Chapter 10

Atoms in Combination: The Chemical Bond
How does blood clot?
1. Which of the following represents the most stable arrangement of electrons? a. atoms with completely filled valence shells b. elements that are positioned on the far right column of the periodic table of elements c. inert gases such as helium, neon and argon d. atoms with a total of 2, 10, 18 or 36 electrons e. all of the above Ans: e Link To: Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

2. Freezing and boiling are examples of a. processes that cause physical changes. b. oxidation/reduction reactions. c. polymerization. d. temperature changes that form ionic bonds. e. processes that cause chemical changes. Ans: a Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Easy

3. Chemical bonds are a. the attraction among atoms resulting from the destruction of electrons. b. an unstable configuration among two or more elements. c. the redistribution of electrons between atoms, leading to a more stable configuration. d. sharing of electrons in the lowest energy level. e. explained in laws of thermodynamics. Ans: c Link To: Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

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4. Which of the following common household products is an acid? a. detergent b. vinegar c. milk d. ammonia e. salt Ans: b Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

5. Metallic bonds create materials with properties that make them a. stiff and viscous. b. malleable. c. brittle. d. good insulators. e. soft and pliable. Ans: b Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

6. The electrons at the outer level of the atom are called a. outer field electrons. b. the atomic number. c. valence electrons. d. van de Waals electrons. e. ionic electrons. Ans: c Link To: Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

7. Where would you NOT expect to find plasma? a. the Sun b. sealed in a magnetic bottle c. Pluto d. neon lights e. all of the above

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Ans: c Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Easy

8. Which state of matter maintains a constant volume but not a fixed shape? a. gas b. plasma c. liquid d. crystal e. solid Ans: c Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Easy

9. Examples of polymers are a. fur and cellulose. b. spider webs and plastic. c. nylon and cotton. d. some paints, inks, and glues. e. all of the above Ans: e Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Easy

10. In which of the following places is more polymerization than depolymerization occurring? a. silk cocoon b. cow stomach c. compost heap d. art gallery e. birdbath Ans: a Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

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Chapter 10 11. To save money, you bought a tougher cut of meat. Which of the following processes will you be using if you use a meat tenderizer? a. distillation b. condensation reaction c. precipitation d. dehydration synthesis e. depolymerization Ans: e Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

12. Sodium chloride (NaCl) atoms form a crystal lattice that is held together by a. hydrogen bonds. b. salt bonds. c. covalent bonds. d. ionic bonds. e. van der Waals bonds. Ans: d Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

13. Which of the following chemical reactions shows combustion? a. Fe+2 + H2O → FeO + H2(g) b. HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O c. CH4 + 2O2 →.CO2 + 2H2O d. Pb + PbO2 + 2H2SO4 → 2PbSO4 + 2H2O. e. CaO + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O Ans: c Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

14. Most polymers are characterized as a. permanently stable compounds. b. interesting to study, but having little value in our lives. c. a collection of small molecules combined into long chains. d. found in synthetic products, but not in nature. e. weak but flexible. 161

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Ans: c Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Easy

15. A piece of gravel by the side of road is most likely held together by a. covalent bonds. b. ionic bonds. c. van der Waals forces. d. crystal lattice. e. hydrogen bonds. Ans: b Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

16. Which of the following is characteristic of hydrogen bonds? a. separation of electrical charges. b. links of hydrogen to oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine. c. biological polymers. d. DNA double helix. e. all of the above. Ans: e Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

17. Which makes the best electrical conductor? a. covalent bonds b. ionic bonds c. hydrogen bonds d. metallic bonds e. polymers Ans: d Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Easy

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Chapter 10 18. An example of an ionic bond is a. N2 b. Au c. Ag d. CaCl2 e. All of these Ans: c Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

19. An example of a metallic bond is a. N2 b. Au c. Ag d. CaCl2 e. Both b and c Ans: e Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

20. An example of a covalent bond is a. N2 b. Au c. Ag d. CaCl2 e. None of these Ans: a Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

21. Every atom in nature attempts to reach a state of lowest energy. Ans: True Link To: Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

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Chapter 10 22. A chemical bond leads to a more stable arrangement of two or more atoms. Ans: True Link To: Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

23. Methane has a higher boiling point than paraffin wax. Ans: False Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

24. An ionic bond between two atoms is formed from an electrostatic give and take. Ans: True Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

25. When atoms bond to form molecules the chemical potential energy is higher than it was before the bonding. Ans: False Link To: Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

26.Ionic bonding can take place only when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. Ans: True Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

27. Plasmas are efficient conductors of electricity. Ans: True Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Easy

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28. Glass lacks a crystal's organizational structure at the atomic level. Ans: True Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Easy

29. Van der Waals bonds are among the strongest bonds in nature. Ans: False Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

30. Acids and bases combine chemically to form salt and water. Ans: True Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

31. The raw material for all plastics is silicon dioxide. Ans: False Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Easy

32. One of the reasons steel is stronger than glass is that the strongest bonds in steel are stronger than the strongest bonds in glass. Ans: True Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

