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The New Science of Live:
Can we cure cancer?
1. What is a marketed use of genetic engineering? a. insecticides b. insulin c. herbicides d. cleaning up oil spills e. all of the above Ans: e Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Easy
2. Strawberries have been genetically engineered a. as hybrids with blueberries. b. in a variety of colors. c. to resist frost. d. for faster growth. e. for medical research. Ans: c Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Easy
3. What is the underlying principle of biotechnology? a. All life is based on the same genetic code. b. Plant and animal genes are not interchangeable. c. Bacteria are the "workhorses" of the molecular world. d. Scientists need a strong moral code to work as genetic engineers. e. Selective breeding must be carefully controlled. Ans: a Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Easy
4. DNA fingerprinting works to identify criminals because a. all individuals have the same DNA. 1
is a moot argument because of the exorbitant expense of DNA testing. DNA can be found in all samples EXCEPT a. c. all individuals have unique DNA. can never be resolved because all ethnic groups share some DNA characteristics. saliva. d. Ans: d Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Easy 6. no two individuals. All of the above contain DNA. c. repeat up to 256 times. hair shaft. b. b. DNA can be used to create a criminal profile. has abated since a 1992 report issued by the National Academy of Sciences wrote guidelines for DNA evidence. b. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences a. Ans: c 2 . blood. d. DNA samples are readily available from suspects. e. except for identical twins. was settled following a well-publicized murder trial. semen. e. all of the above e. are repeated "nonsense" phrases of DNA bases c.Chapter 24 b. do not code for a specific amino acid. d. have the same DNA. depending on the individual. The controversy about the admissibility of DNA evidence to a court of law a. e. c. d. Ans: b Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Easy 5. only b & c Ans: d Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Easy 7. has not been resolved to the satisfaction of defense attorneys.
Cloning. Cells into which corrected genes are introduced cannot find and copy these genes to make new proteins. Cloning. physicians have disregarded symptom-based treatment in favor of biotechnology. c. Since the advent of gene therapy for genetic diseases. e. c. Drug companies are stalling the research projects until they can get assurances about development patents. e. general practitioners have been more successful in curing some inherited diseases. Congress is hesitant to fund any more experimental programs at the National Institutes of Health. Genetic diseases are usually caused by a. b. Ans: c Link To: The New Face of Medicine 3 . and Regenerative Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 9. a defective gene on chromosome 7. d. new medical techniques for widespread diseases have been perfected. b.Chapter 24 Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Easy 8. b & c Ans: e Link To: Stem Cells. Ans: d Link To: Stem Cells. the lack of a particular protein. The laboratories have not had enough time to develop a gene-therapy protocol. d. There is a voluntary moratorium on gene therapy research because of the fear of introducing a toxic gene into the environment. a. e. c. b. an incorrect sequence of bases in a gene. and Regenerative Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 10. the presence of a particular enzyme. What has affected the preliminary results from some recently initiated gene therapy trials? a. clinics have reported positive results doing in vitro gene therapy research. Health Management Organizations have funded most of the experimental treatments and genetic research projects. d.
a genetic defect expressed in bone or tissue d. Which procedure would forensic scientists use when the laboratory needs a larger sample of DNA to run an analysis? a. a potentially fatal bacterial infection b. several varieties of oxidants c.Chapter 24 Difficulty Level: Easy 11. According to recent scientific research. the byproducts of cellular respiration b. how many times a day does the DNA in each body cell need to be repaired? 4 . gene splicing Ans: d Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Easy 14. What is cancer? a. a disease caused by an injury to the mitochondria Ans: b Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 12. Which of the following can damage DNA? a. molecules from some processed foods d. polymerase chain reactions (PCR) e. a disease characterized by rampant cell growth c. cloning d. radioactive isotope tagging b. a condition in which cell membranes disintegrate e. high energy radiation e. variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) c. all of the above Ans: e Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 13.
