F. Gerald Downing, Christ and the CynicsF.

Gerald Downing, CHRIST AND THE CYNICS; John Dominic Crossan, Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography Selections by Peter Myers, November 11, 2001; update December 26, 2003. My comments are shown {thus}. You are at http://users.cyberone.com.au/myers/downing.html. (1) F. Gerald Downing, CHRIST AND THE CYNICS: Jesus and other Radical Preachers in First-Century Tradition, JSOT Press, Sheffield UK, 1988. This book shows that the early Christians were followers of the Cynic philosophy - Taoists, in effect. The first part is Downing's Preface; the second part is the parallel passages showing the Cynic derivation of much of the Synoptic Gospels. This material suggests that Jesus and his disciples were NOT Zealots, as Jewish writers like Hyam Maccoby and Robert Eisenman would have us believe. {p. v} PREFACE Our oldest traditions about Jesus clearly stem from Jewish Palestine in the early first century. The names of people and places belong there, as do most if not all of the customs and institutions taken for granted, along with details of the topography and climate, as well as many apparent allusions to other strands of contemporary history. In these accounts the only other literature drawn on for illustration, for support and for interpretation is contained almost entirely in the Jewish canon of writings (the 'Old Testament', itself by now virtually finalised). This source is supplemented on a very few occasions by more recent compositions: but they are still clearly Jewish. No proof of any important direct literary dependence on non-Jewish sources has emerged from two centuries of close study. On the other hand, the documentary evidence on which we rely for our knowledge of these traditions is itself written in Greek to audiences that would seem to belong outside of Palestine. Those first listening to the Gospels being read may well have included Jews - even Jews who had grown up in Galilee or Judaea. But most of the Jewish Christians listening would seem to have been Jews who had grown up in Greek-speaking, largely 'pagan' cities (of which there were many in Galilee itself, of course). Paul's letters and Luke's Acts of the Apostles would suggest that within perhaps twenty years the majority of Christians outside of the Jewish homeland were converts from 'paganism'. Some may have had prior contact with Jewish tradition, perhaps even attending synagogues. But sufficient seem to have come in from 'outside' to need to have Jewish customs explained to them. Thus the audiences for the documents we have are likely at least to have been aware of the popular culture of the hellenistic cities and towns; and for most of them, this will have constituted their natural way of conversing and thinking, and interpreting what they heard or read. Jewish tradition in Galilee and Judaea as well as in the rest of the Mediterranean world had, of course, itself been encountering hellenism for more than three centuries. The extent of hellenistic influence in the homeland continues to be debated. Yet whatever our conclusion on that contentious issue, the former conclusion seems indisputable: our early Christian documents are addressed in Greek to people for whom it was natural to converse and think in Greek, people living in, and mostly immersed in a popular hellenistic culture. The traditions about Jesus, then, are Palestinian Jewish, with supporting and interpretative literary material drawn from Jewish writings. The audience is 'hellenised', and perhaps mostly 'hellenistic'. We are aware that for any communication, and especially in a largely oral culture, 'feed-back' from the audience is extremely significant. The growth of the Christian movement must have involved effective communication. So we are bound to assume that the presuppositions, the prior interests of those who joined in, and those being

approached, are likely to have had a significant effect on what was said and later written. At the very least, the listeners will have made clear what was getting home to them, and what was leaving them cold, what was answering their questions and what seemed to be beside the point, and not worth repeating. This will have affected selection; it may also of course have influenced style, and even content. {p. vi} If we want to understand these documents as they came into being, we need then to understand the audiences that will have helped to shape them. For that we need to glean what we can of popular hellenistic culture at the time (always open to the likelihood of considerable diversity). The evidence assembled in the first few pages of texts printed in this collection would seem to suggest that at least one important (but not at all monochrome) strand was provided by radical 'Cynic' philosophers. Although this 'movement' often figured quite prominently in New Testament scholarship in the first third of this century, it then seems to have suffered something of an eclipse, and has only slowly been re-emerging to view. It is sometimes pious, but often sceptical, sometimes gentle, but often radical and shocking, and for some decades scholars seem to have preferred to look to more devout, more obviously 'religious' sources: to mystery religions, to academic philosophy, even, and to an imagined pervasive 'gnosticism', rather than to the Cynics. Yet if the first Christian missionaries obeyed instructions of the kind recorded in Mt. 9.35-10.16, Mk 6.6-11, Lk. 9.1-5, 10.1-12, they would have looked like a kind of Cynic, displaying a very obvious poverty. Not all Cynics wore exactly the same dress (§40, §151); not all of them even carried the staff that for some was symbolic. But a raggedly cloaked and outspoken figure with no luggage and no money would not just have looked Cynic, he would obviousiy have wanted to. Perhaps a wandering Christian preacher repeated the approach ascribed to Jesus in the tradition, 'How's your health today? Feeling well, are you? I'm only here for the ones who are ready to admit they're a bit sickly, and need the doctor,' (§159). But that was a standard Cynic gambit, from the earliest days (even if they weren't the only ones to use it). 'You're sick with worry about your house when you're away from it and about your job when you're at home,' he might have continued; 'and about whether the fleet will bring a decent catch in tomorrow, and about the winter clothes you put away last month. One day's worry at a time is enough. Take a lesson from the wild birds and beasts and flowers. They live very well without grain stores. God cares. Believe me.' (§58, §59, §115). But the last Cynic who came your way (nice lad, cobbler from the next town up the valley) had said much the same. Well, perhaps he said 'gods', sometimes, as well as 'God' other times. And he talked about Diogenes and Herakles the son of Zeus, not Iesous Christos, son of God. You asked him what he expected to get out of it, throwing up his job and taking to the road. That last one expected exactly what he did get, an earful of abuse, and a kick that landed him in the gutter. This new one, Christicos or Christianos they say he is, this one seems to be just about as hopeful: 'the really happy person is the one who's being abused and hated.' (§16) In these last two paragraphs I have been deliberately paraphrasing. But time and again the excerpts here collected clearly provide remarkably close 'parallels' with the material in the Jesus tradition in the first three the 'synoptic" gospels, very often the closest parallels to be found among near contemporaries. The full signficance of these parallels is obviously a matter for judicious reflection and debate. As the person responsible for the present collection I am myself certain that they have an important and {p. vii} positive significance for our understanding of Christian origins,

There were differences.) When Christians said. they didn't (for the most part.and free of the great men who liked throwing their weight around and expected everyone else to see them as benefactors (§30. God is ending this phase of the world's existence. They favoured passive resistance. (But we have two Cynic pieces that seem to allow that sort of possibility: the teacher will be the judge after death. (§78)). and Cynics hailed as the greatest man since the original Diogenes. Many early Christians. opposed to letting public opinion live your life for you. free to live their own lives . But they weren't exactly anarchists. content to find themselves saying a great many things of the kind that the Cynics were saying.and happily aware . In the mid-second century a satirist called Lucian tells us of a man he's sure is a charlatan. . and that frequently in very similar language. §151. They wanted to be free of ali that. and others. were aware . and took it very seriously indeed. and were likely to find themselves in exile. opposed to finding your reality in property or expensive enjoyment. They focussed on the same topics. There's a story from even later of a man going to be consecrated as bishop of Constantinople still wearing his Cynic cloak. (Yet some Stoic-inclined Cynics in particular themselves believed . They are deliberately left with the minimum of comment.including our understanding of Jesus himself. They seem to have appeared political (and subversive) in their own day. And the authorities often saw this as a very real political threat. Some Cynics were very elitist. not foreclosing it. Diogenes. They were against what we might call a 'consumerist' society. Your attitude to Jesus' teaching now will decide the verdict on you in the judgment to come. But many seem to have been much more popularist. It seems to me that it will appear that Christians who shared publicly the teaching and stories that go to build up our first three gospels must have been entirely happy to sound as well as look like Cynics. but the result would be more peaceful and more orderly . either. But these passages are presented here in the hope of stimulating a discussion. accepting his Christian sufferings as part of his Cynic credentials. a man called Proteus Peregrinus. When a reader has allowed them to do that. sure that the Cynic way was only for heroes. but talked a lot about him. viii} downing tools and taking to this ascetic way.of the similarities between strands of Jesus' preaching. and there's much more besides. They expected that if everyone lived more simply we could do without most of the rules and regulations. When Christians didn't just repeat Jesus' teaching. Cynics do not look very 'political' to many of us today. Luke. and we have contemporary impressions of numbers of workers {p. (let alone silent neglect). Some talked about God and prayer and life to come. Even that is an over simplification. James (or on the "Q" material: see below). very often pressing the same conclusions. But the main weight of my argument lies in the passages here collected together. and the much older Cynic tradition. and soon. so they may have a chance to 'speak for themselves'.. that would have been distinctive. others were more sceptical and 'humanist'.as well as more enjoyable. there were some exceptions) have political programmes. that would have been distinctive.. it would have been unusual. But then there were considerable differences among pagan Cynics themselves. §173). whom followers of Jesus called 'the Christian Socrates'. They didn't organise political parties. Mark. Yet their possible relevance is not a twentieth century discovery. When Christians said. They demand concerted consideration rather than piecemeal treatment. the next step will be to check with some recent thorough commentary on Matthew. All were opposed to cant and hypocrisy. But they certainly got up the noses of peop!e in authority. (But some Cynics talked a lot about their founder.

