Chapter 5

Electricity and Magnetism:
What is lightening?
1. In a famous experiment in the late 1700s, Charles Coulomb a. repeated Benjamin Franklin’s kite and lightning demonstration. b. measured electricity with a galvanometer. c. proved Newton’s three laws of motion. d. measured the force of the electric charge in objects. e. showed that muscle contractions are both electric and chemical. Ans: d Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Coulomb's law states that force is dependent on all EXCEPT a. the Coulomb constant. b. the difference in size between the two objects. c. the charge of the smaller object. d. the distance between the two objects. e.the charge of the larger object. Ans: b Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Easy

3. Which scientist was most influential in Coulomb’s work? a. Benjamin Franklin b. James Clerk Maxwell c. Sir Isaac Newton d. Thomas Edison e. Michael Faraday Ans: c Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Easy

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4. Which of the following can produce magnetic fields? a. gravitational force b. static electrical force c. moving electrical charges d. increasing entropy e. all of the above Ans: c Link to: Connections Between Electricity and Magnetism Difficulty Level: Easy

5. A force field surrounding a charged object is a a. gravitational field. b. gravitational force. c. electrical field. d. electrical force. e. magnetic field. Ans: c Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Easy

6. The newest version of hybrid cars a. use magnetic monopoles. b. incorporate nuclear and electric motors. c. get above 50 miles per gallon on the highway. d. have lead-acid batteries. e. has altered car manufacturers’ attitudes. Ans: c Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Easy

7. William Gilbert discovered many important properties of magnets. Which of the following was not among Gilbert's findings? a. Every magnet has at least two poles. b. If magnetic poles are alike they repel each other. c. Steel rods can be magnetized by stroking them with a lodestone. d. Electric currents can be produced by changing magnetic fields.

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Chapter 5 e. Iron's magnetism can be destroyed by heating. Ans: d Link to: Magnetism Difficulty Level: Easy

8. What are some ways the Earth’s magnetic field is used for navigation? a. Sailors use compasses to direct their course. b. Some bacteria navigate down within pond ooze. c. Migratory birds are directed by the magnetic field. d. Australian silvereye can see the magnetic fields. e. all of the above Ans: e Link to: Magnetism Difficulty Level: Easy

9. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein was based on some experiments and demonstrations in electricity from a. Galvani’s research. b. Voltaire’s research. c. the writings of Allessandro Volta. d. Benjamin Franklin’s research. e. William Gilbert’s compass. Ans: a Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Easy

10. Hans Christian Oersted discovered the relationship between the forces of magnetism and electricity by a. many long years of tedious research. b. reading the writings of Galvani. c. paying attention during a physics lecture. d. interpreting his dreams. e. replicating the experiments of Volta. Ans: c Link to: Connections Between Electricity and Magnetism Difficulty Level: Easy

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11. Electric fields and electric currents can be produced by a. changing magnetic fields. b. radiation. c. magnetic monopoles. d. electric eels and sharks. e. static electrical charges. Ans: a Link to: Connections Between Electricity and Magnetism Difficulty Level: Easy

12. What important practical device followed directly from Michael Faraday's work? a. the battery b.the thermostat c. the electromagnet d. the internal combustion engine e. the electric generator Ans: e Link to: Electrical Effects from Magnetism Difficulty Level: Easy

13. Every electrical circuit contains a. an electromagnet. b. a path through which the current can flow. c. a switch. d. a circuit breaker. e. low-resistance wires. Ans: b Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Easy

14. How much electrical current will flow through a 250-watt stereo system to play a compact disk in the United States? a. 1.14 amps b. 2.17 amps c. 0.46 amps d. 28,750 amps

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Chapter 5 e. You need more data to calculate the current. Ans: b Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Easy

15. In equation form, Ohm’s Law states a. electrical pressure = flow charge/flow resistance b. current = voltage (volts) + flow charge (coulombs) c. power (watts) = current (amps) X voltage (volts) d. voltage (volts) = pressure (ohms) X resistance (ohms) e. voltage (volts) = current (amps) X resistance (ohms) Ans: e Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Easy

16. Muscle contractions are initiated by electrical signals. Ans: True Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Easy

17. Static electricity is more powerful than gravity. Ans: True Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Easy

18. An electric force in a static charge does not move once it has been placed. Ans: True Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Easy

19. The properties of the electrical force arise from one type of charge called electromagnetism.

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Ans: False Link to: Electrical Effects from Magnetism Difficulty Level: Easy

20. Signals are sent by the optic nerve to the brain by moving positively charged ions across membranes. Ans: True Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Easy

21. Lightning rods on tops of buildings protect the structure by attracting the electric charges. Ans: True Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Easy

22. Most atoms are electrically neutral because the number of protons equals the number of neutrons. Ans: False Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Easy

23. Before lightning strikes, a victim’s hair will have a positive charge. Ans: True Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Easy

24. Some animals have magnets in their bodies to navigate up and down. Ans: True Link to: Magnetism Difficulty Level: Easy

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25. Galvani invented the electromagnet. Ans: False Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Easy

26. Magnetic fields can be created by the motion of electrical charges. Ans: True Link to: Connections Between Electricity and Magnetism Difficulty Level: Easy

27. When electrical charges accelerate, electromagnetic waves are created. Ans: True Link to: Connections Between Electricity and Magnetism Difficulty Level: Easy

28. Ohm's Law shows a direct relationship between amps and volts. Ans: False Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Easy

29. What is the difference between series and parallel circuits? Ans: While both circuits carry an electric signal along an unbroken path, a series circuit has two or more loads linked along a single wire loop; the parallel circuit has different loads on different wire loops. The load is where the useful work is done; for example, the light bulb filament. Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Easy 30. Describe how the electromagnet operates.

