# Chapter 3

Energy:
Why must animals eat to stay alive?
1.Which of the following is a rate? a. joule b. foot-pound c. power d. energy e. newton Ans: c Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Which of the following is equivalent to one horsepower? a.1000 kWh b.0.75 joules c.1200 ft-lbs per hour d.550 ft-lbs per second e. none of the above Ans: d Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

3. James Watt designed experiments in horsepower to a. assist miners in removing ore. b. calculate the velocity of a water pump. c. quantify the energy generated by a horse in mines. d. invent the steam engine. e. all of the above Ans: c Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

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4. Which of the following balls would have the greatest amount of kinetic energy if they are all traveling at 10 m/s? a. baseball b. ping pong ball c. bowling ball d. soccer ball e. basketball Ans: c Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

5. Fossil fuels account for what percentage of the kinds of energy used in industrial nations? a.50% b.60% c.70% d.80% e.90% Ans: b Link to: The United States and Its Energy Future Difficulty Level: Easy

6. The first law of thermodynamics states a. in a freefall, energy is lost. b. the sum of energy in an isolated system decreases over time. c. a moving object will continue moving in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force. d. while the kind of energy in a closed system can change, the total amount cannot. e. the approximate amount of energy you spend every day is equal to the force exerted over distance. Ans: d Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Easy

7. Energy can be stored in a flashlight battery as a. electrical energy. b. chemical potential energy.

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Chapter 3 c. heat energy. d. gravitational potential energy. e. electromagnetic energy. Ans: b Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

8. Thermal energy is measured in units of a. joules/second. b. calories. c. watts. d. foot-pounds. e. all of the above. Ans: b Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

9. What did James Prescott Joule discover about heat? a. Heat is a form of energy. b. Potential energy equals heat. c. Calories should be limited to energy required. d. Brass tools work better under water. e. Horses expend energy at a rate of 550 foot lb/sec. Ans: a Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

10. The conservation law in science states that a. our natural resources are scarce. b. once energy is used, it is lost to the system. c. fossil fuels are an important energy source. d. conservation will save fossil fuels. e. the energy in an isolated system is immutable Ans: e Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Easy

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Chapter 3 11. What kind of energy does a pounding surf demonstrate? a. kinetic energy b. potential energy c. sound energy d. heat energy e. mechanical energy Ans: a Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

12. When a meteorite hits the Earth, heat is generated. Which of the following statements best describes this process? a. Gravitational potential energy is converted into heat. b. Electrical potential energy is converted into heat. c. Chemical energy is converted into heat. d. Magnetic energy is converted into heat. e. Elastic potential energy is converted into heat. Ans: a Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

13. Which of the following animals is at the first trophic level? a. cow b. killer whale c. human d. zooplankton e. none of the above Ans: e Link to: The Interchangeability of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

14. The energy stored in fossil fuels was originally in a. ferns of the Jurassic Age. b.meteors. c.the ocean. d. uranium belts. e. the Sun.

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Ans: e Link to: The United States and Its Energy Future Difficulty Level: Easy

15. Lord Kelvin is remembered for his strong support of claims that the Earth is younger than 100 million years. Ans: True Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Easy

16. Work is the direct relationship between force and distance. Ans: True Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

17. All work stops when a system runs out of energy. Ans: True Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

18. Energy can take the form of sound waves and light waves. Ans: True Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

19. Earth gains about half its internal heat from the energy of radioactive decay. Ans: True Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Easy

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Chapter 3 20. Any type of energy can be converted to any other type of energy. Ans: True Link to: The Interchangeability of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

21. It takes a lot of mass to produce a tiny amount of energy. Ans: False Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

22. Energy in an isolated system never changes. Ans: False Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

23. The Earth and its Sun form a closed system. Ans: True Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Easy

24. Pushing against an immovable object is an example of work. Ans: False Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

25. The first law of thermodynamics states that a quantity does not change in a closed system. Ans: False Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Easy 26. Whenever energy is being expended, a force is being exerted.