x} Then yet another question asks to be considered. (§78. and not be dismissed without careful consideration as though bound to be 'merely superficial'. For anyone now wanting to maintain some continuity with early Christianity. imagery or subject matter necessarily indicate agreement in meaning. . ix} Of course. But it does provide a very powerful socio-economic and cultural 'ethos'. {p. It stands against any ideology (capitalist or Marxist) that defines people as producers or as consumers.. it would make those early Christians appear both political and subversive. convictions and even preferred metaphors of the pagan Cynics? As noted right at the beginning. some response to New Testament documents that takes their likely original intention and reception seriously. Still. The point being made may be of some importance. there is so much that looks to be . It is NOT being suggested that similarities in wording. so often so tellingly matching the concerns. if the arguments of these last two pages be accepted. and against any system that enforces that definition as the one by which people are obliged to live and suppose themselves living fully. even if in context the 'meaning' can be shown to be distinctive. it would seem to entail that these Cynic-sounding Christians did in fact mean (or often meant) also to be understood in much the same sort of way as the general run of Cynics seemed to be understood. let alone any kind of dependence in either direction. it does then seem to me extremely unlikely that these early Christians were unaware of all this. It demands actign. They could have avoided it. and John has practically nothing in common with Cynic material (§§281-289). (it did not for the first. or would have taken more care to make the differences explicit. If this point is agreed. again)). they could still be 'meaning' something rather different by them. on closer inspection you might find something rather different intended.the present phase was only temporary. {p. they must in fact have been quite happy to sound familiar in this way. too). Yet to say that is to say no more than many scholars would say of Matthew and Luke when they included similar sequences of words in their respective works. we may assume they wouid have selected from the Jesus tradition teaching and stories that were more distinctive. as things were understood in the first century.. in our sense of a programme). even if we found pagan Cynics and early followers of Jesus uttering identical words in sentence after sentence. and not a few other pagans considered things to be run down enough for the end to be near. then. The similarities remain significant. that must be important. If that were not so. How was it that these early Christians could display so much of the Jesus tradition. It IS being argued that where any such similarities appear they must be examined. That is how those in authority saw Cynics. Further. a beautiful ideal. A Christian like Paui sounds much less Cynic (though there are parallels in his writing. And when these Christians talked about Jesus as 'saviour' and 'liberator'. they don't seem to have had a lot of words from Jesus about 'liberation' or 'salvation' (§173). and you imagined they meant what a Cynic using those words of Diogenes might mean. And the only point I am hoping to place beyond dispute with this collection is that some early Christians and some radical pagan preachers (seen by others and by themselves as Cynics) would often have sounded alike to their hearers. And it insists that such a Christian ethos must never be simply an ornament. However. or would have gone in for the more abstract theologising of someone like Paul. It does not provide a political programme for the late twentieth century. and with such a considerable range of similar utterances.

We seem to have to accept that in all likelihood most if not all the material taken to come from Jesus the Jew of Nazareth came already 'looking Cynic' and 'sounding Cynic'. or 'apocalyptic' or 'apocryphal'. There seems to be no plausible scenario in which such a colouring would have been imposed on or threaded into Cynic teaching simply borrowed in some hellenistic city: any such borrowings would surely not have seemed to be 'improved' by adding a Palestinian-Jewish colouring. On a few occasions they are much closer here than are the Cynics. Antipas' new and splendid hellenistic capital for the territory.of the ethical.though only part . Not all that is available is given each time. ordinary ('koine') Greek may well have been at least a widely used second language in Galilee. philosophy. anyway. (And. that is. six miles away. sometimes explicitly. which would often also have matched the concerns and ethical convictions of the ancient Israelite prophets. Jesus would have been able to give his teaching this Cynic colour either by pure coincidence .or because the Cynic preachers had themselves not missed Galilee in their endless wanderings. cultural.. only items that are as close or closer than the pagan parallels. Certainly Josephus thought that a case could be made for calling the radical libertarian movement started by Judas of Galilee. but only as exhibited in a succesful engagement with the world around. For better or worse the translations are the author's own. especially in the areas I have listed as 'christological'. {p. often (as is usual) without acknowledgment. There is actually no evidence for any such popularity of anything one may call 'gnostic' in the first century. and the best Jewish ones are often in fact from Philo. not in any 'cowardly' flight inward and away. where such comparable matter is known. But for the bulk of the material. Cynic. The Jesus tradition was as earthed (and as earthy) as the Cynics. the Cynic parallels seem to me much more strlking. In the next century Jews were often writing even grave inscriptions in it. No attempt is made here to . and that it was to this demand that the Christians more or less drastically adapted. The other source most often tapped these days for supposedly illuminating parallels is tne 'Gnostic' library of Nag Hammadi. certainly concerned with inner authenticity.) If Cynic 'missionaries' reached Galilee they are likely to have homed in on Sepphoris.. In what follows I set out where I can the most striking parallels from this Jewish literature currently suggested as context for the Jesus tradition. from the first re-telling of the stories and teaching. and has used Dead Sea Scroll. in [square brackets]. It is argued (or often taken for granted) that it was this psycho-therapeutic retreat into an inner religious security that was popularly in demand in the first century. but should integrate readily with the standard translations of the New Testament and of the relevant texts in the Loeb Classical Library. Part . it can be found in most of the longer current commentaries.. which took in 'barbarian' (non-Greek) as well as Greek-speaking cities and territories. This Jewish material is given first.. for the sake of comparison. (see Introduction). the Jews' 'fourth'. . the only popular demand for which we do have evidence is that displayed in the material assembled here. xi} Much recent scholarship has been concerned to explore cultural contexts for Jesus in a Palestinian Judaism seen as non-Greek or at most only marginally Hellenised. being built all the while that Jesus grew up in Nazareth. who knows and uses the Diogenes tradition. The Cynic colour is the colour Jesus of Nazareth Nazareth himself gave to his teaching. and religious stimulus that Jesus received as he grew up may well have included some variants of this Cynic radicalism. Rabbinic./13/ . As just noted.Palestinian-Jewish in the synoptic gospel tradition. and other matter often labelled 'sectarian'. 'eschatological' and 'soteriological'.

. from Gadara..perhaps with interest . or at least from the Jerusalem Christian community.just how much Cynic-sounding material Matthew was willing to borrow from Luke (or vice-versa). 1} INTRODUCTlON: COMMON AIMS OF CHRISTlANS AND CYNICS Not only does most of the early Christian material here set out readily find Cynic parallels. xiii} hoodwinked by others (or even their own) pretensions. and 'Cynic'? It means something like 'doggy'. It still leaves the material itself looking Cynic. this should offer still further evidence for the penetration of the Jewish homeland by Cynic ideas. Maybe Matthew would better be seen as a deliberate combination of Cynic with Jewish strands. and has contributed to the debate). Penultimately there is a brief consideration of Paul. By no means all scholars are convinced of the validity of this hypothesis (though the present writer is.26-28 (Compare notes of poverty: 2 Cor.. This is the so-called 'Q' material. from the despised bottom of the heap. for a mixed Christian community.with some further striking parallels with Cynic motifs. Oh. 1 Thess. no slave.Diogenes 6. 3. Fifthly there is the letter of James. but most of the Cynic preaching. J.engage with gnostic writings. However.... But when they see how hard it is to realise them.ps.. with special reference to work by Professor A. {Here begin the passages from the Cynic philosophers and the Synoptic Gospels} A.8. as seen by contemporaries. Someone who suspects everyone's motives and presses them to look closely at their own failings is a 'Cynic'. . 4. . {p. xii} The first set of New Testament passages to be chosen is the material that Luke and Matthew have in common.) The mass of the people accept our Cynic aims. independently of each other. was highly regarded by some contemporary Rabbis. not many important people.11. You must try going out into the market place.ps.) The third block is the Markan 'teaching' material (for the miracle stories there is no claim to find Cynic parallels). not many from the city aristocracy.1 Cor. readily finds Christian parallels.. James seems much more often than does the synoptic material to have its closest parallels with Philo. in the Decapolis. {p. 2 Thess. Malherbe. . 2} There is no Jew. Anyone not persuaded can still make use of the material collected here. where the mass of people spend their time . not far from the lake of Galilee. they desert our speakers . noting . despite Luke's supposed antipathy to riches. in producing their interpretative expansions of Mark.. but which does not appear (or not in this common form) in Mark. no Greek. perhaps particularly unexpected when Matthew above all is seen as the 'Jewish' gospel. no free citizen.28 There aren't many among you who'd normally be thought clever. Our 'cynic' and 'cynical' come from this group's refusal to be {p. the special Lukan material (somewhat sparse. . The next section is the 'special Matthew' material . the supposed common source that Matthew and Luke may have used. For anyone convinced for other reasons that James cornes from the pen of the brother of Jesus.Crates 21.. . . 1.10. and so forth). perhaps also as evidence for the wider penetration already of some areas of the Jewish population by Cynic preaching. 3. As Jesus seems to have been...Gal. ADDRESSING "ORDINARY PEOPLE" (INCLUDING WOMEN) Most Cynics and at least most Christians saw their message as aimed in a similar direction: to the mass of ordinary people. Then fourthly... and powerless. You are all one in Christ Jesus . no female. God has chosen people others think simple. 'dogged' one of those rude words which the disparaged pick up and wear with defiance. (There is some evidence that the second century Cynic Oenomaus. {p.2. or perhaps better. no male.