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Chapter 5 Ans: A magnetic field is created around a loop of wire in which an electric current is moving. This field has a "north" and a "south" pole orientation as long as the current is moving. Link to: Connections Between Electricity and Magnetism Difficulty Level: Easy

31. What are the two components of every electric circuit? Ans: Answers include 1. a source of energy, 2. a closed path through which current can flow. Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Easy

32. In what way does Newton’s law of universal gravitation differ from Coulomb’s law? a. Electrical forces can be either attractive or repulsive, while gravity is only attractive. b.Only Newton's law of gravity requires a universal constant. c. Only Coulomb's law addresses distance in describing the effect of one object one another. d. All of the above represent differences. e. Newton's and Coulomb's laws are identical. Ans: a Link to: Nature’s Other Forces Difficulty Level: Medium

33. How is the force of two charged particles related to their charges? a. proportional to the product of their charges divided by the cube of the distance between them b. proportional to the product of their charges divided by the square of the distance between them c. proportional to the ratio of their charges divided by the distance between them d. proportional to the ratio of their charges multiplied by the square of the distance between them e. No relation exists between charged particles and force. Ans: b Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Medium

34. The load in an electric blow dryer is a. where the dryer plugs into the electrical outlet. b. where the electrical cord is attached to the dryer. c. in the on/off switch.

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Chapter 5 d.in the heating element and fan. e. where the heated air is exhausted. Ans: d Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Medium

35. When you cut a magnet in half you get a. two north poles. b. two south poles. c. two north poles and two south poles. d. one magnetic monopole. e. one south pole and one north pole. Ans: c Link to: Magnetism Difficulty Level: Medium

36. In which of the objects below would you find an electromagnet? a. wall switch, buzzer, motors b. thermostats, electric drill, electric fan c. hair dryer, electric razor, power drill d. heater, food processor, CD player e. all of the above Ans: e Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Medium

37. The functioning of an electric motor depends on the fact that a. like charges attract, unlike charges repel. b. like magnetic poles attract, unlike magnetic poles repel. c. an electrical current produces a magnetic field. d. permanent magnets are always stronger than electromagnets. e. all motors must have several electromagnets. Ans: c Link to: Connections Between Electricity and Magnetism Difficulty Level: Medium

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38. Which is not true of Maxwell’s equations? a. Like charges attract, unlike charges repel. b. Coulomb’s law c. There are no magnetic monopoles in nature. d. Magnetic phenomena can be produced by electrical effects. e. Electrical phenomena can be produced by magnetic effects. Ans: a Link to: Electrical Effects from Magnetism Difficulty Level: Medium

39. A coil of wire is an optional component in every electrical generator. Ans: False Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Medium

40. Series circuits are likely to cause more trouble than parallel circuits to people looking for a burned out light in holiday decorations. Ans: True Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Medium

41. Compare alternating current with direct current. Give examples of each type of current. Ans: Alternating current (AC) is a type of electric current in which charges in the electric coils respond to the alternating direction of current from a rotating wire coil in a magnetic field. Examples include all household appliances in the United States. Direct current (DC) is a current in which the electrons flow in one direction only. An example would be the chemical reaction in a battery. Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Medium

42. Describe events at the atomic level when a thunderstorm results in the lightning strike of a tall tree.

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Ans: During the storm, wind and rain interrupt the neutral distribution of electrons in the clouds. When the charged cloud passes over the tall tree a violent electric discharge occurs. This discharge (lightning) results from positive charges moving from the ground to meet the negative charges moving from the bottom of the clouds. Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Medium

43. How does a directional compass work? Ans: A compass needle is a magnet that will align itself in the direction of the magnetic north and south poles of the earth. The compass will do this because the Earth itself is a giant magnet with a north pole in Canada and a south pole in Antarctica. Link to: Nature’s Other Forces Difficulty Level: Medium

44. How does a nerve carry an electrical signal? Ans: Positively and negatively charged ions move in response to an electrical stimulus, distorting the axon membrane and transmitting the signal to the end of the nerve. Neurotransmitters relay the signal across a gap (synapse) to the next nerve in position. Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Medium

45. Explain the operation of a car battery. Ans: A battery is made of alternating plates of two kinds of material such as lead and lead oxide, immersed in a bath of sulfuric acid. When the battery is being discharged, the lead plate interacts with the acid, producing lead sulfate and some free electrons. The electrons move through an external wire to other plates where the process is repeated. The free electrons move from the battery to the ignition of the car. Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Medium