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Ans: True Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

27. The efficiency with which solar energy is used by Earth's organisms is very high. Ans: False Link to: The Interchangeability of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

28. Define work and give three examples. Ans: Work is equal to the force that is exerted over the distance exerted. Examples will vary, but all should have components of force and distance. Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

29. Define joule and give its proper units. Ans: Joule is the amount of work done when you exert a force of one newton through a distance of one meter; therefore the units are in newton-meters. Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

30. What is a foot-pound? Ans: A foot-pound is the unit of force (or work) used in North America. Foot-pound corresponds to the joule in the metric system, as in the force needed to push a car out of a ditch. Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

31. What is power, in physical terms?

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Chapter 3 Ans: Power is the amount of work done divided by the time it takes to do it. Another way to express this is as energy expended, divided by the time it takes to expend it. Therefore, power is a rate. Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

32. The top of the Earth's atmosphere receives 1.79 X 1017 joules of energy per second; however less than half of that amount ever reaches the ground. Where is this energy lost? Ans: About 25 percent is reflected back to space and 25% is absorbed by gases in the atmosphere. Another 5% is reflected by the Earth's surface. Link to: The Interchangeability of Energy Difficulty Level: Easy

33. What is the difference between food calories and calorie as defined by physics? Ans: Food calorie is a kilocalorie Linked to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Easy

34. The watt number on a light bulb tells the amount of energy the light bulb is using in joules per second. Which of the following light bulbs is using the most energy? a. 100-watt bulb that burns for twenty minutes b. 75-watt bulb that burns for thirty minutes c. 60-watt bulb that burns for one hour d. 40-watt bulb that burns for two hours e. 25-watt bulb left on for three hours Ans: d Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

35. A stalled car is pushed to the top of a hill, allowed to roll down the hill and started by “clutch-popping.” At which point did the car have the greatest amount of potential gravitational energy? a. at the bottom of the hill b. at the top of the hill c. when restarted with the clutch d. being pushed to the top of the hill

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Chapter 3 e. as it was rolling down the hill Ans: b Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Medium

36. What kind of energy is expended during skydiving? a. potential gravitational energy b. potential energy c. chemical energy d. heat energy e. kinetic energy Ans: e Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

37. From a physicist's point of view, in which of the following cases has some work been done? a. You try to pull your car out of ditch, but it doesn't budge. b. Your brother throws his dirty clothes on the floor. c. Your mother holds a sleeping baby. d. You review for a test by imagining the questions. e. Your father tries unsuccessfully to open a jar. Ans: b Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

38. All popular weight loss diets are based on a. the conservation law. b. increasing the exercise you do each day. c. the first law of thermodynamics. d. increasing protein intake. e. all of the above Ans: c Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Medium

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39. Which of the following is an example of work, from a physicist’s perspective? a. You attempt to open a jar of pickles but do not succeed. b. You conduct mental relaxation exercises. c. Your friend falls asleep during a movie. d. You throw a dart, but miss the target. e. all of the above Ans: d Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

40. Stretching a rubber band and shooting it across the room is an example of a. potential energy b. Kinetic energy c. Chemical energy d. Heat energy e. a and b Ans: e Linked to: The Interchangeability of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

41. Conduction, convection and radiation are methods in which a. Energy is lost. b. Entropy occurs. c. Energy is conserved. d. Energy evolves. e. Energy is generated Ans: c Linked to: The Interchangeability of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

42. Waves travel faster through water than they do through air. a. Because of the molecular density of the media b. Because of the shape of the waves c. Because of acceleration due to gravity d. Because of the change of position of the entity producing the waves e. Because of the second law of thermodynamics.