cf.would it be proper for men to do this. Virtue is the same for women and men alike . Asia. 61. Many would come up to me and ask me my thoughts on what's good and what's bad Dio 13. to Spain .Dio 72. 'pretending they are going to be philosophers. very genuine people with their simple and straightforward life-style . Peregrinus 15-16. Demonax 9.Epictetus III xxii 26. the respect the mass of the people show my fellow philosophers Lucian.8. arriving in the Peloponnese.. Lucian chides 'working class' Cynics with 'excessive interest in women'. in the countryside . Peregrinus ('the one and only rival to Diogenes and Crates') left home a second time to wander far and wide. and only men.16 The deity ordered me to keep on with what I was doing. (cf..' 'The Runaways' 18.. Philosophies for Sale.Diogenes. you must seek out wise men (sic). 'Hipparchia. You shall be my witnesses in Jerusalem and all Judaea and Samaria and right to the ends of the earth . (aged widows in attendance).. passing my time..2. and it would be a disgrace. sometimes among Greeks and sometimes among barbarians.ps. (and cf. 34. 15.. and Bythinia . SIMILARLY WIDESPREAD The gospel must first be preached to all the nations . 1.9. but not women? Musonius III. cf. Rome.(in Asia Minor. Almost everywhere you go is crowded with this kind of [Cynic] philosopher . Make your way to the most crowded places . to do philosophy . The mass of ordinary people keep a clear memory of these sayings ascribed to Diogenes ..16.Dio 80.Dio 1..in effect. Pontus. 8. I visited as many countries as I could. 'till you reach the very ends of the earth.4 He calls a popular assembly all on his own .18.Crates 28. 60. {p. I am a citizen of the world . finding lots to think about. 3} . 13.Dio 72. 11.14. in the countryside. all the way from the Danube . for you to change your mind now. Women are not by nature inferior to men.Acts 1.20..1 Pet. even if it means going to the very ends of the earth' .. LEP Vl 63.. Acts 2. Egypt. 54. From Jerusalem right round to Illyricum (Yugoslavia).ps..' .Mk 13. Tarsus. Runaways 12.Antisthenes.. Italy and Rome) ..Dio 1. 30.Rom. The Christians provided him with sufficient resources for his travels . Syria.Epictetus III xxiii 24. Peregrinus 2-3. 29-33.9-11.3.Dio 13.19.12. Cappodocia. when you've already covered half the way . 32. the Cynic must speak up on the public platform like Socrates . (where 'virtue' is what the Cynic way is all about).6.. epp. Diogenes ep. also Peregrinus 12. 'the many'. including Palestine. Would it ever be proper for men.2. to Rome.51. cf.. cf. Greece...Mt 28. cf.Crates.. .Lucian.If the opportunity offers.11.10). and see below. Galatia. IV iv 26-27). Make disciples of all the nations .Lucian.50 I've just completed a very long journey. 31. Alexandria. . 10.10. 3. I stayed away from the towns. 24. I stayed away from the towns. LEP Vl 12.1. mixing with herdsmen and hunters. persuading them to leave home. passing my time. to try to give careful consideration to the issue of living their lives well .. and: You must be able to explain to individuals as well as to a crowd of people the battle they're embroiled in .Dio 12. B. Hipparchia.

Monimus.or Scythian or Indian.1-12..the women philosophically domestic..Crates 28. People spinning and weaving wool in their own houses.Phil.. It would be shameful.Diogenes ep. drew water for baths and gardens and performed many such menial tasks for a living ..32. Jn 20. 4..20. during his exile] planted and dug. like the adulterous young Trojan in .. 1. How has this Jesus achieved such literacy. the nerve. (Compare 'Simon the Cobbler'. carpenter (Mk 6. Prisca and Aquila. Phoebe.Acts 18. I particularly recommend the life of a shepherd.15.LEP Vl 98.. like a slave or a labourer. They noted that Peter and John were uneducated and very ordinary. certainly nothing preferable Musonius Rufus XI. Philosophies for Sale.. two women who exerted themselves with me in apostolic evangelism.18]. 1 Cor. talking like sophists. Lk. and leather-workers and fullers and farm labourers' . 28. with Clement also. without any education ? . Even if you are quite ordinary . How about boat-man or gardener? Lucian. to Hipparchia (cf.ps. 24.39. they do so. leather-workers (Acts 18..1 Cor. like Cleanthes. and notable apostles. [Dio. Dio 72. 488.. {p.Rom. cf. fellow prisoners. money-changer there's nothing to stop you annoying others.INCLUDING WOMEN Fishermen (Mk 1.Dio 13. 4} C. tax-collector (Mk 2. Lives of the Sophists.a tanner.Epictetus III xxvi 23. practising speeches. the highly literate. and the rest of my fellow workers .7 Mt.. 5} They were learning to be cobblers or builders' labourers. Andronicus and Junia. contra celsum III 55... 3. fisherman. living in porches. 12 and 13. 4. in Origen. Where are the sophisticated. NO matter whether your teacher's a Greek or a Roman . LEP II 122.2-3.'the female philosopher'. carpenter.. SIMILAR AGENTS: "ORDINARY PEOPLE" .Musonius III. a pupil of Diogenes..Celsus. so long as you have the cheek. 16.. when they ought to be sat at home spinning .. Does it really seem to you that I was ill-advised to devote my time to a philosophical education rather than waste it on a loom? . forgoing wealth. or they were carding wool to make it nice and easy for the women. Euodia and Syntyche ..Jn 7. when you have taken up the Cynic life with your husband..Philostratus. for that matter .12).26.Acts 4. to change your mind now and turn back when you've covered half the Way . Some people are sure to say that women who spend their time with philosophers are bound to become self-willed and arrogant. kinspeople.) You only need to learn how to live a healthy life. Lucian.7. again). deserting their households for the company of [other ] men.11. they were occupied with fullers' vats.14).{p. like a genuine philosopher. Mary who exerted herself ('apostolically'?) for you. (Women are first to be commissioned to proclaim the resurrection [Mk 16...) Many of the Samaritan townspeople believed in Jesus because of what the women said in witness .16-20). Runaways 12. ps. who studied while he pumped water for a living .3. cf.) Some even run off with their hosts' wives. (though Musonius thinks philosophy should make both men and women more dutiful . When Priscilla and Aquila heard Apollos they took him in and expounded God's Way more accurately for him .Jn 4.3). There's nothing to compare with doing philosophy while working on the land. and Socratic epp. 13. II. . Tryphaena and Tryphosa. and beloved Persis too. the debaters? . Hipparchia . women who also exerted themselves ('apostolically'?) .4.. was a slave working for a Corinthian banker LEP Vl 82.

. but note in §56. No one makes any strenuous effort to become a good man and true . With a wave of her wand Pleasure drives her prey into what amounts to a sty. I iii 7-9. he puts together again what has been broken apart. delightful writers in verse as well as in prose. people are worse than animals. {p.LEP Vl 103.LEP Vl 27..3. 27-30. pretending that the women are going to become philosophers Lucian. Philosophy is nothing other than knowing about living. They call it a school. epp.the old tale. Though you have so many enjoyable things to see and to hear. I . The poor woman. (4) THE WRATH TO COME ('eschatology') God brings into balance aspects of things that are out of true..Acts 24. D. The wordy way to well-being is long.ps.. has been changed from a human being into a viper . 47. Lucian.Diogenes 28. (cf. xxiii 5).yet despite all these counter-attractions. 6} (1) THE TEACHER'S TEACHER: JOHN THE BAPTISER {p. to show them where they've gone astray over what is right and what is wrong [the good and the bad] . cf.Dio 8. cf. as some maintain. 29.Epictetus I xxviii 9. 'This is what I spend my life practising' .e.he thought human kind the most obtuse of all the animals . again.. a peacock-like procession of multifarious sophists. Musonius X. borne on wings of fame by a crowd of disciples . The man becomes a wolf. 49. if Cynicism is really a school of philosophy. 58. here you are. He must realise that he has been sent as God's messenger to his fellow humans. no intellectual sophistication. You certainly look human. Particular clarity and forcefulness in speech. 'Lead men.' he replied .2. cf. or a wasp. . .. God's positive csre for animals. (cf. If someone has any wisdom to share. A SIMILARLY UNPRETENTIOUS MESSAGE No clever oratory. .. 3. A real Cynic well prepared will not be satisfied with having been well-trained himself. 8.Epictetus III xxii 23.Lk. even in men . 36 [water-snake] and 9 passim). though I know nothing and make no claims to knowledge (i. 8} (3) YOU ARE ANIMALS (OR WORSE) You brood of vipers . Runaways 18.7... or a snake. just a way of life . I serve God in accordance with the Way. Demonax 28. xxiii 6. 264.Dio 12. Diogenes marched into a theatre against the tide of those coming out.1 Cor. 14.. 70.. powerful speakers. and not.LEP VI 29. Diogenes was asked what he could do. but at heart you are apes . he said. When Diogenes saw professional dream-interpreters and seers and their customers . waiting to listen to what I have to say. 14.Dio 8. he should make his home where fools are thickest . he hurries to press down what has started to . de ira 11 xxxi 6. Seneca. 2.LEP VI 64. And Pleasure brings into being all kinds of snakes and creepy-crawlies . like Socrates) . §39. XIIIB. 7} (2) THE TEACHER WHO REPRIMANDS ALL AND SUNDRY .or people who'd let fame or fortune go to their heads . Mt. 46-48.24-5. and ps.THE "Q" MATERlAL (in the Lukan order).5. daily Cynic exercise is a short-cut ps. 56. 9... 3. From then on the human that was lives on as a pig or a wolf. cf. coming up to me.LEP Vl 24.1.Heraclitus 9. III xiv 14.Crates 21.III and IV.7. 17. and shuts him in. {p.5 (compare all of Dio 8 and 9). I don't rate all that highly. instead of a human being Epictetus IV i 127. Asked why.