d. environmental efforts to save the tropical rain forests. 1. c. c. 10. How does penicillin control bacterial infections? a. forms a protein coating around the bacteria cells e. d. better "cork" and "bottle" analogies. 100. tighter quality control in the computer industries. advances in the search techniques for natural molecules. b. early success in the development of protease inhibitors.000 d. 10 b. e. Computer Assisted Drug Design is expanding because of a. all of the above Ans: e Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 16. e. increases the number of white blood cells d.000 e.Chapter 24 a. strengthens the body's immune system 5 .000 Ans: d Link To: Unraveling the Past: Mitochondrial DNA Difficulty Level: Easy 15. Research on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus is at the molecular level and on a global scale. What is distinctive about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)? a. The HIV has two protein coats with different functions. This virus destroys the body's main defense system. Research to block the HIV life cycle has led to the successful development of protease inhibiters. Ans: b Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 17. b. circumvents the bacterial meiosis stage c. blocks the molecule that constructs the cell walls of the bacteria cells b. 100 c.
protects the organism from infection e. a mismatch in the double helix at a site Ans: b Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 19. enhances the body's auto immune system c. is a natural occurrence in most people. blocks the enzyme that controls insertion of HIV material into the cell d. a mistake in the order of DNA bases c. is a normal cell that has experienced chromosomal damage. dissolves the virus wall in HIV b. d. can be more common in persons with genetic defects. the byproduct of cellular respiration b. c. b. is ingested when a person consumes genetically engineered tomatoes and corn. cuts the HIV into many pieces Ans: c Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 20. an enzyme patrolling the cytoplasm e.Chapter 24 Ans: a Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 18. What is a point defect? a. 6 . all of the above Ans: c Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Easy 21. There is a low probability of any single cell in your body acquiring the defects to become cancerous. e. What does a protease inhibitor do? a. A cancerous cell a. a slip in the DNA strand d.
A genetic disease can be described as a defect in the protein of DNA. Ans: False Link To: Unraveling the Past: Mitochondrial DNA Difficulty Level: Easy 23. Gene therapy is an ordinary research application rather than a research frontier Ans: False Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 25. Ans: True Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 26. Ans: True Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 24. Scientists are using therapeutic viruses to insert site-specific healthy genes into cells with damaged genes. Genetic engineering is based in part on the study of how viruses manipulate the cell replication processes.Chapter 24 Ans: True Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 22. More than 99% of the pesticides we take in each day are commercially produced. Ans: True Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 7 .
Ans: True Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 28. Computer designed drugs will greatly decrease the time and increase the efficiency of drug research and development. Cloning.Chapter 24 27. Although oxidants are a natural byproduct of cellular respiration. Ans: True Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 29. and Regenerative Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 32. Cloning. Because of the extensive global effort. Ans: False Link To: Stem Cells. 8 . finding a cure for AIDS has been much easier than health professionals originally thought. and Regenerative Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 31. Ans: False Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 30. they can be harmful to the DNA of the cell nucleus. Pluripotent cells are valuable to research because of their ability to become any tissue. A cell will not become a cancer cell with only one gene abnormality. All cloning is reproductive cloning. Ans: True Link To: Stem Cells.
Ans: a Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Medium 37. b. Ans: False Link To: Stem Cells. b. d. patients ultimately heal themselves. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have evolved. and Regenerative Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 34. e. None of the above describes how medicines work. e. Viruses have mutated to new and more deadly forms. Trained research pharmacists have gone to other careers. c. medicines will bring about desired physical changes. How do most modern medicines work? a. The first animal cloned was a fruit fly. c. Cloning. Medicines are molecules shaped in a way that can alter cell chemistry. d.Chapter 24 Ans: True Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Easy 33. When patients have faith in their doctors. coli escaping into the natural environment? 9 . Patients have become more aware of alternative medical treatments. Why is a drug production gap of concern to medical science? a. Ans: b Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Medium 35. Doctors cannot locate effective drugs in the quantity needed. Why are genetic researchers NOT worried about the bacteria E. All medicines are essentially placebos. All of the above describe how medicines work.
coli mutations. E. patrolling enzymes in the nucleus detect point defects. coli bacteria is dependent on a laboratory environment to survive. What is a good working definition of genetic engineering? Ans: Genetic engineering is a procedure to modify the function of an organism by altering the organism's genes in some way or by inserting foreign genes into the DNA of the organism. which can be removed by a separate enzyme. Since double-blind clinical trials have a secret code for the drugs tested. How does a cell repair itself in a natural system? Ans: The DNA in a cell has two mechanisms for self-repair. Ans: False Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Medium 40. E. e. This requires a 10 . c. The cell then replicates in a normal way. coli is a harmless bacteria outside the human intestine. Ans: True Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Medium 39. coli has a gene that causes it to be sterile in a natural environment. Laboratory researchers have a triple fail-safe protocol for containing E. The research strain of E. Researchers have developed an antibiotic spray for any and all possible E. Ans: b Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Medium 38. First. Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Medium 41. there is no need to match the participants for age. d. coli bacteria. bases on the DNA double helix can be mismatched with their complement on the other side of the ladder.Chapter 24 a. Genetic engineering is based on the fact that all life shares the same interchangeable code. Second. b.
