Chapter 9

Quantum Mechanics:
How can the electron behave like both a particle and a wave?
1. In the quantum world uncertainties exist in our knowledge of a. positions and velocities of objects when we first start observing them. b. velocities and positions of objects after they have undergone a change. c. the sum of an object's position and velocity. d. the difference between an object's position and velocity. e. a & b Ans: d Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Which of the following describes experiments scientists have used to determine whether quantum objects are waves or particles? a. experiments testing particle properties b. experiments testing wave properties c. double-slit tests d. tests designed to “trick” the particles into revealing their identity e. all of the above Ans: e Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

3. How do descriptions of the state of quantum objects differ from descriptions of items we see every day? Descriptions of quantum objects a. are given in terms of probabilities. b. are stated with absolute certainty. c. can be given as a precise position and velocity. d. cannot be made at all. e. describe motion, while descriptions of everyday things never do.

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Ans: a Link to: Probabilities Difficulty Level: Easy

4. At a quantum-scale, events are described in a. digital photographs. b. descriptive statistics. c. probabilities. d. exacting precision. e. all of the above Ans: c Link to: Probabilities Difficulty Level: Easy

5. One of the major differences between a standard X-ray and a CAT-scan is a. a CAT-scan does not subject the patient to X-rays. b. photons are emitted during a CAT scan, but not during an X-ray. c. only a CAT-scan can produce a three-dimensional image of the interior of the body. d. only an X-ray can produce sharp images of organs with densities. e. only a CAT-scan uses gamma rays. Ans: c Link to: Probabilities Difficulty Level: Easy

6. The double-slit apparatus was used in a famous experiment to a. distinguish waves from particles. b. measure the amount of constructive and destructive interference in a wave tank. c. establish the dual nature of quantum mechanics. d. quantify how photons act under controlled conditions. e. all of the above Ans: a Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Easy

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7. When you use a self-focusing digital camera, the photoelectric effect occurs when a. light energy combines with battery energy b. light energy is converted into electrical current that determines the opening in the lens. c. light entering the lens is converted to an image on the film. d. photons are used in an electrochemical process. e. light energy is reflected by the material it strikes. Ans: b Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Easy

8. The principles of quantum mechanics state that a. Newtonian laws are incontrovertible. b. the quantum world spins clockwise. c. there must be an anti-quantum universe. d. in the quantum world, prediction of the future is a probability. e. the long-term evolution of physical systems can be predicted. Ans: d Link to: Probabilities Difficulty Level: Easy

9. What are quantum dots? a. wave functions and probabilities that describe a quantum site b. semiconductors that trap electrons within an electric field c. the precise position and velocity of a quantum bundle d. distribution of electrons within a radioactive sample e. pattern that manmade atoms make in plasma Ans: b Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Easy

10. A quantum leap occurs a. only when an electron moves between energy levels and emits a photon. b. only when an electron absorbs a photon and reaches a more excited state. c. whenever an electron moves between energy levels. d. only when an electron moves two or more energy levels at once.

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Chapter 9 e. whenever a photon moves more than one energy level at once and emits an electron. Ans: c Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

11. Albert Einstein's Nobel Prize in 1921 was based upon work a. proving the existence of the nucleus of the atom. b. which led to the modern concept of the photon. c. developing the uncertainty principle. d. with double-slit experiments. e. disproving theories of quantum mechanics. Ans: b Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

12. Which of the following describes experiments scientists have used to determine whether quantum objects are waves or particles? a. experiments testing particle properties b. experiments testing wave properties c. double-slit tests d. tests designed to "trick" the particles into revealing their identity e. all of the above Ans: e Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Easy

13. The Newtonian view of the universe would be associated with which phrase? a. predicting future states b. the Divine Calculator c. clockwork precision d. macroscopic e. all of the above Ans: e Link to: Quantum Entanglement—Weirdness in Action Difficulty Level: Easy

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14. Something is quantized when it a. is multiplied by Planck’s constant. b. is the subject of Einstein’s research. c. has attributes of a bundle. d. cannot be seen without a microscope. e. none of the above Ans: c Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

15. The uncertainty principle tells us that it is impossible to measure the position of a quantum particle without also measuring the velocity. Ans: False Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

16. Quantum descriptions are given in terms of probabilities. Ans: True Link to: Probabilities Difficulty Level: Easy

17. Einstein first theorized the uncertainty principle. Ans: False Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Easy

18. In quantum measurements it is possible to know the position of a particle with an uncertainty approaching zero. Ans: True Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

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19. Some scientists have argued that quantum mechanics might help to explain the connections between the mind and the brain. Ans: True Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Easy

20. When measuring speed or distance in our everyday world, the amount of uncertainty can, in principle, be made very close to zero. Ans: True Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

21. Quantum interactions change the things being measured. Ans: True Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

22. Planck’s constant was first used by Sir Isaac Newton. Ans: False Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

23. Quantum mechanics is also called wave mechanics because the first research was in oceanography. Ans: False Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Easy

24. Quantum objects are infinitely divisible.

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25. Bohr allowed only certain electron orbits in his model of the atom. Ans: True Link to: Wave-Particle Duality and the Bohr Atom Difficulty Level: Easy

26. Albert Einstein was awarded one of his Nobel prizes for his research that resulted in the application of Planck's constant. Ans: False Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

27. The problem of wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics may be a problem of false assumptions. Ans: False Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Easy

28. In the quantum world it is possible to predict the future state of a system with probabilities. Ans: True Link to: Probabilities Difficulty Level: Easy

29. How does a CAT-scan work? Ans: Computerized axial tomography (CAT-scan) takes short X-ray exposures of cross-sections of the body. These cross-sections are oriented parallel to each other and perpendicular to the backbone. A photoelectric device calculates the X-rays that are

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Chapter 9 absorbed by the body and those that are not absorbed by the body. The computer interprets the density of each point of the body being examined and produces a detailed picture for each specific "slice” or cross-section. The medical professionals look at successive cross-sections to get a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body, including the soft tissues. Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Easy

30. How are scientists using quantum dots to test the laws of quantum mechanics? Ans: Quantum dots are artificial atoms created in a lab from microscopic semiconductors trapping electrons in an electric field. Putting these electrons in a "box" allows researchers to experiment with temperature and other environmental parameters. From these experiments, scientists have been able to produce new materials with valuable properties. Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Easy

31. Measurements can be made on a macroscopic object without altering the object because a. the energy of the object is much greater than the energy of the probe. b. the energy of the probe is much greater than the energy of the object. c. the probe and the object have equal amounts of energy. d. the object moves slowly or not at all. e. the object absorbs all the energy of the measuring device. Ans: a Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Medium

32. In quantum mechanics the product of the uncertainty in position times the uncertainty in velocity must be a. smaller than Planck’s constant divided by mass. b. larger than Planck’s constant divided by mass. c. equal to Planck’s constant divided by mass. d. added to Planck’s constant divided by mass. e. larger than Planck’s constant multiplied by mass. Ans: b Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Medium

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33. A train with a mass of 100,000 kg is crossing a bridge that is 10 m long. What is the uncertainty in the velocity? a. <66.3 X 10-29 J-s/kg b. <6.63 X 10-40 m/s c. >663 X 10-39 m/s d. >1,000,000 kg/km s-1 e. More data is needed to solve this problem. Ans: b Link to: Probabilities Difficulty Level: Medium

34. What are some practical applications of the photoelectric effect? a. camera light meters b. fiber optics in some telephone audio systems c. computerized axial tomography d. a & b e. all of the above Ans: e Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Medium

35. If electrons are like particles, then a. they can move according to Bohr’s laws of motion. b. they must have a precise frequency to stay in a stable orbit. c. they must have a precise velocity to stay in a stable orbit. d. they create interference patterns in the dual slit experiment. e. all of the above Ans: c Link to: Wave-Particle Duality and the Bohr Atom Difficulty Level: Medium 36. Only certain electron orbits are possible in the atom because a. this is the way Ernest Rutherford interpreted his data. b. energy levels must be divisible by Planck's constant c. the velocity of a photon can be quantized. d. the electron's distance from the nucleus has to satisfy a wave and particle duality.

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Chapter 9 e. objects in the quantum world behave only according to Newtonian principles. Ans: d Link to: Wave-Particle Duality and the Bohr Atom Difficulty Level: Medium

37. A scientist who orders a double-slit apparatus for his lab might be planning to a. try to determine whether an object is a particle or a wave. b. measure the speed of alpha decay in a radioactive sample. c. clock the speeds of subatomic particles shot through the slits. d. find out whether photon emissions can be quantized. e. try to "trick" quantum particles by varying experiment types. Ans: a Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Medium

38. If a pizza were a quantized object, that would mean it a. would be sliced without leftovers. b. could be divided infinitely. c. had an equal number of protons and electrons. d. would bake without an oven. e. could be in two places at one time. Ans: a Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Medium

39. Why do we not have to worry about the uncertainty principle in our everyday life? a. The uncertainty principle has been refuted by new evidence. b. Objects we normally encounter have mass in amounts that make the effects of the uncertainty principle practically non-existent. c. Planck’s constant has been revised to apply to the macroscopic world as well as the atomic world. d. There is too much uncertainty in the uncertainty principle to give it much thought. e. The future is determined by a Divine Calculator. Ans: b Link to: Probabilities Difficulty Level: Medium

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40. When measuring a car’s speed and distance during a road trip, the amount of uncertainty can, in principle, be made a. significant. b. disconcerting. c. near zero. d. to equal Planck’s constant. e. to agree with Maxwell’s equations. Ans: c Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Medium

41. Most, but not all, measurements of electrons change the object being measured at the quantum scale. Ans: False Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Medium

42. Why is quantum mechanics an appropriate name for this field of study? Ans: “Quantum” is Latin for bundle and mechanics is the study of motion. Scientists who do their research in quantum mechanics work on problems related to the motion of small bundles of atomic particles. Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Medium

43. What are some similarities and differences between measuring an object in the quantum world and measuring an object in the macroscopic world? Ans: Both measurements require a sample, a source of energy that interacts with the sample, and a detector to observe and measure the interaction. In everyday experience, the sample is too large to be affected by the energy source. However, in the quantum world, the energy source will alter the item you plan to measure. Therefore, measuring at the subatomic level does not “follow the rules” of classic Newtonian mechanics. Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Medium

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44. What are the “trade-offs” in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle? Ans: The trade-offs are that if you know the velocity of a quantum particle, you can’t know the location, and vice versa. Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Medium

45. How are predictions approached in the quantum world versus the macroscopic world? Ans: In the macroscopic world predictions are made by applying Newton’s laws of motion. If, for example, you know the position, velocity, and direction of an object, you can predict the location of that object at some point in time in the future. In the quantum world, on the other hand, the location and velocity of that object are predicted in probabilities. Link to: Probabilities Difficulty Level: Medium

46. Is there any similarity between testing the brain and measuring quantum objects? Explain your answer. Ans: Yes, the physical brain could be measured; however, consciousness cannot. Link to: Quantum Entanglement—Weirdness in Action Difficulty Level: Medium

47. What is the difference between a brain and a mind? Ans: Answers will vary; the brain is physical and the mind is something greater than the sum of the parts. Link to: Quantum Entanglement—Weirdness in Action Difficulty Level: Medium 48. Why do we describe quantum-scale events in terms of probabilities? Ans: Because they are not measurable directly. Link to: Probabilities Difficulty Level: Medium 49. Apply the use of quantum dots to research in mitosis. Ans: This allows the researcher to watch the actual progression of the molecular interactions.

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Chapter 9 Link To: Wave-Particle Duality and the Bohr Atom Difficulty Level: Medium

50. Describe the phenomenon of quantum teleportation and how it might relate to future transportation. Ans: This is similar to Star Trek teleporters where a particle simultaneously appears and reappears in different spaces and at different times. However, a very advanced computer would be required to put all of the atoms back in the same spaces they occupied prior to transport so that the entity transported would maintain its identity. Link To: Quantum Entanglement—Weirdness in Action Difficulty Level: Medium

51. What would be a policeman’s dilemma of giving you a speeding ticket in a quantum world? Ans: If he knows the place, then he doesn’t the know speed; if he knows the speed, he doesn’t know the place. Link To: Probabilities Difficulty Level: Medium

52. Newtonian mechanics works for objects with large masses because a. we have no method of measuring velocities to the accuracy required in quantum mechanics. b. Planck's constant masks the uncertainties. c. the uncertainty of the measurements is indistinguishable from zero. d. a & c e. a , b & c Ans: d Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Hard

53. Why did quantum scientists, including Albert Einstein, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, find the research so disconcerting? Ans: Most scientists in the early 1900s came from a foundation of Newtonian physics where the universe ran like a dependable clock and predictions were reliable. The state of the quantum world systems can also be predicted, but the predictions have to be in

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Chapter 9 probabilities. Many scientists, including Einstein, had difficulty accepting the uncertainties associated with an atomic world. Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Hard

54. If a patrol officer is clocking speeding motorists with radar what is the sample, the source of energy, and the detector used to make the measurement? Ans: The sample is the automobile; the source of energy is the radiation (or photons) emitted by the radar gun; the detector is the radar gun.

55. If a neurologist is looking for a brain tumor in a patient, what is the sample, the source of energy, and the detector used to make the measurement? Ans: The sample is the patient; the source of energy is the CAT scan equipment; the detector is the exposed film on which the results are shown.

56. If a chef is testing to see if the turkey is ready to come out of the oven, what is the sample, the source of energy, and the detector used to make the measurement? Ans: The sample is the turkey; the source of energy is the heat within the turkey; the detector is the meat thermometer. Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Hard 57. Choose one of the situations in questions 54 a-c. Describe how this situation would be different if measurements were being made in the quantum level. Ans: Answers will vary; however, each case should show how the sample is changed by the measurement. For example, in question 50, the turkey could blow up when the meat thermometer is inserted. Link to: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Hard

58. Discuss the concept of a Divine Calculator as viewed through the arguments for Newtonian physics and Quantum mechanics.

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Ans: Answers will vary; basically this is a discussion of predestination versus free will. Link to: Quantum Entanglement—Weirdness in Action Difficulty Level: Hard

59. Characters in science fiction can often travel across time from one period of history to another. Use principles of quantum mechanics to explain how time travel may (or may not) occur in reality. Ans: Answers will vary, however, if space can be warped enough for different areas of space to touch, than you can move from one time to another (probabilities). Link to: Quantum Entanglement—Weirdness in Action Difficulty Level: Hard

60. How has quantum mechanics revolutionized the physics community? Ans: Different descriptions of the universe based on probability rather than on mechanical certainty. Link to: Wave-Particle Duality Difficulty Level: Hard

61. How do electrons exist in very discrete orbits rather than in a continuous range of orbits? Ans: Answers will vary, but it may be because they probably exist as wave forms rather than only as particles. Link To: Wave-Particle Duality and the Bohr Atom Difficulty Level: Hard

62. How is it that photons come only in discrete packages of integers? Ans: Answers should include that this is because they come in quantum packages that are added together in integer patterns. Link To: Wave-Particle Duality and the Bohr Atom Difficulty Level: Hard

63. How is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle applied in the non-quantum world?

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Ans: Answers will vary; the act of observing people can change their behavior, for example. Link To: The World of the Very Small Difficulty Level: Hard

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