.. He does it so that. I gather.Dio 2. Are you not aware of the stable. these are his remedies for a sick world . and a stress on the importance of words matching deeds was not confined to Cynic preaching. they say. changing people's life-style was their primary aim.. Dio makes the contrast explicitly... We might follow the example of some of those who perform initiations and purifications.43-44. God keeps an eye on all that is going on. of his own accord he'll refrain completely . The Ephesians. and if he happens to be especially pleased with anyone.. 19-20).slip out of place..Dio 30. The best of them he always calls up to be with him. disssolving. the greed and lawless discord of all else carries with it the greatest risk of ruin. moulding it.8. light-hearted and happy... and everything everywhere serves the law of Reason in attentive and obedient compliance . And when the guests (sc.. he collects together again what has been scattered. 35-37.. sends to those with whom she is angry . One resembles dieting and drugs. But with the Cynics espousing 'more a way of life than a philosophy'. with the means for sinning to hand. with nothing to be ashamed of. he orders him to stay and be his drinking partner and his friend . appeasing the wrath of Hecate. as we term them. Dio 31-43. adapting it. He does both without diminishing in any way his respect for high moral standards. true and ageless harmony of the elements.Dio 4.Epictetus II xxvi 4. {p. with all the wrong that results. He needs to show him clearly that he's not doing what he wants and is doing what he doesn't want to do. Come. someone who can encourage and dissuade. solidifying. but by giving it to wicked people.Herclitus 8... of air and earth and water and fire.3-4. they may be convicted ... to show each individual the conflict he's caught up in.? If this common partnership were ever broken and followed by mutual conflict.ps.ps. he moves through everything that exists. I iv 18.90. They would undergo sn unthinkable and unimaginable dissolution from being to non-being. the other is like cautery and surgery (the penal system) . It is clearly preferable not to resort lightly to drastic . they set out and expound the many varying visions that the Goddess. But the others walk out on their own. {p. All philosophers were trying to persuade the unconverted to change their minds. the elements are not by nature sufficiently resistent to destruction or decay for them to escape being thrown into chaos.. let us obey God. cf. urging cities to change their ways. claiming to make a person sound. so we may not remain under his anger . A courageous and humane ruler who means well towards his subjects will induce the wicked to change their attitude of mind. mortals enjoying life) have to leave. Before the cleansing begins. You need someone good with words. cf.Herclitus 6. and notes how each guest behaves. just as with other ills.. 11} There are two ways to cure wickedness or prevent it.3. the profligate and intemperate are dragged out and hauled away.Dio 40. will pay for their insolence and are paying for it already. Yet such destruction will never overtake the universe as a whole because an all-embracing peace and righteousness remain within it.Epictetus III i 37.77. comparing useless academic philosophy with the populist Cynic concern for praxis (Dio 32. and also help the weak. he brightens up the darkness with light. steady and erect... already themselves fully under sentence for their wickedness. he cleanses what is unseemly. like a host in his own house. It's not by taking wealth away that God punishes.. 10} (5) REPENTANCE .. As soon as you show someone this. and his determination to be second to no good man in that respect . melting.

Diogenes.LEP Vl 1. 181) . (Cf..measures. cf. my friend. The Lacedaemonians display good sense in lots of things.Dio 15. freedom .10. and 9..Epictetus IV viii 35-6. of Crates.Dio 4 . (7) FRUITFUL IN DEED The axe is already poised against the root of the tree.. (cf. The task that really needs doing is the gentler one. fearlessness.Epictetus II i 21. cf XX 1. XXV.. Demonax considered that it was human to go wrong (sin). 23 . §180. EM XLI 7-8.right down at your roots .. to be performed by people able to sooth and reduce a soul's fever by persuasion and reason . Every tree that bears no good fruit is cut down and burned on the fire . and reason brought to perfection in our soul .Heraclitus 9. he with wind and fire . and we praise a hurnan being for the fruitfulness that is peculiar to us. If there is an incidental extra benefit in philosophy.. but to everything that comes to birth on this earth .Seneca. Mt. not just to my father or my grandfather.9. but the act of a God or a godlike human to set the wrong right . but. Why do you say you are an Athenian. I don't despair even over the most hardened case. it's that it never looks at anyone's pedigree . belittled the Athenians' boast thst their ancestors had sprung from the soil. This is how fruit is produced: the seed has to be buried deep for a time.LEP VI 60.ps. with fruit no human gets to taste .Seneca EM XLIV 1 ( ..10.Lk.end. Take care.29.. calling them advertisements for wickedness . and XLVII).) The profligate. EM LXXXIII 2.] First of all take care that people don't know who you are. 'world-citizen'). criticising a lack of appropriate action. also Musonius XIIIB). hidden away and allowed to grow slowly. 24 on 'deeds'. EM L 5 et passim.Seneca. and the whole Discourse. pampered. 48. LEP Vl 27-28. without bothering about their parentage . IV 31b. Vl 63. so it can come to maturity. 13} (8) SYMBOLlC ACTlON. on appropriate action.. applied them to those whose high moral standards showed them well-born. 3. (6) INHERITED PRIVILEGE ? Antisthenes. Do your philosophy on your own for a while. Mt.. LXXXIX etc. not their family records . you'll be nipped by the frost . {p. Those who originally used these terms. 12} If you are cowardly. 23 on the imagery. 10). 3. slavish. 3.Lucian. our soul. and especially in designating people as Spartans on the basis of their conduct. {p. Demonax 7 (cf. 3.LEP Vl 72. 39. (compare Stobaeus III l5. Diogenes used to pour scorn on 'good birth' and fame and all such. said Diogenes. So.tranquillity. you are no kin either to the gods or to good humans . There 's nothing that determined effort and attentive and assiduous treatment won't overcome . We praise a vine if it loads its shoots down with fruit. were like fig-trees growing on a cliff.16. what fruit does this teaching produce? . Lll..Seneca.11.or it's already happened . 'noble' and 'of good birth'. you've grown up too lushly.? it is from God that the seeds of life have come down. SOCIALLY DISTURBING I baptise with water. (compare §4 on judgment.Epictetus I ix 1-4 (and all of I ix.Dio 32 17-18.5). LXXV. (note all of 14 and l5 on free and servile birth. XXVIII 9.2. of Diogenes. He told them it made them no better than snails or locusts .. What makes us worst of all is each one's failure to look back over his own past life .Lk.

Is anyone going to be in two minds about putting up with poverty.. cf. Lk. For a Cynic. 60. I 'm looking for a real human being .' 'Stand out of my sunlight. and the structures of my mind . said Diogenes. 2 .Dio 6. telling them they asked for what people in general valued. .let it happen well. Another takes care to provide me with my food and my clothes. to thirst and hunger on a meagre diet. I'm not fit to undo his sandal-strap Lk.. were themselves envious of the rich .. surrounded by all that gold. You are the wretched ones. to abstinence from all pleasure.16.Dio 6. or Perdiccas. . or the Great King? Where could they get it from? . 3. 'above matters of wealth' . 3. cf. Now's the time for going thirsty . 11 xiii 24. (10) TEMPTATlON AND RESlSTANCE (a) We train both body and soul. Antisthenes put up with his criticisms. xxiv 17..LEP Vl 38. 59 Diogenes used ts condemn those who were loud in their praise of people who were 'right-minded'. but only our (bad) opinion of it.Now no evil can happen to me. {p. {p. rather than what was really good for them LEP VI 42.11. 19} (14) POVERTY AND RICHES You are the happy ones.24. accustoming ourselves to cold and heat.hunger well! Epictetus III x 8. Practice reducing your needs. and to a hard bed. Alexander came and stood over him and said. When someone has God's kind of peace proclaimed by God through his reasoning mind (not by Caesar . Demonax 11. {Was this the inspiration for Nietzsche's story about the madman?} Diogenes saw someone engaged in a ritual lustration..34 et passim. Then we shall have plenty . said Demonax. too.21.how could he effect it?) hasn't he enough to satisfy him? . you see me already wreathed. or Alexander..9. 'Don't you realise that getting your life wrong is no more going to be helped by sprinkling yourself with water than getting your grammar wrong is' . We should not get rid of poverty. or anyone else? . was the most wretched person there was.Diogenes lit a lamp in broad daylight and went around with it saying. 14} (9) ONE MIGHTIER THAN I There's someone greater than I am coming.Lk. and. So who has any real authority over me? Has Philip. 5. Mt.yet for all their high-flown sentiments. yet afraid of poverty . It's time to go hungry . Once when Diogenes was sunbathing in the Craneion. for he greatly admired Diogenes' character .Epictetus III xiii 12-14. 20} The King. {p. and he ate his food with more enjoyment than they did .3. §58.. my senses. cf.Dio 8 . M t.Epictetus Ill xvii 8. 6.LEP VI 28 etc. Men of Athens. On the last such occasion [Socrates] you lacked favourable onens .LEP VI 41. and patience under pitiful toil .ps.Musonius Vl. and so come as close as possible to God [sc. {p. to free his mind from madness? . Diogenes claimed that he enjoyed the sensations of warmth more than the wealthy did. cf.thirst well.Lucian. 15} Now's the right time for your fever .' snapped Diogenes . 6. in sacrifice.Epictetus III xxiv 70. 'You poor bedevilled fool! ' he said. who has no needs] . {p.Crates 11. what's a Caesar or a proconsul. 'Ask me any boon you like. 17} (12) GOD'S WILL PREFERRED Diogenes used to reprimand people about their prayers. etc. Come and offer me. you who are in poverty here and now ..LEP Vl 42.Seneca EM XVII 7. . you who are rich ....Epictetus III xxii 56.