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Ans: a Linked to: The Interchangeability of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

43. To calculate how many calories your body needs to maintain your current weight for a week, you need to know all of the following except a. your current weight. b. the approximate amount of energy you expend each day. c. the number of calories used daily for normal body maintenance. d. the recommended weight for your height. e. the number of days in the week. Ans: d Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Medium

44. Which of the following has the greatest amount of gravitational potential energy? a.a case of books on an end table b.a bowling ball released for the strike c.one diver at the highest point of the dive d.a brick at the top of the Empire State Building e.a hawk diving for its prey Ans: d Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

45. An unmotorized roller coaster car starts coasting at the top of one hill, rolls down into a valley and then comes to a stop at the top of a neighboring hill. The top of the neighboring hill is at a lower elevation than the starting point. The transfer of energy in this case is a. potential to kinetic and back to potential. b .chemical to kinetic and back to potential. c. potential to kinetic and heat and back to potential and heat. d. chemical to heat and back to potential. e. none of the above Ans: c Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

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46. Which object carries the greatest amount of kinetic energy? a.250-gram baseball hit at 50 meters/second b.300-gram baseball traveling at 50 meters/second c.4-kilogram bowling ball traveling at 7 meters per second d.4-kilogram bowling ball traveling at 10 meters per second e. a 120-gram tennis ball served at 50 meters/second Ans: b Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

47. Two objects with the same temperature always contain the same amount of heat energy. Ans: False Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Medium

48. A car was parked beneath a building on a busy street. A workman washing windows on the fifteenth floor dropped a hundred kilogram bucket, which hit the roof of the car below. The fall took 3 seconds. Work was done by the car in resisting a roof collapse after the impact with the bucket. Ans: False Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

49. A car was parked beneath a building on a busy street. A workman washing windows on the fifteenth floor dropped a hundred kilogram bucket, which hit the roof of the car below. The fall took 3 seconds. The bucket was traveling at 50 ft/sec. Ans: True Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

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Chapter 3 50. A car was parked beneath a building on a busy street. A workman washing windows on the fifteenth floor dropped a hundred kilogram bucket, which hit the roof of the car below. The fall took 3 seconds. If the workman and the bucket both fell there would be an additional amount of kinetic energy expended. Ans: True Link to: The First Law Difficulty Level: Medium

51. A car was parked beneath a building on a busy street. A workman washing windows on the fifteenth floor dropped a hundred kilogram bucket, which hit the roof of the car below. The fall took 3 seconds. The bucket was traveling at approximately 35 miles per hour. Ans: True Link to: The First Law Difficulty Level: Medium

52. A car was parked beneath a building on a busy street. A workman washing windows on the fifteenth floor dropped a hundred kilogram bucket, which hit the roof of the car below. The fall took 3 seconds. When the bucket fell it had potential energy. Ans: False Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

53. How does Einstein’s famous equation, E = mc2, relate to the energy needs of the world? Ans: In the equation, the term “c” is the speed of light, a very large number equal to 3 X 108 m/s. The equation shows that the amount of potential energy stored in even small objects is enormous, because c2 is so large. If an object’s mass can be converted to energy, as happens with radioactive materials in nuclear power plants, the energy provided would be sufficient for global populations. Link to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium 54. How would your weight change if you added a lime (or lime juice) to each of your meals and all other variables were held constant? Ans: Adding a lime would cause eventual weight gain if there were no additional changes, for example increasing energy output or decreasing something else consumed. Link to: The First Law

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Chapter 3 Difficulty Level: Medium

55. Compare the rate of global fossil fuel consumption to the rate of production of fossil fuel from organic materials. Ans: Discussions should include the time it takes from plants to be turned into fossil fuel compared with the increase in population and our use of fossil fuels. Link to: The United States and its Energy Future Difficulty Level: Medium

56. Compare and contrast an open system and a closed system. To which type of system does the first law of thermodynamics apply? Ans: Discussions should include a description of the first law of thermodynamics within both a closed and open system. Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Medium

57. Explain in words how mass can be converted to energy. Ans: Answers may vary. Students could take the position that eating converts mass into energy. They may also choose to discuss Einstein’s theory. Linked to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Medium