In vitro is a process completed outside the human body and in vivo takes place inside the human body. Once that shape has been identified the researchers develop a therapeutic molecule of the same shape. the cell goes through a normal cell cycle. the cell will be fixed or destroyed. following the repair by the enzyme. What is Computer Assisted Drug Design? How does it work? Ans: Modern computers can be programmed to know the chemistry of a condition and discover the shape of the molecules involved in that condition. Ans: c Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 11 . d. Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Medium 42. b. In vivo is a process completed outside the human body and in vitro takes place inside the human body. In vitro is a computer-designed procedure that has never been tried while in vivo has been in practice two decades.Chapter 24 specific enzyme to remove that section. Again. which will eliminate or alleviate the symptoms of a targeted disease or condition. What is the difference between in vitro and in vivo gene therapy? a. If damage is found at any point in a normal cell. Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Medium 43. Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Medium 44. These procedures are the same. e. c. How is a cancer cell different from a normal cell? Ans: All cells go through a cycle of several stages prior to replication. In vivo is a computer-designed procedure that has never been tried while in vitro has been in practice two decades. Cancer cells lack this quality control and replicate out of control with the defect retained. During and at the end of each cycle there are special molecules that conduct a quality control check of the process. Drugs are designed specifically to match the shape or geometry of a certain molecule.
the viral DNA has to be inserted into the host cell. The protease inhibitor does not allow these enzymes to function. How does a protease inhibitor control the virus that causes AIDS? Ans: Before a host cell can be forced to manufacture new virus material for the AIDS virus. In these trials a placebo is given to one group and the experimental drug to another. How is a molecule's geometry used to an advantage in Computer Assisted Drug Design? Ans: The computer can eliminate time-consuming trial and error in laboratory trials by designing a drug that will fit the geometric specifications of the molecule identified with the condition or disease. Streptococcus d. coli b. Certain proteins (protease) act as enzymes for this insertion process. Staphylococcus Ans: e Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Hard 46. E. Since neither the patients nor the researchers know who is receiving the real drug. Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 47. the HIV-AIDS bacteria c. Ans: Medical researchers use double-blind clinical trials to validate the results of the experiment. Which is the strain of bacteria that has become resistant to most antibiotics commercially available? a. Tuberculococcus e. thus stopping the introduction of the virus. Link To: The New Face of Medicine 12 . Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Hard 48. the results cannot be influenced by psychological clues.Chapter 24 45. Explain the rationale of double-blind clinical trials. Double-blind experiments help to ensure the objectivity expected in medical research.
some bacteria will be drug resistant. Since embryos are the source of these cells. Ans: Embryonic stem cells. nerve cells for quadriplegics. a few bacteria will have the capacity to develop a resistance to an antibiotic. and Regenerative Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 51. These bacteria will multiply once their competition has been wiped out. An electric shock bonded the two cells. Medical research is trying to use stem cells to produce. the research is of great concern to persons who believe that life begins with conception. and neurotransmitters for patients with Parkinson's. are fertilized cells in their first few days of existence. organs for transplants. also called pluripotent cells. is destroying life. The overuse of antibiotics and the research gaps in development have led to new strains of drug-resistant bacteria in the 1990s Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Hard 50. The cloned sheep had DNA identical to the first sheep and different from the egg donor and the surrogate. 13 . "Whenever fundamental new insights into the workings of nature have been gained in the past. Cloning. Explain the statement. Link To: Stem Cells. How have antibiotics become less effective since their introduction? Ans: Within any particular bacteria population. major changes in the human condition have followed. Describe the procedure used to clone Dolly the sheep. Cloning. If drug companies do not continually develop new antibiotics. The unfertilized egg was used to "turn on" the replication process in the donor cell. Outline the arguments and controversy about stem cell research. for example. it was inserted into a third sheep.Chapter 24 Difficulty Level: Hard 49. New knowledge is many times translated into medical techniques and materials that prolong human life." Ans: Answers will vary. and Regenerative Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 52. which served as the surrogate "mother" of the clone. Ans: A cell from one adult sheep was fused with an unfertilized egg from a sheep of a different species. The unique quality of stem cells is their ability to become any type of tissue. Link To: Stem Cells. in their opinion. When the cell began to divide normally. Using these cells.