Seneca EM LXXI 7. 35. and lend expecting nothing in return . To some Diogenes seemed quite mad. A rather nice part of being a Cynic comes when you have to be beaten like an ass. 6. [an enigmatic response. it will fly high into the heavens. so that you may live happily. cf.LEP 11 21. at least. What have I done wrong? . a good man in all sincerity. bless those who curse you. You are astonished because I don't laugh. 18.ps. (18) LOVE YOUR ENEMIES Love your enemies. cf. et passim. cf.3. For example someone expressed surprise once at his self-restraint when he'd been kicked.Dio 9. Yet Diogenes was really like a reigning monarch walking in beggars' rags among his slaves and servants . {p.2. too .5-7. 12. still would it have been in order to take it to court? .27-29. letting yourself look a fool to others.Seneca EM CII 23. at marciam xxi-xxiii.. without any hurt.ps.Only the person who has despised wealth is worthy of God .2. Follow these instructions.NOW AND TO COME My soul will not sink downwards. 23} We are deliberately delayed in this mortal life to provide a rehearsal for the better and longer life ahead. and there I shall be welcomed home. Demonax 11. Socrates commented. 24} Socrates bore all the ill-treatment he received with forbearance. Some abused him and tried insulting him by throwing bones at his feet as you do to dogs. consol. didn't just avoid conflict at every point. The people handed the young man over to him. it's to be mixed back again with its natural elements. would come up and pull at his cloak. {p. Someone told Diogenes that his friends were conspiring against him. or else. 21} Lots of people are praising you. Diogenes replied. and gained no less hatred from them. cf.. As a leading figure. SADNESS and LAUGHTER Don't you want to know why I never laugh? It's not because I hate people. Socrates said. If you want to live happily.Heraclitus 5. If an ass did kick me. happy in their wrong-doing when they ought to be dejected at failing to do what's right . He refrained from any .39-44. in his response to being blinded in one eye by a fellow-citizen. The soul is either sent off into a better life to live among divine beings in brighter light and deeper peace. if you are willing to listen to me at all. when you have to treat friends and foes the same? . Who is there among us who does not admire Lykourgos of Sparta.Seneca EM LXXI 16. but I'm astonished at those who do.. If someone slaps you on the cheek. Socrates. lots despised him as a powerless good-for-nothing. {p.Lucian... but because I detest their wickedness..Epictetus IV v 2.LEP Vl 8. Demonax fell foul of the mass of the people. Well now.Seneca EM XVIII 13.. to take whatever vengeance he wanted. offer the other as well.Heraclitus 7. returning to all that is . Let anyone who wants to. Because it is immortal. cf. (15) HUNGER and REPLETION. again. Love your enemies. Mt. and do good.8-9. {p. 73. what's to be done. 19-21. 26. 22} (17) THE HAPPY REWARDS . offer you insult and injury. for his frank speaking and independence [freedom] than his predecessor [Socrates] had done ..Epictetus III xxii 54. let all and sundry despise you . Why? he asked... but most likely positive].LEP Vl 68..Lk. §16. Others. but wanted to keep others from conflict. as a fellow citizen among Gods. do good to those who hate you. and throughout the beating you have to love those who are beating you as though you were father or brother to them . Antisthenes was told. 5. not mere humans . the day you dread as the end of everything is your birthday into eternity . pray for those who abuse you.

and done everything else I could to help them.LEP Vl 62. compare all of Discourses 37-41. 25} Never to give way. (19) GIVE. Plutarch Moralia 88B. Encheiridion 5.and they have! . but educated him and made a good man of him . cf. It's a pitiably small-minded person who gives bite for bite . His denial was more high-minded even than forgiveness would have been .Lk. XLVII 11. We shall never desist from working for the common good. and if someone takes your belongings.he was from a prominent family . cf. This he shared among his fellow citizens. CONDEMN NOT Don't stand in judgment. I still need it . it's mine..Seneca.Dio 7. . and.Epictetus.and realised about two hundred talents. Someone gets angry with you. 183. {p. {p. de ira 11 xxxiv 1. love . de constantia xiv 3. {p. never to marry getting your own way with allowing others to as well .LEP Vl 87. [or threw it into the sea. My advice is to rate a friend as highly as yourself. work out a solution to this dispute over boundaries Dio 34. Crates sold up all his property . release. cf.12.Seneca EM XCV 63. etc. all of Discourse 7. never to concede a point to a neighbour (or not without feeling humiliated).34. helping one another. to do good to lots of people! How much better to spend money on other people than on bits of wood and stone for yourself . If it was a loan.52. on (re-)conciliation. Don't condemn and you'll not be condemned. also 17. (b) GIVE FREELY. what is he to do? Just what Cato did when someone boxed his ears. 5. {p. (c) BE GODLIKE If you want to be loved. Many's the time I've taken pity on shipwrecked strangers and welcomed them to my shanty. 29} (21) JUDGE NOT..Seneca. Mt.Seneca.Dio 40.it's up to you to put anger aside and forgive them the punitive revenge you thought you had a right to. Enmity immediately tumbles away when one side lets it fall . he didn't even offer to forgive. §18.retaliation in kind. Give to everyone who begs from you. 6. he said. again.43 (to citizens of Tarsus). xxiv 1. I never did it to win a testimonial or even gain gratitude . If it was a gift. and even our enemies. 27} (20) (a) DO AS WOULD BE DONE BY. Take care not to harm others.Gnomologium Vaticanum 187. Challenge him with kindness in return. given them something to eat and drink. You ask.Seneca. cf.that's not manly or strong-minded.Musonius XIX. (in Paquet pp.. (to his fellow townspeople in Prusa).Seneca EM CIII 3-4. de ira II xxxiv 5. 26} When someone asked Diogenes for his cloak back (sic). l01.Sen. and you'll find release. If the citizens of Mallus have behaved stupidly . How much more splendid than consuming lots of goods. he didn't retaliate. let him have your shirt as well. EM IX 6 (quoting Hecato). He stayed cool. cf.29-30. and you'll not stand in the dock. don't ask for them back . III v 8. de otio i 4. If a man of sense and understanding happens to get his ears boxed. GENEROUSLY If someone takes your cloak from you. The measure you use .) cf.40-42. so others won't harm you . according to another tradition ] . instead. it's just ignorant stupidity .. He refused even to admit that anything had happened. and taken them back to civilisation. replied Diogenes . How shall I defend myself against my enemy? By being good and kind towards him. de ira III xxv 3. till our helping hand is stricken with age .

