered sperm counLs ln wesLern males. ln facL, when you read Lhe acLual
sLudy, lL had been conducLed on raLs, lL found no llnk Lo lowered sperm counLs buL Lhere was evldence of abnormal
sexual developmenL ln male raLs (probably because Lhls chemlcal acLs llke oesLrogen). 1he [ournallsL naLurally
lnLerpreLed Lhls as a clear llnk Lo apparenLly decllnlng sperm counLs ln wesLern males (bloody [ournallsLs!). Anyway, as
a vegeLarlan who eaLs loLs of Soya producLs and probably would llke Lo have klds one day, lmaglne l wanLed Lo LesL
Lhls ldea ln humans raLher Lhan raLs. l Look 80 males and spllL Lhem lnLo four groups LhaL varled ln Lhe number of Soya
meals Lhey aLe per week over a year long perlod. 1he flrsL group was a conLrol group and Lhey had no Soya meals aL all
per week (l.e. none ln Lhe whole year), Lhe second group had 1 Soya meal per week (LhaL's 32 over Lhe year), Lhe Lhlrd
group had 4 Soya meals per week (LhaL's 208 over Lhe year) and Lhe flnal group had 7 Soya meals a week (LhaL's 364
over Lhe year). AL Lhe end of Lhe year, all of Lhe parLlclpanLs were senL away Lo produce some sperm LhaL l could counL
(when l say 'l', l mean someone ln a laboraLory as far away from me as humanly posslble). uaLa are below (alLhough ln
a dlfferenL formaL Lo how lL should be enLered lnLo SÞSS).

! LnLer Lhe daLa lnLo SÞSS (bear ln mlnd LhaL Lhey are noL enLered ln Lhe same way as Lhe
Lable below).
! Save Lhe daLa onLo a dlsk ln a flle called 01(%.2,34
! Are Lhe daLa normally dlsLrlbuLed?
! ls Lhe assumpLlon of homogenelLy of varlance meL?
! Carry ouL one-way AnCvA Lo flnd ouL wheLher CenlsLeln affecLs sperm counLs.
43
16
Wales
30
40
27
23
40
13
30
46
new Zealand
16
33
23
32
20
34
37
19
1onga
33
37
33
37
36
33
39
33

© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 12


no Soya
Sperm (Mllllons)
1 Soya Meal
Sperm (Mllllons)
4 Soya Meals
Sperm (Mllllons)
7 Soya Meals
Sperm (Mllllons)
0.33 0.33 0.40 0.31
0.38 0.36 0.60 0.32
0.88 0.63 0.96 0.36
0.92 0.64 1.20 0.37
1.22 0.77 1.31 0.71
1.31 1.33 1.33 0.81
1.32 1.62 1.68 0.87
1.37 1.71 1.83 1.18
2.43 1.94 2.10 1.23
2.79 2.48 2.93 1.33
3.40 2.71 2.96 1.34
4.32 4.12 3.00 1.49
4.72 3.63 3.09 1.30
6.90 6.76 3.36 2.09
7.38 7.08 4.34 2.70
7.78 7.26 3.81 2.73
9.62 7.92 3.94 2.83
10.03 8.04 10.16 3.07
10.32 12.10 10.98 3.28
21.08 18.47 18.21 4.11

Unguided Task 3
Þeople love Lhelr moblle phones, whlch ls raLher worrylng glven some recenL conLroversy abouL llnks beLween moblle
phone use and braln Lumours. 1he baslc ldea ls LhaL moblle phones emlL mlcrowaves, and so holdlng one nexL Lo your
braln for large parLs of Lhe day ls a blL llke sLlcklng your braln ln a mlcrowave oven and selecLlng Lhe 'cook unLll well
done' buLLon. lf we wanLed Lo LesL Lhls experlmenLally, we could geL 6 groups of people and sLrap a moblle phone on
Lhelr heads (LhaL Lhey can'L remove). 1hen, by remoLe conLrol, we Lurn Lhe phones on for a cerLaln amounL of Llme
each day. AfLer 6 monLhs, we measure Lhe slze of any Lumour (ln mm
3
) close Lo Lhe slLe of Lhe phone anLennae ([usL
behlnd Lhe ear). 1he slx groups experlenced 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 3 hours per day of phone mlcrowaves for 6 monLhs. uaLa
are below (alLhough ln a dlfferenL formaL Lo how lL should be enLered lnLo SÞSS). (1hls example ls from lleld & Pole,
2003, so Lhere ls a very deLalled answer ln Lhere lf you're lnLeresLed).