46. Can a magnetic monopole ever be created from ordinary magnets? Why or why not?

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Chapter 5 Ans: No. The magnetism of a material is created from the cumulative effects of the paths taken by electrons around the nucleus of the individual atoms. Even if the material could be divided into parts the size of an atom, there would still be a dipole field from the electrons of that one atom. Dividing the material to the subatomic level destroys the magnetism and other traits intrinsic to the material. Link to: Magnetism Difficulty Level: Medium

47. How could you make an electromagnet? What would you have to do to make it stronger? Ans: Answers should include: wrap wire around a central metal bar; increase wraps or increase voltage, change the diameter of wire + # wraps. Link to: Connections Between Electricity and Magnetism Difficulty Level: Medium

48. Static cling is an example of a. the fact that there are no magnetic monopoles. b. Coulomb’s Law. c. changing magnetic fields. d. alternating current. e. electromagnetism. Ans: b Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Hard

49. It is possible to make an electric current flow in a loop of wire by a. inserting a battery into the loop. b. static electrical charges. c. moving a magnet near the loop. d. spinning the loop in a magnetic field. e. a & c & d Ans: e Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Hard

50. Voltage is to resistance as

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Chapter 5 a. volt is to ohm. b. volt is to amp. c. volt is to watt. d. volt is to flow rate. e. volt is to power. Ans: a Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Hard

51. Which of the following items would use only low resistance wires? a. a toaster b. a space heater c. an electrical transmission line d. a light bulb e. a hair dryer Ans: c Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Hard

52. An electrical device can be made more powerful by increasing the current flowing in the wire or decreasing the voltage. Ans: False Link to: Connections Between Electricity and Magnetism Difficulty Level: Hard

53. How does electricity differ from gravity? Ans: Although both electricity and gravity are forces, a gravitational force always pulls two objects together while an electric force can attract some objects toward each other and repel others away from each other. Link to: Nature’s Other Forces Difficulty Level: Hard

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54. What is the main difference between an electric motor and an electric generator? Ans: An electric motor converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of a spinning shaft. An electric generator does the opposite: converts the kinetic energy of a spinning shaft into electrical energy. Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Hard

55. Why is it no longer possible to start automobile engines with a hand crank? Ans: Early cars required approximately 100 watts of power to start, which could be accomplished with a hand crank. Modern high compression engines are much more powerful and, as a result, require much more starting power. Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Hard

56. What are the limitations to the development of an electric car? Ans: The technology for developing an electric car is stalled in two places: (1) designing a battery that will store more energy in less weight than the lead acid batteries require; and (2) improving the efficiency (mileage between charges) to more than 40 to 50 miles (65-80 kilometers) as is the current state of technology. Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Hard

57. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a hybrid car to the average consumer? Ans: A hybrid car combines both gasoline-powered engines and electric motors with batteries. They store energy when not accelerating and increase fuel efficiency to as much as 70 miles per gallon. The advantages are environmental and economic. Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Hard

58. Discuss the historical importance of basic research in the development of electricity as an applied technology.

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Chapter 5 Ans: Answers should define basic research; talk about development of storing a charge (battery) to allow research to go forward. Once dynamo (precursor to electric motor) developed then uses increased. Link to: Electrical Effects from Magnetism Difficulty Level: Hard

59. Design a demonstration to show that an electric field surrounds a charged object. Include a source of energy and a way to observe the effects of the electric field. Ans: Answers must include wire, battery, iron filings or compass; test without battery, etc. Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Hard

60. List Maxwell’s equations. Explain at least one of these equations in detail, giving examples from everyday life. Ans: Answers will vary, but must accurately give the equations with logical application of one to current technology (i.e. electric toothbrush). Link to: Electrical Effects from Magnetism Difficulty Level: Hard

61. Detail the elements in the path of electricity from its origin in the Sun to the computer in your home. Include any transformations the current takes along its path. Ans: Answers should include: sun, nuclear energy, photosynthesis, fossil fuel, electricity, transmitted, computer, mechanical and notes about conversions among these. Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Hard 62. Write a brief journal description of how someone shipwrecked on an island might “discover” and use electricity. Ans: Answers will vary depending on the infrastructure of the island or lack there of; and should include references to static electricity. Link to: Nature’s Other Forces Difficulty Level: Hard 63. Compare the flow path of electrical charges through a nerve cell with the electrical flow path of lightning.

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Ans: Electrons in motion follow a path in both examples. Answers should also include the source of the charge, the excitement of the atoms and the path. Link to: Static Electricity Difficulty Level: Hard

64. What conditions must exist for the earth, or any planet, to have a magnetic field? Ans: Electrons have to be in uniform motion with a metallic core that is spinning. Link to: Magnetism Difficulty Level: Hard

65. If you were shipwrecked on an island, how could you make a compass? Ans: You would have to find a lodestone, or beat or scrape a pin (piece of metal with iron) then suspend it by a thread or float it in water. Link to: Magnetism Difficulty Level: Hard

66. What are environmental problems associated with disposal of batteries? Ans: Answers should include adding chemicals to the ground water, acids to flora, neutralize the acids and deal with heavy metals. Link to: Batteries and Electric Circuits Difficulty Level: Hard

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