but ignored what was wrong with themselves. nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush.. cf. cf. Diogenes expressed his amazement that the literary critics worked out what was amiss with Odysseus. looking for someone like me to speak to you. no slave . And I. living in luxury] in royal courts . Mt. {p. am Diogenes the Dog [Cynic] . without ever practising it . Mt. (23) BY THE FRUIT There's no good tree bearing useless iruit..Seneca de ira II x 6.39-40. 10.LEP Vl 27-28. ps. and asleep on bare earth you're in the softest bed you could find Epictetus I xxiv 7..7. and then you'll see clearly to take the speck out for your brother Lk.LEP Vl 60. 173.43-45. cf. . 6.14. 12. no governor's tiny mansion..11. the common motive was just to have heard him speak for a short while.Lk.. (22) BLIND GUIDE5 and WELL-TAUGHT DISCIPLES Can a blind man lead a blind man? will they not both fall into the ditch? A disciple is not above his teacher.16-21. Why take note of the speck in your brother's eye. but ignore the log in your own?.. [sc.. first throw away the log from your own eye. 7.1-2. and a wicked man evil out of his store of wickedness Lk.. but everyone fully taught will be as his teacher . see Introduction and §2. 7. et passim. I wonder what on earth you came expecting or hoping for. cf. says the Cynic. 24. etc. §18. 37-43. Going naked is better than all the scarlet robes in the world. 3-5.. .. to be easier to listen to than other people. Did you come expecting me to have a nice voice. So.Dio 33. Mt. I've no home.. said Diogenes. and courting . You can recognise each kind of tree by the fruit it bears. on popular response to the messenger. 44. walking alone. 15. 6. and that public speakers accorded great importance to justice. {p. but neither can a tree be useless if it bears good fruit. §151..7-8.Dio 9. Mt. {p. People don't find figs on a thorn tree. §5. 30} A man with his cloak drawn tightly round him. so as to have something to tell other people about. A good man produces good out of his heart's good treasury. 7. nothing but earth and sky and one worn cloak . I am Alexander. and end up no less famous. Dio 4. UNCOMMON What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind? No? What did you go to see? A man in soft clothes? You find people got up like that [in fine clothes.Dio 62. one who always starts by rebuking himself.25-26. It was mostly people from a distance away who came to talk with Diogenes.LK.. 7. 65. . 221.33-35...14. {p. It pained Alexander to think that someone living as free and easy as Diogenes might get the better of him. and Dio 6. 6.24-5. 5 .... 43. rather than look for some improvement for themselves . 38} Diogenes says. Dio and other Cynics] ..Diogenes 23.. whenever you see someone who begins by flattering himself on everything he does.. the Great King.. no city. Once upon a time Alexander came and stood in front of Diogenes and announced. 31} You can no more have a fool as a king than a blind man to lead you along the road . 32} who would think to be surprised at finding no apples on the brambles in the wood? or be astonished because thorns and briars are not covered in useful fruits? .. {P. §l~ 22.Epictetus III xxii 47.. 41-42. no property. like a song-bird?.will be used for you. you hypocrite.. 36. 68. on attitudes to kings. Take a look at me then. and that money-grubbers condemned money while deeply in love with it . 11. 37} (30) UNROYAL.37-38..

LEP Vl 6.Dio 6.7.LEP Vl 22. When Diogenes joked playfully. Mt. cf. It's very much simpler to get rid of any written rule you choose than it is an item of customary morality. people were quite delighted.. Good people don't need them. often going thirsty . too.ps. 43} (36) (b) FOXHOLES AND BIRDSNESTS Jesus said to the would-be disciple.Lk.ps.Dio 33.ps. a man who always begins by rebuking himself. Antisthenes was reproached for keeping bad company .. then you need not look for any flattery or deceit from him. 75. we sang laments. 11. the the image).5. not worrying about the dark. as he did from time to time. It seems to me it was rather like children who enjoy playing with thorough-bred dogs. and you wouldn't mourn' . 13-14. Foxes have their earths to go to and birds have their nests to fly down to. and 80.Lk. they could not stand his frankness. not bothering about finding anywhere for its nest.8.and they said he had a daimonion.1. {p.31-32.. Though the mass of people want the same results as the Cynics. {p. wrapped tight in his cloak. you can be sure he'll flatter you.. .. Mt. 11.and a friend of tax-collectors and other wrong-doers into the bargain . {p. but not as good as philosophy. 9. . Demonax said that laws were probably pretty useless. once they see how difficult the way is. According to Theophrastos Diogenes had watched a mouse running around.LEP Vl 66.Lk. Diogenes was reproached for drinking in a bar . But when he pulled out all the stops and started to be serious. {p. whether they were framed witn bad or with good people in mind. 8. 'We played on the pipes for you.Crates 21.Dio 76. and you wouldn't dance. 4. Where law uses force against injustice. It was through watching this mouse that he discovered the way to cope with circumstances . Mt. 7. philosophy persuades us by teaching. Demonax 59. 40} (32) TOO HARD John came to people's refused to drink wine children are frightened to death .3 [et passim.47 (for OR TOO SOFT attention as someone who refused to eat baked bread and .Anarcharsis 5. showing no particular desire for things one might suppose particularly enjoyable. but when the dogs show signs of anger and bark more loudly. customary morality is engraved deep in our living souls . The whole earth is my bed .18-19.16-17.Dio 9. But when you see some squalid figure. 7. and 35.20. they steer well clear of those who propose it.favour with his dinners and his dress. 41} (34) LAW Law is a fine thing.Crates 5. People used to see Diogenes shivering out in the open. but the son of man has nowhere to rest his head ..' 'Well.and they say he's a glutton and a soak .Lucian.7. walking on his own.58. 39} (31) SILLY CHILDREN What are our contemporaries like? They're like children sitting in the market place and complaining to each other. criticising written law.33-34. while laws are preserved on tablets of wood or stone. The son of man came to people's attention eating baked bread and drinking wine . and minces around provocatively. per contra. Philosophy is better than social pressure just to the extent that it's better to do something willingly rather than under compulsion . praising it]. and bad people aren't in any way improved by them .

9-10. Diogenes was the first person to double his threadbare cloak. and scrape a little dust over him . no bread no money. not only without hearth or home.20.2. they take nothing else at all with them. cf. cf. too . Some say that when Diogenes was dying he gave instructions that he should be thrown out without burial. Introduction. cf. Mk 6.Dio 34. 'What instructions have you given about your burial?' 'No need to fuss. They don't change their clothes or their sandals before they either fall to pieces or are worn through with use Josephus. and §8. Jewish War II 125-127.ps.ps. and he carried a satchel for his bread. 'Isn't it disgraceful for the body of a man like you to be left out for birds and beasts to feed on?' 'I don't see anything amiss. but says they had no weapons.Lk. So a good philosopher should oe where there's most stupidity .LEP Vl 52. quod omnis probus liber sit 77-78. said Diogenes . slung a satchel on my shoulder. and put in a cup and a bowl. and then. You must not refuse.7-13. Though they travel armed against robbers.. who will take you away to bury you? Whoever wants the house. with some bread and other scraps of food. 30. .LEP VI 22-3.Lucian. {p. 46} (38) COMMISSlONING I believe I've taken up this task. Because he had to use it to sleep in. 10 (a). Wearing only ever one shirt is better than needing two.Dio 40:2. 9. 31H. but he took to carrying a staff for support only when he became infirm . 14.. and wearing just a cloak with no shirt at all is better still. 10. 10.37. he gave me a staff.Dio 8.. has come at the bidding of some divine being to talk to you and advise you . Mt.] According to some. ibid.' But the questioner went on. [Essenes make their way into the houses of people they've never met before as though they were their best friends. Antisthenes took off the shirt and the cloak I was wearing. Demonax 66. 45} (37) MASS HARVEST. either for your birth. but note also XVI. 'The stink will get me buried.3. 'in being useful to other living beings after my death' . finally.' replied Demonax. and Teles 30H. no change of shirt.I have travelled around for so long. 85. for every wild animal to eat. 35. 59. 12.Lk. put a doubled threadbare cloak on me instead.' he said. {P. to accept that a man who has arrived among you as I have. There's no need to thank your parents. is better than wearing sandals . {p.4. A little while before Demonax died someone asked. or for being the sort of person you are . A good physician goes to be helpful where there's most sickness. 10. but the labourers are few .Diocenes 30. cf. Philo notes the Essenes' frugality..5.12. out of the blue. he does also note their visiting.LEP Vl 79. {p. no sandals. On the outside of the satchel he hung an oilflask and a scraper. Going bare-foot.Diogenes 21. but without even a single attendant to take round with me .4. no satchel. 44} (36) (c) SKIMPED OBSEQUIES If you die without a servant to wait on you. SCARCE HARVESTERS The harvest is plentiful. but by the decision of some divine being -Dio 32. 47} (40) MISSlON EQUIPMENT You're not to carry a purse with you at all. if you can. Or they were to squash him down into any hole they found. and don't wear sandals // Take nothing for your journey. not of my own choice. nor a satchel. no staff . Mt. When I'd chosen in favour of this Cynic way.Musonius XIX.