33. Some snake venom kills by causing arterial blood to clot.

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Chapter 10 Ans: True Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

34. One difference between asphalt and kerosene is the temperature at which the original crude oil was distilled. Ans: True Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

35. How do you neutralize an acid? Give an example. Ans: An acid can be neutralized by mixing it with a base; for example, some excess stomach acid can be neutralized by taking an antacid product that contains a base(2HCl + MgCO3 → MgCl2 + H2O + CO2) Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

36. What are polar molecules? Give an example. Ans: Polar molecules are clusters of atoms with a positively and negatively charged surfaces. For example, the water molecule has two positive (H+) sides and one negative (O2-) side. These differences in charge creates a localized electric field and a mild attractive force between molecules. Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Easy

37. If a chemical bond forms spontaneously, a. energy will be needed in the reaction. b. energy will be released in the reaction. c. a change in state will always occur. d. a change in color will always occur. e. a & c OR b & d Ans: b Link To: Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Medium

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38. To see an everyday example of oxidation, you might observe a. growing hair. b. glass breaking. c. silver tarnish. d. a thunderstorm. e. a light bulb shining. Ans: c Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Medium

39. If you drop a material that is held together by ionic bonds, one likely outcome is that it will a. bend. b. bounce. c. flow across the floor. d. shatter. e. be dented. Ans: d Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Medium

40. Which statement is true of liquid crystals? a. Although now manufactured in high tech devices, liquid crystals are analogous to the lipid molecules in the primitive oceans. b. Liquid crystals become less structured in the presence of an electric field. c. Outside an electric field, liquid crystals are a static state of matter with disordered atoms. d. Polymers broken into individual parts reform as liquid crystals. e. all of the above Ans: c Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Medium 41. Your friend cut her hand while replacing a windowpane. Which of the following can affect the way her blood clots? a. the nature of the cut

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Chapter 10 b. the presence of foreign matter in the wound c. genetic diseases d. temperature e. All these factors affect blood clotting. Ans: e Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Medium

42. Exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions differ in that a. energy is given off only in exothermic reactions. b. energy is given off only in endothermic reactions. c. the total energy in all involved electrons is the same before and after an exothermic reaction. d. the total energy in all involved electrons is the same before and after an endothermic reaction. e. only exothermic reactions can be observed in everyday life. Ans: a Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Medium

43. A material that shows polarization in its chemical attraction is a. pencil ‘lead’ b. water c. plastic d. wood e. All of these Ans: b Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Medium

44. A material that shows CONSISTENT van der Waals forces in its chemical attraction is a. pencil ‘lead’ b. water c. plastic d. wood e. All of these Ans: a Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds

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45. A material that shows CONSISTENT hydrogen bonding in its chemical attraction is a. pencil ‘lead’ b. LIQUID water c. ICE d. wood e. All of these Ans: c Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Medium

46. Which chemical bond would be analogous to a post-it-note type of glue? a. metallic b. ionic c. covalent d. hydrogen e. van der Waals Ans: e Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Medium

47. If a molecule has been chemically bonded it will be more reactive than before the bonding took place. Ans: False Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Medium

48. How does the number of electrons in the outer shell determine the chemical characteristics of an element? Ans: The number of electrons in the outer shell of each atom determines how reactive the atom will be. If the outer shell is filled, the atom has no bonding sites and is stable. If the outer shell

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Chapter 10 has only one electron or needs only one electron to fill the outer shell, then the atom is very reactive. Link To: Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Medium

49. At the molecular level, what is the difference between a crystal and glass? Ans: If a group of atoms occurs in a regularly repeating sequence, which appears over and over in a predictable way, it is known as a crystal. Glass is an amorphous solid with predictable local environments for most atoms, but no long-range order to the atomic structure. Glass lacks the repeating units of the crystal. Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Medium

50. What is the primary difference among the three kinds of chemical bonding? Give examples of each. Ans: An ionic bond is a chemical bond, in which the electrostatic force between two ions with opposite charges holds the atoms in place. The electrons are given by one atom to another. A metallic bond redistributes the electrons so that they are shared by all atoms in the system. Examples are aluminum, iron, and copper. Covalent bonds are formed when well-defined clusters of atoms share their electrons, for example, diatomic oxygen. Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Medium

51. Describe the scientific process you would use to prepare a garden for plants needing acidic soil. Ans: Answers will vary, but should include running a pH test on the soil then adjusting accordingly. Link To: Our Material World Degree of Difficulty: Medium

52. What characteristics of nylon give it advantages over natural fibers? Name one material that is made out of nylon.

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Chapter 10 Ans: Answers will vary and could include strength, stretch ability, low melting point and so forth. One example is clothing. Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Medium

53. What is the difference between oxidation and reduction? Ans: Oxidation ties up oxygen; reduction gets rid of oxygen. Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Medium

54. A high octane rating in gasoline causes less engine knock because a. high octane gas is easier to distill than low octane. b. high octane is less complex hydrocarbons than low octane. c. high octane can withstand high compression in a cylinder without igniting. d. the isomer n-heptane is the primary component. e. high octane contains small amounts of isooctane. Ans: c Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

55. The chemical bonds that hold most of your body together involve a. permanent exchange of electrons among atoms. b. sharing of electrons among neighboring atoms. c. distribution of electrons along one axis. d. deformation of atoms due to electrical forces. e. strong bonding in only one direction. Ans: b Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

56. What are three items you might see in your kitchen that contain polymers? Ans: Answers will vary but might include vegetables like celery or carrots, meat, cookware coated with Teflon, plastic water pipes, "foam" cups or dishes, and vinyl flooring.

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57. You have had a hectic morning. Just as you crack an egg to begin making breakfast your friend walks into the room. "Look," she says, "I've cut my bangs and now they’re crooked." As she pencils in a hair appointment on the calendar, her boyfriend comes in from outside, scraping clay from his boots. Jumping up on the counter, he knocks your glass mixing bowl to the floor, shattering it and making a slippery mess. You attempt to clean up the mess but accidentally break the metal handle off the dustpan and rip your new cotton shirt in the process. "What a morning!" you say. During which part of the morning were ionic bonds broken? Ans: egg cracks or glass breaks Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

58. You have had a hectic morning. Just as you crack an egg to begin making breakfast your friend walks into the room. "Look," she says, "I've cut my bangs and now they’re crooked." As she pencils in a hair appointment on the calendar, her boyfriend comes in from outside, scraping clay from his boots. Jumping up on the counter, he knocks your glass mixing bowl to the floor, shattering it and making a slippery mess. You attempt to clean up the mess but accidentally break the metal handle off the dustpan and rip your new cotton shirt in the process. "What a morning!" you say. During which part of the morning were covalent bonds broken? Ans: hair is cut or shirt tears Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

59. You have had a hectic morning. Just as you crack an egg to begin making breakfast your friend walks into the room. "Look," she says, "I've cut my bangs and now they’re crooked." As she pencils in a hair appointment on the calendar, her boyfriend comes in from outside, scraping clay from his boots. Jumping up on the counter, he knocks your glass mixing bowl to the floor, shattering it and making a slippery mess. You attempt to clean up the mess but accidentally break the metal handle off the dustpan and rip your new cotton shirt in the process. "What a morning!" you say. During which part of the morning were metallic bonds broken? Ans: metal handle breaks Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

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60. Your brother gives you two unfamiliar looking items and challenges you to discover which one is held together with metallic bonds and which one with ionic bonds. What test(s) would you design to meet his challenge? Ans: Metallic is malleable, therefore would bend or stretch; ionic bonds would shatter. Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

61. Explain how some insects can be supported by the surface of pond water. Ans: Hydrogen bonding between water molecules produces surface tension upon which some insects can walk. Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Hard

62. Describe the approach a chemist would take to expand the life of a landfill. Ans: A chemist would check to see that it is constructed so that materials decompose into water, CO2, and methane, all of which can be harvested. Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

63. Compare and contrast the octane method of rating gasoline with the pH scale method of indicating acidity/alkalinity. Ans: Octane is branched hydrocarbons and the branching determines how much heat produced; this is a linear scale. The pH scale is logarithmic. Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard 64. Compare and contrast "life cycle costing" with methods of disposal commonly used in the United States. Ans: Answers will vary, however should include that manufactures charge for getting rid of the materials as well as producing these materials, however there is no way to completely control the public recycling these materials. Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

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65. From an electron point of view, explain why diatomic gasses travel in pairs. Ans: Pairs create a more stable electron arrangement through covalent bonding. Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

66. Why does carbon form a host of compounds and structures? Ans: The four valence electrons can form single or double bonds with a variety of other elements. Link To: Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

67. Explain the statement: the covalent bond is the bond of life. Ans: Carbon atoms in organic compounds are held together by covalent bonds. Link To: Types of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

68. If carbon were not available on Earth, what other element(s) have similar bonding potential. Ans: Potentially, any element in the same column as carbon could have similar bonding properties. Link To: Electron Shells, the Periodic Table, and Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

69. Are the classifications of the phases of matter (solids, liquids, gasses, plasmas) a statement about chemical bonding or about energy or about both? Explain your answer. Ans: The statement is about both because of the energy needed to break/form bonds. Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Hard

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70. Explain the concept of ‘life cycling costing’. Ans: Answers will vary, but the core idea is to introduce the cost of recycling and disposal into the cost of consumable items. Link To: Chemical Reactions and the Formation of Chemical Bonds Degree of Difficulty: Hard

71. Given the physical properties of glass, what would you expect to see in glass that has been around a long time such as the stained glass of the cathedrals of Europe? Ans: Answers will vary, however they should include that since glass flows like a liquid the glass will be thinner on the top and thicker on the bottom due to the force of gravity. Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Hard

72. We use water as ‘the’ example of a substance that displays three forms of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in the natural world. Why is solid water (ice) a bad example of the characteristics of a solid? Ans: Ice is less dense than its liquid form—this is not typical of most solids. Link To: States of Matter Degree of Difficulty: Hard

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