58. Lighting a fire with a match uses which kinds of energy? a.chemical and kinetic b.electrical and chemical c.kinetic and heat d.chemical and electrical e.radioactive and potential Ans: a Link to: forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Hard

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Chapter 3 59. What are the main problems with using solar energy? Ans: Unless stored, solar energy is only available when the Sun is shining. Scientists have not yet devised a practical technology to store the large amounts of energy needed for everyday activities. Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Hard

60. Construct an energy flow path from the Sun to turning on the ignition of a car. Ans: Answers should include the Sun, production of petroleum, a discussion of chemical energy and its change into mechanical energy and heat energy. Link to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Hard

61. What would be the ecological impact if the top trophic level was destroyed? Would our species become extinct? Why or why not? Ans: Answers will vary but should include the idea that humans eat at all trophic levels. Link to: The Interchangeability of Energy Difficulty Level: Hard

62. Discuss the scientific argument about the age of the Earth that took place during the late 1800s between the physicists, the biologists, and the geologists. Ans: Answers should include time for the earth to cool, rock layers and period for evolution of flora and fauna. Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Hard

63. Describe the location of newly discovered oil and gas reserves throughout the world. In your answer include a reason for the location of these reserves. Ans: Answers should include discussion of location of the continents at the time of formation of fossil fuels. Link to: The United States and Its Energy Future Difficulty Level: Hard

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64. The subject of catabolic foods versus anabolic foods comes up frequently in diet books. Explain the principle behind the idea that some foods (catabolic) use more energy in digestion than is found in the food. How would these principles affect a diet? Ans: Answers should include energy conversion ‘using up’ food calories. Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Hard

65. How did the discovery of radioactivity affect the controversy between two competing theories about the age of the Earth? Ans: Answers should discuss radioactive decay and half lives. Link to: The First Law of Thermodynamics Difficulty Level: Hard

66. Paleontologists have recently proposed that dinosaurs were warm-blooded. Discuss this viewpoint using trophic level principles. Ans: Answers should include carnivores, herbivores and their relative trophic levels, plus the additional level of energy consumed by animals that eat at higher trophic levels. Link to: The Interchangeability of Energy Difficulty Level: Hard

67. Is more work expended for a 100kg boy to walk across a football field as opposed to a 50kg girl who travels the same distance? Explain. Ans: The boy is doing more work, although he may be more muscular. He is moving more mass through the same distance as the girl. Linked to: The Great Chain of Energy Difficulty Level: Hard 68. If you can make your hands warmer by rubbing them together, can you make two ice cubes warmer by rubbing them together? Explain. Ans: Answers will vary. The ice is an almost frictionless surface therefore generating heat through friction is very difficult. However, the heat of your hands will cause the ice to melt. Linked to: Forms of Energy

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Chapter 3 Difficulty Level: Hard

69. Why is the transfer of energy so inefficient when you change trophic levels? Ans: A great deal of heat s lost at each level by metabolic processes. Linked to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Hard

70. How is the earth and sun considered a closed system? Ans: Answers will vary but should contain a discussion of renewable and non-renewable resources. Linked to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Hard

71. What role did heat play in the argument over the age of the earth? Ans: The earth’s heat can be measured over time then extrapolated backward to its formation. Linked to: Forms of Energy Difficulty Level: Hard

72. What are the problems of converting from a fossil-fuel based society to one that relies on alternative energy sources? Explain. Ans: The infrastructure does not exist and establishing it will be extremely expensive. Linked to: The United States and Its Energy Future Difficulty Level: Hard

73. Gasoline/electric hybrid cars: Do they save energy? Defend your answer. Ans: Answers will vary but should include the cost of production of electricity. Linked to: The United States and Its Energy Future Difficulty Level: Hard

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Chapter 3 74. For fuel cell cars, what is the source of hydrogen, how is it extracted and does this really save energy. Explain. Ans: It takes energy to extract the hydrogen, which can be very expensive. Linked to: The United States and Its Energy Future Difficulty Level: Hard

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