sometimes among barbarians. That core problem is compounded by another one. a very unpleasant end awaits us. harmony. in fact. but just to the friendly elements from which you came. or censored any other gospels too far off its right or left wing. cf. Mark. There is no Hades. LXXIV 3.. no Acheron. cf. Suppose that in such a situation you wanted to know not just what early . Untroubled by fears.{p.. and especially any overall narratival or biographical framework. as a gospel but it is in fact a collection of the sayings of Jesus given without any compositional order and lacking descriptions of deeds or miracles. An example of a source hidden inside the four canonical gospels is the reconstructed document known as Q. mixing with herdsmen and hunters . and John. I refer to it in this book as the Q Gospel. The existence of such other gospels means that the canonical foursome is a spectrum of approved interpretation forming a strong central vision that was later able to render apocryphal. meaning "source. . in the winter of 1945 and is.Diogenes 39.. we shall not be afraid of death nor of the Gods.ps. unsullied by desires. I xxix 28-29. Since.Epictetus III xiii 14-15. despite there being only one Jesus. Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. much closer to that of the Q Gospel than to any of the canonical foursome. and neither are the Gods. IV vii. I stayed away from the towns. (XIII). in the view of many scholars. Those two authors also use Mark as a regular source. passing my time in the countryside. and agreement. in other words. HarperSanFrancisco." which is now imbedded within both Luke and Matthew. 48.. at the end. This becomes clear in studying other gospels either discerned as sources inside the official four or else discovered as documents outside them. or four versions. and dressed for the part.Seneca EM LXXV 16-17. so Q is discernible wherever they agree with one another but lack a Markan parallel. Hence. completely independent of the canonical gospels . IV. Those four gospels do not represent all the early gospels available or even a random sample within them but are instead a calculated collection known as the canonical gospels. An example of a document discovered outside the four canonical gospels is the Gospel of Thomas.Matthew. 1994. GOD CARES {p. you get a generally persuasive impression of unity. as a beggar. 48} I visited as many countries as I could. especially in its format.. {end of quotes from Downing} (2) John Dominic Crossan. crucifixion or resurrection stories. 67} If we don't prepare carefully for death. from the German word Quelle. x} It is precisely that fourfold record that constitutes the core problem.. three. there can be more than one gospel. If you read the four gospels vertically and consecutively. more than one interpretation. {p. it is disagreement rather than agreement that strikes you most forcibly. in Upper Egypt. God has opened the door for you and says. that document has its own generic integrity and theological {p. {p. sometimes among Greeks. It identifies itself. Luke. of course. The gospels are. and is. XXIV. .. And those divergences stem not from the random vagaries of memory and recall but from the coherent and consistent theologies of the individual texts. Dio 30. interpretations. then arriving in the Peloponnese.. from start to finish and one after another. Go! Where to? To nothing fearful. We shall realise that death is in no way evil..1.Dio 1.50. hidden. focusing on this or that unit and comparing it across two. like Mark. finding lots to think about. 66} (56) NEVER FEAR. it's only with great difficulty that the soul is set free . which was found at Nag Hammadi. CII 22. xi} consistency apart from its use as a Quelle or source for others. It is also most strikingly different from them. But if you read them horizontally and comparatively..

at least when it is not a disguise for doing theology and calling it history. in his qual. since all must intersect at the same point for any of them to be correct. The story of Diogenes and Alexander involves a calculated questioning of power.. Here is Farrand Sayre's description of the Cynics' program: {quote} The Cynics sought happiness through freedom. from regard for public opinion and free. Who is the true ruler: the one who wants . the former had already done so through disciplined indifference. {p. This oft-told tale was already known to Cicero in his Tusculan Disputations 5. That triangulation serves as internal discipline and mutual corrective. grief and other emotions. from confinement to any locality and from the care and support of wives and children. when Alexander asked him to name allything he wanted: 'Just now. and others crucified him. some worshiped him. {endquote} My italics emphasize the Cynics' dress and equipment code. staff and cloak. by the way. rule. The Cynic conception of freedom included freedom from desires. give an accurate but impartial account of the historical Jesus as distinct from the confessional Christ? That is what the academic or scholarly study of the historical Jesus is about. they are only as good as the theory and method on which they are based.dom also from the care of property. custom and convention.C. dominion. It was originally a derogatory term for the provocative shamelessness with which Diogenes deliberately flouted basic human codes of propriety and decency. 115} word for "dog. 'stand a bit away trom the {p. But what if you wanted to move behind the screen of credal interpretation and..E.E. literally. "dogism. of Diogenes by Aristotle. It is like three giant searchlights coming together on a single object in the night sky. no matter how fascinating result and conclusion may be. The Cynics scoffed at the customs and conventionalities of others.C. He never wore shoes and his hair and beard were long and unkempt." he said. We use cynicism today to mean belief in nothing or doubt about everything." coming from kyon. from fear. The Cynic would not appear anywhere without his wallet." and it was used.92 from 45 B. from religious or moral control. and kingship. 114} Diogenes and Daedalus Cynicism was a Greek philosophical movement founded by Diogenes of Sinope. Put another way. The classic Cynic story is that of the encounter between Diogenes and Alexander the Great at Corinth in 336 B. which must invariably be dirty and ragged and worn so as to leave the right shoulder bare. doing autobiography and calling it biography doing Christian apologetics and calling it academic scholarship.believers wrote about Jesus but what you would have seen and heard if you had been a more or less neutral observer in the early decades of the first century.: {quote} But Diogenes.E. which was intended as a dramatization of their refusal to accept society's material values. without in any way denying or negating the validity of faith. from the authority of the city or state or public officials. but what it means philosophically is theoretical disbelief and practical negation of ordinary cultural values and civilized presuppositions. was more outspoken. . some people ignored him. The term itself means. The latter is just setting out to conquer the world through military power. as a clear visualization of their countercultural position. 116} sun!" Alexander apparently had interfered with his basking in the heat. {endquote} We are back.C.ity of Cynic. to the quotation from Burton Mack that headed Chapter 3. as if quoting a well-known nickname. who was born on the mid-southern coast of the Black Sea and lived between 400 and 320 B. Clearly. My method locates the historical Jesus where three independent vectors cross. but were rigid in observance of their own. certainly. the Greek {p. anger.

just at the materialism of Hellenistic culture in the wake of either the Alexandrian or Augustan empires. I ask. a text already known to Cicero in 45 B. and their life and dress spoke as forcibly as their speech and sermons. The Cynics' criticism was not directed. between the one who invented the arts of civilization and the one who refused them: {quote} How. .. The Roman moralist Seneca the Younger.E. or the one who wants only a little sunlight? If kingship is freedom. {endquote} {p.. . In the following excerpts from Pseudo-Diogenes. But I focus now on wallet and staff. who lived between 4 B. Shiva plays a comparable role in a trinity. We are back.C. Cynicism is the Greco-Roman form of that universal philosophy of eschatology or world-negation. or the one who wants nothing. Cloak refers to the single . in fact. or the one who. It was directed more fundamentally at civilization itself. Follow nature. {It's not really an opposition to civilization.html} Knapsack and Staff The Cynic missionaries and the Jesus missionaries agree about wearing no sandals and spending no time on ordinary greetings and gossip on the way. 117} Cynicism is not.E.E. they would know that the cook is as supertluous as the soldier.. just a moral attack on Greco-Roman civilization. If mankind were willing to listen to this sage. letters fictionally attributed to Cynicism's founder from the first century B. These imaginary letters arenow easily accessible in The Cynic Epistles.. not just between Alexander and Diogenes but between Daedalus and Diogenes. derives from the phrase "the skin of my feet as my shoes" in Pseudo-Anacharsis 65. There is extant from around the Augustan age. before and after the time of Jesus.E.C. staff. advocating a self-sufficiency modeled on that of nature rather than culture. drew the contrast. For wherever there is culture and civilization there can also be counterculture and anticivilization. and the Cynics did so not only in abstract theory among the aristocratic elites. on seeing a boy drink water from the hollow of his hand. the one who wants all of Asia. and bag or wallet. a collection by Abraham Malherbe. because here they are in flat disagreement. upbraiding himself with these words: "Fool that I am. but a correction. to have been carrying superfluous baggage all this time!" and then curled himself up in his tub and lay down to sleep. forthwith took his cup from his wallet and broke it. which of the two is really free. is really king? And just as Cynicism had a first flowering after the conquests of Alexander..They were populist preachers in marketplace and pilgrimage center.14-16. The title of this wider section.everything. one of the great and fundamental options of the human spirit. a series of pseudo-letters or fictional communications from revered or representative Cynics. with that distinction seen earlier between the wider phenomenon of eschatology or world-negation and the narrower one of apocalypticism as but one of its many forms. but in practical street theater among the ordinary people. it is a paradoxical attack on civilization itself. and 65 C. alongside Brahma and Vishnu: india. or even earlier. and you will need no skilled craftsmen. Both times were ripe for a fundamental questioning of power. for instance.C. just as Taoism in China is a correction to Confucianism. so it had another after those of Augustus. however. the two can go well together as polarities. can you consistently admire both Diogenes and Daedalus? Which of these two seems to you a wise man . in other words. in his Epistulae Morales 90. notice the constant emphasis on cloak.the one who devised the saw. In India.