Write a speech that will convince the board and accomplish both your goals. Industrialized nations have agreed to limit the production of CFCs. a private citizen. The Hot Zone by Richard Preston is the true story of a lethal virus capable of killing primates. DC. 14 . Ans: Answers will vary but should include the positive gains made in a ‘failed’ experiment plus materials/equipment necessary to produce a ‘successful’ experiment. Link To: Stem Cells. Link To: Stem Cells. Ans: Answers should parallel the techniques for cloning Dolly. and a biotechnological researcher at the Center for Disease Control take to eliminate the problems these books describe? Ans: Answers will vary but should include issues such as evolution of strains of bacteria and/or virus plus various sanitary methods necessary to control disease. Even though you must defend the expenses of a failed cloning experiment at the annual meeting of the board of directors. Andromeda Strain by Michael Crichton is the fictitious story of a genetically engineered microscopic toxic life form that escapes into a populated environment. What are the steps you would recommend for cloning a cow? Use the principles of cell biology discussed in this chapter in your scientific protocol. including humans. Pretend that you are the CEO of a biotechnological research laboratory.Chapter 24 Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Hard 53. Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Hard 56. Cloning. you must also ask for a continuation of funding for this research. would you recommend the reintroduction of CFC production? Defend your answer. which was discovered in a primate laboratory near Washington. Cloning. What steps would the federal government. If sunscreens can be developed to block harmful ultraviolet rays and therapeutic viruses can be created to cure skin cancer. and Regenerative Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 54. which are known to destroy the protective layer of our upper atmospheric ozone. Pretend that you are the scientific head of a biotechnology research laboratory. and Regenerative Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 55.
Ans: Answers will vary but should take into consideration how one keeps the participants involved in the study and their treatments secure so as not to influence the results of the test. Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 60. Link To: Stem Cells. Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 58. Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 57. Ans: Since this is an ethical issue answers will vary. What makes the HIV virus "sloppy" and how does the cell's poor quality control lead to its success in the human host? Ans: The HIV virus can use any one of several proteins that are available in its human host rather than being genetically ‘keyed’ to a single protein. Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 59. Design a double-blind clinical trial to determine how a cold virus is spread in the population. and Regenerative Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 15 . Cloning.Chapter 24 Ans: Answers will vary but may include the possibility of new diseases developing once old ones are eliminated plus other problems the introduction of CFC into the environment could cause. Ans: Answers will vary but should include security of participant identification plus how to maintain accurate records. Should sperm from sperm banks be used to fertilize harvested eggs for use in stem cell research? Why or why not. Discuss the ethical and practical issues surrounding success in such an experiment.
Knowing someone’s DNA could allow a disease to be diagnosed ahead of time. and therefore couldn’t have known her. Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 62. Is this a good idea? Why or why not? Ans: Answers will vary. Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 63.Chapter 24 61. the down side is that spare parts can become so common that people won’t bother to take care of their health. The good side of this is that no one would have to wait for organ donors. What are the pros and cons of this goal? Ans: Answers will vary.” Why or why not? Ans: Answers will vary but should include information about evolution of humans. we put more pressure on society and the environment to support an increased population. If there actually was a ‘Chromosomal Adam’. One of the possibilities of stem cell research might be to create organs for use as ‘spare parts’. Link To: Unraveling the Past: Mitochondrial DNA Difficulty Level: Hard 16 . Ans: Answers will vary. Link To: The New Face of Medicine Difficulty Level: Hard 64. this personal information could also lead to discrimination. he probably didn’t live at the same time as ‘Mitochondrial Eve’. We are close to being able to store anyone’s DNA at birth. As we find ways to eliminate more disease and extend human life. Is this a good idea or not? Justify your answer. much less fathered her children. Stamping out disease is one of the goals of medicine.
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