! LnLer Lhe daLa lnLo SÞSS (bear ln mlnd LhaL Lhey are noL enLered ln Lhe same way as Lhe
Lable below).
! Save Lhe daLa onLo a dlsk ln a flle called =$.)$%2,34
! Are Lhe daLa normally dlsLrlbuLed?
! ls Lhe assumpLlon of homogenelLy of varlance meL?
! Carry ouL one-way AnCvA Lo flnd ouL wheLher moblle phone use causes braln
Lumours.





© Þrof. Andy lleld, 2012 !!!"#$%&'()*$+,%-.-$%-$&%"&'/ Þage 13

> ?)$%,
1(% @3&
A ?)$%,
1(% @3&
B ?)$%,
1(% @3&
C ?)$%,
1(% @3&
D ?)$%,
1(% @3&
E ?)$%,
1(% @3&
0.02 0.77 1.29 4.31 4.63 3.17
0.00 0.74 1.08 2.47 3.16 3.03
0.01 0.22 1.07 2.04 4.06 6.14
0.01 0.94 0.48 3.32 4.61 4.90
0.04 0.62 1.26 3.18 3.32 4.63
0.04 0.33 0.32 2.24 4.84 3.88
0.01 0.47 0.64 3.80 3.20 3.23
0.03 0.78 1.69 2.86 3.40 2.70
0.00 0.76 1.83 2.38 3.04 3.31
0.01 0.03 1.22 4.09 4.73 3.36
0.01 0.93 1.69 3.31 3.18 3.43
0.02 0.39 2.34 3.02 3.09 4.43
0.03 0.62 1.34 3.63 3.63 4.83
0.02 0.48 1.87 4.14 3.83 4.13
0.01 0.13 0.83 2.82 4.88 4.03
0.04 0.72 0.98 1.77 3.21 3.67
0.03 0.38 0.98 2.36 3.30 4.43
0.02 0.27 1.39 3.39 6.03 4.62
0.01 0.00 1.63 2.64 4.13 3.11
0.01 0.69 0.87 1.84 3.42 3.33


1hls handouL conLalns maLerlal from:
lleld, A. Þ. (2013). ulscoverlng sLaLlsLlcs uslng SÞSS: and sex and drugs and rock 'n' roll (4Lh LdlLlon). London: Sage.
1hls maLerlal ls copyrlghL Andy lleld (2000, 2003, 2009, 2013).

References

Cohen, !. (1988). SLaLlsLlcal power analysls for Lhe behavloural sclences (2nd edlLlon). new ?ork: Academlc Þress.
Cohen, !. (1992). A power prlmer. Þsychologlcal 8ulleLln, 112(1), 133-139.
uavles, Þ., Surrldge, !., Pole, L., & Munro-uavles, L. (2007). Superhero-relaLed ln[urles ln paedlaLrlcs: a case serles.
Archlves of ulsease ln Chlldhood, 92(3), 242-243. dol: 10.1136/adc.2006.109793
lleld, A. Þ. (2013). ulscoverlng sLaLlsLlcs uslng l8M SÞSS SLaLlsLlcs: And sex and drugs and rock 'n' roll (4Lh ed.). London:
Sage.



l
lor Superman vs. Pulk you should geL # = 1.86 and 1.62 (uslng Lhe pooled sLandard devlaLlon), for Superman vs.
Splderman you should geL # = 1.33 and 1.26 (uslng Lhe pooled sLandard devlaLlon).

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