who is naked. All they needed could be carried in a simple knapsack slung over their shoulders. stay. 119} not just a technique for support but a demonstration of mes-sage.E. they could not and should not dress to declare itinerant self-sufficiency but rather communal dependency. my leather wallet is a shield.22. {quote} And how is it possible that a man who has nothing. houseless. and a good translation. [To Apolexis] I have laid aside most of the things that weigh down my wallet. Look at me. Similarly with the staff. the idea of no-staff and no-knapsack is symbolically correct for the Jesus missionaries.the only garment used. Consider the ragged cloak to be a lion's skin.. carry a wallet over my shoulders. The two items taken together underlined their itinerant self-sufficiency. that I am called a dog and put on a double. But for now. from which you are fed..heavy or doubled outer garment worn day and night.. They carried their homes with them. since for a scepter I have my staff and for a mantle the double. without a house. but each of them is good when undertaken out of conscious determination. without a slave. and by way of exchange. coarse cloak. ragged cloak and carrying a wallet. who am without a city. The Jesus missionaries. They are rural. ragged cloak. [To Anaxilaus] I have recently come to recognize myself to be Agamemnon. stir in you. since I learned that for a plate a {p. as the hands do for a cup.. The term wallet is probably a most unfortunate translation since for us it connotes money. the staff a club. and the wallet land and sea. free under Zeus. and was banished from Rome along with other philosophers by the emperor Domitian in 89 C. without a hearth. [To Antipater] I hear that you say I am doing nothing unusual in wearing a double. [To Agesilaus] Life has a sufficient store in a wallet." What it symbolized for the Cynics was their complete self-sufficiency. summer and winter . on a house mission to rebuild peasant society from the grass roots upward. the fact that they had no fixed abode in any place. and have a staff in my hand . Why this striking difference? Since a reciprocity of healing and eating is at the heart of the Jesus movement. Father. as it is in Luke 10:4 and Mark 6:8. Itinerancy and dependency: heal. The Greek word is always pera in those letters. squalid. move on. are told precisely to carry no knapsack and hold no staff in their hands. I emphasize only bag or wallet. . for us. mightier than every turn of fortune. For thus would the spirit of Heracles. preaching at street corner and market place. God has sent you a man to show you that it is possible. [To Crates] Remember that I started you [Crates] on yourlifelong poverty. was eventually freed. not to argue about who influenced whom but simply to show how poverty and royalty could be combined not just by Jesus within Judaism but by Epictetus within Greco-Roman paganism.E. 118} hollowed out loaf of bread suffices. Since commensality is {p. Here is a justly famous passage from "On the Calling of a Cynic" in his posthumously transcribed Discourses 3. without . living as I do. Epictetus was born the slave son of a slave mother and lived between 55 and 135 C. would be "knapsack" rather than "wallet" or "bag. Now I admit that none of these is extraordinary. without a city. in contrast. It represented their itinerant status. {quote} [To Hicetas] Do not be upset. not in conformity with popular opinion but according to nature. can pass a life that flows easily? See. Poverty and Royalty I conclude this section with a series of quotations from the philosopher Epictetus. He was allowed by his master to study philosophy. that they were always spiritually on the way elsewhere. They are not urban like the Cynics. and staff.

I have a hard bed even now.. it is nothing for you. {quote} So do you [would-be Cynics] also think about the matter carefully. and one cloak automatically make one a Cynic? But.. the logic of poverty leading to freedom leading to royalty. and revile them.22 that I cited earlier] that befit a Cynic. does not think that he sees his king and master? {endquote} Notice. "O Caesar. This comes not only from a physical poverty that renders one impervious to both desire and loss.. nobody beats him. {quote} For this too is a very pleasant strand woven into the Cynic's pattern of life. he never suggests abandoning those externals. as though he were the father or brother of the mall. He simply insists that internal poverty must beget external and that external must not replace internal. {endquote} It is fascinating to watch the Christian nervousness of some earlier translators in handling that passage. If Epictetus represented royalty. 121} -fer under your peaceful rule? Let us go before the Proconsul. or to stow it away. nobody reviles him. And what do I want? Am I not without sorrow? Am I not without fear? Am I not free? When did any of you see me failing in the object of my desire? or ever falling into that which I would avoid? did I ever blame God or man? did I ever accuse any man? did any of you ever see me with sorrowful countenance? And how do I meet with those whom you are afraid of and admire? Do not I treat them like slaves? Who. {endquote} It is obvious that Epictetus is speaking to an audience of the poorer classes whose normal poverty is not that different. or to revile tactlessly the people he meets. or a Proconsul. Freedom comes next. Lo. . 120} emperor? And those three terms are best explained by other quotations from Discourses 3. give it a wide berth. Since a Cynic philosopher looks much like a beggar. it is not what you think it is. he insists. even while warning against that danger. Now the spirit of patient endurance the Cynic must have to such a degree that common people will think him insensate and a stone. but only the earth and heavens. and so I shall then.possessions. these are words [the long quotation from 3. Notice. Epictetus is very concerned that the externals of Cynicism may be mistaken for its internals." If you fancy the affair to be something like this. what makes a Cynic is a contemptible wallet. to devour everything you give him. Zeus? . first of all. and whom he serves. and one poor cloak. no children. when he sees me. that is. what was the Roman {p. The one who has nothing and wants nothing is totally free. the intense political undertones of the passage. don't come near it. . and his plan of life.. is not every beggar a Cynic philosopher? Do staff. a staff.22. knapsack. in the flow of that passage. what do I have to suf{p. If someone flogs you. in externals. he must needs be flogged like an ass. it is voluntary not necessary poverty that counts. also. without a slave. and I shall begin to walk around and beg from those I meet. But. the sequence from nothing to free to king. no praetorium [official power]. and while he is being flogged he must love the men who flog him. Does Epictetus sound too much like Jesus? In the 1910 . I shall take to myself a wallet and a staff. But no. "I wear a roughcloak even as it is. and I shall have one then. or to show off his fine shoulder. I have no wife. nobody insults him." But what to a Cynic is Caesar. or anyone other than He who has sent him into the world. go stand in the midst and shout. Poverty. from Cynic poverty. but especially from a spiritual poverty that renders one oblivious to both attack and assault. and big jaws. but his body he has himself given for anyone to use as he sees fit. you say. I sleep on the ground. But that is not your way. this is his character...

which was checked by Rome's suppression of the Jewish revolt of 66-70 A. Whereas F. Mack here was relying on the brilliantly argued work of John Kloppenborg who believed that Q originally consisted of a collection of wisdom sayings . partly as a messenger . F. here Mack argues that Mark is a thoroughly unreliable source. because the Cynic "has been sent by Zeus to men. still from Epictetus. JESUS' DEATH IN Q {This article first appeared in New Testament Studies 38 (1992) 222-34 . theorized and performed against social oppression.htm "Burton Mack. Difference must be respected just as much as similarity.. Royalty.com/Q/ A former student in a Rabbinical seminary in Jerusalem." It is not my point that Jesus and Epictetus are saying or doing exactly the same thing. Atlantic Monthly. Elizabeth Carter compares that passage with Matthew 5:39-44. . then.fsmitha. which speaks of turning the other cheek. refer to http://www. true royalty. and partly . Mack published Mark: A Myth of Innocence. and other Hellenistic philosophies: http://www." (b) The Search for a No-Frills Jesus.edition of The Moral Discourses of Epictetus. December 1996 http://www.htm (c) David Seeley...google.html. is the final theme. a professor of Claremont School of Theology .: jewish-revolt. Gerald Downing stresses the non-Jewish culture of the early Christians. Gerald Downing: Paul and the Cynics..com/issues/96dec/jesus/jesus.com/search?hl=en&ie=ISO-8859-1&q=Burton+Mack+Jesus+Q Here are some samples: (a) Bruce Griffin.D. Brandon emphasises the Jewishness. But what Jesus called the Kingdom of God and what Epictetus might have called the Kingdom of Zeus must be compared as radical messages that taught and acted. Q in turn was believed to have gone through three different revisions or redactions before it was used as a source for Matthew and Luke... and requires of all his followers. This argument was continued in Mack's The Lost Gospel: the Book of Q and Christian Origins in 1993.. how we are taking away his kingdom from him. as such. The Case Against Q: Studies in Markan Priority and the Synoptic Problem http://www. freedom. and that to the extent that the historical Jesus can be recovered. More from F. She notes that "Christ specifies higher injuries and provocations than Epictetus doth. an example of early Christian mythmaking.bham. by CHARLOTTE ALLEN. S. . and royalty.] http://www..html (see Letter 7).. {end of quotes from Crossan} More on the Cynics. In 1988..uk/theology/synoptic-l/jdeath... what Epictetus describes only as the duty of one or two extraordinary persons. Conversation with Israel Shamir: see Letter 11.. and going the second mile under constraint. contests my claim that Jesus' thinking was not Jewish but like that of the Cynic philosophers: letters. cultural materialism. WAS JESUS A PHILOSOPHICAL CYNIC? http://www-oxford. specifically the Cynic parallels..theatlantic. in this regard.. He must share with him his sceptre and kingdom.htm. as a scout" so that he walks the earth as "one whoshares in the government of Zeus.com/h1/ch12. he looks like a Cynic wisdom teacher .htm (d) Mark Goodacre.. Mack defended Q as the most reliable source for the reconstruction of the historical Jesus. giving up your garments.op. See to what straits we are reducing our Cynic [if he marries].ntgateway. G.ac. It is interesting... and imperial domination in the first and second centuries." Not really. And yet shall the Cynic's kingship [or: kingdom] not be thought a reasonable compensation [for celibacy]? {endquote} Poverty.org/allen/html/acts. that the same Greek word could be used for royal scepter and for Cynic staff: {quote} Where will you find me a Cynic's friend? . To study the debate about Q among New Testament scholars. for example. .

To order a second-hand copy of any of F. Alain Danielou on similarities between the Cynics of Greece and the Shaivite ascetics of India: danielou2. Christ and the Cynics is out of print.Adolf von Harnack on the development of early Christian theology. Gerald Downing's books via ABEbooks (if one is available): http://dogbert.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1850751501/qid%3D1000279949/t/103-2084202 -5507810.html. 17).com/abe/BookSearch?an=F+Gerald+Downing.html (p. . plus a study of Philo's impact: philo.abebooks. To order a second-hand copy from Amazon: http://www.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful