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PRAKRIT DHAMMAPABA .

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RANGOON. POST-GRADUATE TEACHER IN THE DEPARTMENTS OF PALI AND ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE.' *THE AjIvIKAS.PRAKRIT DHAMMAPADA BASED UPON M.M.). CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY. Rr\v tin Q . PROFESSOR OF PALI. M. FORMERLY RESEARCH SCHOLAR TO THE GOVERNMENT OF BENGAL. FORMERLY STATE SCHOLAR TO THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA.Lit. SENART'S KHAROSTHI MANUSCRIPT WITH TEXT. POST-GRADUATE TEACHER IN THE DEPARTMENTS OP PALI AND INDIAN VERNACULARS.. PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY OE CALCUTTA 1921 ohowkhamba P n mm\T series office.A. BAPTIST COLLEGE. CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY.).D.' ETC.' 'prolegomena to a HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.A. (Cal.(Lond. TRANSLATION & NOTES BY BENIMADHAB BARUA. AND SAILENDRANATH MITRA. AUTHOR OF 'A HISTORY OF PRK-BUDDHISTIC INDIAN PHILOSOPHY.

CALCUTTA .t^ *K0 DHAMAPADA SUDESITA KUSALO PUSAYIYA LOAN STACK PATESITI ?' PRINTED BY ATUL CHANDRA BHATTACHARTTA AT THE CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY PRESS. SENATE HOUSE.

Sc..D. but for whose effort. work is dedicated in token of the devotion.. C. sympathy and support Buddhistic in studies would not have found place the this University of Calcutta. Sambuddhagama-Chakravarti. Kt.S.L. Saraswati. Ph. the avowed champion of the cause of Buddhistic Researches in this country.I. D. SJ9 . heart-felt esteem and gratitude of the authors. D.. Sastra-Vachaspati. MA.BQ/37Z To The Hon'ble Sir ASUTOSH MOOKERJEE.

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. .. i-iv * The title * Prakrit Dhammapada Dhammapada .. ..... iv-vii 3 4. 1-5 Plate Plate A2 A3 5-10 10-18 18-21 Plate A'* Fragments of Plate A B 22-23 24-52 B Fragments of Plate C^" 52-54 55-69 70-85 Plate C^'" Fragments of C Postscript 86-94 95-96 . Recensions and Copies of the vii-xvii xvii-li li-lv Chronology of the Dhammapada texts Concluding Remarks PART I Sbnart's Edition of ihe Kharosthi Manuscript Plate a: ..CONTENTS INTRODUCTION PAGE 1. 5. Discovery of the Kharosthi Manusciipt of the Dhammapada 2.

.( p ) PART II Present Edition or the Kharosthi Manuscript 1.

translated by Mr. Nariman in his Literary History. G. is the only text of which a fragment has been preserved in Kharosthi. row edited and translated the with improved readings and readjustm'ents.D. The ^ These we owe to Sir Aurel Stein. -269. See his monumental work. Aryan section of the Oriental Congress The find represented a Kharosthi manuscript. at Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra. regulations. which lie despatched to Paris. in two big volumes. official all dialect. and this is the only Buddhist text which has been hitherto found composed in a Prakrit dialect. The manuscript is one of the earliest finds from Khotan. a script in which two recensions of Asoka's Rock Edicts.*'* is and private correspondence inscribed in the Kharo-thi script and drawn up in a Prakrit " the date of the Prakrit documents Prof. wooden of tablets which have been mixed is with the first and one of which dated of the A. are inscribed. Liiders* paper Uher die literarischen Funde von Ostturkestan. Dhammapada. Liiders says."* The in discovery the Prakrit text Dhammapada made in 1892 by the French traveller Dutreuil de Hhins. 238. — fixed by the Chinese later. who found altogether three fragments With regard to in Khotan. Among later finds in Khotan. " In 1897 Senart made these fragments Prof: Liiders notes: Kharosthi was known held in their contents and value Senart's communication created a sensation in the Paris. Ancient Khotan. instructions. — The Discovery of Kharosthi Manuscript of the Dhammapada. K. we have and to mention a few documents of local " containing dispositions reports authorities. •Jf-X- ^ . p.Introduction 1.

European scholars headed by Liiders have taken pains to make improvements on it and discuss the paleographic and of Kharosthi the linguistic literary importance manuscript. in literary compositions. This courtesy on the part of the Russian servant was all the more welcome to M. Since several the publication of M. have been incorporated (see 1-15. of well shall never forget the day when in going together through Senart's edition we were struck by of some inaccuracies both as identification and adjustment the first the fragments as of particular verses.^ deciphered and adjusted by Serge d'Oldento The bourg. Senart says. who later on placed the documents at his disposal. it was a recension of be the second century.( ii ) The Kharosthi character inscriptions in the till then had been known only from outermost boundary of North-West India. upon as two line 1 incomplete in his numbered plate A^ and as * ' Nariman. Epigraphieal comparison proved the date of the manuscript to As to its contents. intact In Senart's edition. Senart's edition in 1897. 227. ^ . Literary History. the Pali Dhammapada Another in a Prakrit dialect. Le Manuscrit Kharo§thl du Dhammapada. whose name is At an opportune couplets in his moment we chanced arrangement. Senart at a time when he himself was engaged in daciphering and adjusting the fragments in the Rhins collection. 11. portion of The manuscript was only a the same manuscript was portion which was taken by a brought Petrograd. d^Oldenbourg's B. as M. published in 1897 {Journal Asiatique). Preface. Petersburg (now called Petrograd) was. which was till then unknown fragment. p. Senart found that Serge d'Oldenbourg's documents filled some graps in the fragments of the Paris manuscript at which he was working. We M.^'^ Russian traveller to St. On examination M. Serge documents pp. 24-81). into settled impression certain gradually deepening the conviction of drawbacks in otherwise excellent work of a scholar in the very forefront of Oriental scholarship.

The world will . We are happy that the undertaking now fulfilled.PREFACE This work of which the first instalment is now grew by way Dhamma. if placed in better hands. a landmark is of a digression of from our monograph Asoka's Indian literature and religion^. wherever necessary and possible. Senart who ushered into existence. President of the Post-Graduate Councils. Senart's edition. of the the where bearing of Asoka's inscriptions question in and teachings on the Dhammapada class of Buddhist literature had to be discussed. Sanskrit parallels. translation and The idea of a complete edition with not conceived until introduction was after an interview with the Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee. inspiring us to undertake the work and plan finish it by all means. still a point The digression took place at course of preparation. which * — published. although we do not doubt that the execution is the of the work would have been far more satisfactory. who was kind enough of to discuss with us the detail of the work. chiefly in the light of the extant Pali and the notes. It is especially gratifying to us that excited so we have been able to first re-edit a work which much interest since its publication about a quarter of greater portion of trious it a century ago and publish a fortunately during the lifetime of the illusit M. The original plan was to re-adjust the verses and fragments and correct the readings in M.

His parallel quotabut I. in some cases. with translation. while in Part V an attempt has been made language of the inscriptions and construct a comparative text grammar the will Prakrit and that of In the Kharosthi documents. while the . and. tions have been omitted in marked with a t. on by notes explaining their position in a chapter. fragments a group. development and historical importance of the of the Dhamma- pada to class of texts. The few alphabetical types used by him in Part paleographic discussion had to be for the simple reason that they omitted in our translation without the fac-simile of the plates. incomplete. It is to Serge d'Oldenbourg that we owe the adjustment incorporated in M. Introduction be found an account of with special reference the various recensions of the to their history. Our part work consists in a shufflng and re-arrangement of plates. contains the text as adjusted and restored in Part II. Part IV contains a short dissertation on the genesis. Dhammapada in place and significance Buddhism. Senart's edition with In order to facilitate his valuable notes translated into Euglish. the few comparison. verse. linguistic and historical significance. Senart^s Plate few fragments of marked B. although there are identifications one or two parallels Numerous new from all and have our been supplied possible sources corroborating The verses have been commented adjustments and readings. consistently with the colophons indicating the total number the of verses contained in with the result th^ whole work has been divided into so many distinct chapters. left No fraojment has been left unadjusted and no verse doubtful cases.lines. had discovered the fragments of the Kharosthi Manuscript and taken them to Europe. we have felt it necessary to reproduce in Part 1 of our work M. reproduced in Part II. and bringing Part III out their literary. would be quite out of place So much about the in the his reproduction of his radical work.{ h ) also remember with and French travellers — Petroffsky and of a gratitude the labours of the Russian Dutreuil de Rhins — who verses.

. the Chowdhury who has offered Gopaldas us from time to time important suggestions to the interpretation of the text. Comparative Carmiehael Professor of Ancient Indian Dr.. It will be seen that the plan of the chapters appearing in Part II of this instalment was worked out independently of the very valuable suggestions of R.. B. Ramaprasad Chauihury. India Office Library. The names the of scholars of who have the contributed in manifold ways to texts will be found in the knowledge Dhammapada is Bibliography of references which follows. M. too great for Our we to obligation to Sir Asutosh words. Superintendent. and the present.A. Our thanks are also due B. Ramaprasad Introduction. Indian Museum.A. 1912).. I. Thomas.. R. Calcutta University Press. Lecturer in Bengali. M.{ ' ) Glossary contains an index of words with their meanings and Pali and Sanskrit equivalents. that our readjustments We and coincide in numerous instances with theirs. the credit of Mr. Bhandarkar. Taraporewala.. W. in Indian Vernaculars and Lecturer Mr. S. D. Chanda. M. who were kind enough to ways. Dr. note his Study of the Recensions the Dhammapada have the satisfaction identifications to September-October. Prabodhehandra assist us in various Bagclii. Professor of Comparative Philology Librarian. It must be said to Superintendent. Levi in A. F.A. 1906j of and of Sylvain (J. and shall ever has taken in the progress of the remain grateful to him for the personal interest he work. Mr. in Philology. regard have profited a great deal by some useful suggestions from Prof. who have also shown interest in the preparation of an edition like and to Mr. D. C. particularly with We Calcutta.A. G. that but for his able . A.A. Majumdar. (60). B. B. C. B.. and Dr. Otto Franke in his article Zum Manuskript Dutreuil de Rhins contributed to the Z. M.A. J. History and Culture. Kabibhaskar Srijut Sasankamohan Sen. Ghatak.A. Sylvain Levi who was good enough to read the proofs of the latter portion of the We are no less thankful to Mr.

) S. to we cannot Preface without a word of thanks Babu Probodhchandra Chakravarti of the University Press who was entrusted with the work of setting up and who has acquitted himself of his task so well. B. BARIJA N. Senate House. 1922. ") M.( y ) management in the is work could not have been printed out. iti the form close this which it now brought Lastly. MITBA . Calcutfa: The 20th Fehmary.

. 3-1) st. (22) Srutavarga. 1-2. . (30) Sukhavarga.A. (12) Margavarga. st. 62-3). folio).(^1) Tathagatavarga. Berlin. W. (24) Sahasravarga. (23) Atmavarga. 57-9) (32) Bhiksuvarga. S. st. 2. Stein : St.BIBLIOGRAPHY :^ The 1. These together with the three folios in the Pelliot collection comprise the following chapters and stanzas (1) Anityavarga. R. 1912. . Die Turfan-Kecensionen des R. st. Dhammapada Ak. Fausboll. . list of important texts and articles consulted edited by V. Pr. (13) Satkaravarga. i-2 (Pelliot) st. d. (Pelliot). 1-38 (fols. 52).) English translation by Samuel Beal of the Fa-keu-pi-ti (Triibner's Oriental Series. XX. p. Udanavarga — translated into English by W. st. edited by de la Vallee Poussin in J. U-U (fols. able Recensions of the Dhammapada in J. st. st 1-11 a-b (one St. S. A. edited by Pischel in the Sitzb. . K. 1908. Dhammapada Dhammapada Dhammapada Chinese —the (P. (fols. st. 55-7) (31) Cittast.. 8-18. 1-19 (fols. 1900. 7. Wiss. Rockhill Series). 3-14 (Pelliot). 19 18-20. pocket edition). d.. . (fols. ff. 4. 1-26 (Pelliot). 3. Documents Sanskrit De La Seconde Collection M. from the Tibetan (Triibner's Oriental 5. L'Apramadavarga edited by Sylvain Levi with a valustudy of the 191-2. (2) Kamavarga. 968 6. T. 26-52 15-29 (fols. A. 4-5). (29) Yugavarga. T. 39-53 varga.

Vol.. 60. Otto Fi'Anke's in Z. 474 ff. 477 ff. Miiller's Introduction his translation of the Dhammapada 16. A. de la Vallee Poussin's Essni . 15. des Ftagments Butreuii de uher die Rhins 13. is a sealed book to Tibetan In RockhilPs translation of the work one of it. Klasse. of the goes known. Rhys Davids— Buddhist far as India. 311 ff. B. p. 128 ff. Jules Bloch on 'm Le Dialecte 1912. M. A. B. Wiss. 12. p.. N.S. J. p.R. p. Vol. under the disposal of Serge d'Oldenbourg and we can never doubt that when the contents thereof are made is still (J. 3 906. apt to feel first embarassed by the tentative character is strengthened when it is compared with the portions of the Sanskrit original now within our reach. W. and the suspicion But by far the most bewildering is BeaVs translation of the . B. 899. in cript D^ identification des 11. p.. W. 1914. d. p. 1899.. J des Zu Gottingen. R. Vt. J. XIX. S 1899. I). article —Zun p. Stein's Ancient Khotan. T. particularly Appen- dix E. — So there our information a portion. ff.Hist. Bemerhungen zu den KharoMl MannsTcript the Naehriehten der K. R. Rhins T. to I. Sten Konow's Bemerhmgen Kharosthi- Handschrift des Bhatnmapad^ m t\\e Festschrift Ernst Windisch. by Levi and other Tibetan going through is scholars. Phil. Luders' in Dhammapada 9. 429) Kharosthl Ms. A. Max T..A.. X. (S.. E. so much Nothing could of praised us. Gathas et des Udanas en prose de V Udanavarga de Dharmatrata 1912. pains us to confess that Beckh's indefinitely edition of the Tibetan version of the Udanavarga. Manmhripi Dutreuil de D.( I ) 8. Gres. they pada.. 85 14. a perhaps larger portion.A. XIX. G. 426 ff. Rhys Davids on the Gosinga Kharosthl Manus10. in J. will serve to enrich oui" knowledge of the Dhamma- fact that the be more regrettable to rs than the seeinoj the portion in print has to be prospect It also deferred. . T.

for bringing together numerous fragments of the manuscript of the Udanavarga which is undoubtedly a Buddhist work of the Dhammapada Vallee recension of class. or more correctly to say. and sense of the Indian text If the Fa-kheu-pi-u or its portion the Fa-kheu-king be the specimen of the Chinese rendering of Indian texts. is la Poussin thinking original of the text of this a the Tibetan text attributed to Dharmatrata and bearing the name of Udanavarga." for although in certain verses the older Pali or Prakritic forms are of metre. But one must naturally be tempted to join issue with him when he describes the language of the text as ^' quasi-Sanscrit. obviously for the sake to have reached in this text a stage Sanskritisation appears well-nigh perfection as compared with previous attempts. will amount to breaking one's teeth in cracking the nut for so scanty and strange a kernel. although the original translators in Chinese ai*e very largely responsible for a violent distortion of the contents original. the student of Indian literature will surely labour in vain in grappling with the super-human and almost unsurmountable difficulty of mastering a knowledge of a pursuit which.( » ) Fa-kheu-pi-u. Stein and Pelliot have placed humanity under a deep debt of gratitude by their successive missions into Central Asia. in We cannot but agree with that the M. the Chinese Turkestan. the attempt at retained. . de Ms. Griinwedel. to put in the the Chinese alphabet and diction — words of a witty Bengalee friend.

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^. To be clear. — with whether reading close to the m. appeared to us to be but integral parts of one single verse. it seems. 1 into one verse is. adjustment of the plates His failure to combine appended to the text edited by him. but would have easily is suggested that the Prakrit tnakuhhn MaghavTi. 17 and A^. madenamakabha devanasamidh(i)gat . or the last line. garhha But coming he had to have been led into equating /frtr^/«7 of (see pp. A^ immediately and thereby impairing in his A^. which reads — Appamadena Maghava devanam setthataiii gato Appamadarh pasamsanti pamado garahito sada or el-e he would not malmbha with a Sk.( iii ) line 17.adena makahha devmiasamidh^i) which sonnded so the Pali [appa)niadenn Mac/Jiava devanam spU/tafam fdl g('it{n)^ could be referred back to in order to up the gap. forgetting. across . A**^. due to a fatal us to examine the oversight. let us quote the lines as manipulated by him . and this oversight on his part led arranged fac-si miles the order A 3. (AS apra u trarahitu sada 1) apramada prasajhati pramadu (AM7) He has taken A^. 1 — which i^lreadv come f/at . : . 5-6). But he could not possibly do so without putting the Plate after A^. find 1 to be the in remnant of a verse in it for which he It is could no parallel in Pali or Buddhist he Sanskrit. 17 he the counterpart of the Pali made a right hit on the aforesaid Pali parallel. These lines. however. considered by him as two separate verses. in his plate A. and we found in that the top of the fragment A^ was broken the bottom such a way that it could be exactly fitted into of the fragment . to enquire A^. obvious that the commenting upon completely : lost sight of Dhammapada verse 30. A^.

in the teaching of the Taking dispute the leaves our cue herefrom. A'''. entitled Le Mannscrit Kharosthi du Dhammapada" . or a investigation have been embodied Sanskrit parallel and the results of our in the following i)ages. arranged by M. that. I. for the commencement letters. answering Proceeding to test the result of this prelimiwe had to satisfy ourselves whether the to a dot of proposed inversion of M. Senart's justify the unreconciled colophons Plate A^). place A. and another of 30 consisting of the four stanzas. quoted in the last page.( iv ) A". those at the of Plate host of light of fragments and verses. Senart in the contained two groups ot Dhammapada 25 stanzas. 17 and A-. and indicated that '' " ga 30 (in ga (at the end of the middle of Plate A^'). groups and the verses we have made bold to M.—M. last answering to the two dots of omissions A-. whole arrangement of unexplained. we had n in omission in A^. was indeed a very happy moment when we found reversing that by completely M. as follows : — apramada pi^asajhati makahha devaiiasamidh(i gatjii pramadu garahitu sada O ) We felt further of the justitied by the fact in A'". particularly B. 2. so as to give us a complete Prakrit counterpart of the Pali Tlius we were tempted to verse 80. which to colophons Nay.i])ra[niMdeua 1. we have ventnred reconstruct a number end of hopelessly mutilated verses.immMiately after by linking together A^. A^. to be judged for what they are worth. 17. a Pali and to adjust and readjust a testing almost every case in the . first foot. A'"^ and complete the Prakrit verse. one It plates. Senart's order the verses be systematically arranged in two " " ga 30 groups or chapters. consistently with the colophons ^' " a procedure ensuring a logical sequence of and ga 25 and the four plates could — thought alike. . nary examination. a pra. and for the letter of the second foot. we had 17 exactly in two 1. Senart's is " edition. The title '^ Prakrit Dhammapada ". verses. which Plates A" " r^5 and A* could order A^. Senart's edition. A^^ A"*.

Kharosthi is only the name a of a script in of They tion also speak a of ' which the text has been preserved. varying with one another according as they are based upon different readings in the different provinces. who was title explains. in speaking so same text in the same language. 1 . Die Turfan-Recensionen " refers only to a manuscript. Benares and Bombay recensions of the Ramayana it is Dhammapad. Turfan Recension since the publica' of specimen in the Sanskrit Uddmwarqa. as a matter of fact. Turfan This way recension) cannot but be misleading and unscientific. When.' as ^ the Kharostlil lieeension of the Dhammais which is a misnomer. ' of the recensions ' the Mahabharata and other is But the case of . that is to say. in this sp^ial sense. of which a manuscript Pischel. we speak of the Bengal.. fragments has been found in Tnrfan. to would texts of naming the Dhammapada go unnecessarily add to the number of recensions in the ease of every new find in a new script or in a new place. para. The title chosen by the French scholar implies a meam'n*]^ ' cjiiite different from that which conveyed by ' Kharosthi recension. found in Turfan. for instance.' a name which su«^«^ests at once to the mind the idea of a copy of the Dhammapada in the Kharosthi language/ while. the '' As Prof. common literary type. To name one Dhammapada {e. composed in different languages. The (?<?« best way to have a consistent Vie Turfnn-Eecensioncn 'Phaimnapadn. the first to bring this specimen to light. of The same holds true texts.^ misnomer until 'Turfan Recension' must be regarded as a we understarid no more than so many editions of a single epic in Sanskrit.( V ) commonly known pada.!. upon texts as altered or modified by the scribes and repeaters of the thr. the Dhammapada recensions of the Dhammapada recensions we cannot mean tions of the somewhat different for. e localities. but so many redacmany different texts with different titles.. but belonging to a recension. of a Sanskrit recension of the Pali definitely proved that there was a redaction of the made Udanavarga in Turfan.f/. after the script Kharosthi recension) and another after the place of find {e.g.

happens that are two or more l^ibetan translations of which generally agree in contents and differ slightly here and there. the Tibetan texts or Chinese versions of the}" some of these Dhammapada are concerned. upon which translation in the case of a particular it. to apply to them So far as the name of the language in which they are composed. ease is but to bears be the character both. It A special therefore ' made in out for it. coming is of the title it of is our text. Dhammapada recension. to the question all Now. are to be considered as translations of one or other recension of the Dhammapada. the sions. is The Chinese a faithful Fa-yieu-king. it clear and admitted on and. in Mixed Sanskrit of the or in Classical Sanskrit. If. the nor entirely of Fa-kli en-pi -u. either regard the arrangement number and arrangement of verses and expresthen we have to regard them as different versions based text. we think.( vi ) method o£ naming them would be. having some verses and ideas in common with other Dhammapada tex'^s that are now^ known It is to us in Pali. as of its may be judged from Beal's English translation commentary. applying this consideration to of the study of two more translations a particular in Dhammapada t3 text. on the whole an original compilation. recension. or text. Sanskrit Udanavarga. it appears that they differ of chapter?. texts and the to wherein this common substratum literary Dhammapada uniform plan and principle which they conform . neither translation a new compilation. will shown anon. or If. we cannot but admit that their originals wore onh^ so many recensions of only certain originals in Indian language one text. if it the faithful translations differ in expressions or in ideas. were . leaving a sufficient upon different recensions of the same margin for the errors of the translators as well as for the blunders in the original manuscripts of the text from which the translations. as hands that be composed it is in a Prakrit dialect. translation and considered along with its Prakrit or portion is Sanskrit based. made.f/..t\\e. as we should there also call e. ' may be put down as a Chinese Recension a Pali.

— In in order determine the place of our text that recensions ^ the history of the closer Buddhist literature we should have a and ^ acquaintance with the various copies '. into James Gray. three German translations by and Neumann. Pali U/iammapada. But Max Midler was the first to translate of the Profs. and best r^ the one publishe by the Pali Text Society. We have several editions of Burmese. riz. its linguistic characterization. Recensions to and it is Copies essential ' of the Dhammapada.. The 1 Roman and excellence of this edition edition.y the Pali. ' Kecension. the Sanskrit. of its each of which is named according to the main theme component verses. It represents a book of the . of the Dhammapada and that are now extant. com{>lete. the Fa-kheu-hinf/ \w\\\q\\ is a Chinese Recension in translation. oceu))ies the foremost place alike as an editor and the translator. of which the latest Devanagari. Fernando Hu. it into English. we prefer to call a Prakrit Dhammapada inasmuch as the logical differentia of the text as a copy of the Dhamma- pada can be derived from 8. a Latin. the Prakrit. Strictly. thi^ is — Of in the existing copies of the Dhamniapada the best it known and most Singhalese. we can speak only the Mixed Sanskrit viz. Siamese. Fausboll was perhaps the from containing parallels to collec^t numerous references in Pali.Manu.( vii ) lies the justilication of elassin*^ our text as a Dhammapada Manuscript its title. The text contains 428 stanzas distributed text by 26 groups. and a French translation Schroder Weber. leave it us ^ in the dark about Further. of four recensions. The the four Indian recensions comprise not less than six copies of Dhammapada and (i) three commentaries incorpoi-ating the text. Mixed works Sanskrit. the Kilmayana and the Mahabharata. We have another English translation by M. which a tifth might be added. to . although the fragments of the Kharostbi on which it is based. Bengali characters. Buddhist works Prakrit. so is in a large measure due to Fausboll's of well-known to the students first Buddhist literature. Sanskrit and from a few im()ortant Brahmanical like Fausboll .

published by the Pali Text Society and a third in Devanagari. are as follows : — Order of Chapter 1 Name of Chaj>ter Number of Verses 2 Magavaga Apramadavaga Citavaga Putfavaga 30 25 5 (chapter incomplete) 15 3 •1 .( viii . There is a commentary which Khuddakanikaya oi' tradition style. eaeh one of which appertains to a chapter of the One or more verses of a group are encased in a prose story setting fortli the occasion on which the Buddha uttered the verse or verses. It is equally to ascertain the from detached plates and fragments arrangement The chapters and verses. one in Singhalese character. 13 miles from Khotan in the In the absence of a complete record circle of Indian colonies. another in Roman. attributes to Buddhai^hoba. and by a state- ment of the psychological effect of the discourse on the mind of the hearer. A prose exegesis forms a sequel to the moral verse or verses and identification is itself followed by an if it of the Buddha with the hero of the story happens to be an account of his previous birth. 26 chapters. — Of in only one fragmentary manuscript ruins of the copy we have preserved Kharosthi. found among the this Gosringa-vihara. Senart's edition is based. on which M. the Theravada (Sihaviravada) canon preselved in Ceylon. stated in commentary Singhalese instance tary ol' Pali and the opening verges that the existing was based upon an older commentary in that the author undertook the work at the in a Thera Kumara Kassapa text. though. Siain and Burma. published by the Buddhist Text Society. We have editions of Dhammapada Commentary. tary is Indeed. the edited precisely that of the Jataka three by Fausboll. judging by its one cannot help doubting ii' Buddhaghosa was its real It is author. it is impossible to say exactly text how many chapters and difficult verses the contained. of its chapters as they occur in our arrangement. the method of the like Dhammapada CommenCommentary. itself consists of The commen(of Ceylon). the last one containing the text and the prose exegesis (ii) Fra}ini Dhammapada. published in Ceylon.

. do not know Its author's if there is name any Tibetan or Chinese translation unknown. close kinship. having a linguistic traits. — — Fa-'kheu-Mng by the exact ^ 4'23 of the Pali text and 500 of the original of the " in the Buddhist calcuthe assumption that lation the next highest round number is frequently used to denote number intended. "^ He has special reasons existing at the time to explain away the difference as to the total number of the verses. the sought differences which occur between the two being attributable to of the translation. 13. — is as verses 500 original. 34. known (iii) . the original manuscript in China was the same as that known Ceylon. i^2>)i^ and was translated into Chinese by the same Indian Shaman with Samuel Beal brought to the help of another Indian a comparison of is the Fa-Tcheu-hing led to suppose with the Pali that " named Tsiang-imJ From Dhammapada. The utmost that we can say is that this copy of Dhammapada is compiled in a dialect of the in Gandhara region.. was carried by Wai-chi-lan from India " in the third to China year of the reign of Hwang-wu Fa-kheu-king. Dhammapada. B . 12 Bramanavaga Total (?) number is 251 We of it. p. Ibid.( ix ) Order of Chapter 5 6 7 8 9 Name of Chapter Number 17 of Verses Sahasavaga Panitavaga or Dhamathavaga 10 7 (Chapter incomplete) Balaraga Jaravaga 25 Suhavaga Tagavaga 20 (Chapter almost complete) 7 (Chapter incomplete) 10 11 Bhikhuvaga 40 50 . D. The Mixed Sanskrit Original of the Fa-hheu-Hng It stated in the preface of the Chinese translation. p. consisting of and 23 chapters. '^^ We ^ cannot surely venture to Beal's » Ibid. No information is yet forthcoming if any commentary was written on it. its the that (A. 14. p. orthography and otlier with the dialects of Asoka's Rock edicts at Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra.

9. Yamakavagga (Twin "Verses) Appamadavagga (Chapter on Earnestness) 3. moreover. does not seem improbable that Indian Buddhism. 2. be shown to of the entire however. Cittavagga (Mind Verses) 4. on the basis of Real's study. is was other than the But we find it difficult to subscribe to his opinion when it translation that expressedly stated in the preface to the Chinese the original consisted of 500 verses distributed into 26 chapters. D. aware that such an opinion as this cannot harmonise with the account of the development Dhammapada in literature.^ Remembering. Reserving this important well to point for discussion a separate section. Pupphavagga (Flower Verses) Balavagga (Chapter on the Fool) Panditavagga (Chapter on the Wise) (Chapter on the 6. 7. 519) that the original was a Sanskrit text. Arahantavagga Arahant) 8. a tabular statement the chapters and verses composing the Pali Dhammapada and Fa-kheu-king Original respectively with a view to comparison between the two. Sahassavagga (Number Verses) PSpavagga (Chapter on Evil) 10. that the original of the Fa~likeu-king is said to be a work of a Dharmatrata or Dharmaraksita. was a Sarvastivada work. 5. Dandavagga (Chapter on Punishment) . and in the 'Memoirs of Eminent Priests' {Kdo-san-kwhaUy A. we may do of the give. BeaPs surmise or authentic tradition makes it known an translation is discovered that the text used by the Chinese translator Pali. a of name so famous in the tradition the Sarvastivada the sect of text.( ^ ) until the original of the Chinese dispute Mr. it a book of the Ksudraka-nikaya of the canon. We are. of Verses Title of Chapter Pali 1. facilitate No.

14. . 12. 18.. 21. 19. . Sukhavagga (Chapter on Happiness) Piyavagga (Chapter on the Agreeable) Kodhavagga (Chapter on Anger) Malavagga (Chapter on Impurity) . JarSvagga (Chapter on Old Age) Attavagga (Chapter on elf) Lokavagga (Chapter on the World) .. 20..( xi ) No. 26. .. Buddhavagga (Chapter on the Buddha) 15.. 16. 22. Dhammatthavagga (Chapter on the Maggavagga (Chapter on the Way) Just) . 24. Title of Chapter 11.. Brahmanavagga (Brahmana Verses) . 23. 13. Pakinnakavagga (Miscellaneous Verses) Nirayavagga (Chapter on Hell) Nagavagga (Elephant Verses) Tanhavagga (Chapter on Desire) Bhikkhnvagga (Bhikkhu Verses) 25. 17.

which is a eommentarial selection from the Fa-kheu-king. much cherished in ^he Lokottaravada can be identified Ekavyavaharika literature. so remains to be seen if this Dhammapada. to be just what It M. have been cited apparently from the Bhiksuvarga of the same of Dharmapada isolated text. T. See alBO p. in the Mahavastu text (** Sahasravarga. A. numbering not less than 15. to The Mahavastu Recension by M. delivered disciples. Besides. another with 750. tale for each verse. p.. pp. — A whole chapter. or others. and another with 900). As to the by Buddha for the benefit of his character of these stories. 2 pp. 434-36) expressly from a Dharmapada ibid. : ^ Mahavastu. Senart copy of the or called Mixed Sanskrit. differing from the Pali commentary by the absence of prose exegesis. Senart first professes be a Mid-land of the Book Pitaka and belongs to the Lokottaravada sect. " the colophon at the end. ' Beal's Dhammapada. Vinaya an off-shoot of the of the Mahasanghika. Here we may leave out can be traced edited in consideration the verses which are quoted throughout the Mahavastu and parallel of which the other copies of the Dhammapada.). which were known to the authors of the with Fa-hheu-hing (3rd cent. 33. any one of the three copies of the Dhammapada (one with 500 verses. the Lharmajoacla quoted in the MahavaUn. (iv) viz. LokottararadinSm Aryamahasaftghikanam Madhyadesikanam pathena Vinaya-pitakanarii Mahavastuye adi ". some of them are puerile and uninteresting. 434). p. they are of a description not opposed to the character of the age Beal's English to which they are assigned by the Chinese"^. and believed to have been uttered by Buddha in his intercourse with his disciples. on the other hand. 25-26.2 The language of the Sahasravarga quoted has no claim to be called pure classical Sanskrit but deserves.( ^ii ) meaning of the verse. Fa Chinese version is made from the kheu-pi-u. has been quoted in (III. or in preaching to And so here we have a the multitudes that came to hear him." the same work a few consecutive verses.. containing 24 stanzas.^ ^ Beal's Dhammapada. dharmapadesu sahasravargah.D. But if I mistake not. .

it difficult for us to compare the text with the commentary they agree that or differ. of Verses . . and alterations are its be met with Chinese version of in is commentary.D.. ^ Good Fortune .. 3....... 33^. . . — The Fa-khen-king is. 16 12 19 12 .... pp.. ^ j^^i^^ p^ 33 ' Chapters 9-32 of the Fa-kheu-king correspond. . of chapters... . 265-313)... a Chinese Recension in Translation.. 4. 2. .. ..^ The arrangement titles of the thirteen additional chapters is with their : and verse-numbers shown 1. . of the i^«-M(?2/-/j/-7^ (A.. xi.D. . p... 21 ... 752 verses.( xiii ) (v) The Fa-khen-king... in the following table Title of Chapter No. another — with 700. Advantageous Service . ... . .. 38.. 20 36*.. Nirvana Birth and Death Profit of Religion . because the Chinese translators had not only tampered with the number and distribution of the verses in the original. . .. .. .. and another with 500.. . Loving Kindness Conversation . .. 3.... .. ment * Chapters 34-35 correspond to PSli chapters 25-26....... .. It is to be regarded as more than a translation. 29 19 18 . 36 18 .. and find out how far It is clear from the Preface to the Fa- kheti-king the the three copies of Dhammapada. Beal's Dhammapada. additions 39 chapters.. .. making up a Similar in the total of and also 14.5. 8. . x. 5.. 6..... Chinese translators were acquainted with one with 900 verses..... . although of the absence an English translation the former.580 to words. .. 37. Impermanence Insight into Wisdom The Sravaka Simple Faith Observance of Duty Reflection ... to Pali chapters 1-24* with regard to arrangeSee ante..^ Shaman Wai-ehi-lan carried from India to China in 223 A. . according to the Chinese translators' admistranslation of the Indian text which the a faithful not sion.. . . ....... but added 13 new chapters in Chinese.. 19 19 39... 7.. ..

verses contained in these two as that can be restored in Sanskrit Counterparts of most of the chapters can be found in the Prakrit Jaravaga as well as in the first chapter of the Udanavarga. the whole number of chapters . contains two chapters with titles anityavarga and jaravarga. e.. Fo-nien = Buddhasmriti). ('Speech' in the Udanavarga). Sravaka ('The Hearer' in Thus it appears that the Fa-hhcii-Ving is no the Udanav.( xiv ) We may ing as appears here point out that instead of one chapter contain- reflections from on Impermanenee or Old Age. with in the assistance of others... moreover. last The chapter of the of some chapters. but a recension by itself in The Sanscrit recensions Original in is : — version {a) of the the incorporated Chuh-yati-hiiig — Beal Chuh-yau-king. made by Chu-fo-nien (or.). and that was the original compiler of the as stanzas and ' stories known ^ Fa-kheu-king. its commentary. one cannot but be struck titles by a few chapters though in the Udanavarga. bearing same number and identical similar verses. copy of the Chinese of the Dhammapada that of says the the of 7 a third is Chinese version Dhammapada which so much expanded as to consist The translation was volumes. ^pi-u\ i. the Fa-kheu-hing. Similarly^ chapter 38 appears to be a translation of some Indian As to the remaining Recension of the Mahamangala-Jataka. was the to state that to same as the Dawn. not containing the the chapters dealing with Words. "In the version preface to this we he are told that Dharmatrata was uncle Vasumitra. It informs us.g. D. dealing with Impermanenee. (vi) text. Having travelled back to India and returned with a copy of the present work. about 410 A. it was evidently translated by Fonien.e. that the old term Avadanas. translation Fa-kheu-king is nothing but a Chinese Indian recension of the Mangalasutta. mere translation of an Indian translation. Shaman Sanghbhadanga of The preface goes on Ki-pin (Cabul) came Tchangan (Siganfu) about the nineteenth year of the period Kien-Yuen. the Indian who of lived during the Yaou-tsin period. comprising 20 kiouen or books.

which a fras^mentary manuscript script has been found at Turf an. and that the last is. this work is wanting in was a Sanskrit Tibetan. A. - According to Nanjio. 9. 380-390 (bringing with him the Ms. . the capital of the Former Tshin dynasty. Intelligence ./'^ is Rockhill inclined to identify the Dhammapada '^ text in the Ghuh-yau-liing says he. Nanjio also says that the original The Clmh-y ail' king. is .( XV ) this work * is thirty-three. like the Pali. ' Reflec- ^ Chap..' That this manuscript ^ Beal's Dhaaimapada. "* text. ''is with the Udanavarga. 26 a)."3 Udanavarga to Dharma- Dr. edit portions of this in a later variety of the Gupta first Prof. Chap. there was a cMnia72a of ^i-pin (Cabul) Sanghabhuti by name." found also ' in the Chinese tripitaka. The contents of the two works. The Udanavarga. on the other hand.e. {b) is Sanskrit Bhammajmda. a Dhammapada commentary The Udanavarga.. —This of another Dhammapada text in pure classical Sanskrit. another rather than a Dhammapada text. Pisehel was the ' to manuscript under the title Die Turfanis Recensionen des Dhammapada. Nanjio's Catalogue. of this work?) to According the AT'-yuen-lu ''fase.^ It is divided into thirty-three chapters. 27-29. p. as its title implies. is an avadana-sutra. xxix. are identical. Both the Chinese and the Tibetan versions attribute the compilation of trata. as far as has been ascertained. see under No. D. The Twins (Yamaka)'. Chap. i. fol. on to the Brahmana. the Sanskrit Nanjio's Catalogue. notes : " In A. No. Nanjio. who came to KlAx^Axi. ' v.' or Nidana sutra. D. 1321. tion ' IV. the titles of which agree with those of the Tibetan. Dr.' There are ample commentaries attached many of the verses. equivalent of the Chinese title is 'Avadana-sutra'. 383. pp. The title of the also work is there Chuh-yau-king. ' . ^ * Roukhill's Udanavarga. x. 'Absence of Careless Behaviour VI. with the following slight differences ' : — Chap. 1321.

will be evident from the close agreement between has the Sanskrit manuscript and the Tibetan version. in regard to the arrangement of chapters and the in the following table taken Pali number of verses. as : shown from PischeFs edition .( xvi ) of a recension of the Dhamnnapada of which the Tibetan version been translated by Rockhill under the name of *Ud^navarga '.

p.) that its closing in was a of maxims. Milinda. Dhammapada demise^. Nariman says : " It is of intelligent commentary. while Professor Rhys Davids places the is work * Literary History. regarded as the versions in Vasubaudhu's Gaihasangraha may be There are two Chinese prototype of the same. and what these stanzas are like can be ascertained from RockhilPs Ensflish translation of them. the Abhidharma-kosa. collection The consists of just :i4 stanzas. of this Gathasangraha. With regard a collection Mr.C. i. composed isolated a of Mlecehabhasa.D. the commentary shows us the philosopher Vasubandhu also as a humourous evangelist.. p."* maxims with an Vasubandhu.^ is expressly referred to is the Milindapanho.. 268. be Similar collections maxims can Pali Nikayas. 3. is famous in the history of Buddhism not only as a compiler of a standard as Sarvastivada of work. excerpts from which have been cited by A. equally traced within the four corners of the Chronology of the is Dhammapada Texts. the of J^nd It appears from Takakusu's is analysis of Jnana-prasthana-sastra (which of the most authoritative the seven Abhidharma books Sarvastivada.e. who flourished in the 4th century A.C. appended to his ^Udanavarga. But we must remember that the compilation of such a Gathasangraha was in no way peculiar to Vasubandhu. section and dated collection say. Schiefner .. Tamil. or new in Sarvastivada tradition of Vasubaudhu's time. ^ . century similar B. besides two Tibetan versions. 4.( xvii ) of the Dhammapada'.. The traditional date of this in placed 500 years after Buddha's 43 B. but also the writer a standard manual of . one of which the text is reproduced with the commentary.* to this Gathasarigraha. Yogaeara philosophy.—The Pali one of the recognised books of the KhuddakaDhammapada which represents one of the five divisions of the existing Nikaya The oldest known Pali work in which the Sutta Pitaka.

3rd century B. 198. Prof. p. E..^ The Kathavatthu which accordino^ to tradition belongs contains to the many only but none of the sources of the quotations are mentioned. The Netti and the mention of their without any Petakopadesa are the two companion works of exegetie type which are ascribed all the verses there that are peculiar to the the earlier is Mahakaccayana.^ but the place the composition of the Netti in we have reason to believe that the date can be pushed back to the 2nd century B. ( xviii ) date a considerable time before Buddhaghosa. one there Buddhaghosa's commentaries. ^ 3 * Mahaniddesa. some of Dhammapada. B. the Sumangalavilasini. now found incorporated in the Suttanipata and forming its Fourth Book has been modelled upon Mahakaccayaua^s in the earlier Nikayas. in period of the canon. which can be found the Kathavatthu abound in quotations from the canonical works with this difference that in the former two works some of the sources are mentioned by name.. older than the Suttanipata and later than the canonical Jataka Book.. schools of is reference to two enumeration..D. But even an earlier work.C. xxv. The same remark holds true of the Nettipakarana and the Petak6padesa. p. p.C. the ^ Questions of King Milinda. . Netti. E. The Mahaniddesa which is a canonical commentary on the Atthakavagga. canon is not Considering that later than the 2nd B. See 'passim.^ exposition found and is not wanting in similar quotations of verses which cannot be found anywhere else in the canoa than the Dhammapada. S.. which must have been a pre-Asokan book of exegesis. to to Hardy inclined 1st century. the Cullaniddesa.C. which like in the quotations of verses. although Dhammapada are quoted source. I. viz. the latest date closing for the Mahaniddesa can not be Further.^ contains similar quotations of verses not to be found in any other text than the Pali the closing date of the Pali century later than the of Dhammapada. A. Pt. xxvii. and not in any other canonical texts. the putative author of works of the Nirutti and Niddesa class.

is Udanavarga in the chapters on The Prakrit Dhammain one respect. dated A. Pali combining into one group two separate chapters of the as Magga well as of the original of the Fa-kheu-king. its Indian original. 15. x-xi) that the Fa-kheu-king original in Sanskrit different Pali as regards it was a text verses. viz. bhanakas point to a time earlier than the inscriptions at Bharhut which cannot be dated ealier than the 3rd century and later than the 2nd century B.. presupposes three different Dhammapada selections in Sanskrit one. they distinctly mention the Dhammapada ^ These two schools among the books of the Lesser Collection. Vil. ix). chapter on the notably the 'Uraga^ verses at the end the the Bhiksu and to be found neither in the Pali Sahasa and Jara Vagas.C. of the books of the which. It has already been shown (pp. 223. 68. that its chapter devoted to Marga— the Buddhist Eightfold Path.. pada stands distinct from the rest first Number and Impermanency. p.D. As regards we have seen the lower limit of that the Chinese Fa-kheu-king. name. : the lower limit of the Pali Dhammapada. other copies and recensions. I. but occur in the Bhiksu. and a third with 900 from the (p. . recited to king The 3rd tradition that Ajipamadavagga was Asoka justifies the Dhammapada existed in the presumption that the Pali So much about century B. along with the Samyutta Angnttara and the Khuddaka- Khuddakanikaja. another text with 700 verses. = Mahavaihsa. viz.( xix ) Dlghabbanaka agree in so far and the Majjliimabbai-saka. in its general form.. V. with 500 verses. by far closer than that of the Udanavarga (pp. the and the Pakinraka (Miscellaneous). as though different in some respects. the agreement of the Prakrit Pali of Dhammapada in is with the and the Fa-kheu-king original respect of the number verses and succession of chapters viii-ix). The first eight of ' Sum.C. language and number of though agreeing with succession of chapters. which are nor in the original of the Fa- kheu-king. are But there a number some in of verses in the Prakrit of Dhammapada. number and Again.

D. which is text.) . Ch.D. for the interval of time separating the Chinese version from its original.( XX ) the additional chapters of the parts table : — I in the Udlnavarga. this test.— 223 A. dated 383 A. in 'HS A. and resort to trace their we are driven in the last immediate background to one of the two Dhammapadas with 700 and 900 verses. before the 3rd the Chuh-yau-king which is a Chinese in version.D.D.e. the text must have enjoyed some commentary was amount of popularity in and made its importance At any rate. not identical with It the text portion of the original of the Chuh-yau-king which alone can satisfy reason to believe that We have the text portion Avas extant before the i. the interval of sufficiently felt the community. century A.e. time of Wai-chi-lan. to Wai-chi-lan.. the interval separating the latter Sanskrit commentary. its Indian original and the Prakrit. the The if text must be one closely it... just 160 years (883 A.e.. presupposes an Indian commentary its Sanskrit that in turn presupposes an earlier work. known. i. i. as Fa-kheu-kiug have their eountei*will be clear from the following Fa-khen-kinf? Kockhill's L'danavarga . For roughly speaking.. the author of the Fa-kheu-king. the Sanskrit text comprising 33 chapters similar to those of the Here we have got to make allowance not only Udanavarga.D. but also for another from a still earlier work... resembling is Udanavarga. „ 11 Insight into Impermanency wisdom CI: „ „ „ „ III The Disciple IV Simple Faith I Impermanency IV Purity XI The Sramana X XV XXVI Faith (sila) V VI Moral Duties Reflection VI Morality VIII Speech Nirvana Reflection (Smriti) „ VII Words VIII Nirvana „ These additional chapters of the Fa-kheu-king force us to look for an earlier Dhammapada text other than the Pali. no other than the Sanskrit interval one In ascertaining the latter must also consider that before the written.. ..

we can is accept information supplied correct. Unfortunately. so far as is the close resemblanee which exists the text portion of the Chuh-yau-king and the Udana- known to us in its entirety through the Rockhill's translation from the Tibetan. XXIII.D. R. the latter must be said to approximate the text portion of the Chuh-yau-king. Kimura regarding the For. 989 verses.( xxi ) is the shortest possible time which visit to is needed to make the text earlier than Wai-chi-lan's if China. verses.. nor properly kept distinct verses in so far as they in from one another. But must be noted that the that there total RockhilPs Udanavarga as to the cantiot be regarded as a : precisely is correct number. one must jet enquire whether the total number of its verses justifies its identification with the text with 900 verses above referred as to. has vv. Kimura. it total in the former as does although not exceed it the latter dated 982-1000 A. total in by Mr. Rockhill. 82-83) six (iti) that there are in noticed a few repetitions of have been by RockhilL Thus 989 can . which its total vv. Even this surmise as to the possibility of Wai-chi-lan's acquaintance with the Sanskrit text portion of the Chuh-yauking be correct (as we believe it is). (m) that at least in two instances we notice that a verse in the Pali which would be counted as one been counted . it III. though it is by no means over 1000. and that for three reasons (^) a slight difference number of verses in almost each chapter common to PischePs edition of the manuscript fragments of the Udanavarga and Rockhill's translation of the Tibetan version of the same text . If of the two texts with 700 and 900 Wai-chi-lan. 12-13. arguing from between varga. Dhammapada. the or. 900. each chapter. as two (cf. we are informed by our colleague Mr. 1000 in in round numbers. K. he finds in a position to assure us that what- ever the exact total. are separated But counting the himself it by the commentary portion intervening certainly exceeds so. to known Now. the task total of ascertaining the number that of verses in it is far from easy for the simple are reason the verses in the existing Chinese edition not numbered.

the total by the 981 could be further reduced to a number approximating 900. Nanjio that they show a general agreement in many respects. though we can only so far readily concede to Remembering that a exist Dr. D. R. last Dr. process of The ease in hand could be just fairly proved. xvi). Kimura. the is Nanjio says that the fourth or text of Chinese version of nhammapada. making due allowance for slight variation as may exist between two manuscripts of one and the same text.( xxii ) be reduced to 981 [989—-(2 H. one can definitely say that it was compiled ?ome time before the time of its commentator Frajnavarman. where certain verses forming a sub-group in a chapter of the Udanavarga are found less in number. while this Chuh-yau-king was extant before the 3rd century of the Christian era. Not knowing any other copy of the Dhammapada than one that it much is certain as regards the text portion of the with 900 verses which Wai-chi-lan could avail himself of in adding a few chapters resembling those in the Udanavarga. portion no other than the (p. we may be holding that their originals were the same. There are no doubt a number of mechanical multiplication of verses which has practically no rnison d^etre. we . as well as judging by the dates of the Chinese version. and has a marked tendency to swell up the volume without bringing out any new idea.. mentioned. With regard to the date of the Sanskrit Udanavarga. if reduction. the Fd-tsi-sun-y^o-kin. General reduction is however possible in relation to earlier texts. who lived in the 9th century A. we are constrained to admit some differences between them. but must on the other hand count them as they occur in it. dated A.6)]. the text How itself it far this process of is reduction can prcceed in difficult to say. 982-1000. But from a comparison of a versions the Chuh-yau-king few chapters of the two Chinese with the kind help of our friend Mr.D." similar agreement can also be shown to between the text portion of the Chuh-yau-king and Rockhill's Tibetan version and the fourth justified in Udanavarga. if any. We have no right to deduct the verses thus multiplied from the Udanavarga.

we at once see that was different from 500 the Pali with 423 verses. the Fa-kheu-king original with and the the text portion of the text with to with 900 viz. The follow- Original of Fa-khea-king II 12 IV 16 VI 14 VIII 16 XI 11 XV XX XV XVI Total .. the Fa-kheu-king original feel inclined to think that the total of the ing table will Pali midway between 500 and make our position clear : — 700. the Pali. a definite information about it impossible for us. to say exactly how many verses altogether contained.. the Prakrit and Dhammapada in Mixed Sanskrit it is of which a complete chapter has been quoted in xii ). viz... and we are confident that we shall not be found far too wrong the in doing so. we Prakrit verses stood of verses in the chapters common to the three recensions. in the absence of a complete manuscript thereof or of a tradition supplying it.. known verses to Wai-ehi-lan. Chuh-yau-king just identified Thus only two texts are left the be examined.( xxiii ) are naturally tempted to identify the same with the text portion of the original of the Chuh-yau-king. 198 Total . . 12 17 23 41 162 Total .^ verses. the Mahavastu (p.. Turning to copy of the Dhammapada with 700 it verses. As regards the Prakrit Dhammapada. 232 Bearing in mind that the is total number of verses in the Pali Dhammapada 423 and that in the Fa-kheu-king original 500.. But judging by the proportion and the Prakrit.

D. 6S'Z .).e.) . V. (2) ^o^^^^Sli. D. 500X34^10624. the Fa-kheuking original. 606) might be further tested by a standard ratio provided by the verse-numbers of the Sn^asra-gronp in the 5 recensions mentioned in the sub-joined table ^^'^ : — Fa kheu kincr Prakrit Dhammapada ^^ *^^ ? ^"^^^f Mahavastu UdSnavarga original ® 16 16 17 24 34 Taking in succession the total of the Pali text and that of the Fa-kheu-king original as the standard number.) 899 (U. the text portion of the Chuh-yau-king and these copies.). 600.e..(?.e. Applying the verse-total as a test of priority and posteriority. 635 (M. ^•.. V.= 605|. 450 (Pr. and that these copies are no other than those represented respectively by the Psli. 423. i.. i. the Prakrit. i.. i-e. _4i3x^ =:QUi. 800x14^750 (M. The totals obtained (Pa. 517 . O.e.3X3 i. the Mahavastu Dhammapada. while the date of the Udanavarga falls in between the 4th and the 9th century A. 1063 (U. 700. we feel Justified in concluding . Fa-kheu-king original. we cannot but persuade ourselves to believe that there were no less than six Indian copies of the Dhammapada with 423. the first the Udanavarga.y (Pr. V. the relative position of the recensions will appear as follows (1) : — Als^iJL=U9^. Pr.). 4^8981.( xxiv ) we can test whether the above three totals are in keeping with the ratio of 500: (1) ^^-'f^Y^-^ US. 4 2. F. Of five were well-known before the 3rd century A. 606 which rougly gives the total verse-number of the Prakrit text. V.. D. 900 and 1000 verses. 500.).D. = 617 which rouofhly of the gives the total verse- number (^) -~-fFF-.. Comparing recensions of these two series of totals and taking all the the Dhammapada into consideration.

while the Mahavastu original in Dhammaof the Sanskrit of the text portion the Chuh-yau-king occupy between the Prakrit text and the Udanavarga. each of contents are definitely Dhammapada known to us in . first particularly that of the first three. All these copies agree in so as the succession of two closing chapters is concerned. . We propose to heads : examine these evidences under the following (a) argument from . and the far Chuh-yau-king and Udanavarga containing 33. however. inasmuch as have differ. The copy which stands close to the Pali is the Sanskrit original of the Fa-kheu-king the copy which is one degree removed . of fall which the into two showing a complete agreement of regard Pali to the number and succession chapters (1) the and the Fa-kheu-king original containing altogether (2) the text portion of the original of 26 chapters. the number and succession of chapters. the in For each last of them the is and the but one said chapter is the Brahmanavagga the chapter on the Bhikkhu. chapters however. be taken to be conclusive until it further tested in the light of other evidences and harmonised of Buddhist literature with the general history and thought. many two bearing same titles. widely from each other regarding the the The order of succession of remaining chapters. from the multiplication of particular (c) argument from traditions.( XXV ) that the of Pali with the minimum total 423 is the oldest copy the Dhammapada and 1000 (in the Udanavarga with the maximum total round numbers) the latest. As regards the pair of texts. (/>) argument verses . last they must be they pairs to resemble one another. Further. from the pada and latter is the Prakrit. (a) ytrgmnent from copies the mimher and the succession of chapters — The four Indian tables of pairs. is order two intermediate positions This chrono- logy cannot.

y 2-4. noticed. whatever the precise the succession in it. the two pairs of texts can be shown to represent two distinct periods of literary growth within Ms. 2nd particularly the of the Tasavaga. the Prakrit Dhammapada shows arrangement of three chapters in it. Moreover. Separt's the B of the Kharo^thl closely bound up in thought of the 1st pair. Appamadavagga forming the 4th first chapter. the earlier period being represented by the Pali Dhammapada and the Fa-kheu-king original. Trsnavarga being an amplified version of the Tanhavagga of the 1st pair. Yamakavagga forming ind pair. Fac-simile the of Bhikhu and the Bramana Plate M. shown below — Anityavarga corresponding with the Jaravagga the 11th chapter in the 1st pair. — 2. is exactly on a par with that in the Pali and in the Fa-kheu-king original. thiee chapters in the second pair : On the other hand.one can former was merely a systematic carrying . 3. placed immediately before the Bhikkhu. as in the texts Arguing from the arrangement of the 1st three chapters. viz. For the sequence of thought in the first three chapters of these two texts is so much in line with the not but think that in a Chandogya passage that . It is impossible to make a definite statement regarding the number and succession of chapters in the Prakrit text and in the Mahavastu Dhammapada. the of texts are arranged as 1. the 29th chapter in the 2. Kamavarga having its counterpart in the vagga the 16th chapter of the 1st pair. though we are on a somewhat surer ground as regards the former work. goes to prove that they are Buddhism.( xxvi are ) their first : order — three chapters arranged in the following i. Cittavagga forming the 3 1st chapter. in its As we have already a far closer kinship with form the 1st of texts than it does with general pair pair. — Piya- 8.

. athecchata imarh ca lokam amum ca iccheyeti. mantreSu karmani Sa yah samkalpam brahm^ti upaste. yada vai samkalpayate atha manasyati. VII. VII. athadhlte karmani kurvlteti. *' 3. that the described in of order to bring out the idea self- necessity constant striving.) II (a) '• Samkalpo vava manaso bhuyan. the Cittavagga. 1. In other words.3)." (Dhp. manasa tato padutthena bhasati va karoti va. atha vacam irayati. the sequence can be regarded these a proof of Dhammapada texts standing close to the earlier Chandogya Upanisad and representing an Buddhism.) {h) Manopubbangama dhamma manosettha manomaya. as is commonly known.( xxvii ) out of as tlie latter." . This naturally leads to another chapter. tamu namnirayati. I. mindfulness and arises control implied in ^earnestness' of mind. where the nature of mind. atha kurute putramsca pasumsca iccheyeti.n. dhamma manosettha manomaya Manopubbangama ce nam dakkham ce manasa tato nam pasannena bhasati va karoti va sukhani anveti chaya va anapayini. vv. namni mantra ekam bhavanti. 4.^ (Chandogya. anveti cakkaih va bahato padam. 1. intention of the agent is the according as It is followed by a chapter on ^Earnestness' inculcates (AppamMavagga) which exercise of the necessity of an active the will or religious aspiration for the attainment is of the highest good which the quintessence of the older Indian conception of faith {saddha). 1-2. kliptanvai sa lokan dhruvan dhruvah pratisthit§. athecchate mano." (Chandogya. " How this trend of from the very constitution thought was anticipated in the : Chandogya passage 1 (a) from the quotations below vacam ca nama ca mano' Mano vava vaco bhuyo manasa raanasyati mantran nubhavati sa yada will be clear — — adhiylyeti. The first chapter of Twin-verses teaches that viana in the sense of cet na is stage of — volition or intention — and determines its (Yamakavagga) psychologically effect the motive for action moral good or bad.

This sequence of* thought is entirely lost sight of in the the text portion of the Chuh-y u-kiug second pair of texts — and the Udanavarga the first three chapters of which deal respectively with impermanence. 11). vai cetayate atha vacam namnirayati. (b) "Na tarn niatapata kayira anne vapi ca nataka Sammapanihitaih cittam seyyaso nam tato kare. bhavanti. The trend Nirvana or the Supreme goal of Buddhism is reachable by the Eight-fold Path which is but a symbol of 'earnestness' which aims at complete control over mind. As we have already noticed abovc^ its first chapter is devoted to the praise of the Buddhist Eight-fold Path. mantreSu karmani. Ill (a) " atha samkalpayate. (Dhp. Cittam vava samkalpad bhuyo. in craving for pleasure and texts present earlier Thus the two pairs of change thought to the ascetic or pessimistic outlook of later But was this change sudden or it came about reflection. definitely stated regarding the former work. II. six copies however.) (Chandogya. while the succession of the is following two chapters of thought implied is the same as that of the Pali. yada atha manasyati. V.. he cannot but realise human wishes and discover its root in a natural enjoyment. The trend of thought is that when a man reflects upon the fact of the vanity of impermanence all around. this surmise is found to be correct. though nothing can be If. Viewed in this light. ye pamatta yatha mata. V." III.1. the Mahavastu Dhammapada seems that to fall in line with the Prakrit text. irayati. gradually ? the change did a radical tone from the optimism of The Prakrit Dhammapada bears out the fact that not come about surreptitiously. VII." tamu namni mantra ekam 5. appamatta na mlyanti. (Dhp. 1). pamado maccuno padam. vanity of human wishes original — and desire.( xxviii ) " (h) Appamado amatapadam. the will fall into three pairs representing three successive periods or stages of literary .

certain we at once discover that to the poems of a work similar upon they Sutta Nipata.. of the Chuh-yau-king we scan are their additional chapters. lastly. it will happy result of such a classiiiiBatioh will be that enable us to form a definite idea about the contents of A all the Dhammapada If to texts by the aid of those which are now Pali accessible to us. I Suttanipata. i.e. we of are expected original . know whole Prakrit the Fa-kheu-king help us in a knowledge the text will Dhammapada. It is a curious fact that the additional chapters the Fa-kheu-king. we know the almost the of Dhammapada. knowing if we have read the Udanavarga.. the chapters which were added by the Chinese translators to the translation of a text of 26 chapters similar to the Pali. and that modelled so far as their component verses are concerned. Ill Impermanency 9 Salla Sutta „ „ „ II Insight into III Wisdom II 10 I I Utthona Sutta The Disciple 5 Cunda Sutta IV Simple Faith VII Love VIII Words .( xxix ) growth. 10 Alavaka Sutta I 8 Metta Sutta 3 Subhasita Sutta III II „ XXXIX Good Fortune 4 Mahamafigala Sutta In the same way in the we can account If for the additional chapters Udanavarga and a poderiori for those in the text portion original.. they are nothing . The followino: investioration will make clear that does serve as a connecting of link. we have really known the whole of the text portion of the Chuh-yau-king original. In order to justify the chronology of the three pairs we the contents of the Mahavastu must enquire link as to whether or no the Prakrit text serves as a of transition between the Pali and the Udanavarga as of regards the multiplication the it number of it chapters. presuppose a Buddhist anthology like the : Pali Suttanipata as the subjoined table will set forth Fa-kheu-king Sec.

while those in the Jaravaga presuppose the Salla Sutta (S..) Kamasutta (S. its Brahmanavagga is mainly constituted from the Vasettha Sutta which is incorporated not only in the Sutta Nipata. IV.. verses For instance. N. I. N.) Subhasita Sutta (S. as we proceed from the Pali Dhammapada towards the Udanavarga. a Dhammapada and a subjoin a table in illustration of the point of : — Udanavarga Chap.) + Nirayavagga (Dhp. the additional verses in the Bhikhuvaga are similar to those in the Uraga Sutta (S. the Ayoghara and the Mugapakkha. it becomes increasingly clear that the Sutta Nipata came to occupy a more and more prominent place in the later texts.. vagga (Dhp. Ill. N.( XXX ) bnt a combination Jataka Book. but also it The Naoravasrga contains a few verses Majjhima Nikaya. I Other texts . W. 3) +Koka. III. 1) + Bhikkhu. N.. 9) and such Jatakas as the Dasaratha.). N. . but seeing that this particular sutta has been commented upon in the Cullaniddesa along with the poems of the Parayana Group. 9) + Da>aratha ^ „ Jataka + Mugapakkha Jataka + Jara- II Kama . a single the verse of inasmuch as does not contain is which the canonical source no other than Sutta Nipata as we now have of it.. .. liya Sutta (S. At any rate. I. N. 1) + Kama „ VIII Speech .. Jataka + Piyavagga (Dhp.... The Pali Dhammapada from the it original) differs (and a jpasteriori the Fa-kheu-king Prakrit text and the Udanavarga.. III. . 111. „ XXXII Bhiksu .) Similarly the Sutta Nipata and the Jataka Book can be pointed out as canonical sources of most of the additional verses in Prakrit...ff..) Uraga Sutta (S. vagga (Dhp.. which can be traced in the the Khaggavisanasutta.. e. . 10) + Pupphavagga (Dhp. Impermanency Salla Sutta (S. We a Sntta Nipata. one separate may existed as a poem before be justified in thinking that it its incoporation in the 1st book of the Sutta Nipata.

because chronological data can be derived only from those verses which were multiplied. on a basis. each copy of the Dhamma- some that were evidently drawn upon canonical left untouched by the compilers of other copies. . rather mechanically. In discussing in and these. out of some set suffice to illustrate the first process : — I Pali —Ma pamadam anuyunjetha ma kamaratisanthavarii Appamatto hi jhayanto pappoti paramarii sukham. must be regarded as compositions of its compiler. the absence of evidence proving the contrary. set of verses (p.( xxxi tlie ). the question of chronology we have to leave out of consideration the verses that were either newly added or composed on a new model. Further. sources. and Three instances may the substitution of new expressions. each copy contains a number of verses peculiar to pada contains itself. 208) — II Pali —Yanimani apatthani alapnneva sarade rati ? Kapotakani atthini tani disvana ka . (1) the common twofold : The process of multiplication just referred to is insertion within one original verse or group some new lines constructed (2) Buddhist expressions. Prakrit — apramadi pramodia ma garni ratisabhamu apramato hi jhayatu chaya dukhasa pramuni apramadarata bhoda khano yu ma uvacai khanatita hi soyati niraesn samapita O O O apramadarata bhoda sadhami supravedite drugha udhvaradha atmana pagasana va kunaru pramadasa aprati asavachaye pramata duhu amoti siha ba muyamatia nai kalu O O nai pramadasamayti aprati asavachayi apramato hi jhayatu pranoti paramu suhu One must note how the counterpart of one Pali verse has been multiplied in Prakrit to five by the insertion of 8 extra But a more apposite instance is afforded by the second lines. {b) verses : — Besides the common Argument from wnltiplication of pccrticnlar verses.

and bones scattered and dispersed. then. like bones. thus and two complete verses. while only one of the two verses oeenrs in Vasubandhu^s Gathaat once notice that the sangraha and the Udanavarga. What reliance. followed in Divyavadana verses. then. so do". w^hat pleasure. on the body ? " "When old. clear that in place of one verse in the Pali Dhamma- pada we have two verses in the Prakrit and in the Divyavadana.( xxxii ) Prakrit —yanimani avathani alapuniva sarade saghavarnani sisani tani distani ka rati O yanimani prabhaguni vichitani disodisa kavotakani athini tani distani ka rati O ^ — Fa-kheu-pi-u "When the dody the flesh dies. decayed and without covering. making altogether four lines The order in the Prakrit is not but inverted. can one place little good repentance then " ! Divyavadana —Yanimanyapaviddhani viksiptani diso dasa Kapotavarnanyasthini tani drstveha ka ratih ? Imani j^anyupasthanani alaburiva sarade Sankhavarnani sirsani tani drstveha ka ratiy ? — Gathasangraha " They (the bodies) are thrown away and scatter- ed in every direction. those is pigeon-coloured there in looking at them. as when a royal personage rejects a (broken) The Chinese translators have apparently confused a counterchariot." Udanavarga — Those pigeon-coloured bones are thrown away and scattered in every direction w^hat pleasure is . We Prakrit text has driven two lines in between the two lines of a counterpart of the Pali verse. Prakrit verse quoted above and that of the first foot of the second the of part J*51i verse (Jarava 6) " ! Jlranto ve rajarntha sucitta'" . like autumn leaves. and the lie spirit flees. " there in looking at them It is ". to determine the order of verses We are unable in the original of the Fa-kheu: king and ^ in that of its commentary " for these two reasons (i) The portion omitted reads. life ebbed out and dissolution at hand.

the words of Buddha are naturally the literature of the religion is written in So to the language of India. xi that by adding up the additional number of verses as distributed in the chapters a total of 502. and this conjecture fully borne out by the groupthat it in the a Chinese translation The fact of inversion itself requires word of explanation. can rightly suppose that the Divyavadana verses were quotations (perhaps a older little more sanskritised form as of quotations) from an Avadana work such of the original of the Fa-Kheu-pi-u. while comparing Beal's translation with Pali Jaravagga. in the the order the verses must have been inverted is older work ing itself. The 4th verse is a combination of the foot of the Pali verse of a verse like the first in Prakrit. 2 verses correspond with the 10th and nothing but a counterpart of the second The last 2 verses correspond with the Pali. tracting 2 If the corresponding to the Pali we get Jara '-verses above calculation of the ' we at once get the traditional total of 500 by sub- from 502. 8 and 9. The total number 12 of the verses of the Jara-group can be accounted for by the fact that the one verse If we resembling the Pali was expanded into two distinct verses. are far confessed by the translators them: from being faithful^ (ii) that as appears from Beal's translation of the Fa-kheu-pi-u. as selves.e. but li. number been 14.e. i. just 1 in suspect that the right excess of the Pali. 500.( xxxiii ) that the Chinese versions. Nos.^ It is quite likely that the order was tampered with even in the The original commentary. * Beal's Dhammapada. we number total is not 14. Prakrit verse. 34: " Moreover. One must admit hard of explanation. 10 . some of the verses of the Pali Jaravagga are hopelessly confused and the order of some has been violently tampered with. all ' The order of first 3 verses first is exactly the same as in Pali. The number of verses in the Fa-kheu-king original was. accord- ing to the translators' own statement. which widely differs from that of China translate them faithfully is not an easy task ". differ The is No. (Translators' Preface).. The next The verse No. be correct. 6 and the counterpart order of the next 3 verses does not from that nth of the Pali. p. of the Pali.^ of the Fa-kheu-king is said to have the Pali. whereas we have seen on p. of ' Jara '-verses 3 in excess the in i.

Thus the entire process of multiplication and reduction sug: links of change and points of enquiry (1) gests the following the origin of a Mixed Sanskrit counterpart of the Pali verse. taken separatel\^. we are led to think that the verse similarly occurs in the portion of the Chuh-yau-king (the Sanskrit original of the text Dhammapada with 900 verses). has been inverted. first form of the in verse in inverted order. of (2) the manipulation two distinct verses in Mixed Sanskrit by thrusting two new their order in lines into one original verse. that to say. (7) (8) the quotation of its final it Vasubandhu's Gathasangraha. At the same time we cannot hold that the Prakrit had Avadana original of drawn upon the Divy^vadana and the the Fa-kheu-pi-u. as in these two works the order of the two verses. the direct sonrce of the Prakrit 209-210). later than the Fa-kheu-pi-u original and the Divyava- dana verses. Two distinct verses resulted from an attempt to expand the thereby improving ideas of the two Pali lines. inverted (5) the further (6) the Sanskritisation inclusion of the of the verses in their Classical Sanskrit order. in same form tion Seeing that the Udanavarga verse occurs in the Vasubandhu's Gathasarigraha. pumpkins and the decaying bones in the first Even then. For there are very a tinge of Mixed Sanskrit. If this process be . the simile of the line (pp. determined by the model of the Pali many dialectical forms which have verses would not be fully verse. have seen that the We Prakrit verses amply attest and illustrate the required process. (4) the inversion of Mixed Sanskrit. Failing. and in incorporation the Udanayarga. (3) the transliteration of these verses into Prakrit. betraying a process of their growth from one verse by thrusting two lines into it. itself but a selecin from a Dhammapada Classical Sanskrit. to obtain the much-needed order in Mixed Sanskrit in these two works. one must in the last resort look for it in the re- Fa-kheu-king original. The Udanavarga verse seems to is present a stage later than the inversion of the verse-order.( xxxiv ) presupposes an earlier process of multiplication and improvement on an older verse similar to the Pali.

the Avadana original than the Divyavadana verses.( XXXV ) applied as a test of chronology. the Prakrit text than the the latter than Sanskrit. If a Udanavarga —" man relying on moment the a hundred years in forest. to be older than Avadana original of the Fa-kheu-pi-u." In this instance we observe that the Pali is the same as its Sanskrit counterpart in the Udanavarga. with the text of Now we shall 700 verses. whole of his time and attention in religious ofFerings to the gods. remains yet to be ascertained. the Pali Dhammapada will the Fa-kheu-king original in Mixed appear Prakrit text. and engages the (SeVIMetta. this homage is greater than sacrifices for a hundred years. of all this is not equal to one act pure love in saving life. wholly (Agni)." Mahavastu —Yo ca varsasatarh jive agniparicaram caret Patraharo chavavasi karonto vividham tapaiii Dhammapada Yo caikarn bhavitatmanam muhurtamapi pujayet Sa eka pujana Sreyo na ca varsasatam hutam. If —" a man lives a and other things. while there are two . this Sanskrit text than Vasubandhu's the Gathasangraha. sacrificing elephants and horses. and the Gathasaiigraha than the Udanavarga which is tiie latest copy of the Dhammapada. Ill Pali — yo ca vassasataih jantu aggim paricare vane Ekanca bhavitattanam muhuttam api pujaye Sa yeva pujana seyyo yan ce vassasatam hutam. these verses than the Sanskrit text with 900 verses. Prakrit — ya ja vasaSata jatu agi pariyare vane chirena sapitelena divaratra atadrito eka ji bhavitatmana muhuta viva puae O O sameva puyana sebha ya Fa-kheu-pi-u ji vasa§ata huta hundred years. p. 71). examine the third instance. and if he but for one single pays homage to a man who meditates on live for fire self. The chronological position of the Mabavastu Dhammapada in Mixed Sanskrit.

statement. The second process differs from the first by the fact that it has served to multiply the common verses by the substitution by the construction older one. The added line But seeing that the verse occurs in one of to think that the additional chapters. pp. differs in each case as regards its expressions. " Sravaka ". We notice is that the Pali group consists of six verses and the same the Fa-kheu-king original as can be inferred from BeaFs translation of its commentary (Sec. 64-55). to in according time. Having regard contains no less to the fact that the group in i. we can first examine the famous case with the Supraudhu '-group 105-6). 11 in addition . verses absent from the existing it is difficult number of verses contained in the whole group. part of the Pali. III. is an exact counter- being Kharosthi Ms. the the Chinese Prakrit their later If text must be taken be poin-t of date than and a combination of the Fa-kheu- Now let king original and the Mahavastu Dhammapada. later group of by the compilers. * In illustration (p.. The Prakrit group. we have reason model is presupposed. Its of certain set ]5uddhist expressions as well as of a new group of verses on the model of an historical importance mainly consists in bringing into prominence some moral qualities or virtues implied in an older verse or in a thereby setting forth a greater and and power of manipulation exercised greater analytical faculty verses. in this particular case.( xxxvi as ) complete verses the Mahavastu in Prakrit well as in the Dhammapada. in to so. within its The two two Fa-kheu-pi-u and verses seem to have thurst- been constructed out of one older verse of three lines by ino" one extra line first its lines. us examine the second process of multiplication in order to see whether any fresh light could be thrown on the point at issue. by the Prakrit text. rather the Mahavastu Dhammapada translators^ or the text with 700 verses which was commonly used by the people. the Udanavarga to the six than 17 verses. of it. but 17 to ascertain the as it now survives.e. immediately after the sixth verse.

the Mabavastu Dbamma- number of verses in pada 24 and the Udanavarga chapter 34. it is natural to think that multiplication of the stages. the number was multiplied by constructing some additional verses within the original group. xxiv.). Beal's translation of the Fa-kheu-pi-u shows that the chapter in the Chinese version contains a few verses of the second sub- the counterparts are met with group. comprises some four sub-groups. and in the third stage some additional verses were constructed by the substitution of one or two synonyms of Nirvana. Number-group (Sahasavaga) (p. we cannot but suppose original. • We the Pali have seen (p. while in the Udanavarga a few more synonyms came to be substituted. (u) Mase mase sahassena.it is impossible to state as to what verses were really contained in its Number-group. that they were derived from a text other than its The Pali text supplies a counterpart of the first line . the The comparison of the all the in copies except Prakrit reveals verses with those in the Mabavastu them. (i) aud (m) Yo ca {iv) Yo ca vassasataih jive. of which Pali. specified above. In the absence of a faithful translation of the Fa-kheu-king original. number passed through some intermediate and it is clear from the arrangement of the Udanavarga that these stages were no less than four.( xxxvii ) that are common. that the Dhammapada Prakrit chapter contains 17 verses. Dhammapada a very close agreement between of that the some the verses of of this additional chapters the Considering sub-group occur in one of Fa-kheu-pi-u.) that there is a complete agreement as regards the the Number-group between and the Fa-kheu-king original. 154-6. vassasataih jantu. typified by the following four catch-words indicated below by their Pali Turning detect to the it we that forms : Sahassam api ce vaca. Probably in the first two stages.

v. Muditavihari yo bhikSu prasanno buddhasasane Dhammapada Adhigacchati padam santa^ asecanam Adhigacchati padam santam akapurusasevitam. note 2nd line"^. Prakrit — Metravihari yo bhikhu prasanu budhasasane tunati pavaka dharma drumapatra ba marutu O Metravihari yo bhikhu prasanu budha§asani padivijhu pada §ata sagharavosamu suha O Udagacitu yo bhikhu abhivuyu priapria adhikachi padasata akavurusasevita O O ca mocanarh. 7.. V. .( xxxviii ) of each of these verses : and that of the second line of one verse in Prakrit (0 Mase mase sahassena yo yajetha satam samam. we at once perceive that the multiplication passed through no less than two intermediate stages. in the first of which the number multiplied by the first process and in the second by the second. 1st line). facilitating comparison : — Pali —Mettavihari yo bhikkhu pasanno buddhasasane Adhi'gacche padam santaih sankharupasamam sukham Pamojjabahulo bhikkhu pasanno buddhasasane Adhigacche padam santam sankharupasamam sukham. (Sahassav. 11. The chapter on the Bhikkhu contains a sub-group which will seem highly important in determining the relative position of We quote it below with a view to the Dhammapada texts. (Balav. Pramojabahula yo bhikhu abhivuyu priapria adhikachi padasata aseyane ya moyaka Mahavastu — Maitraviharl yo bhiksu prasanno buddhasasane Karunavihari yo bhiksu prasanno buddhasasane Adhigacchati padarh santam aprthagjanasevitam. (u) Na Mase mase kusaggena bale bhuiijetha bhojanam. so sankhatadhammanaih kalam agghati solasim. Judging by the arrangement of the Prakrit verses (6-16)..

will find the perfection of peace. so heart. while . the peace from the Samskara (body). as the elephant does himself out of the mire. will find the perfection of peace (amatam padam). will shake off all wickedness. who has is perfect faith in the near nirvana teaching fall that he cannot possibly away from it." which one can " has perfect faith in the teaching of the Buddha. is kind. we have four Prakrit verses in the Mahavastu Dhammapada place of two in the Pali." In this particular instance. never be weary. as does the wind the leaves of a tree.e. who has perfect faith in the teaching of the Buddha. Maitravihari yo bhiksuh prasanno buddhasasane Adhigacchet padam santam asecanaka mocanara. will arrive by degrees at the complete destruction of all attachment. who has perfect faith in the Buddha. passions)." " The Bhixu who has subdued what charms the the Buddha.. who has perfect faith in the teaching of the Buddha. Udanavarga —Maitravihari yo bhiksuh prasanno bnddhasasane Adhigacchet padam Santam samskaropasamam sivam. who has perfect faith in the teaching of the Buddha. Rockhill's — "The Bhixu who translation. Udagracitto sumano abhibhuyya priy^priyaih Tato pramodyabahulo bhiksu nirvanasantike. what delights is full and what does not delight '^z. will pull himself out the of the evil way. ******* of Pramodyabahulo bhiksuh duhkhaksayam avapnuyat." is The Bhixu who kind." The Bhixu who is kind.( xxxix ) Upeksaviharl yo bhiksu prasanno buddhasasane Adhigacchati padarh sanfcain nirvanam padam acyutam. and will find the end of suffering. what is agreeable to the mind. who " The Bhixu who is kind." " " The Bhixu who of is kind. of delight." *' The Bhixu who teaching of is kind.

(c) Argument from traditions to a —The reader in been referred (on p.( xl ) and the Udanavarga verses are not exact counterparts of anyprevious group. being later than the Pali. some took place in their Nevertheless. Baddho kabalarb na bhunjati sumarati nagavanassa . Fa-kheu-king. kunjarl. Thus applying the twofold process multiplication of common verses as a test of chronology. 5 Dhanapalako nama kunjaro katukappabhedano dunnivarayo. the Prakrit verses cannot be satisfacsort of also transformation torily accounted for otherwise than are a combination of elements by the hypothesis that they from two older texts. the Fa-kheu-king original and the Mahavastu Dham- mapada. when the animal was first caught and put under It appears from the commentary that the elephant training.^ the of Fa-kheu-king original and the Mahavastu Dhammapada. it is very of likely that originals. The Prakrit text with some 600 verses was a combination of verses. groups. Sylvain Levi says. xx. of three older texts with 500.. A. 700 and 900 verses. we are led to think that it the Prakrit text occupies a central position. viz. considered was a combination. p. and earlier than the text portion of the Chuh-yau-king and the Udanavarga. " The tradition that the Appamadavagga of the M. named moralising upon the behaviour help in us much Dhanapalaka. xix) tradition the has already Chronicles of Ceylon proving that the Dhammapada was a well-known Pali work in the time of King Asoka^ The internal evidence of the work does not determining its date of The Nagavagga contains an interesting verse^ compilation. supplemented by a few were newly constructed by the compiler of the Sanskrit the counterparts Though in be found the any of the groups is not to and its Fa-kheu-king commentary. 226). and the ^ extraordinary variety of the verses in different recensions of the chapter " proves ' it clearly V. with 752 verses. of a state elephant. 1912. Pali was constructed in the time of Asoka cannot but be a fiction. Nagav. (J. two older texts with 500 as its and 700 a Chinese just as the recension in translation. They are on the contrary a combination of verses found in all the previous which text.

before the 2nd or 3rd century B. ' the same as Dhanapala. the original of the Fa-kheu-king or the text with 50p verses. Chuh-yau-king or the text with 900 and the Udanavarga or the latest Sanskrit copy with In the Chinese preface to 1000 ^ verses. 9.C. viz.^ the . the original of the text portion of the verses. however. F .( xH ) was in possession of the King of of Kasl. the Chuh-yau-king "Tattha Dhaaapalako naraati tada Kasiranno hatthacariyam pesetvS ramaniya nagavane gahapitassa hatthino etam nam am.. Our Monograph on Asoka's Dhamma. As shown elsewhere. Seeing that the date of composition of the Jatakas in their oldest form cannot be earlier than the first century of Buddha's demise. Tradition attributes to one Dharmatrata the compilation of falls each one of the three copies of the Dhammapada. Ratnapala " or " Vasupala.thought on the part of the Buddhist theologians. The legend must have come into existence sometime before the construction of the railing of the Bharhut Stupa." which p. in wedding gift from Mahapasenadi. i. probably Kasi-Kosala. The chapter on the Buddha goes.C.e.* Subsequently the elephant came as part of the into the possession King Bimbisara. the elephant is ** called. the King of The elephant is no other than one called Nalagiri^ Nidanakatha. See Rockhill's Life of the Buddha. bearing the inscription " Dhanapala hatthinagadamana ". But the Pali Dhammapada has nothing to do with this particular legend which seems to have resulted from an after." ' In the Tibetan is translation. The earliest trace of the legend about the taming of this elephant by the Buddha the Pali can be found in a bas-relief at Bharhut.. one must admit that the date of the Pali Dhammapada within the 4th and the 3rd century B. to prove that at the time of the compilation of deified his the Pali Dhammapada the Buddha was sufficiently and that the legends about the machinations of Mara and daughters were yet in the making. set upon the Buddha by Prince Ajatasattu at the instigation of Devadatta. process of deification of the Buddha through the Birth-stories was synchronous with the history of schisms within the Buddhist Order.

xi. '. the remaining three teachers being Ghosaka (Asvaghosa). Bhadanta Dharmatrata must be regarded Beal is as the compiler of the Udanavarga. a Sthavira and But Taranatha emphatically says that one must not confound the Arya or Sthavira Dharmatrata with the Bhadanta.^ to Taranatha. ' • RockhiU's Beal's ' Udanavarga a' 1' p. mentions two Dharmatratas.( xlii ) Dharmatrata uncle.^ Candrakirti. f. * recognised as compiler a canonical * Beal's Dhammapada * '. a contemporary of Vasumitra. inclined to think that Arya Dharmatrata. Hist. * • Burnouf's Introd. n. * p. for the latter was really the compiler of the Udanavarga. Sthavira and Bhadanta. viz. must. however. too. 566. Dhammapada.^ going far away from the historical truth to supand the same individual compiled all the three one pose that copies of the Dhammapada. 9. a Bhadanta. 9. 1. RockhiU's Beal's ' Udanavarga '. Sylvaiu have been the uncle (rather maternal Levi points out. imply a real historical distinction in the individual and in But the question is whether these epithets refer to or to three. be taken applied to the to name of Dharmatrata.) of Vasumitra. .^ According vira and a Bhadanta. The attribution of with 900 and 1000 verses to one individual might be on the ground that they are substantially the same. all to be trusted. The two epithets. is said to as M. a SthaThe Sthavira was a contemporary of the of the four Brahman Rahula and one teachers of the Vaibha- sikas. therefore. '. But even the Udanavarga as a distinct copy must have been the work of an individual other than the compiler of the Sanskrit text with 900 verses.. p.^ Beal. p. p. 9. xi.* Vasumitra and Buddhadeva {?). " Dhammapada p. If Taranatha's testimony is at individuals two time. points out that the compiler of the Dhammapada is all along spoken of in the Chinese versions as Arya Dharmatrata.. the first of which differed so widely It will be from the the texts justified rest in some important respects. was the of the original of the Fa-kheu-king. there were two Dharmatratas.

got to answer which copy of the Dhammapada Sautrantika work and which a Vaibhasika. — 9.^ there must remain a sharp distinction between If in the case of its the two works with regard to their languages. " It would not be edition of found that the we if surprising prepared by Dharmatrata. v. p* 32 f. V. belonged to theVaibhashika school.. language is what we now know then we must expect that the language of a corresponding Sautrantika work will be something Granted this. . whilst that known in Ceylon was compiled by the Dhammapada Sautrantikas. Mixed Sanskrit. The name Sautrantika in its generic sense was derived evidently from that of the Suttavada school or sect which was the sixth in descent from the Theravada through a schismatic line : Theravada Dhammaguttika Even if the term Suttavada or Sautrantika be taken as a generic name for the MahJsasaka or the Sarv^stivada canon in its final redaction or stage of development." Beal is the first to suggest that the terms stages of a Sautrantika and Vaibhasika represent two distinct Buddhist canon. dency of Vasumitra during the reign of Kaniska. quoted in the Kathavatthu-Comy. we have other than Pali.vv. Suttavada = Vasumitra's Sautrantika.. > > Mahiiiisasaka > Sabbatthivada > Kassapiya > Saihkantika > Sutta-vada.( xliii ) work of the Vaibhasikas at the Council held under the presi^ He says. say. if we are to respect at all the tradition in the Dlpavamsa. ' 3 Mahavamsa. V. the but his mistake lies in identifying the Sautrantika with Sthaviravada. 6 f. Chap.^ from the Sthaviravada on account of its schismatic The contents and arrangement of a Sautrantika work might eventually be found almost identical with those of a Sthaviravada. and yet. it must always be kept carefully distinct associations. the * Beal's * Dhammapada *. 9. is technically a Beal seems to think that the Fa-kheu-king original with 500 verses was received into the Vaibhasika canon during the reign of Kaniska and that it was compiled by Arya Dharmatrata. p. a book of the Sthaviravada canon we find that as Pali. Chap. 6 Dipavamaa.

.^ one and the same Vasumitra was the compiler of the Abhidharma treatise and the president of the Vaibhasika Council in Kaniska's time ? The three standard commentaries in Classical Sanskrit. I. Abhidharma YijfianakayapSda 6astra by Devasarman. compiled at the above council. s Abhidharma JfiSnaprasthana Sastra and PrajnapatipSda 6s8tra by Katyayana (Beal's Records. karanapSda Ssstra and Dhfttukftyapada Sastra. Takakusu 1 Katyayana's Beal's Ibid. 98 f . Hiuen Thsang. Dharmatrata enjoys the company of If the tradition in the Chuh-yauking deserves any credence. the Upade§a seven or Sutra. • Records of the Western World/ 151 109. p. a native of Mid-India and a contemporary of Parsva presided over the delaberations of the Vaibhasika Council which was convened in Kashmir under the auspices of king Kaniska^ and he was the compiler of the How can we believe that Abhidharmaprakarariapada Sastra.( xHv ) author of the Samyuktabhidharma Sastra. In the of the Buddhist celebrities of Gandhara* is no less Dharmatrata. the or Prakaranas is Vinaya and the Abhidharma. 195) and Vasumitra's Abhidharma Pra. the associated with author of the Samyuktabhidharma Sastra. According to Asvaghosa and Vasumitra. It is the four treatises Katyayana and Vasumitra that are finds reasons to think that placed by tradition in the Chinese three centuries after the demise of the Buddha. I. Dharmatrata. one* said 300 years attributed after to to have been compiled 100 years and four^ Buddha's demise. is Parsva.. f. p. His opinion is mainly based upon Hiuen Thsang's account of the Buddhist Council in Kaniska's time which list Chinese traveller's open to dispute. was the maternal uncle of Vasumitra. viz. I. quoted by Beal (supra) . presuppose an older redaction of the Sarv^stivada canon consisting of three Pitakas. most of centuries A.. Vasumitra.D. p. p. in Vasubandhu and the 4th Narayanadeva. the compiler of the Fa-kheu-king. Ibid. » » I. Of the treatises composing the Abhidharma Pitaka. Asanga. whom flourished list and 51 h while in another of Vaibhasika teachers. Prof. Manoratha.

which the most in important of seven 2nd century the composed B. He was acquainted with the views of some of the schismatic schools and sects that sprang up during the 4th century B. XII.^ and there before it was possible for so will must have elapsed some time many local schools to come into quite being. arose in post-Asokan times. Ceylon. by Mr. 54.^ goes to show that Vasumitra at least four centuries after Buddha's demise. These are the schools and sects which. Dipavamsa. .). v. * p. 12-13. J.* are significant as pointing to a time when not only Buddhism was propagated outside the geographical limits of the Middle Country or Mid-India. P. ' date of the entire Sarvdstivada ^ J. 67 * ' ' Wassilief 's Buddhismua of which there is a French translation. among Buddhist Schools. 1905. Journal of the Department English translation I. 275. and Index Mahavyutpatti. the reigns of Pusyamitra and Menander which might also be premised as a closing ff.' This important now translated in three European languages from the Tibetan 2 flourished and the Chinese. according to the Chronicles of The names of these schools. DTpavamaa.' but so many ' influential local schools is India.e.e. the the treatise on * The Points of Controversy treatise. vv. VIII . . V. the Avantika. T.( xlv is ) Jnanaprasthana Sastra. V. i. the Uttarapathaka and the Vajiriya. Kathavatthu Corny.E. four centuries after Buddha's demise) and that its language was a local Sanskrit dialect of Kashmir^. Masuda in the of Letters (C. Mahavamsa. From the this it appear the reasonable to think the that closing date of Abhidharma Pitaka of Sarvflstivada or Sautrantika canon was about a century after Asoka. Vol.U. (i. We cannot treatises Abhidharma was discrepancy of at least one century in the Chinese tradition which can as well be detected by the is but admit that there a aid of Vasumitra's own work.C. King Asoka first thought were formed throughout justly credited with having sent Buddhist of missions for the time in history to various regions outside the Middle Country. MahSvamsa... S. as also those of the Andhaka. p. 6 » f.

Winternitz's 'History of Indian Literature' in j German. shown Collection was Ksudraka Nikaya That there consistmg of some books similar to the Pali. 116 f . p. figures in the wrongly. 11. The translation Agamas which Nikayas does not refer are in many respects the same as the four of the Pali to Sutta Pitaka. notthe followers as a persecutor of throne of Pusyamitra *s accession to the Magadha is. .^ resemblance between the Sarv^stivada profitably works of the Ksudraka Nikaya and the Pali. . 1434. p. Pt. Hid. pp. p.p. one can compare the Fa-kheu- king original with the Pali Dhammapada and see how much agreement there is between them. there is mention of king Pusyamitra. recast The new of redaction was no more than a * later Sanskrit the Sautrantika Divyavadana. All this may suffice to show that the Fa-kheu-king original with 500 verses and written in Mixed Sanskrit belonged to an older redaction of the Sarv^stivada canon. The Chinese version of the Sarv^stivada canon contains the date of of only four first Buddhism. according to Vincent Smith.. Pusyamitra ably in the Divyavadana^^ of Rightly or Sav^stivada literature.C. The Divy^vadana. too. and Petaki. more Lesser than four Sylavan Levi has. * Buddhist India. 187.^ that there Prof. the Ekottar^gama or Anguttara Nikaya. 167-8. This is not to deny that a new redaction of the made during the reign of Kaniska the with compilation of three Vibha^a Sastras or extensive along commentaries which subsequently gave rise to the name VaibhaSarv^stivada canon was sika replacing the older name Sautrantika. prepared probably during the reigns of Pusyamitra and Menander. Agamas. 333.^ were five Nikayas and persons who got them by heart in the time of Pusyamitra tions at is conclusively proved by the votive insciipBharhut and Sanchi containing such personal epithets as As regards the proof of a close Pancauekayika. > ' T'oung Pao. on a the or contrary. viz. 184 B.( xlvi ) canon on the ground that in the Chinese version of one of the books of the Sutra Pitaka.

doubly wrong in regarding the Pali Dhammapada as technically a Sautrantika work and the original of the Beal is Fa-kheu-king as a Vaibhasika Our contention of Kaniska. 11 f. in the Udanayarga by an individual the — Bhadanta Dharmatrata or whatever time of name may be. compiled on the basis of the Fa-kheu-king original with 500 verses and 26 chapters and as M. and (2) that of the Sarvastivada canon from a Mixed Sanskrit redaction to one in Classical Sanskrit.A. . its was uncle » Vasamitra. technically tially the text. who the flourished about the and Vaeubandhu.( xlvii ) canon in Mixed Sanskrit.*^3 chapters. xx. during the 4th or 5th century A. is compiled during the reign the latter that work was a Sautrantika text in as Mixed Sanskrit. Asanga Thus we incline to regard Buddhist Council in Kaniska's time indicat- as a landmark in the history of Sarvastivada : Buddhism ing a twofold transition (1) that of the Sarvastivada literature from a Sautrantika or Canonical stage to a Vaibhasika or Scholastic. so The two redac- manner as well as matter. i. was probably a native of the Middle We are also tempted to thmk that the Sanskrit text Country. much so that the names of the in order to texts of the Vaibhasika distinct canon had to be changed originals. 1912.D. Sylvain Levi seems Sanskrit think. while the latter. p... described as maternal Vasmutra.e. author Arya Dharmatrata compilation must be referred to a If its 209 L'AppramSdavarga. But that the difference between of tlie two redactions was not merely tions differed in language. f). ourselves to believe Arya cannot persuade Dhatmatrata who wrote the ^ We Saihyuktabhidharma Sastra was really the compiler of the original of the Fa-kheu-king for the simple reason that he was a native of uncle of Gandhara. with 900 verses was amplified. its to title was that TJdanavarga. keep them is from their Sautrantika evidence of This fact of countenanced by the portion of the original the text the Chuh-yau-king which was but a copy of the Dhammapada with 900 verses and . substaa- same to the Pali. (J. p. though slightly.

156. shown monograph on Asoka's Dhamma that a number e. 3.. 38. S. therefore. p. Ihid. A. 413ff. be doubted that lived a great Buddhist leader. v. 6. Mahavainsa. It cannot. The Fa-kheu- king was subsequently recast in Classical Sanskrit by the Vaibhasikas during the reign of Kaniska and the text prepared was a Dhammapada with 900 verses. and this date no other than the closing period of the Sautrantika canon which is not earher than the 2nd century B. R. a Journal of the Department of Letters. no doubt. the Cariya Pitaka. the Buddhavarhsa. xxix.* convinced that the 2nd century B. during a on the lines of the Mahasanghika.C. the Petavatthu. p. Vasumitra speaks Council. have been sent as a missionary to Mahisa- mandala (Mysore) during the reign of King Asoka^ and another who was invited to Ceylon from the Pallava country in the There are two iascrip tions time of King Dutthagamanl. Vol.g. .( xlviii ) date some four is centuries after Buddha's demise. We have in our reasons even to believe that about this time It has been the canon of each of the earlier schools was closed. the Apadana and the Khuddakapatha. D.^ the text portion of the Chuh-yau-king the original. of the stone receptacle containing the copper plates on which the Vaibha§ika canon and commentaries were engraved by the order of King Kaniska. I. ^ I.. and its date does not seem to be later than the One must anxiously await the discovery 5th century A.^ the Bharhut of on the railing Stupa recording the feats of miracle performed by there a Mahadeva.C.^ Two post-Asokan period.^ of books were added to the Pali canon in post-Asokan times. Cf.e. v. The Udanavarga was but a second edition of Vaibhasika text — the Udanavars-a of Kani ska's time. of a second Mahadeva Mahadevas one who is are important personages in the history of said to Buddhism. was the closing date of the Sautrantika canon. named ^ Beal's * Records of the Western World. convened. the Kathavatthu. 1910. i. * p. Hiuen Thsang feel tells us that King After Kaniska had built a stupa the examination of the traditions we over this stone receptacle. xii. J.

ff. Hiuen Thsang's travels translation. in about of the 2nd century B. 1914. 1912. the manner of If we can rightly suppose reading was akin to the Tibetan. of Rockhill has prepared an basis account Khotan on the annals. with Prof. was a dialect of the Western part of the Punjab or that of the North-Western Hills. Sten Konow that the place of find of its manuscript compilation was the place of in its origin.. His views are accepted by Levi (J.D.( xlix ) Mahadeva. one must Khotan where its look for manuscript in the Kharosthi alphabet of the 2nd century A. ^ and the goes to local preserved in Tibetan It show that not long after the reign of Dharmasoka Khotan became the settlement of a population. was discovered among the ruins of Gosrnga or Gosirsa Vihara or in a NorthWesterii region of India. that. in other words. and true. Chap. 94 Life of the Buddha. where an IndoIranian dialect was current^. place of origin either in So far as the tradition goes. » G . p. 214). but a mixture of the two. Buddhism was first introduced from Kashmir into Khotan dialect ^ According to M. p. 2 Festschrift Ernst Windisch. half Chinese and half Indian.C. round about Peshawar. the Buddhist missionaries cannot be supposed to have penetrated into these regions before the time of king Asoka. The Prakrit verses go to prove that they could not be read or intoned without waiving one's head. YIII. if Vasu- mitra's account the a Mahadeva Council be redaction of we can or equally believe that the in Mahasanghika Lokottaravada Canon was prepared Mixed Sanskrit and If so. xx. of the Mahavastu Dhammapada can be referred to the date of this council. Jules Bloch the language of the Kharo^th! Ms. A. whose habits resembled those of China and whose was neither Indian nor Chinese. As its regards the Prakrit Dhammapada. the compilation formally recognised at this council. we must admit that its the local dialect of Khotan ^ was not possible much before interesting of the time of Kaniska.

581. p. Sten Konow's views in the Festschrift Ernst Windisch. W. one belonging another to the sarv^stivada or of its to the Mahasanghika school and Sautrantika. Thomas says that son. E. say. his name was Samantasiddhi.D. Here we 1 Life of the Buddha. or A. p.^ It is during the reign of the eighth of successor of this king that the doctrines school were brought into the country by the Mahasanghika son of the the eldest king who entered the Buddhist order under the name of Dhar- mananda and went to India. These traditions possible to compile important as showing how in became a Dhammapada Khotan as a synthesis of two older texts in Mixed Sanskrit. the Mahabharata and the Jataka Book. He seems to have brought about a reconciliation between the and SarvaSstivSda doctrines. '- Dr. see his notes on Rockhill's summary of the Annals of DharmSnanda was the second Khotan in Stein's Ancient Khotan. 239. 95 &i 3 According to Thomas. differs most the of the verses from the latter source are to be found in at Jatakas illustrated by bas-reliefs Bharhut. the king are of it Gu-zan. Ibid. Curiously enough. the 1st century B. is The result obtained supported by the fact that the Prakrit Dham- mapada from the Pali and the original of the Fa-kheuking by the inclusion of many verses from the Suttanipata. ^ The doctrine of the Sarv^stivada school of the Lesser Vehicle was introduced into the country by the venerable Mantrasiddhi^ the following reign. adherents of the MahSsafighika .C. the sambhava and Kaniska. F. App. The probable date compilation must be referred to a time about five centuries after Buddha*s demise. p. cf. p. I. Yol. 237. of the who was called from India during doctrines of Thus Khotan became a meeting ground two Buddhist schools shortly before the 11th successor of Vijaya- invasion of India by Vijayaklrti.( 1 ) • in the 5th year of the reign of king Vijayasambhava who ascended the throne 165 years after the establishmeut of the kingdom in 234 B.E.

2nd century.. would be rather to say that that particular verse in Mixed Sanskrit or in some such language is older than its counterpart included in the Pali to find that the Dhammapada. 2nd or let century. . .. (2) Ta-kheu-king original in Mixed Sanskrit.. (4) Prakrit Dhammapada .. 5. — The total result stated above can be further tested by a general history of the Tripitaka dealing particularly with the genesis and importance of the Dhammapada texts.. 4th or 5th century.( li ) must briefly : state the results obtained from the foregoing investigation Text. (3) Mahavastu Dhammapada (a Mahflsanghika work). 1st century B. Probable date of compilation. Concluding Remarks..C. the later edition of No.C.. A.C.D.. B. (a Santrantika work). (a Sthaviravada work).D. or A. (1) Pali Dhammapada Between the 4th and 3rd century B. in opinion.. or the older edition of the Udanavarga (a Vaibha- §ika work). (a Chinese recen- Circa 223 A.. B. . There it has been has as to shown that M. (6) Fa-kheu-king sion). Senart's inference the existence of a Dhammapada in Prakrit text older than the his Pali from a particular verse expressions better which. (7) UdSnavarga or .D. (another Mahasanghika work). contains or is more appropriate than those in the corresponding Pali verse...C. AD. The legitimate inference in such cases historically incorrect. in a This important subject supplementary section been separately dealt with of this work. . (5) Text portion of the Chuh-yau-king original 1st or 2nd century. or We the need not be surprised Dhammapada with the Jatakas and Avadanas or Udanavarga is associated that the works of the Jataka .

called an Avadana but classed as a Jataka in the Cullaniddesa. Pali we have sought to show of that the existing doctrines Tripitaka incorporates treatises sects. some highly crystallised exegetical fragments. these tbree classes As a matter of work were closely connected with one another. Those who have ever cared to be acquainted with the language and will always shrug their shoulders phraseology of these fragments that Pali was derived from a at the slightest suggestion Palllbhasa or popular dialect locally current in Magadha or . dialects Sanskrit. important discourse. Niddesa and Khandha imply.( Hi ) or Avadana certain class came to be included in the Vinaya Pitaka of a Buddhist sebool. Fibhanga. counterparts and which It is bad oricrinated with other in Buddhist schools and of not so a discussion the relative position of much important Mixed Pali. one cannot but be struck by the fact that the as Dhammapada Jataka and a type of literary in composition. since from the very beginning. the alike the Avadana. Prakrit and to Sanskrit within the ascertain Ancient Buddhist or as in literature of India the dialect which the of Buddha instruction or his disciples generally used the medium the as to of determine the of of original materials the language Buddhist canon were the which prepared specified during lead in life-time the this Buddha. as the wSuttanta of the Mabapadana Dlgba Nikaya goes to prove. grew up Buddhist literature by way of a protest against the orthodox code of morality — the Patimokkha. in this par excellence discourse In going through this (patimokkba-uddesa). passages which. such as the Mabasanghika or the Sarvastivada. as their names. We have- throughout us Part II ultimately back to work tbat Dhammapada verses a number of prose discourses constituted of the Digha or in the or Majjhima Nikaya. Among several other important points. two typical Dhammapada verses are intended to serve as model for the Patimokkha of fact. appear as so many solid pieces of brick or blocks of stone with stock which the first fabric of the canon was constructed.

C.versed in a matter of dispute by a body of experts the Sastras. PaiiHi. in Century B. and The significance of the name Pali or Pali as denoting the text is that the canon consists of the discourses of his disciples. always appear to The word Pali has never been used in the Buddhaghosa's commentaries in a sense other than the canon as distinguished from the commenCeylonese Chronicles taries. Thus a word which can be it is philologically is any if there Bengali connected with Pali or Pali. no reason to dispute the tradition. {jpariyayena bhasitam. characterised the Buddha and those of by a connected sequence of thought.( liii ) in the Middle Country. expressed in words. well-arranged The of Bengali word ' ^ Paiikti' ' denotes a row seats and Panti denotes a well- reasoned opinion in well. —the "^thaviravada canon in a language which is now commonly known as Pali and the Sautrantika and Mahasamghika recensions in two types of Mixed . Paftti or Pati is no doubt the same. The primary meaning of Talll. paUti in the sense of well reasoned view. The schismatic developments in language and literature followed two lines deviating from the Sthaviravada and about the 2nd three recensions of the canon were closed. Taken in this sense. that the literary language of the Buddhist Order until the breaking out of the first schism about a century after There is Buddha^s demise and the formation School was the of the Mahasaifaghika same or uniform and that the history of the schisms is bound up with a violent tampering with the language and arrangement of the texts. India. quite innocent of the literary history of err on the wrong side. a good middle and a good end. This school of philologists. recorded in the Dipavaiiisa. dhammapariyayam) having a good beginning. in The pro2:ress o£ researches into linguistic developments within this Buddhist literature has been thoughtless much hampered country by a and most as Pali absurd speculation about what we now call language on the basis of the identity of the the word and know name Pali with Falll meaning a village. Palll denotes a group of houses arranged according to a plan.

in a local dialect of Khotan that of the countries round Peshawar. These possibility of translating the dialects. broadly the Gandhara region. a history as many indelible records of scriptural reaction against the standardisation of Buddhist languages. dialects suggested a local left Buddhist Canonical texts into it outside the to Middle Country and accomplish the task. of them that to the lofty massages nations of Buddhism could the various Asia who were less . such as the Prakrit. about the 10th of the Dhammapada literature covers some twelve 9th centuries. for The it is Dhammapada through be appealed texts have an international importance. to the century A. in the songs and treatises of The history Sahajiya and other schools of Buddhist Tantriks. Burma and Siam lines until to-day. disciples India It is with these torch-light the truths missionaries and texts successors several and who translated the sacred into local dialects and thus raised laid the those dialects to the status of literary literatures.( Hv ) Sanskrit.D. was really to his missionaries The compilation of a Dhammapada or in text. culminated and Mabasam^hika The various recensions over a vast of Asoka's Rock and area.C. languages. from the 4th century B. The history of the subsequent Buddhist literature goes ment of Prakrit became an undercurrent to manifest in show that the developitself again Century A.D. Since Asoka the Buddhist missionaries penetrated the into dark of their regions within of and outside Buddhism. languages and foundation of many to national characters. may be singled out as the first visible fruit of the reaction implied in Asokan edicts. distributed to geographical from appear Gandhara in Kalinga and so from Nepal to Mysore. The repeated attempts of the Buddhist local emperor to adapt the language of each edict to were fruitful in more than one way. arts and civilisations. The Sthaviravada line has continued in Ceylon. while the S au train tika in Classical Sanskrit. Pillar edicts.

although in some respects of more India. . practical. than the Hindus or Aryanised for peoples fact of They are no less important the that they afPord us a clue for understanding the process of poetry as well as of Nlti origin and growth in India and other countries where Buddhism literature the has spread.( Iv ) imaginative and by far tlie less speculative.

.

I

A

The Kharosthi Manuscript

of the

Dhammapada
As read by M. Emile Senart, together with
translated from French.
his Notes

Ai

pratasuhino apramadaviha

.

.

Apramadaviha
in
Itivut.y

is,

madaviharinOj
ed.

I suppose, the remnant of aprawhich we again find, for instance, Windisch, p. 74, 1, :?5, equally in

the

genitive.

Pratasuhino

must

be

in

the

same

It is clear genitive smg\x\2^v=praptasukhinah. that the two words might also be some nominative

way a

forms in the plural.

2

apramadi pramodia" ma garni ratisabhamu* apramato hi jhayatu^ visesa adhikachati"^ O
Cf.

Dhammapada,

27.

a.

Pramodia = Vk\\ pamodeyay with the y dropped (of. niraesuy 1. 4, sevea^ A^, 2, etc.), and with the change of e into «, which is so frequent in locatives like apramadi (A^, 13), and not only at the end of
words.

(

2

)

b.

This reading appears to me to be in every way better than that of the P^li Dhammapada. Samhkrama is better than samstava^ but especially garni is so obviously preferable to kama (for the Prakrit text the hypothesis of a gross mistake is done away with by the absence of ma in the first p^da) that I can only doubt if the VkW reading is not the result of a mistake. Probably this is an old error, and it may be thought that the P^li redaction is based upon some version expressed in a Prakrit, analogous to that of
the present text, where the substitution of the tenues for the sonant (cf. adhikachatij etc.) was frequent.

c.

Above the

letter

read ja remains some trace of a

horizontal stroke, which, according to an observation of M. d'Oldenburg, marks the aspiration of j in our

manuscript.
d.

inclined to read visesam; but the lower part of the spear in s or in analogous characters twisted in the cases which exclude the is so often (ef. gami of the following line, interpretation the 8 of savaka, A*, 6, etc.), and the probable notation of the anusvdra is so rare in our manuscript (I do not know of any sure instance of it in our fragments of Paris) that I do not hesitate to transcribe as I have done.

One might be

m

apramadi pramodia

ma

garni ratisabhamu

apramato hi

jayatu"*

chaya dukhasa pramuni*
verse
referred
to

O
the

Cf. the

Dhammapada
line.

in

preceding
a.

This time the sign of the aspirate is wanting above the y, as often elsewhere. But this curious peculiarity will be brought home to us by a paleographic examination.

b.

kshayam duhkhasya prapnuyat. In lines 6 and 7 we shall pdpune. meet successively with amoti for apnoU, and pranoti for prapnoti. The nasalisation of p into m does not appear solely due to any memory of the compound pn surviving its disjunction into puriy for B, 24 has

The Sanskrit

will be

Framnm = Vk\i

mano=punahf VkM pana.

(

3

)

4

....

rata bhodha"*

khano yu

ma

uvacai^
.

khanatita (h)i soyati niraesu samapi'"

Ci*.

Dhammap.,
it
is

515.

a.

No

doubt

almost restored

:

apramadarata as in

the next verse.
this manuscript.
h.

Bhodha

for

hhotha^ as generally in

Y\i
^/^

= vah. In A 2, 7 we shall find bhadra'fiu = bhadram = Sk. hhadram vah. Accordingly it should be = vai) in the text of the written vo instead of ve Dhammapada. We shall again come across zivacai=
(

upaccaga in B^ 3 ; uvacai^ that is to say, uvacaya, ya being frequently written i\ ef. 11. 6, 7 nai-=.nayam', — prahaya, A-, 6 (A^, 7?), etc. The g is p'^-ahai sometimes totally dropped between two vowels: roa-= roga {O^^, 3), and ma}', with stronger reason, weaken
into y,
c.

Samapi

is,

of course, to be completed into samapita.

apramadarata bhodha sadhami supravedite drugha udhvaradha* atmana pagasana va kun^'
Cf.

Dhammap.,

3'27.

a.

All the analogies
tiddJiaradha.

We

demand the reading ndhvaradha

for

shall find elsewhere iitvariiox uttari

xVs, in the two eases, the compound com(B, 37). mences with an initial n, one may think that it is this nearness which accounts for this strange orthography, and that, in reality, it corresponds to a

pronunciation rudharadha, mitari, the v having been transposed in writing in the Prakrit text, like the
r of drugJia.
b.

In spite of partial mutilation, the last letter is certain ; it is hin\jiro\ that ought to be read, or, what recurs in the same way, kufianc, which we shall presently
find again in

A%

4.

(

4

)

6

nai kalu" pramadasa aprati* asavachaye pramata duhu amoti'' siha ba muyamatia''
a.

O

This, as I have just pointed out, should be understood in Sanski'it as naymn kalah.

h.

Aprapie.

Cf.

Dhammap.,

verses :Z53, :c72.

c.

For amoti, cf. v. 3 above. The usual omission of the anusvara does not permit us to decide if we are in
the presence of the singular or the plural, if pramaia =pramattah or pramat/ah, and siha simhali or dmhah. I, however, adhere to the first solution on account of the next verse where the singular is assured and on account of the comparison, which, to all appearance, stands on the sense "a certain lion.'^ The termination o is often represented by a. In 1. 5, we have pa^asava va hm\ar6\. The reading wo cannot be doubtful, although the vowel appears to have been written in an exceptional way. had dnklia in

=

We

1.

3,

but the spelling dvlia

is

much more

in use.

il.

as I

comparison with C'", t will prove that it is right, It must be admitted, believe, to read mu. however, that m presents a form which is scarcely
ordinary.

A

It is true that if it is read /7^r/.^another interpretation easily suggesting itself, the form of the hh will not be any more regular, the bend of the ring towards the right being generally much more prominent. If ha is taken r«, iva^ as elsewhere (e.g., A^, 4), the two expressions kliayamatia or

=

«^^^^^*^»^^?^^a,

both possible in Kharosthi writing, remain to me, perhaps because I do not know obscure equally or remember any story to which there might be an
allusion
here.

first hypothesis the to according kshaijaniati/ai In the second case, second, I think, m/rgamati/a. one might imagine, for instance, a story where the lion killed himself by his negligence, in fancying to have to deal with a gazelle instead of some formidable enemy. In the absence of a parallel verse, which I have not hitherto been able to discover, I The rest can only leave all conclusions suspended. " One should not of the strophe is easily rendered relax until one should have destroyed the passions in

According to

the

we should have

:

oneself."

(

5

)

7

nai

pramadasamayu

apramato
Cf.

aprati asavachayi hi jayatu pranoti paramii sukhu

O

Dhammap.,

27.

8

._
a.

ga" 25
to Goy that is say, Sl(i{fhuh)y chapter contains 25 stanzas.

of

c*onrse.

The

I

cannot make anything^ useful out of the three small fragments that figure on the left of the Plate and do not seem to tally with any part of the The one in the middle gives principal fragment.

some sure characters

:

...
where

.

kama

cithatu

cithatu

may

he

— tis^fha7itah.

A:
1
.

.

madenamakabha devanasamidh(i)gat

.

Not remembering any parallel passage either in Dhammapada or elsewhere, I do not see 1 have,
the
present,

the
for

anything really useful to say on this The fragment. very mutilation of the words is doubtful. I should only like to remark that the letters t and d are so very similar that one can never be positive over the transcription of the one or the other,
as long as the sense of the context is wanting there to guide the reading. The vocalization of the dh

of sa7iiidhi is only likely. Kabha may very well reI should only like to dwell upon the present garhha. last It is usually read jo^ the of character. reading (ef. Buhler), and I myself have read it so in the name Gtidupharasa in the inscription of Takht i Bahi {Notes in Epigr. Ind.y III). But it is, I believe, a transcription that requires to be revised. It is not the normal form of ph, nor its slight variant whiAi is used in this manuscript, e.g., in the word Is it a double phatana (C^'", 8) and elsewhere. ph or a double bh ? Besides the present passage

(

6

)

where the interpretation of the sign remains doubtful,
reapi^ears in ahhai (B, 7), in salahJm (B, 20, 21), in sehho—sreyali (C^^, 7, 18, 21) and in prabhamguna
it

(C^^

3, 16, i7)

;

in

all

these

words

it

is

bh that
also

we

expect,

more particularly

in sebJw

which we

find clearly written as sehii, where a hardening into ph would be quite odd. I have to add that in one

case at least, viz. B, 21, we find the bk of apalabJw written in a character different from that which is in question and in which the bh of salabhii is written To speak without being positive, the side by side. orthography, so inconsistent in this manuscript, seems to indicate that our dialect generally preserved the bh. A sure solution would be possible only after all the monuments, where appears the character
in question, will have been verified from this point of view. Meanwhile, I have decided to read it every1 have transcribed in con*Avhere as bh and wot ph.

formity with this conclusion, but I have
to note, in every special case, the sign

not failed represented in

the transcription.

.

na clhama na sev

.

^"
a^'

pramadena na
na

savasi

michadithi na roy
Cf.
a.

.

sia lokavadhano''

Dhammap.,

167.
to complete

The comparison with Dh. 167 enables us
[hi^na and, probably,
^^evle'ja.

h.

For rocayati equivalent to sevayati,
p.

cf.

Dhammap.,
:

kassa 15 tvam dhawmam rocesi " " whose law dost thou approve, dost thou follow ? had Hoyati for Hocati (A^, 4). It is likely that the manuscript had royea, c.'.Childers (q. v.) declared that he had not any idea of the precise meaning of lohaiHidrlhana. M. Fausboll " mundi transcribed the etymological signification

122,

1.

:

We

:

Miiller amplificator " a friend of the world I suspect ", is quite vague. that the term rests upon the expression kula- or vamHa-vardhana, and that our verse counsels not to increase the number of beings, that is to say, to re",
:

and the rendering of M.

Max

nounce desire, on the one hand, and^o attain to the perfection that closes the circle of samsara, on the
other.

as often. 138. The fold of the bark has entirely equivalent. Meanwhile. Dhammap. We in —parivajetva. incorrect spelling basana is invariably reproduced in this manuscript. but that it seems that in line 8.. etam has nothing surprizing. an opposite meaning. very doubtful.( 7 ) 3 yo tu puvi pramajati'' pacha su na pramajati so ita loku ohaseti abha muto va suriu^' O C£. no doubt as to the reading.In. Cf. the right reading might well be pramajlll or pramajeti=. Theragatha. I have accordingly decided to tmnscribe pramajaU. pramajilva .. 529-530. this reading affords a construction equivalent in meaning t^ paniajjiiva of the Dhajiimapadaj but more correct . LokiSy pp. On the whole. pp. 1147. and of the sun for the moon does not require any observation. Divyavadana. 68. on the contrary. for it does not leave the relative yo alone and without a finite verb. a. would be equally plausiI have already pointed out the spelling ba for ble. verses 256. in itself. is 172. 6). rendered the reading of the last tvvo letters very indistinct . parivajeti may likewise be There h. Cf. for it spelling ti for tvd which ill becomes analogy. The second and third letters of ncdagara are indistinct. Although imam i for e may 4 arahadha nikhamadha yujatha budhasasane'" dhunatha macuno sena nalagara^' ba kuiiaru O Cf. the be more natural. restore word. and the permit of a restoration traces of the letter which I . not that the form is justified without would be necessary to allow a difficulty. it seems certain that the final t is accompanied by an / . have several times already met with middle of words. Burnouf. The h. which. a. The of parallel passages alone the as = /«. the substitution of obhaseii iov pabhaseti. what is on the top of j is. va =iva (A^. seem to me less favourable for a reading da. The ca of Dhammapada has.

This verse in the Div. p. well. conscientious. 'P41i. though the construction is differently modified in either hemistich. b/iotit ( bJiontu) cannot be interpreted as a second person " Let the bhikkhus be intent.^' 6 yo ima sadhamavinau'' apramatu viliasiti^ prahai jatisansara'" dukhusatS. hhicJiave in B. comes immediately after fits Fiiia?i = vina[7y']am ri. we have not.. as regards the n. Viharati is construed with the accusative. I scarcely imagine what it could be. 68.'^ karisa[t]i. with syncope of ri (i ?).( 8 ) apramata smatimata susila bhotu bhichavi'* susamahitasagapa sacita anuracliadha Of. the pA. Divya Avad. probably on the analogy of earati. guard your thought. attested by several instances. The vocative appears to 53 (ef. 19. dukhas' 2i. a mistake of the scribe. . Cf. then. bhikkhave) But here the form fjJiichavi. our verse 4 above. a. I do not see how the compound which I read iisa can It is not difficult to find be interpreted otherwise. 327. before b. unless the fault of the copyist be admitted. Avad. and = prahai =praha//a. di^ ?' in believe. which of the preceding syllable . c. The support = : mind well-collected. I do not find any means to make out anything o£ bhichavi else than a nominative . be. it I can only see here explained by the of course. a[m]ia[m\* . virtuous. any instance of it in the inscriptions. O Dhammap.da. and frequently. a. it is. I Fihaf<iti=^vihari8'i/ati.. But there seems to a trace of the remnant of another Besides that it gives a syllable too many for letter. not easy to state precisely the analysis of the The value of the sign is constituent elements. out the s there . of khri is (L The u perfectly clear is is. Similarly ya^ vihai^isij B.

" Estranged from is Here of the what remains visible the transcription of two verse-ends. n. Dhammap. in some sort. and. which would be expected side by side with hhaveiha. ti^ does . that the last letter is which would give dichati. . adhikachati (A^. for instance. one of : frequent epithets of the Dharma svakhi/afa.sm pattiya . practise virtue to attain to Nirvana. It is a different question. : etc. O I already suggested thsit parivajefi The / and the t are clear. true to a constant application. cf.7 yu vadami bhadranu'' yavatetha samakata^ apramadarata bhodha sadhami supravediti^ O ta Cf. we might he=pa?'h'ajetva cannot. 78 a)iyappaved{fe dhamme For the snpravedita compare. bhadante. 337. and whether to " Lords !" or ** welfare render either simply to you !'. 8 pramada parivajeti'' apramadarata sada bhavetha kusala dhama yokachemavsa prataa* a. : h. more particularly. relaxation. and again =M«^ram yu — hhadram vah. This the '' expression is met : with. namely. in SuUanipata. 425 all Yogakkhema. whether it is convenient to attribute to it all its etymological value or to consider it as a mode of address. have. in line h. . the qualify fam plural of hhadrara te. We hhadra/fiii is have already met with yu=iVo^vah (A\ 4). The two imhs are not a double use. and forms an independent expression. 2. that figure on the fragment * reproduced up on the left of Plate A : loke athatlia dhiravenea dicha . bkaddamdoes not dkadram vah is.." lana It sabrayano pratismato* O O not seem. look for the second person plural here. which I do not pretend to decide. We see that the reading in the P^li text should not be voimddmi = vj/avarndami. Dhammap. a. . then.). hnt separated into two words.. as one would ex2)ect here. For mmakatay Cf. . 3.

cf. . 277.. etc.. Nibbindati diMhe. : . 1 savi saghara anica ti yada pranaya pasati tada Jiivinati'' dukh Of the two small fragments that follow. in 9). e Dhammap. Dhammap. simply hypothesizing. similarly mhrayam. till The is surest course is to wP/it a parallel P^li text found. is into panita for pandita. the first one applies well to this verse. is written n. Cf. \^) annabisa kampi{sya\nah.10 supposing the separation of the words to be precise. a. That The two is to say. and (C™. that is to say. a. we shall have = ann(B. dental or cerebral. 5 above) . if its appearance as it is written is to be believed. ya tance. samprajanah pratumrtah. etc.. 35) sija = siflca. dukha ti yada pranae gradhati"* dukha * eso magu visodhia ' O 278. One this of the peculiarities attaching to the dialect of manuscript is that the compound nd. In pranae. is 1." 2 savi saghara tada nivinati Cf. . the second : surely belongs to another passage. 43. " as Childers has rightly understood it Only does he conceive disgust for [existence which is : nn changed : nothing but] pain. there are to be found traces of the following e^o magu vi\_8odhia'\ . C^". epithets are likewise contiguous in Suttanijpaia^ v. Sanskrit it would permit cf a transcription in ' But we are lohe rthartham dhlro "^vaineyo ditsati. . we have had the tenues that follow the nasal : sa{n)gapa = sankalpa (\. 413 Our dialect tends particularly to weaken (425?). since the verse ends with visodhia. written more than once less though much (for ins- frequently than i.

the word is written cakhuma. to reason. a." b. however. it will have this interesting charaeter that this superadded M. some reader having felt the necessity to note that. clearly has visodhia. Dhammap. changed equally mtoch and kh magana athagio setho sacana^ cauri pada viraku setho dhamana pranabhutana cakhuma Cf. dukham. impossible that it may be e instead of a. the one. I can appear traces of a sign. for chu. written. C'ltvari. This construction is. o are where the u and the sarvi dhama anattna ti yada pasati cachuma'' tada nivinati dukha eso mago visodhia O Cf. It is..11 Gradhati= granthati J in keeping with the observation just made on the A^ fragment of the principal Plate. cattari is 273. that is to say. the accusative as opposed to the locative of the Pali. the less so. gives. a. '' O Dhammapada. the Buddhist dialects readily I do not believe that our . as. just in the verse following. after the original execution of the manuscript. " to I understand the word here in the sense of deduce. but there as the next verse is no more certainty. which is only explain it as a kh. in used for the masculine. If it is verified. to conclude. the same in the preceding verse. here and in the next verse. Our manuscript dnk/ia. the compound ks is in this manuscript. consequently. Above the hardly distinct. And the conjecture is so much the more plausible. c. it is not for the other. As regards the final letter. kJiu could also be written . very likely. difficult to explain. letter chu 279. displays a form more archaic than what figures there ordinarily. in fact. VisodJii for vimidhi is not surprising in this manuscript constantly used.

of distinct it is c. C^o. . it is difficult not to admit an abnormal of the analogy of i-yi. it is difficult to imagine that the analogy of the use of cattari should not have floated in the mind of those usins: caiuri. 10. may only be due to the negligence of dialectic peculiarity. and influenced this spelling. 9. ya^ and elsewhere. strictly understood as equivalent A*. S5 . simply clerical {parasa for parasi=parasmi) It is is hardly probable side by side with asmi loki. just as the memory of a bhicchav^ has similarly aided the orthography bhichav'e. traces . A^. C''°. B. As regards the elision of the t. 4. with the genitive parasa for the locative parasmin.tiiha tiie for niithe. ji. not to b. mistake. 29. The omission any the final e. of which the following (1. see 1. ga30 pramajea dhamu sucarita seati * 6 utitha" na cari '' dhamacari suhu Cf. of a. C''S 37 .u c<inri may be the direct reflex of catvarij but it may be rather of caturo the ehaiii^e of o into i may strictly be mechanical. not on the usual form sett. and the orthography yi may be to ya . more natural to admit a perversion. yi. action . O Dhammap. 17. -10. bhichavi (cf. and of which the lan- guage of the Mah^vastu affords us so many evidences. B. 5 . This last p^da is found again likewise in C^^. phami side by side with Magadhism bhasatiy etc. The a of suku are not quite the final peihaps mha which the copyist wished to write. For ca we find in this manuscript a regular scale of clerical modifications: ja. n. 5).. a confusion in the use of cases. sagaraiidasa. A Similarly. i. asmi loki parasa yi 168. Meanwhile. Seati appears to rest. -3. fg) will supply many instances. here iox ja. i iox ya is explained well. scribe. namaruvasa. but on the form hayati^ ay a being written e. but in ji.

). It is certain that we have here before us a confusion of . waterfall. the Kharosthi inscription where Biihler thinks he is able to read " well. ^Gf. not to speak of other analogous cases. 280. 9 uthane alasa anuthahatu'' yoi ball alasieuvito^ saDsanasagapamano smatima' pranai ni?^ga alasu [na vinati Cf.. 25. this variant of the last pMa involves with that of the P^li recension. b. not in the precise acceptation of "cascade.IS 7 uthanena apramadena sanamena damena ca divu"* karoti medhavi ya jara nabhimardati ^ Cf. 8 uthanamato smatimato suyikamasa* nisama[carino sanatasa hi'' dhamajivino apramatasa yasidha [vadhati O Cf. a. O Dhammap.i/i° = kici° *3. O Dhammap.^' but in a generic sense bordering upon that of ogha. is of the medial/* (and also initial) h. the substitution of the verb ahhimardafi is probably inspired by the desire to do away with the metrical inaccuracy of abhikirati. I wonder why it should not be understood ?i^jhara. on the analogy " oi jharl meaning *^ river (PWB q. a.v. Hi is pretty nearly as good as the ca of the P^li text. the word could not be taken. -^((^ujafi(dk)a. factor of destruction less menacing than the surge (flood) to which it is a prey. Dhammap. and why. clearly utjiane. age is a certainly less satisfactory.. n. is in itself For an island." jharanl and interpret it in the sense of Whatever that may be. as in 24. C/^\ Su. most frequent The comparison which in this manuscript.. The weakening into V. The manuscript has which would not permit of any other division of words.

for u in .. the context permitting. FausbolPs of which can be well construed notes). as in C^^9. in aladya or alasiyam (cf. I believe. it to restoie have by an arbitrary sought This reading yum of the P^li — is little — — — = expedient. and |)erhaj)s the pronunciation e could be substituted for ydj as is the case with the language of our manuscript. out some parallel cases. is only which must be due to a confusion of concerned the redactors. after other consonants. t/ie.igarandasa=z I do not see how it can be read samkarahTde. Yoi=i/o aynTd. b. ferable to assuredly prematters youth. manuscript particularly common hahojanOy C^% 31 (30 ?) But we have already pointed Qyo (C^o9)^ 12. It is. neither ' In a dialect where the spelling with npeta. a. might be . otherwise than as anuthahatu . the compound alasieu2jeta alcisiyathe Pali redactors U'peta would save the metre. 6. Dhammap. where I have cited s. this cf for instance. is 259. etc. The spellthe most common in this . 10 11 na tavata dbamadharo yavata yo tu apa bi sutvana* sa ho'^ baho'' bhasati dhamu kaena phasai'' O dbamadharo bboti yo dhamu na pramajati O Cf. and not physical activity. read 6. There is another confusion lurking. if 1 am not mistaken. the only instance of sandhi our fragments afford. by far elsewhere. Bi={a)pi is met with is ing s for sr manuscript. c. the negative a being dropped after the final o which ])recedes. after h. Smatima can only be explained d^^ = asmatima. Compare alasa. note c to 1.14 the scribe and that the original reading was uthanathat is to say. since moral force. which. itthanakalasmi. . yet it must be admitted that the f/ia has a somewhat unusual form.

6. naturally. d . be interpreted in the same way as s ( phisamti s) (B. IIo = kho. A^. apramadu amatapada pramadu mucuno pada apramata na miyati ye pramata yadha rautu Cf. is from sporadic the of the : {hayena. mrtah. "to At the most we may question teach by example. so as not to escape transmigration." bhasai (B. especially as sonant into tenues is more hardening frequent in our text. has been quite the cause of the confusion that has bhclsaye. 7). I have myself sought to discard a whole series of apparent instances of this transformation (cf. in keeping Avith the classification of kaya-.15 c is certain TheP^li that is to S might here passati. but it is very probable that our scribe has made a that the original text read muta\ "they are slip and : as those dead. back our pkasai to pahyati. "* Dhammap."'' that is to say. as in C". or. Petersburg manuscript which corres\\. 21. bhamyet. as The singular mntu. as abhai = abhati it is = Anyhow introduced passati in the text. or curious to think that such a substitution of f^^ for ^^i i" the version which has served as the basis of the Pali redaction. he must speak by his acts cases. and quite misled the interpreters. may strictly be understood " those who live in relaxation are as a dead man " . phalia is= paligha.2J& The reading joteflfi = m 398. might have caused an accidental mistake. khalu. if you like. That it is not produced no reason. and. . sure to die. But a double anomaly must have to be admitted in the word itself and immediately beside its ponds to Dhammapada bring we might strictly I prefer by far to hold that pli is exact spelling. for hh anH phased = bha8ati. pasijati. as I find that in the verse of the St. AVith " it does not suffice bhasati the sense is excellent to make fine speeches. a. say. £5) from spr's. I). vakif and manahkarma)". = bhasati.. The very resemblance which is manifest here between the letters bk and ph.

as his treasures.16 13 eta visesadha'' iiatva apramadasa panito^ apranxadi pramodia ariana goyari rato Cf. 1. The : 2. O Dhammap. 14 praraada anuyujati bala drumedhino jana apramada tu medhavi dhana sethi va rachati '' ^' O Cf. 22. had quite the reading sethi or srestht which." "the wise man IV. Apramadasa I for the locative. 6 above. cf. &thi is the nominative of " But sresthiti. in the form of a ring. Dhammap. the phrase is here construed in the singular and not in the plural as in PA.verse should be rendered the wise clings to diligence as a banker to his treasures." iUthough the vowel stroke does not descend below-xhe lower transverse bar cf tJiay several instances prove that it is i and not e that should be read. setJii appears to me readino^ decidedly better than the Pali settham. as is shown by the version of M. at all events. is Rockhill {Udaanavarga. which has united. that of the consonant. upwards. in this visesadha a? formed case very well by the supply suffix dha. read paTtifi—panditOy but I do not are here forced to admit this sort of The vowel stroke is not lengthened crosses letter it is. analogous instances will be found afterwards. the top of the vowel stroke and the left hook It is certain. Brimiedhi. in the Tibetan translator of the Udanavarga before his eyes. and. parasa in had at first think that we the transverse bar of the only a simplification due to cursive writinc^^. a. /. is must be careful. and the half. I take may h. a. It his text. which the suffix tah of the P^li. A'*. Other b. just as we have had already driigha. which gives here but a vague and colourless epithet. 26. if it Maghadisra. I think.. 18) the head of a caravan watching : . I am content with referring to dithi..li.

where i/ is represented by /i. it will be perfectly lawful to read arnsit . 25. if I cannot explain it. Yn=-ki/a is It it is specially the regards the consonant. in the languasje of this manuscript. an equivalent for ariihi/a. which. in our fragments. in fact. may also compare these instances in B. another instance of vowel the preceding syllable is u.. by somewhat of an effect of vowel harmony. : : 16 pramada yada nudati panitu pranaprasada aruyu'' asoka soino jana * pravatatho va bhumatha dhiru bala avechiti apramadena Cf. and I have found i/{i)sa7nano-=himsammahy SLudparva/nta =pra?)rajita. that astonishes As . 9. Dhammap. reduced etc. 30. Dhammap. We with C^".. we find h comsnprmtdhUf pletely suppressed between two vowels In the same way. may have coloured our a. a.] for (lahi/amZiaa. the compound s?. of the substitution of v for b. is in several eases preserved in the Form of sjj vis2m. Petersburg fragments . (sreyah). This is. materially. The y is sometimes naore square. 4 fg. (A^ fragment) etc. As for the vocalisation in^^. cases. (B.. I must say that me.. vispam. 34 we find daj{h)amana in the St. want. a. if I am not mistaken. etc. 8. which is readily written f/ [ cf sabrayana peculiar. 29. between h and /. B. the only instance. there are several instances which reveal a particular affinity. se/w O'^ .( 17 ) 15 apramatu pramatesu sutesu bahojagaru avalasV va bhadrasu hitva yati sumedhasu Cf. in the — ahhibJiu/ja' it. 31). here into s. 28. altogether similar : ahhivuyu In both . I am at least in a position to cite f^ckit. 26 . It is true that in verses A^. B. sometimes more angular at the top . It seems then that it may be this nearness. but it is allowable also to read arnt/ity and this is the only transcrij)tion which We appears to me to give an intelligible form.

1 juo namo" so magu abliaya namu sa disa radho akuyaiio^ namu dhamatrakehi sahato"" . I. we have. Dhammap. Samhata is as good as samyiitta of the Pdli. which. 'Svhere the explanation wicked are none. T/maThe restoration teaching to a must be nJ?i{/c)o. V. ing. 7iamH. smd there is no doubt about the reading. Saiiiy. mj/iati mmsati . 30. it is so much the more probable that in the next padas we have.. " vehicle ". Nik. The ..//. v. appears to mark the aspirate . the Pali text continues the comparison. We will find plenty of other cas63s where labialises a following vowel into u. The reading of the vowel in the syllabic mo of uumo is not fully certain ." akiiijano Our by c. : is closely bound up with the two followand completes with them a sort of allegory founded on the imageiy which likens Buddhist This verse . which serves as the theme to these verses.' is surmounted by a horizontal stroke. of . O Cf. a. The word that precedes is perhaps more doubtful. M. as it does. '^l. for exactly likewise we find = again pra8CfJ{k)afi in B.( 18 the ) h. or just take to copyist having been following syllable ? infiuenced be a simple slip of the by the i of the 17 apra tu apramada prasajhati" pramadu garahitu sada Cf. of a surety. speaking. as I have said above. a. then. I. for the P^li confirms the reading ahijano adopted the editor. To me the appears to be a-kujaua. 2. § 6. Feer. Fortunately. Must we explain first it i of avecJiiti for avechcUi similarly.

which. The form avarawa is.e path been displaced. 40. Pali T.( 19 ) the " wheels of the Law. Although the character read ^hu' appears cut off by the transverse stroke of «". dharmatarka . Morris would have it. . 128. a. reasonings. the escort which accompanies it ." The of annavimowhich is dhammataklccqnirejavam the dhammatarkas are thus likewise represented as affording a quick impulse to religious progress. all events shorter and less prominent than ordinarily.'^ But here our reading can onh' be dhamatrakehi or dliamadrakehi. that " the is to say. '* the reasonings. being more ingenious and piquant. has its counterpart in the Suttanipata. Suttanipata. the ideas conformable to religion '\ consequently just and It is probable that the reading iarka is older right. as for m = mby we may compare ndiimarem this verse cf. It seems to me that parivarana ought to denote rather a part of the car than. V. should be taken into account. no more have " I translate therefore: Tr. than the reading cakra. Smati sa^ smati asa. the region of felicity. Morris. Soc. which. the thoughts of the Law. in the same way. I doubt. is the straight road. b. the first m^y be interpreted as '* dharmatarkaih. § 6. 3. 1101 rightly speaks expression samedithipurejava. —udiimbaref^u in B. at bear well the sign ti at the foot. p. the chariot. in the next verse. We are going I'hariiy . v. The second form gives us nothing intelligible . and I am of opinion c. as M. this is perhaps the roof which covers and protects it. the only example. once established. Nik. For apZdam/ja. ^' 2 hiri tasa avaramn' smati sa parivarana^' dhamahu'' saradhi bromi samedithipurejavu'' Cf. and the first two terms clear up each other savn/agdrnti denotes " true. just ideas ". the firmly established in truth. found in our fragments. on the other hand. the resort of honest people : to have. on the contrary. the country. as it seems to if this stroke. could. and particularly for the meaning of Journ. O Samy. of the substitution of r for /. I believe. 1886. I..

296. in this manuscript. § 6." 4 supraudhu praujati" imr^ gotamasavaka yesa diva ya rati ca nica budhakata smati Cf. The reading much The theme is an exhorunderstanding which not a tation. is This verse 3 yasa etadisa yana gehi parvaitasa va sa vi etina yanena nivanaseva satie O '* Cf. It must be gehino^ in order that the construction might I venture only to affirm that the scribe be correct. Nik. compare note mme (c) of : rendered " Modesty is its skid . v. this complete elision of h between two vowels (A^. O Dhammap. hackneyed praise. " Whoever I translate possesses such a car. a. Petersburg fragments. Samy." foregoing verse. layman = : or monk. d. consciousness. is. inversion parva^ for pravra^ is not rare . I have several times wotedi parvahita in the St. a.. ve and eiina. is to Samyak the — samya. imi of our manuscript is evidently " These better than sada of the Pali version. This detail is of so little importance that the confusion between i and e is here complete. I. of all the disciples of the Buddha indiscriminately. 4.y the vowel stroke) passes slightly down the ring of the letter ga. like the y of the Ardhamagadhi orthography. always written For the expression. not meant to write giJii. that dJiamam aham. . disciples of the Buddha are roused truly to the " h. for the bar have may {i. The as can also be seen from vi vai. proceeds to Nirvana in that car. V. 15). it is fill am aim that should be read. the driver that impels and quickens the truth. which the following verses I have already pointed out present in that word. and I call the Law. where we moreover find the^ replaced by an hi which perhaps has no other role than to prevent hiatus.( 30 ) that say. as in P^li. the roof which protects it . 1 do not see here any trace of the upper stroke intended to mark aspiration.e.

shall aojain meet with other instances of the as 7iama change of v into m.( 21 ) 5 supraudhu praujhati imi gotamasavaka yesa diva ya rati ca nica dhamakata smati Cf. any trace of the upper stroke. The form is the second letter (/. 297. the (aspirated). see then that the letter itself does not express on a level We it. the h. of 298. 3. O Dhammap. 9 supraudhu p[r]aujati" imi gotamasavaka yesa diva ya rati ca bhamanai* rato mano Cf. upper mounts the letter is intended to mark aspiration... O Dhammap. O Dhammap. B. . 8 supraudhu praujhati imi gotamasavaka yesa diva ya rati ca ahinsai rato Cf.../?. certain that it had not existed. 299. mano O Dhammap. We ink in this passage being a little effaced. 6 [sjupraudliu praujhati imi gotamasavaka yesa diva ya rati ca nica saghakata" smati Cf. 301. O Dhammap.. 35).. = navam (B. 300. as much of it as with the line) does not denote gli In stroke which fact. a. It is however. a. 7 [supjraudhu praujhati imi gotamasavaka yesa diva ya rati ca nica kayakata smati Cf. Cf. I do not see not. below.

€. 37 : durarigamaiii ekacararii Ihid. 88 : anavatthitacittassa /«. e vario " va thale chi anuvathitacitasa ^ anuvasutacita Cf.. like parvaifa for parvajiia. which floated in his mind. The scribe has. b. perhaps. I attempt to transcribe those only at which have preserved some complete characters. 19 i. The n of ann is perfectly certain.. the leaf p.. as much in this word as in auMvamta of the next verse. 39 : anavassutaeittassa a. 8). . I. been draw^n into this blunder — by the thought of annvathita anupadhita. A^ Fragments of verse-ends]. it has no place either in the one or in the other word. written on the darkest surface of [cf. 197 (?) —perhaps p. mostly small. however. 34: varijo va thale khitto Ibid.(?)ga. as I Vario have pointed out above (A*. In the PAli. for varijo. Theise are four commencements of line. unapanucirah III. I have collected twenty-seven in all.( ^^ ) Fragments of Of very A least these. it is anavasthita and anavasrtita which the sense requires and which are in the Pdli version. II.. [d]ur. A verse-end. Dhammap.

vikaya so bhikhu jahati o saitha VII. Cf. IV. 42 ^ fg. bhikhu jahati bhikhu jahati o ^ VI. This reading is certain. e to the leaf The two fragments that follow belong will be in B. are too doubtful for transcription.. A verse-end. IX. a. uhasino yokama where they 42-4'5. Nothing can show better the disorder in which these fragments have come into my hands. kh A commencement . The letter no marks the end of a pada. of line. i la cita druracha druiiivarana * u Cf. and of the rest. their proper places in verses They were found. . su gachati ?• . duruivararia seems to me to be least so well as dimnivdra^a. ??? so bhikhu jaliati o mahoho sa s . Dhanimap. . V. B. s. when I was unfolding the the manuscript.( ^3 ) ma(?)tvada(latasava?ya To me the letters^. mixed up with sheet A. almost all. 38. . samadhimu VIII.

way so that our first sixteen lines meet with their complement there. and I should be more disposed to admit that the reading of the Dhammapada proceeds from some old confusion. so much the less because it is difiicult to see how this form sarvasana would be related to the form sarvasah.( u B ) The top of this leaf exactly fits in with the end of one of the leaves of the manuscript. In the facsimile.. 1 yo cutiii vetisatvana ?vati ca' — [sana'' budhu atimasarira tarn alio bromi bramana'' Cf. It is not possible to distinguish a priori the from the d in our manuscript. 1 have both of them form an inseparable whole. taken care to enclose within brackets what are thus borrowed from the St. of which the reading sana is surely possible. stroke may be a little clipped. based. with this reading. exactly on the similarit\' of those two characters. 1 have thought not to exceed the reserve. d'Oldenburg On the other hand. hook of it as ?i in order permitting reading significant At all to represent nvovati. the ujicipatli of the Pali. and the facsimile. Petersburg fragment. Petersburg . sarvaho which M. by adding any copy of the versepieces which have been joined to our own fragments . I the that last the vowel be ieve letter. to a certainty. Yet the present appears to me here much more probable than the past. f^ We b. perhaps. O] Dhammap. but not certain. d'Oldenburg placed his documents at my disposal. 419. there is nothing but the end. imposed upon me by the very courtesy with which my learned colleague and friend M. which have found their to St. permits us to think that a small piece oi the leaf is dropi)ed between the . It has no the bottom of the stroke only remains. bears well the notation of i. Of the letter which I have replaced by a sign of interrogation. a. transcribes the beginning of his fragment as \_sa^7'vasana. might as well read vedi. partially at least. a syllable is wanting for the metre. the Pali permits us to expect. though events.

?/7^v^ ?My. 261 : ve vantamalo dhlro thero ti ti-anslate: thaviro ti ) pavuccati. in passing the M^ghadhisms pape. expressing aspiration. and the particular form of g. 400. released from all future birth {^antimasanra^ii of the preceding verse). which recurs so often in our St. Ij.] ." 3 yo til puiie ca pave ca" uhu §aga uvacai* [asaga viraya budhu Cf. With this m I compare Dhammap. we have already (A*. and firm. the interpretation cannot be contested. without de. . etc. more natural to explain this base of the character as an accidental stroke of a habitual writing.e. stainless. = = . pMa we may " The piinnbhava h.. for ptmHam and papam.s' this form as gh aspirated . uhhau \}i=bh. presents a double peculiarity: One might be for s. I refer to AS 4' 4 . which tempted to interpret but. therefore. We should note the letter /^?<. it suffice Let note pii'he and pare i. Dhammap. Cf. to a.. ( v. it is that man whom I call [truly] a brAhman..'^ a. here as well as in the following pfida. Dhammap. c. note) met with an instance of a variant equivalent to the letter. = anupayasiam. Atimamrira — antimasanram. Petersburg fragments. cf. besides that = is very bets. end of our fragment and the commencement of the The exact reading of this pada-end remains. The last letters are half but the traces tally well with a restoration — pimarhhavat.>*pondency. with a It is then much stroke above.. . wise. man without anger. Anuvayasa cut off. tarn ahu bromi bramana O] . much generalised in certain numismatic alphaAs regards nvacai-^ npaccaga. 412. the aspirate would not be justified here. 2 akrodhu anuvayasa vipramutu p n [budhu vatamala dhira* tarn aho bromi bramana O] . as often . It is decisive for the transcription of aim ahOy alt am. 6. necessarily doubtful until further settled. Saga. ohaseti (/V^.( 25 ) other. 3).

and parakata—parakranta. initial j has not the upper mark of aspiration .. heroic and wise. without inferior out of place. I cannot account for the /'. Jkatagati. . b. This time any h. constant in our manuscript. true to his duty.'' . that we must under- stand. it is that man whom I call [truly] a brahman. the Buddha endowed with ten powers. : The reading pru seems The man who applies himself to meditation. For my part. whereby the scribe has finished off the sp^ar of ga. a. certain. "who is not into the four agatis '\ for which cf Childers. heroic. wise. equivalents. jhai-=. who does *' not force himself into evil ways. agatagafi. however. The with its various is. expression devamai*iisyapujiia in Buddhist current The phraseology. who is a vanquisher [of passions]. figuring already in the first p^da. .dhyayin. hudhi certainly counterpart is twice repeated. and which he has repro- A that is to say. sign is well=y. jitavi ' akatagati" tarn ahubromi bramana O] The it is.( 26 ) 4 j^i budhu devamanusana [pruju parakata'' a. I ])ropose to understand pvju devawaniisana-=pujyam deramamisi/aih. again the letter read j of aspiration. drawn graceful scribbling without any special signification will here be noticed. duced in the lower part of the last p^da. and free from passions. as will be seen I translate later on. which cannot be aimed at here. it is that man whom I call [truly] a brahman. and who is worthy of the respect of gods and men. and until a better interpretation should be found. ti86. the vowel-stroke of wi in c. Dhammap. " The man who applies himself to to This p^da appears here to be quite its P^li : meditation. change of momisya into mcmuha is. and dasabalopeta is an epithet that only suits the " Buddha " in the technical sense.^' 5 jai'' parakata budhu kitakica anasavu [budhu dasabaluvetu" tarn ahu bromi bramana O] Cf.

For the elision of ^ between two vowels.. 9.ha]. A^. of the manuscript.. '' Dhammap. we may compare vnyai^vacaya For the change of r into ru. that may at the same time be plausible to the sense and consistent with the trace ?". 1 transcribe as we could. phami. at the end of the line.( ^7 ) 6 gamiraprana inedhavi n]arga[ma]rga8a koi ? [utamu pravara vira tarn ahu bromi bramana] Cf. what remains of it does not seem to warrant the letter da^ and 1 do not yet see any other reading to suggest. : (although the transverse line of i . It does not yet appear to me certain. " Savruto = samvrtah. cf. as can be seen from our (cf. The cipher is here added on the margin. note a. difficulty. noted a.to kaena savruto bhikhu atba vayai [manena savruto bbikbu sarva drugatio jahi O] a. and without the addition of ga\J. although half of the last letter is destroyed.'^ 1 h.v. 1. The scroll-mark that denotes the end of chapters is thrown into the next line. that the reading should be biy with the frequent change of v into h . 10. a little probable though it may be. 403. admit the elision of v^ just as we have ascertained that of the h in supraMdhu and praujhati. 8 s. is 387. 4. ] Dhammap. it is true. The end like gamira p^da presents sonie It is hard to believe that our text does not In the syllable which correspond to that of the P^li. note). the The hh the of abhai in A. I restore 25 aprn\tha']jana. I have already some of this spellings ^gambhlra. M written by same character as fac-simile. A-*. a. "^ 7 diva tavati adieu rati abhai cadrimu sanadhu [chatrio tavati jhai tavati bramano adha sarva ahoratra budhu tavati teyasa 50* Cf.

" it is much more probable than the form mantahh'aniy which the to explain. master of his self.. " who This reading suggests the form mandabhanin^ as understood from the P^li texts. 363. the monk who is master of himself in his thoughts. Dhammap. speaks little. good to be master of self in one's thoughts ." 10 hathasanatu padasanatu [vayasanatu savutidrio a3hatma][rato samahito eko satusito tarn ahu bhikhu O] Cf. master (?). is between the first brackets. 36^. i—ya. though in vain. scholiast takes great pain.. would not is.. a. of Plate B). fall again into any of the evil paths. vayaya himself in his actions and in his words. " 10 who is in The monk of 1. a. The r is distinguished branch of the m (frag. in this verse and in those following. Gf. . 11 yomuhena sanato bhikhu mana[bhani'*anudhato artha dhar][mu ji* deseti masuru'' tasa bhasita O] Cf. by the elongation of the right . with certainty." sure 9 kaena sanamu sadhu saclhu va[yai* sanamu manena sanamu sadhu] [sadhu savatra sanamu sarvatra sanato bhikhu savadugatio jahi] Cf. enclosed good to be master of self in one's words. 361. h. would not fall again into any of the evil paths. if the text has rmv or rwa. Dhammap. reading in the next verse.( 28 ) may have the because of disappeared in the break). belongs to the detached fragment on the left of Plate B. Dhammap. That which. I should not decide. and ought to have been connected with the principal fragment. it is good to be the monk who master of self in all circumstances in all circumstances. "It is good to be master of self in one's actions.

for the conclusion I have come to regulate a whole series of parallel cases . as one would expect^ that the copyist was working on a manuscript written in a hand similar to his own. marked in this manuscript by a hook placed at the foot of the consonant and more or less inclined towards the I this right.. so as to appear circle. in the Kharosthl writing it is indeed a form of s. " the fae-simile confusion on but this confusion is easily 12 sunakare pravitliasa satacit amanusa rati] Cf. if we have the use of the locative. to deal with an extension of The extremity of the tail of the may 13 see in verse 14 — r. attached — as of ///. This hook is turned towards the right in s and towards the left in d//. or. that the sound mff is usually noted by a special character. amutu ta vianatu'' O] Dhammap. which is only distinguished from dk by the terminal hook being drawn to the right. Dhammap. it must be avowed. explained. circumstance. particularly. at least for the present. besides more or occasionally as a small less closed. The sign the If we consider this right of the consonant. if the final e am. [bhikhuno dharma* vivasatu O] [bhotisame .. somewhat which we have here below our m is also a hook. that the sign in spite . . b. 873.( 29 ) c. what seems at first more = probable. but more rounded and more open than the other and. of a certain similarity. a. The of residiug mamru seems very clear on M. should linger awhile over the reading I suggest for word. yato yato sammasati "^ kan(dli)a[na udakavaya'' lahati priti][pramoju Cf. placed more towards oblong. I would speak of the It is certain that the n is usually second character. 374. d 'Oldenburg. This detail seems to prove. There has been a the part of the scribe. viz.. one still to the right arm remains visible below the gap. a: I do not attempt to decide.

it is explained perhaps by the nearness of the r. be unlikely . therefore. but preserving its normal value.e. which conespond to Dhammap. Petersburg fragments. abso- have cited already it is lutely certain. only in the word hrahmana. in the same way here. somewhat like s . in itself. we might incline to find it here again . 81. The sign will be thus =mm. it is in the St. as in ^damma. our hook round. however. Sanskrit rs is s.-n 7/. the anusvara is not generally noted in our manuscript .st (cf. 32.. on the may — — contrary. one might surmise a compound ?^^. nimi of instead mim)—sammifbjati of the Buddhist As regards the Sanskrit and also of P^li. and which I for my part am finally convinced of . 1. it is especially in the word hrahmana that our sign reappears. the transcription bramarnna The comparison which is equally inadmissible. so that it might ndh is almost be interpreted as ndh or ^ih. s = s of sammamti. and in the only ease. where we are authorised in the same way to read sammijati (i. 49 (?) and elsewhere. Cf also the two verses in the same fragment. In is all the cases is where I have pointed it it out. Had = The compound the stroke of generally written n with aspiration above. written below. Precisely in the same ..( 30 ) below should be distinguished from the that therefore it is not mn that ought and sio. 10). as often in the epigraphic texts in The reading samamsafi will. apart from the unlikelihood is in writing. but surely. this appeared analysis absolutely satisfactory. Given the form of the anusvara in sf-ribbled the epigraphic alphabet. the exact form of m . where the word cannot but be read as gammiro-=-gamhhiro. there no room for an // in the There is an example which appears present case. handhana in 1. I cannot. 82. see in our hook an anusvara. Everyone admits that this form of the anusvara is nothing but the m turned I think that. the ordinary transcription of A*^.. but simplj^ an m final. Petersburg fragments it presents. forced with the anusvara of the inscriptions is. but. Here the mark of aspiration is wanting. which I in the St. instructive. to be read. is nothing but the )ii turned round. as bafi. . DevanA-gari.ana=. in the verse which corresponds to Dhammap. to me to be decisive for the interpretation I propose. sntvana Nevertheless.

Tasa is genitive doing the function of the locative^ as often in this manuscript. Ho = kkalzi. which in his text distinguished the two verses. Cf. on account of the break. . 372. Neither do I construe nor understand this last pMa like I cannot believe that the previous interpreters placed as it is.] Cf. B VIII. suffice it to refer io parvaiiasa of A 4. For the suppression of the medial y. pranioja. . the h is for kh = sk. knowing it. for vai. the pronoun tam may refer to priti' . a. ve of the PMi. I cannot decide. This verse and the two following are completed by means of a detached fragment which I designate as fr. of those cut off : it and destroy the who. c. I have not succeeded in restoring the probable reading of it. is quite peculiar. 251-2. Dhammap. O] is exactly identical line There some confusion here of the copyist who must have repeated a line by mistake or neglected some partial variant. and that the fourth should be translated literally "liberation from death is [the lot] of him who knows [of those who know] it". Similarly we will find dliorehP (C^'^ 3?). is which udaya^ reproduced in C^" 18. I am of opinion that it is necessary to the sentence at the end of the third p^da. 3. that is to say.( 81 ) The spelling mlaka — way. 16 nathi jhana apraiiasa prara iiathi ajhayato ca praiia ya so ho] [nirvanasa satia^O] [ ^yasa"" jana ^ [^Foot-note : Fr. 15 - [ ][ same dhama vivasatuO] In spite of the traces that remain of tlie first three pAdas. if the letter read j of jana bears or not the stroke of aspiration. p. 14 sunakari pravithasa sataci[tasa bhikhuiio ama][nusa This line is rati bhoti same dharma w^iih vivasatii 12. B vii. practise skandhas..

dJ\ 18 mitra bhayea" pacliruva sudhayiva ['padisaPra. a.. iha of the P^li. is tolerably affirm if the true reading to the nearer justifiable. bhikkhu vihahisi On account of the break the reading of the character =je) is not quite certain . back to Buddhist phrases as tadrs etc. The commencement of the pdda can only be read in the light which the comparison with the P^li lends The half -verse of the Dhammapada forms the UB.] : Cf. B vii. JRAS. The / is clear. . with one of which I tathaprajfia goes p. The lower part the last indistinct on the fac-simile. is in monk who in the prethus. cf. 1 character dare not satii . 376 : patisantharavuttassa acarakusalo siyS nid. 1898. Dhammap.] Cf.. by possession of tlie wisdom-"]. or whether the {tadij this expression general tai/in)j analogy of tathagala. (j. 375 mitte bhajassu kalyane suddhajive atandite Uid. that is to say. l=icay as fr. Oct... have dealt elsewhere.. aprak]'' 19 datu ayarakusalo stihu bhikhu ^ vihasisi'^ O {Foot-nole: Fr.y 379 : so attagutto satima sukhaih a. we have seen already. We have.( 32 of ) h. but to me at least the reading seems infinitely probable. patimokkhe ca samvarOy For the expressi )n savnta pratimuhhasay C. whether taiha refers to the description vious verse [" the meditation. Dhammap. B viii.tisa. another then. t/e ( fj. 375.Ir%2. may not be Pali and would be grammatically more it 17 tatrai adi bhavati tadhapranasa'' bhikhuno _ [Mdriagoti satuthi pratimukhe ^ i*] [Foot-note: Fr. 866. variant iatha prafiaia. opposite to tdka.

etc. = padisadharaguti d. Fausboll. more free and less degeneration fixity. c. 6). . ? Datu is. We have already met with vihasiU (A^. is not sure for all the characters .'ipr hat/ am. tha. in the Max b. I need understood hardly remark that atimannati should be and M. 20 salabhu * natimanea nanesa smihao sia anesa smihao bhikhu samadhi nadhikachati "^ O Cf. The lower part of the letters having disappeared. 3. besides the change of r(i)8 into which seems to surpass the middle level of phonetic in that dialect. kahintij which appear isolated and peculiar. ^ For the character bh of salabhu cf. The instances we have already cited. of QowvsQ^^dantah. note b.. Ours on the contrary forms. is changed into w (A'. to disdain ". badly as possible. after pridi we may allow sadhara which the P^li sanfkara . a. 365.. but the top of will be well the next character has not at all the appearance Did our text read of a V. and ai/ara — acdra. sm. as with the sloka that precedes. the reading in the first p^da. Miiller have already corrected the slight oversight of M. note a.( 38 ) end of a hypermetrie stanza of six pMas. I have discovered no means to distinguish a priori the m from the co i joint in compounds like tv^ tm. Our form is midway between that of Sanskrit and that of P^li vihahiti.t ought to be It is perhaps svi/iao sv. Dhammap.) have induced me to think that it might be the same here. It is obvious that the arrange- ment of our text is the best : the half-verse mitte bhajassu. A*^. which appears also to have been derived from a habit of writing. " to Childers sense of despise. but rather of a g. But I do not ?. = . we should notice the spelling i for ^(7. where ^ read. as can be seen. connects itself. regular than has generally prevailed with its literary Likewise has this only normal form been partly supplanted by spellings like kahasiy kahati^ kahanti side by side with kahisi^ kahiti. hj In Pali. the first third of a stanza of that kind.

'' and by the corresponding suppression of the negative. Dhammap. 366." for dharma. 21 apalabho tu yo bhikhu salabhu natimanati ta gu deva prasajhati^ sudhayivu atadrita O "" Cf.e. For the change into participle. khalu^ which is also represented by ho and hu. In verse 25. 23 dhamaramu dhamaratu dhamu anuvicitao dhamu anusmaro bhikhu sadharma na parihayatiO Cf.. o of the final syllable w« (11. In the plate one might doubt if it is apalapJio or apalabho that ought to be read . 22 kamaramu kamaratu kamu anuvicitao kamu anusmaro bhikhu sadharma parihayati O "* a.skandha)-=khu i. by the substitution of kamay "desire. "law. may compare of the present anuvAci{m)tao and anusmaro 22. b. This verse only differs from is the next. 364..( 84 ) see that it would be to any positive purpose to decide between the two transcriptions. a.. which alone represented in the P^li Dhammapada and of which it forms the antithesis. the note on A^. ¥oY pra8ajhati-=-pra8amsantif cf. "" 2^ na silavatamatrena bahosukena va mano adha samadhilabhena vivitasayanena va O . 23). 20). I take gu for ghu (with loss of aspiration as in kadha =. I should say that the original leaves no doubt. 17. we will meet with the usual change of sp into ph. again find the same form of the character bh (as in 1. virtue. and it places us quite In salabhu we face to face with the character hh. Dhammap.

ha1im8uhkena. Soc. p. have been hahusacca^=. is irreproachin view of the confusions able for the sense.( 35 ) 25 * phusamu nekhamasukhu aprudhajanasevi . however. halm " " is a satisfactory mtUuhya^ and energy. V. with Fausboll. scarcely doubt that the two letters. however a priori the division I vispasa ma^ may be by far the most probable. vissasam mapadi for vissasam apadi . One would. of which the only verse that follows two examples exactly gives us very (z=:smrta). 225) has rightly introduced in the Pali text. For the different in the aspects of the compound letter. cf sammasati . : the compound — — the form. is well explained 2. hardly appears clear here. ser.?. Bahomkenn. ma ? ? a ? te asavachaye "" O Dhammap. as. bhikhu vispasa C£. preserved by Sandhi. half lost. for. Cvo. thought. are quite rare. is . to be derived from bahu-\-sata is. pi. the eases where the final m is. As ought to double the s sr is usually changed into s in our dialect. the Pdli hahusaccenay if it s. our text bahomkena. v. activity rather than meaning. I dare not declare myself in a decisive way between Spalirises. . vispa next v{i)8pa8a. much Mano for panaQi)^ The plural singular. I. may have been padi . For the substitution of s for (verse 13). Striking is the resemblance of the normal form of the compound with and the compound figuring on the monuments which of Spalaga- dames. n. as Childers seems to suppose (Lict. phnmmti is certainly preferable to the by the more general turn it gives to the s. the that Childers (/. c.^ q. 24 (23 ?). a. 29) . in this manuscript. so as to represent them in the transcription. acceptable for h. such as it is.. hahussacca. so that our two variants would be parallel deformations from it. and between the sibilants. generally transcribed as sp and sp (Piihler. one may almost ask if the original reading should. if there were need of it. 271-^72. B. ptinah with p changed into m. Our correction text would confirm. As.^=.). expect To make amends. 1.halmsrutya. Spalahores. but I am not quite sure. The medial compound in vispasa line. for U. after all. cf. It is so much the more difficult to decide it.

To be aprdpte amvaksaye is what our manuscript read a stereotyped verse-end which we have already met with (A^. to be sure the second dental (i. Meanwhile. sure. 7) and which I reckon more genuine than the turn adopted by the P&li. a. forgot the stroke of the i papani. This compound figures here only as representing a It does not appear to me to be a suffiSanskrit sv. A. s) is then unduly palatalised into 8 in this text and this irregularity is explained beyond doubt. cient reason to transcribe it as 8v and risk the disappearance of a dialectic peculiarity which likens itself to a well-known peculiarity of Zend. . the PA. . 6. which is visvasa. 266. or if we have to do with a genitive. reading sp^ and introduce it in my transcription. Dhammap. tu'^ vucati O Dhammap. 27 yo tu baheti pavana" vatava brammayiyava* saghai carati loku' so tu bhikhu Cf. joamw?). which generally ends the . 1 therefore incline to the fied by the etymology. aprate asavackat/e — = 26 na bhikhu tavata bhoti yavata bhichati para"* yispa dharma samadai bh khu bhoti na tavata . 29 . There can be no hesitation in reading it as para I cannot explain the elongation of the stroke of the r below the small lower hook. 267. a. I do not decide if the copyist has. by the nearness of another palatal 8 there is thus but little appearance that this palatal s could have been supplanted in the preceding syllable. where it is justi.e.( 86 ) the two readings. there cannot be any doubt about the word.^ 4)... O Cf. as it does not give the necessary measure nor furnishes the usual correlative face to face with yavata. which the Buddhist style presents often after a transitive verb and in the function of the = m accusative (cf. It is clear that tena of letter in this manuscript.li text should be substituted by tavata. pavana.. . as in sasana (11. 28. Mahavastu.

it is a mistake for ti.. 6. A^. a. can very well be used as eciuivalent to maitraviharin. v. The " The monk every way el^ar the : m who lives charitably. Dhammap. If we read tunati.( 37 ) h. adhering to the teaching of Buddha. it appears. and one might believe that it is an accidental inver" to drive sion of nudafi away. the Middle Vedic tnndafi but twndate) the sense "to strike" is vague. note c) . 400.. note h) whence mgkai-=. first p^da a mistake to which. c. 410. is for = . 6. for the first half-verse.ti (cf. Ye of the P^li by an unhappy . brammayiryena in a passage of the St. A'' Frag.. sankhaya. general sense is It is perhaps a great deal to own two mistakes of the same nature in same line. cf. the verse C^*'. maridu — marntalfi. aitraviharo. which suits very well." the 29 metravihara jo" bhikhu prasanu budhasas padivijhu* pada sata sagharavosamu suha'' Cf. to suppress". ' Metravihara^ that is to say. Brammayiyava = vaiavanfmhy Dharaniap. 368. is d. just as at the end of the verse. I can make nothing out of it but tuda. Petersburg = have already manuscript. a.. I have already pointed out the tendency of compounds commencing with the nasal to soften the surd into the sonant (cf. as for ya=ryn. For carati construed with the accusative. which is certainly a gross error of the copyist. 88). and MaMvasiu. 17 will o^ive us side by In the same way. 1. — O Dhammap. above. redundance 28 metravihari yo bhikhu prasanu budhasasane tunati'' pavaka dharma drumapatra ba maturuO Cf. This . I find side virya and hinaviyava. maturn. always under the influence of a 2^ close by. For vatava ef. 868. and the expression It is also easy to read middling. our copyist had a natural proneness (ef. brahmacarymmn I pointed out the spelling ^^ r?« (A^. j 208. chases the evil as the wind a tree-leaf. preferable to is our first tUy which the repeated from as for the second. d?mafi.

for sagharovammn tlie P^li. b. it is then a ver}' <^ood synonym of adhigaoche. b. inaccessible to the weak- minded. c. Note the regular form of the character hu. and this the somewhat complicated with unforeseen Maghadism aseyane =. I can " only see in it a present participle of padivtjkam. reaches the region of peace. Dhammap. I But have not hitherto found any other example (save.. Dhammap. so as to command the disjunction ^mharl yo in the Pali text. a. The termination only is surprisino: . of course. A me similar ease has already (cf. so that I scarcely dare \<) suggest anything by way of firm syllable is wanting irregularity is .( 38 ) form of speech is added as t^rammatically possible and from a comparison with the verses following. the repetition in the next verse) of v for hli.asecanam. which one might also think abhibhuya. ef. in short. which exactly corresponds to 80 udagacitu yo bhikhu abhivuyu priapria" adhikachi pada sata akavurusasevita O For the third p^da. inversion. AbhivaJiya. A in the last pada. 881. on the precedent of aruyuy would give neither ^' The monk sense nor any allowable construction. who feels happy having dominated pleasure and pain.. arnyu^ A^. abhivuyu cannot be anything but of. I cannot help admitting an but of the vowel only." 31 pramojabahulu'* yo bhikhu abhivuyu priapria adhikachi pada sata aseyane moyaka* O For the a. cf. which should be completed by the substantive verb understood. In sagharavosamu also. Be that as it may. 16) given the occasion to cite this ahmlntive in yn for ya. to penePativijjhafi is understood in P^li to mean trate". 368. first pMa.

Dhammap. ti which well corresponds to thu of thidam. the region (which is) delicious. If we admit that the copyist might have omitted a letter.. As to the preceding pftda. S. an oblique stroke vvill be noticed. of the Dhammap. nothing is certain except that the last letter but one was accompanied by a I substituted the correction daham for sakatyi. The traces of letters at the end of the line do not fit in exactly with the two lips of the break. a. have. and therefore I cannot read them with certainty. in the p.. were not. I... Max B. 3^. 33 apramadaratu yo bhikhu pramadi bha Cf. This is. 31. at least provisionally. mecanaekamocakam^ we would suppress at least parallel the oddness of the final e\ but I have no examples for ekarnocaka "the only deliverer. so isolated." : general meaning is not affected by this " The monk who feels of detail uncertainty plenty of joy having dominated pleasure and pain. 10). pp. Dhammap. I would propose to see in the form ma with the oblique stroke an example of the analogous variant of ma to which I have had occasion to call attention elsewhere {Inscriptions de Piyadasi. and restore it as aseyanekamoyaha^ that is to say. reaches the region of peace. (and which is a) liberator/^ The 32 apramadaratu yo bhikhu pramadi bhayadasima'' abhavu parihanae nivanaseva satii O Cf. Between the character read si and the character read If the case ma. E. but it is very likely that our verse ends like the Pdli by agiva gachati. to my knowledge. 23-24). Miiller (Transl. the only explanation I can offer on this peculiarity.( 39 ) conjecture. . a. P^li text. rightly pointed out b} M.

dally ate " explained in The form Hemacandra IV. the interpreters. A'. the into kanmgime. O Monk. b. dosa ji tato nivana esiti* 369. note h. 371. kanda. I need not go back to ji — i/i=ica (cf.. for the Potential. 6.«?.( 40 ) 34 jai bhikhu ma yi pramadi" ma te kamaguna cita* ti [bhameDSU ma lohaguda gili pramata kana dukham ida da- [jhamano"^^ Cf. 35 sija bhikhu ima nama"" ji sita ti lahu bhesiti chetva raka Cf. Our text furnishes a sure correction of the Pllli. r27. Prakrit) alphabet has so much the appeai'ance of a doubled that one would be tempted to imagine that it was on a text written in the same alphabet that the deformation of hhameihHii into hhavasnti The identity. 9). rendered change of kamayvria necessary by the first alteration... hot) iron ball to groan afterwards and be burnt *' with the thought. a. ! ! dajjhai-=. pointed I in have already uama — navam (A*. note c The third person esiti can be B. . Dhammap. a. O Dhammap.v c. Meditate. that is is to say. the incongruity in which had justly embarrassed the The compound iis in our (/. both in a.ndan. out this change of v into m . of the nominative and the accusative plurals.). kra. the dialect. facilitates on the other hand. and I am inclined only to find in it the exact counterpart of the P^li with a Maghadism in the termination i-sr-e. but it appears to me difficult to take pramadiy which might be pramaji. in must at first have been produced. The construction of the nominative pamado is not happy. " what a suffering 246. if we admit that with the second defended strictly . b. and a finite verb would be more proper . kana. have done with relaxation Let not the attraction of desire make thy spirit Do not make the folly to swallow a (redstray.

of the a.( 41 ) half -verse the turn becomes general and indeterminate. is above the five bonds ". the Buddha. in not form. 5. I I think. 370. the hateful. and does not appear to have been intended to mark aspiration. therefore.." O Monk. 3) that I do not think it right to transcribe as gh the form of the letter read ga. though — — . To be brief. passages. It goes without saying that our compound is saiigadkiko " who and that it well answers to the Pdli in sense. 36 krodhana akitaiia i drohi ni'* Pmayiya a. have been written incorrectly with s for s dental. 7itvan = vuttari (A^. and precisely in the same word. Dhammap. cara bhikhu sasani* O Of the traces at the little end of the second p^da there to remains too be restored with certainty. 3. which we have here. Above the ja small stroke second paja can be discerned a but it is short and thick. note a). 1 suppose then that the pMa had ended mjahi. observe purity. the true to the teaching of 37 paja china paja paja utvari* bhavai pajasagadhio"^ bhikhu ohatino ti vucati O jahi'' Cf. however. the ungrateful. it is not the less singular that this form is met with again in 1. I had occasion above to point out this transposition : of V c. Nevertheless. omitting " short gap of the third pada Spurn the man : of anger. . be re-established with much translate. certainty. the second person of the Pali is more natural. b. b. Although I may have expressed before (1. This the last verse may. the last letter but one appears to have been a ja. here and word the in two the {saga) should that.

Dhammap. b. It quite seems that our manuscript must have had a no trace of the stroke of aspiration above am.v. to decide with certainty if the copyist wished to write e or i . if it is b. reading wholly equivalent here to that of the P^li. viva udumaresu * Suttanipto. the vowel stroke appears to pass a little nevertheless. 39 " alagito ya vi carea dhamu datu satu sanatu [brammayari savisu bhutesu nihai dana so bramano [samano so * so bhikhu O Cf.. We have already met with several proofs of the tendency of this dialect to labialise the a into ?/ after m. besides. we are allowed to ask . 27 above. as frequently .( 42 ) 38 savasu namaruvasa yasa nathi mamaita asata i na soyati so hu bhikhu tu vucati^'O Cf. locative. it is impossible to restore bhavem saram the stroke of the vowel is wanting above the v . a. I I believe. It is. rather alageto that the manuscript has . Namaruvasa^ genitive for the hu—khalu . It is all the more singular that tde second half of the stanza forms. The is comprised in the upper hook of the bh. sure of the reading mo.s. it is 142. in most cases.r(?)'' s. Strictly. ef. in this verse and .. is There Ja. 40 yo najakamo bhikhu jabati Cf. v. Dhammap. as the 8 which follows is certain. beyond the hook of g. very diflBcult. o 5. to judge of it by a host of examples would not attach to it any importance save a quite relative value. Meanwhile. a. 367. not a gross error of the copyist. «. Our text appears to have transposed the second and the fourth p^das. s. tu for ti.

but. viz. lastly. allowable . some gaps are then. which iind their Pali counterparts in the first chapter. we fill up with a . These restorations concern especially the end of verses. the visible tension of the thread on The cipher on the the left appears to exclude it. 1. on the likeness of C""". succeed one another without interAbove and below. the scraps which still adhere thereto in the principal leaf B. could not with certainty be their re-instated in proper places and with their In the circumstances. several of which can be reconciled with certainty. where it seems to have been transported from the second pada. which above the end of line 42. we may.( 43 ) I do those following. margin marks. as far as and including that which ends in the cipher on the margin. it will be intervals. that of which the beginning i/o eca sari is preserved by the Fragment B vi. Is one only dropped ? This fits in surely To seem consider to be the beginnings of If line.. and this end is here uniform for all . although the threads along the margin may be preserved. tSome fragments. is certainly dropped after the one which we number 40. admit that it should be completed a. Uragasutta^ of the Suttanip&ta. 2.s p'iis['fi']vit^a u°. the end of a chapter . as to the lower gap. A line. the leaf is broken . Be that as it may. enable us to fill up only a part of the gap . not see what sense the comparison might have at the end of the verse. a jon'm. then. the last of our eight lines. the fragment B xiii. — looked at the beginnings. respective understood that I have not been able to reunite in a decisive manner the beginnings and the ends of line. a sort of stereotyped cadence. the lines that are about to follow are still more fragmentary than these. preserves the remainder of a previous stanza of the same structure. ruption. being granted. ends then the series of stanzas of uniform frame. it would not between the line yo npa^ and the line are missing more lines than one. Here we come to a series of stanzas. there yam vanaP. gaps scarcely line noticeable. If now we appear that. It seems at least certain that the eight line-ends. what remains of the commencements is short and occasionally doubtful . no line can be completed entirely. Unfortunately. with the line that is prolonged. besides.

we will have eight commencements as against eight ends. 48. It is important. vi and A v. but it should be the duty of an editor not to neglect them. which I cannot doubt. It is not probable that a figure marking the units should have been dropped. This adjustment is. can only belong to 11. to remember that the agreement of with the commencement of lines 43-4-4. But the hypothesis of a gap of two verses does not support this explanation .. confirmed by the lines that follow. But the fragments which hold together. and all will appear to agree. By supposing the loss of a single verse It has been this contradiction can be partly reduced. it will be seen. how extreme this procedure is. the omission not of one but of at least two The fragments B iv and B iii. for it must be 41. 43 and 44. I beg to be excused for having entered into such long details in connection with fragments which are very incoherent and of middling interest . and that of FragA V. It might be seen that verse 14 occurs twice.( 44 ) (to each). with. But I have found no means as yet to avoid it. The figure on the margin of 1. all BX events. The uncertainty which the comparison with Pali might raise on this last point and on the connection of the end of the line 1. commencement yo necasari of kapa. with the ends of lines B xiv with the commenceand 48-50. B II. Now. B x. The real difficulty lies elsewhere. arrangement we should have 42. should be joined to the commencement yasavanaP. 49 gives 40 as the In our number of the stanzas in this chapter. apply with certainty to the ends of lines It will be necessary then that the beginning 42-45. which make up the rest. the commencements yo upa^ and yo manoPj indisputably continned by Fr. . that of Fragments of lines B vi and ment ments 45-47 B XIII. It only remains I understand for us to take the cipher as a mistake. B V and B vii 41-48 are equally unassailable. vigayha and osadhehi of the Suttanip^ta. yo upat should belong to verse 42. A VI. It implies verses. if vikaya A and to saitJia correspond well.. at Fr. does not appear to me to counterbalance the possibilities which I have pointed out. said that our copyist has committed a very gross mistake and that the cipher was right.

.] Cf. it agrees with Plate B. though there is no cerof an As for the final r.] . Suttan. B xiii. events. Fr.' A VI. it has tainty. all not At constrained. urako jinav(i)va (t)vaya purana''] ' [Foot-note : Fr. The regular change of /• . equation this is the only serial verse of the Suttanipata with w^hich ours appears fit to be connected.vigayhaj vigahya. kh. but the u is quite visible at the foot of the second letter which has all the appearance the next one may be. The first four letters that are readable can hardly be all the final m oijma?n=jtrnam into v will be noticed in these passages. whereby Cf. B x. A saitha 5 hh. XIII preserves the traces of the top of the letters orapara ura. nama ndvam (B. A v. anything but orapara . 35). Suttan. Fr.( 45 ) 41 [^orupa. a. B.] a. left no trace in our fragment. and bear traces of adjusted below the lower parts of the characters s.. 1 £g. 2. fr. bhavana (A*. It is the counterpart of hhamana-=. Fr. = 42 so [^vikaya bhikhu jahati] orapara urako ^ jinaviva tvaya [purana'' ^ [Foot-notes : - Fr. the remainder of a jo. I suppose The our inkaya-=. 9). which are VI. A vi. that here is 43 yo upat [^ineti kodhu visara"*] [*saitha*] pso bhikhu jahati] orapara urako jinaviva [tvaya purana ^ {Foot-notes : * Fr.

B A x.. admit that the /* is for the cerebral visata b. a. the difference which renders the interpretation thereof reading result from joining so Hailiai. at the same time. p. and has rather although the foot of the vertical hook which generally accompanies is the true reading. 136) was of opinion that it should be read udahhahi in Pali.. which we possess only too narrow a M yo so mana udavahi'' a[^sesa bisa] [^mahoho* bhikhu jahati] orapara urako jinaviva tvaya [purana ^ [Foot-notes : Fr. Suttan. to the t. saitha (. are misleading. .] Cf.( 46 ) Cf.rkrit which must have ordinarily weakened dh into h. and derived " to Our text can the word from nd-vrh extirpate. visara for The with certainty to appears two fragments. T. a. It seems that the mistake only favour in Pali rests upon a false interpretation of a more corrupt PA. P. 37. It is useless to risk — conjectures for basis. 4. 1887. the The which these characters have striking similarity with {o)sad/iehi of the PMi and. we could believe in a hardening of dh into and in a spelling i lii. 1. SuttaQ. h. = visrta.. This last letter appearance of an line has not the If such then it.*' this conjecture. thy If at least we had doubtful. = Fr. Mahoho^=-mahoghOy just as we have ohatino in 1. it only remains cannot be a /. I would have some diiEculty to discern the first two characters without the comparison with the Suttanfpata. S. Morris {Journ. v.

" is The consonant k quite doubtful. vii. XIV. Fr.( 47 ) yo tasa [^udachai asesa sa]" [*so bhikhu jahiti ojrapara urako jinaviva tvaya [purana^ ^ [Foot-notes : * ^ Fr. Fr. 3. Fr. : to layati h. B VII bears traces of fche foot of the characters at this line-end. somewhat as we have uvacai-=-upatyagat. B B B B vi. 47 P yo [' ecasari" na precasari sa][^rva] [purana] ^ so bhikhu jahati orapara u][^rako jinaviva tvaya {Foot-notes : « '' « Fr. Fr.] a.. 11. after raho.] a. VII.'\ A Cf. with elision of the d (in P^li itself we come across hhayatij khayita) and an approximate orthography ai for iya. a. Fr. 4i6 yo sa[^ rvakelesa dalaitha" na] ['^ku* so bhikh][^ u jahati orapara u][* rako jinaviva [tvaya purana] ^ {Foot-notes : 2 3 * Fr. V. V. Suttan. . Fr. upaccaga. B VI. The Suttanipata does not furnish any counterpart this verse. B B B B Vi. I take ttdachai-=udachida. Fr. dalaitha from da" He who has smashed all evil passions. V. Kelesa is for kilesa . Fr. The correction neca^ seems absolutely necessary.

"he who is freed from the round of rebirth and death." a. 8-13.( ^8 ) 48 yo necasari na pre[^ casari sarva vi] so " [^ ? p . Fausboll analyses na-ati-sarati. Fr. As " he who did not go too fast regards the rendering forward nor was left behind^' (S. appears to me at least decisive On the other hand. That text is m itself very doubtful and obscure. neither the long a. E. makes me inclined to admit for both the cases necca.. who takes his course towards. The formula which in constitutes the first p^da. Suttan. 2 3 Fr. " he who is never on the way to come to to mean this world or to leave it. it is more easy to critiThe cize than to substitute a clear version for it. This time we have neca.] Cf. the pratisarati. M. p. which hardly satisfies me. is explained. Unfortunately.. here and preceding stanza. and which is reproduced in verses 8-14 of the Suttanipata. face to face with the divergences of our text.r\d pre fyasarin I propose to see some etyasarm expressions formed on this type and opposed to each other. VII. This ill agrees with the Pali text such as M.* bhikhu jahati orapara ura]['^ko jinaviva tvaya [purana] [Foot-notes ^ -. and of the reading persistence preca in our Ms. that is to But what is to be done with say. to mean " he who In guides himself. B B B xiv." require tions. FausbolFs edition gives us. )ia etya na pretya. B. as surely as we had eca in the previous line. 2). the persistence of the n in the Pali. is embarrassing. of the vowel e. According to this hypothesis. to be sure. which however is contrary to metre. V. so that the antithesis between na eca and na preca might be established.. over and above the difficulties too evident to dwell upon. In both cases we have preca. against the reading of the Pali. Fr. nor the long I which the metre demands." in other words. Xs. 8ariy for such is the spelling which the measure seems to Sarin occurs in P^li in certain composi? avamsarl (Suttanip. 685). as . it only affords. a very vague meaning.

Anosea. It is in some measure aggravated by the circumstance that the beginning of our line 50 appears to agree with the first pMa of verse 16 of the Suttanipata. B B B xiv. The though cut off mid-way. it mt//it be the remainder of a p. Besides the' uncertainty in the lurking reading kapa and the possibility. Pr. spelling. [^tvaya purana] On the margin : ^ [Foot.notes : 2 3 Fr. it will be seen that the identification of our with the P^li beginning of stanza 16 is far 1. reasons that leave some doubt in me about the precision of agreement which I have attempted to show between the beginnings and the ends of lines. 14. seems certain . XI.] Cf. quite ppen. it would render impossible the combinations proposed for .„. several of which appear surer and this one. it is true that the first pMa does not contain This is still one of the the formula ^o neccasarl. . which is the see ea by a^a. would make us think of verse 16 of the Suttanipata. so that if the two adjustments were justified. etc. a. of which the second p^da finishes with letter p. 49 yasa anosea na .. for anusea. at the end of the second p^da. Suttanip. VII. This reading ^apa. the preceding lines. of variations between our text and the P^li version. it is to the commencement of line 50 that it would be suitable to join the I have pointed out the difficulties present line-end with which a similar adjustment would be confronted .. which precedes. 50 more convincing than from clear.„ [^ sati "* keyi o] [^ urako jina] 40. affords again a particular initial o. certain. Fr.( 49 ) b. that our redaction was deviating from the = We PHli. as regards that netukappa .

or part of apMa. Perhaps the scribe had committed a mistake in the reading. the comparison of siUla for sithila. is not is = different from vanadhia. note h) the motives which. 16 : yassa vanathaja na santf keei and Suttan.] b. where the/ is more than once eliminated between two vowels . our text would represent. Fr. appears as ink-mark. and vanadhia ?. vi in half is still discerned before sa. It natural to think that the commencement corresponds well to the first pMa of the Pali*. which must necessarily have been reflected in his copy. The character . B B xiv. that this must be read yase vana° would be a mistake. for the P^li. If it is so. a variant which must have more or less completely associated a pada of verse 16 with a pMa. in photograph. B C£. . A very small piece of bark sticks above the s. and it is the shade that is reflected from it which.. If the fac-simile is compared. The letter read a which follows. have for its defence..( 50 ) 50 yasa vanasia"* na ['sati keyi] so [^ sala^' bhikhu jahati orap][''^ara urako jinaviva tva] u ^ ' O l^Foot-notes : '^ Pr. such as it is written. of verse 17. Suttan. III. I can but little doubt that our two letters represent the end of the word vuallo which occurs in the next verse of the Suttanipata. in spite of this difficulty.] => Fr. IV. I have stated farther above (1. Therefore. has a slightly abnormal aspect and the upper hook is much more rounded than ordinarily. 17 : (anigho tinnakathamkato) visallo a. it may be ascertained that vanasia.«%<2^^«. 40. s for th would. have persuaded me to tie up these diverse remains into a single stanza. B XIV by any external evidence.a should have nothing surprising in such eases. * [^Foot-note : The fac-simile it might make us believe . on the other hand. and although the fragments B IV and B in may not be connected with the fr.

is traversed by a semicircular stroke. I do of Sanskrit. that £r. stroke of aspiration to express not here decide what exact pronunciation this ortho- have already met with. 40.( 51 ) c» I like to remark. which is clearly recognizable.. and the margin is so little affected that I dare not venture to admit that the index of these units was eaten away. in which I interpret as a term derived by extension from The j is for y. 344: yo nibbanatho^ vanddhimutto. to have been written. v. lam of opinion.] J. B. of which it might have been interesting to fix the value. without attaching to the observation any more certainty than is proper. for ?•. etc. y for j. . I regret all the more that the tail of the 5. 62 pasadha muto ban(d)hanam eva jayati Cf. a. appears inIt is. 51 o. "* Dhammap. just as we have often in this yati. s. V. We will come across n surmounted the by the proceed. example. 9. which marks certainly the end of a chapter and the number of verses it contains. and find. Soc. I have already said farther above (1. p. As. ^ ^Foot-note : This is Childers' correction. and times as several we ?M graphy corresponds very certain. 226. We cannot The reading jayati appears think of j avail written by y ^ can only the equivalent of the P^li yayati which I for MaJiavagga. first syllable would be short. since the see in it to. 41 or 42 that ought accurate.4. I manuscript the inverse. B iii seems to as^ree quite conveniently with the little that remains of this line in the principal leaf. which undoubtedly formed with the auxiliary letter a compound. vanas I can make nothing out of what remains of the last pada. note 6) why the figure 40. n.

and out of which I regret not to be able to draw anything satisfactory. to reproduce them here separately. there is no p4daindication of the end to furnish even a rough or less more which the visible. ta'' dhamidati na(t)va ruakamanaipracea u y ina vanauka vaih adu ????ga(?)ti? . These few characters do not suggest to me any plausible restoration. I. previous yourselves from concupiscence monks.. well This word connects this stanza with the preceding one. place remaining words. Nih-vana. I transcribe here only those which contain at least some certain letters. ill order to be clearer. I haVe collected under this head twenty-seven fragments in all. bhodha bliichave O Nivana — nirvana." is the synonym of nibbanatha of "O the PMi in the verse. A few remnants of four lines . liberate ^' ! 54 ? cherarayo ? . We must wait for the discovery of the Vk\i counterpart. Fragments of B. occupy in the stanza. Although the most imones portant already figure above in the partial I of reconstruction lines 41 fg. I think ought. " without coneupiseence. tara"* a.( 52 ) 53 yi nivana* a.

ko jinaviva tvaya purana tvaya purana . ?ko . . line 50..( 53 ) a. lines 46-48. rvakelesa dalaitha na yo ecasari na precasari sa VII. Cf. an intelligible context all the ^'s or ^'s may be taken. ku III. line 46. line 50. Cf. ??u _. lines 45-47. SO bhikh Cf. asesa sa? . bhikhu jahati orapara urak. . ra urako jinaviva tv IV.. lines 45-49. Cf. udachai . on the right. bh.. This letter is doubtful .. II.rako ? ? ? ? (t)v-u jinaviva tvaya purana rako jinaviva tvaya purana :. Cf. visala so bhikhu jahati orap V.. s .u jahati orapara ur o bhikhu jahati orapara ur [ka?]pa VI. Cf. I dare not decide if the trace which appears at the top. belongs to it or goes with the preceding letter which has I need not repeat that for want of disappeared. one for the other.

lines 47-50. Cf. gamagasa X. sarva casari sarva vi sati keyi o sati keyi : XV.( 54 ) VIIi: Cf. . line 49. Cf. lines 41-42. above. lines 43-44. Cf. urako jina XII. urako jinaviva tva ???? orapara u XIV. Cf. lines 16-18. yasa jana ca prana ya so ho (ni)r(va)" idriagoti satuthi pratimukhe "" i * padisa ?ra ? tisa ayarak IX. visa?. ineti kodhu visara asesa bisa Xr. orup(?). sanoya XIII. above.

3 yadha sagaPudasa"' ujhitasa mahapathi padumu To tatra jaea suyigan(d)ha manoramu O Cf. For the sandhi pusaviva. be noticed. as in the same word in the preceding line. sagara7/dasa mnkaraMite. complete.. a. It is certainly to this line and to the next that the h. : the world of Yama and the Itay that is to say. appear m discovered. I incline to the belief that pusuviva. The spelling pradha[yi] =prthivi is to be noticed. sankaro. siti yamaloka ji eta sadevaka sudesita kusala pusaviva* [payesiti O Dhammap.. Ma. etc. cf. 44. the scribe had the intention to efface the n which he had at first traced. Dhammap. dition of the leaf. I dare not affirm if it ought to be read pusaviva or Meanwhile.sita kusala pusaviva payesiti [FooUnote: Fr. is preferable to imam of the Pfili. with elision of the medial k.v.( S5 ) 1 [^ yamaloka ^ ji] ita" sadevaka ko dhamapada sud. The stroke of aspiration is well visible on the top of the / of ujhita and of the n of gandha. C vi. as used here. Childers s.. cf. Dhammap. The genitive here performs the function of locative. 68. jinaviva of verses B. = .] Cf. and for payesiii compare vihasisi (B. a somewhat miscarried intention to write seems also to be commencements belong which. For the equivalence of miikarahuia and saiikaradhma. in the present conlower on the right. which is not happily associated with The change of pimpa into pnsa is to patJiavim. etmh world of the Devas. a. 45. 2 budhu pradha"* budhu dhamapada Cf. I inchne thereto all the more. 19).. a. 40 fg.

ti* prafiai samesabudhasavaka . it is at least highly probable. ahkirocati may very is well usual the orthography in our manuscript. however. This is what follows from a comparison with the previous verse. Dhammap." " seems that the can be justified. The reading sagadhadhamaa appears to me certain.] 6 yo . except the last letter which might be e ox i\ the lower part is not visible. . not be inexplicable. more the form which one it appeared only here. vii. To be right nearer the P&li. Cf. The expression '' v. a. be tempted to had might.( 56 ) 4 saghadhadhamaa andhah. The word remains diffican only get out of the trouble by admitthe scribe has. of like " which — h. The initial a of the third pada is wholly preserved there also.ya\_kP\ . it only remains for me to take dhaMae=dharmey just i Bahi as we have in the inscription of Takht cult. C vii.. Fr. 108. it interpret as=^^\ The g of sagami has once .te prudhijane * abhi. Dhammap.. " [Foot-note ^ : In every part of the line. in itself. vii helps us to complete the characters. As regards the second part. 5 [^ ^^ gal5] [Foot-note ^ : pr. the lower portions of which it has preserved in part. Same — sam. I ting that mtatimae^ condition etc.hich is is in the the dunghill. Xx2i>xs&QXY^\A0Vi prudlii==-pTtliak is remarkable. a. Saghara — samkkara would. It dunghill If reading is almost liote. 59. through mistake.] Cf. The it is not certain. The be hh appears certain \xsQdi=^atirocaii.[^ hasa sahasani sagami" manusa jini atmana so ho sagamu* utamu eka ji] » O [Foot-note: Fr. which should hQ hhute.] Cf.o.. line 14. written saghadha for sagara ~ saiikara.

hu ya sutva uvasamati ^ [Foot-note I Fr. not at all am 7 saha[*sa bi ya e] gasana'' anathapa][^ sebha* ya sutva uvasamati Fr.] Cf. in sisila. regards almost exactly from the Pali .( 57 ) should be that ^sakasani is an inversion the variant sahassam sahassani *' *' is at least as thousand thousands plausible as the other expression. Dhammap. on the appearance of the character alone. together with line 10... As it is less certain that they can be the gaps. for in that filled up case the present verse will be repeated. skilfully arranged. a. 32 (C. It is without variation. the repetition of the stanza in two formulae very much bordering on each other. 1 convinced that the P41i reading saihgamajuttamo may be something else than the result of a confusion of writing. not very scrupulous judg- ment of the Buddhists. C xi. for ^sahasina. Dhammap. Although there the the nothing but a faint part of characters. C XL] Cf. ^ [Foot-notes : « C vii. some differentiation of detail may sufficient to justify. 30 ?). 8 . But in several cases we find s for tkj for instance. in the probable that have been intended. left a. Fr. I should not dare. admitted But b. C^'o. is 102. b. 100. there is nothing to look for in our text but the nominative sangrama tdtamah. the agreement of the main leaf puts restoration of the verse beyond doubt. The character which before. I read bk is again the same as 8 e psata bhase anathapadasahita"'] s. to decide positively if it must be read sa or ^a. At all events.

in verses 106 na so sanJchatayajetha sataThsamam.] a.( 58 ) 9 sa bi ya gadhana anathapadasahita eka gadhapada seho ya sutva uvasamati O Cf. however. the elements of which we recover. because. This verse and the next are east in the same mould. C ix. line 8 above. chap. I understand our reading sahasena satena ca in the sense which the text. Dhammap. whether neva or navij it must be = napi." . which corresponds exactly to the P^li text. and 70 dhammanaih halam nagghafi solasim of the Dhammapada. a thousand sacrifices. for a hundred years". The first half -verse. where it seems that the text must have been closely nearer ours. 102... : b. month by month. O ^ {^Foot-note : These first letters are partly completed by the lower portions in Fr. by multiplying the ciphers. " He who would. offer sacrifices by hundreds and by thousands. Dhammap.] Cf. " Whoever is there translated performs month by month. 101. 11 pmasamasi sahasina yo yaea] satena ca"" nevi^ budhi prasadasa kala aveti sodasa [Foot-note » : O Fr.O ix. Cf. The equivalent of our six stanzas is found again : : exactly in the Udanavarga^ translated by Rockhill. does not earn a sixteenth part of the merit that procures faith in the Buddha. disiointed and loosely mdse mase mhassena yo differentiated. xxiv. 10 ja gadhasata bhase* anathapadasahita eka gadhapada seho ya sutva uvasamati . In the verses following we have neva which is the only correct form. imposes upon the indefinite or infinite number of sacrifices.

(

59

)

12

[^samase sahasena yo yaea satina ca prasa.sa kala aveti sodasa*0 neva]
[Foot-note:
*

Fr.

C

viii.]

a.

It

is

evidently to be completed as

[dhama^prasadasa,

and

this stanza corresponds to Uclanav., xxiv, 27.

13

masamase sahasina yo yaea satena ca neva saghi prasadasa kala aveti sodasa
C£.

O

Udanav., xxiv, 28.

14

masamasi sahasena yo yaea satena ca neva saghasadhamesu" kala aveti sodasa
a.

O

This verse

is

to

Dhammapada, which
correction of

be compared with stanza 70 of the reads, according to the right
:

Childers mmkhatadhammanam. Here reading saghataP is excluded, and one can only and saghasa-, the last hesitate between saghadka letter has suffered indeed. It seems very well, however, that the black point which still appears below, marks the end of the hook turned from left to which characterises the b. On the other right,

the

hand, we have, in line 4, met with sagJiadliadhama , where the dh is as certain as difficult to explain, and I was in that case obliged, for want of something better, to take dh for r as a copying mistake. I do not see any other alternative than to suppose an error similarly
here, 8 for

formation of
part
so
in
far,

could be read dhy this peculiar transdJi should at least have a countersamadha of line 87 (16 ?) and, not to go
t.

If
t

it

into

in

hmdha — htmda

in

line

1?.

At

all

resemblance, it is that the two quite unlikely qualifieatives should be identical in both verses the sense required by the context is, in the one case, as unfavourable as it is necessarily favourable in the other. It may be admitted here that the use of an oft-occurring expression like sadhama has inclined the scribe, hardly learned, to a To this mistake, so as to render him guilty of it.
:

events, in spite of their close exterior

(

60

)

verse
of

stanza 33 of the Ud^navarga, corresponds which the rendering ^' he who explains well the holy law " appears to reflect the expression

sankhyatadharma,

15

masamase sahasena yo yae[^a satena ca]
?esu" kala aveti sodasa
*

O

[^FooUnote

:

Fr.

C

XLII.]

a.

The mutilated consonant to which is attached the e may be t or r. I know no means to decide between the two, any more than complete the line. The Ud^navarga has four stanzas, 29-32, which

may

strictly cor-

respond to the spirit of this ; yet, as the numbers 29-31 are composed on a unique formula, slightly differentiated in each case, which is in keeping with the turn of the next stanza, and as, on the other hand, the termination es?t suffices to prove that our present verse was not imitated from the next, it is likely that it was to verse 32 of the Ud^navarga that this formed a pendant.

16

masamase sahasena yo yaea satena ca
ekapananuabisa"* kala naveti sodasa
a.

O
=

As

I have just said, this stanza forms a pendant to the expressed, with slight variations, in the stanzas 29-31 of the Udana. Ekapananuabisa is indeed ekaprananukampinah : "he does not acquire a sixteenth

idea

part of the merit that belongs to him on a single living being."

who

takes pity

17

ya ja vasasata

muhutu

hinaviyava dridha* arahato jivita sebha virya
Dhammap.,
112.
cf.

jivi kusidhu''

O

Cf.

a.

For kusidhtc=:Vk\i kimto^ Sk. hmda^
(note a).

1.

14 above,

b.

We

will find dridha

and vridha

in

C^'°. 11.

32 and 34.

(

61

)

18

ya

ji

vasasato jivi apasu udakavaya"*
jivita sebh.*

muhuta

pasato udakavayaO

C£.

Dhammap., 113.

a,

B, 13 has already

made

us

familiar

with the ortho-

graphy iidaka-=.udaya. represent side by side the two equivalents o and u for|the termination am, so often ascertained in this Ms. Ji and ja are
spellings

&to and apam

by our ji being
b.

entirely equivalent ; it can be ascertained in the place of ja in the two verses

which contain them.
This
is

the character which I read bh.

19

ya ja vasa^ata jiv. apasu dhamu utamu m.huta jivita .e.hu pasatvi dhamu utamu
Cf.

Dhammap.,
jatu""

115.

20

ya ja vasasata

agi pariyara vane sa pi telena divaratra atadrito
.

21

bhavitatmana muhuta] viva p a?^ sameva puyana sebha yaji vasasata hotu'' O
[^eka
ji
iFoot-note
^
:

Fr.

C

xxix.]

Cf.

Dhammap.,
of six

107.

a.

The Sloka

p^das of the P^li appears in our the form of a regular double sloka under manuscript the third and fourth p^das develop the idea contained I dare not propose anything to fill in the first two. up the gap of three syllables. The reading jatu of our Ms. suggests instead a correction for the Pdli Jantnm text, which appears to me to be certain. has only been explained as =jantuj 2l nominative, by some unacceptable devices. It is jatu that should be The vowel read in the Pali, and understood here. has been omitted by the copyist in pariyara which must be pariyari or pariyare. " He who, for a
;

(

62

)

forest,

hundred years, continually keeps up the sacred fire in with oil day and ni^ht unwearied,

b.

I take mnkntaviva mu/iuiameva. For the last letter, the head of an "a" is still recognisable ; the copyist had no doubt written puae with elision of the y =j.

=

c.

Sameva=sd^eva.

Hoiu = hntam shows
7i

to

what extent
easily in

(though small) o and the eye of our scribe.

are

made equivalent

22

[^ya keja yatha** vaho. valok
ti

ahivadana
^
:

ujukatesu

siho

[Foot-note

Fr.

C

ir.]

Cf.
a,

Dhammap.,

108.
-,

Keja and yatha — kiji and yitha
little

the

scribe

cares

for the vowels.

23

-^^^

-^

^^-^

ga 17

24

[^silamatu suyisacho"*] dhamatho sadhujivano atmano karako sadhu* ta jano kurati'' priuO
[Foot-note
^
:

Fr.C iv completed by

fr,

C

ii. ]

Cf.
a.

Dhammap.,
to

217.
scil.

As

parallel

silamatu,

silamantam I

recall

vatamatay C, 87.
well established

The reading miyuacho seems

to be

examples; sacho can only be = 5«cd^m, satyam, but then it must be admitted that the aspirate is faulty. The compound I do not see any other alternative. it is rendered well in French with sucisatycij although a unique literalness "(he) who speaks the pure truth,"
not, however, a current expression. Sadhujivana : "of good life." The resemblance with the P^li is here only general. Karaka appears to me used absolutely^ as in the commentary of the Dhammapada, pp. 150-151 ;
is

by the agreement of the two fragments IV and II. Suyi—mci is warranted by several

b.

in co-ordinating

karakam and sadhnm

I

mean "who

(

68

)

is

who
c.

active and conscientious himself/* that is to say, does with zeal and conscience whatever concerns

him.

The

hook at the foot of the

closed, as would suit to explain to affirm that the copyist may

r not being exactly the u, I do not dare have wished to write

kuruiif that

is

to say, kurutey

though

to

me

it

may

be

very probable.

25

[^sadhu silena sabano yasabhohasamapitu]'' yena yeneva vayati^ tena teneva puyita O
[Foot-note-.
^Fr.

C ii, the top of the letters for the second pada being completed by the
main
leaf.]

Cf.
a.

Dhammap., 303.
I
find

Sadhu-=8raddhah.
8 of 1/asn.

of o in the the consonants are concerned. But it almost seems that the h is accompanied down on the left by a small hook Must the scribe have expressing the vowel u. written yasahhohu for yamhhoha ? Besides, I take
trace

no

BhoJia

is

certain as far as

blioha^hlioga,
just as

we have

next line
h.

through an intermediate form bkoya, 8eJio = srei/ah and as we shall in the meet with dhayniho — dhamiyoy for dhammiko.

Vayati might strictly be explained after the analogy the Pali bhajati. But it of abhivnya, B, 30, 31 as I is more natural to think that it is vrajati, and should rather believe that bhajati of the Pali, which it is very difficult to interpret, has sprung, by an

=

=

inverse confusion, from an original vajati.

26

[*yo natimahetu na parasa hetu pavani

kamani
so

samaya]rea*

na ichia

[^samidhi

atmano

silava]
sia

panitu*
^

dhammiho

\^Foot-note

:

=

Fr. Fr.

XXXI. These are nothing but a few traces they do not appear to me sufficient for the purpose of restoring these few words with certainty.]
;

C C

ii.

Cf.

Dhammap.,

84.

(

64

)

a.

The construction of our text with an initial ya is more natural than that of the PMi. Pavani kamani samayarea —papmi kammani samacareyya in Pali.
Panitu, that is to say, panditah replaces pafinava of the Pali. For dhammiho cf. the note on the previous
line.

h.

27

[^

sanatu sukati yati drugati yati asanatu
sa vispasa'']
IFooUnote
a.
^
:

ma

Fr.

C

i.]

" The

man who dominates his passions comes to a happy future ; he who does not, to an unhappy future. " Let not the former trust I translate as if it were visvase; but this is a mere hypothesis.

28

[^savutu pratimukhasa idriesu ca pajasu

pramuni anu]
^

IFoot-note:

Fr.

C

i.]

The first two padas are to be compared with Suttanip. 340 Samvutto patimokkhasmim indriyesu ca pancasu we may also compare Dhammap., 375 patimokhe ca As ior pramtmi, we have already met with samvaro.
:

;

:

it

in

AS

«^'

"By
and
"

restraining
in

oneself

the precepts obtains

respect

of

according to the five senses, one

29
sudhasa suyi]
iFoot-note
:

:[2V.S.t.

?sa samajakavata''
^Fr.

O

C

i.]

a.

Besides sudhasa and snyiy that is to say, perhaps I cannot make anysnyikamasa {=s?icika?'ma), thing out of these fragments, the concluding part of which suggests to me no reasonable explanation. I expect a more faithful memory than mine to discover

the

P^i

reflex of

it.

l^i.( 65 ) 30 [Mhamu cari sucarita] [^???carita cari siih. share this impression and conclude that the scribe. however..written. The termination lah. one will. while at work. XXII. . where it would be tempting to seek for an anusv^ra under.] Cf. for to.] Cf. dent line.] seti [Foot-notes dhamayari asmi loki parasa yi ^ : O * Fr. 320. readily amused himself with making manifest the minute details of . more than in the ca of acata. C C xiii. v. 169. so much accentuated But that would be impruis the hook at the foot.] Cf. I know few cases in our Ms. C XXII. Fr. 31 ^ ah][ o nako va sagami cavadhi vatita sara'' ativaka ti] [•^rusilo hi balijo jano [^ O [Foot -notes ' : ' '' Fr.. Dhammap.[Hmana yadha na visamu" ichati [Foot-notes * : O] ° Fr. C C v. Fr. if a direct transition could be admitted from le to with thc^ Magadhism te. . I have d/te. C xm. certain characters. Dhammap. does not mean that the explanation satisfies me. I think. V. dhiy nothing more convincing to suggest this. Fr. for a. in cavadhi = capatah would again afford an instance of the change of / into dk.. a. Fr. if one compares dhi of cavadhi in the foregoing and ca of carifa in the line preceding that. sa acata" drusilia malua vavi lata vani* kuya su tadha]. dki. 32 [*. Dhammap.

rU)7.] Cf. 308. We i?. nanu. '' and. 1. — 38 [Wok. for my part. -/ioO. . a. Knya Na = nam.( 66 ) h. All that we can see from the commencement of verse been hardened into k. Dhammap. 1. PgalO] « [Foot note: Fr. v. the verse on p.. without any other explanation . I suppose that given the Sanskrit form malu<. as I am ignorant of what exactly the plant in question is. vicious. I should not hope to elucidate the reasons fdr this vexatious name . as is is that in (/uda the g has so often. remains of it would. formed on the basis of the Pali rule which does away with Jiiains. . enemy") of the P^li. in fact. Whatever it may be. PMi pada our text deviates from the *' and simply says He whose maliguity extreme like iivapi) [that of] the maluka creeper see that in this version. I What have not discovered the Pali reflex of this stanza. = c. '* ive than the duo {^dvis. vistara (p. The turn of expression in our recension seems to me more simple and original. give in Sanskrit idah ca me kftyam idan ca karyam idam k bhimardati nirtyii sasokam . I suppose. 34 .. : in the forest passage of the Lalitaplant by the epithet asukheda. a. . " kuryat. malna is maluka and that the Pali malnva is only another spelling for ?mlua. whieh^ vindamano ^ . more vague and less expresssense.'* bh] a ^ rathapina asanatii [Foot-note: Fr. Vimma has a wicked ^'.] 35 ida ja mi keca ida ji karia Ida kari vinamana abhimadati muca?? sasoa'' a.d. C XLi. 2) characterises this appears to indicate that it is a parasite plant and that it de>troys the tree to winch it attaches itself. 5 .

can go back to a general sense like ''by properly understanding one's duty. which must go back to the verb pari or pratijagaraii. phusamv. or if it regularly represents the tirst person plural. It Dhammap." 36 ?dha vasa karisamu" ?dha b..] a.( 67 ) with the reservation of the necessary complements. graphy sawadha for mmata analogies. « Fr. I think. beyond doubt. avAj'a 287. ca kiUcit hriyakalfadea which is transcribed adeyam^ and may mean "and in the hour of duty But recoil from any sacrifice. stanza. and cited 38 kici kicakali adea'' parijaga [^?? tata disa parika][^ma kicakari no \ kicakici ali puvo i kica ^ [Foot-notei -. a. 286. out the exact sense of thin The gap before ^ici should. : : . Dhammap. 37 ta putrapasusamadha" _ Cf. 25). 1 have pointed propo^ 1.^ B. C XXX." he should not I do not know exactly how to complete parijaga. C xxvii. a. Fr. been identical. one crushes death and the pains of it. 14 this particular ortho= mmmafta. be completed by no i as in the fourth p^da. Although the gap not is been able to find I have comparatively small.matagi Cf. is not quite possible to decide if karisamn is. the two having. a first person singular with an inaccurate orthography (cf.. and hence I conclude that the last one ought to be read no i kici kica\_Jr'\ali na. on the analogy of the PAli.

let the dutiful man teach in this world the preparation for it . ful of the rule. As for kicaknrixi we might assume that it is must be a verb ." which I transcribe ka might very well be interpreted = sp. having once loved his of the world. so I am led to hold that dnbakati d/usprakrti'.to these provisional hypotheses. for in the moment of performing the duty he must not shrink from any sacrifice/' 39 ya puvi karaniani [^ pacha sakaru ichati'' atha dubakati^ balu] [^suhatu parihayati] •' {^Foot-notes : ^ Fr. and that fata in " in this this manuscript. ^7. might complete (the word) z& parijagarea ov pai ijagaritva. xvii. I. 236. the fool. take kati—gaii^ dnha would be left. and on the strength of " observer the use of pakataita to mean regular of his duties" {Jatuka. we may. S. Fr. B. and I take the word to denote the trouble and tumult of the outer life contrasted with the tranquil duties of religious life. I should add that the letter the rule or the duty.( 68 ) of By applying pnrve to the time preceding the hour " it is sacrifice. I b. accordinj^. The if analysis of dubakati fails me. and I think that the true analysis fails me. Here all events is what at would. C XXX. The third pMa has : quite perplexed me. hidden in disa which stands tat r a has. understand " indispensable (for him) to be awake to his duty and we (ef. but — the rendering *' let the dutiful man teach in this world " would morally involve parikarma the preparation into a usage which appears to me little probable. admit that mkara is for saiikaray just as we have pointed out saga for sanga in B." true we = : : .] a. E. be the general sense of the *' stanza: He must at first be thoroughly convinced of his duty . the sense of world " . loses happiness. for in the moment of performing it he must not shrink from any sacrifice. however. forgetthe tumult loves duties. C xxvii. 3. stanza 35). I am afraid . as occasionally for dise. 340 ^' I understand it to mean who does not observe n. of which 1 cannot make out anything .). But what to make out of dnbaspati ? In " Ho short I translate who.

in the sixth. and the bottom of three or four. a stanza of six pMas and that the third and the fourth p^das were at least very analogous to those of the Pali.( 69 ) 40 akita kuki. of course. Dhammap. a. asavacAat/a. . [^sehu* pacha tavati drukita kita nu sukita sehj.] Cf. is. " those men. for I cannot. gives no difficulty. side by side — with smaii. the orthography saiana \s smrfmam. C XXX. or the thought. affirm if it is exactly seku and uot seko that our copyist has written. tasa?'' Dhammap. filled here two (of the p^das) themselves. the break. Dhammap. as in P^li.li. a.verse forms the end of a stanza .pya kitva nanutapa(?)ti] '^ [Foot-notes: 3 Fr. We 42 43 yesa tu susamaradha nica kayakata sma satana sabrayanana Cf. and I cannot make out anything certain from our lasa It will be observed that j)erhaps a mistake for fesa. Fr. Knkrtam duf^Mam on account of Below this line we have some two lines : slight... first traces of at least the top of a letter. There absolutely nothing to draw out of it. 41 asava tesa vadhati ara te asavacha (a) Cf. collected into a single stanza in the which completed PA. Yet. but certain. as in the Pali. To complete.. 293. in our manuscript it begins a line . 314. C xxvii. whence it follows that either it formed the end of a sloka of six pMas. This is to believe that we had. the two texts differ. a. 253. see that our recension has a plural (construction) instead of can only end Anyhow this half-verse singular.'* and in after a previous description of fact the P^li half.

as our fifth letter. 17 as we have seen.9. Suttanip. yiti the identity is the more doubtful. 34. we have had above (C*'^. its commencement. ^. but this explanation. for instance. ? ra athu ? ??? 2 yo vi varsasata na bliaje pari a. compare. this series Pali recension . 148.. Dhammap. not va of pavaka. one would '\ remain vowed to death Mucuparayana : 3 parijinam ida ruvu roanida [^prabhaguno'' bhensiti ^^^ p. the transcription hhemsiti hheUyati (that is to compound = . 578 " ^>hould one live a hundred (678 ?). years. the t being added below the buckle of the . C xxxii. would not do in other instances . ?. note c . It might be thought proper here B. note.. to analyse it into /*. ^Fr.( 70 ) 1 ?. but ri. the verse belongs to the series which fg.] Cf. would appear to stand comparison with the commencement of Dhammap. well appears to have been.ti] [Fovt-note . The appearance of which I read ns has exactly the the character to which I have already been induced to attribute this value (A^. jivi"" so vi mucuparayano As can be seen from is. f>). 0. represented in the but there the present stanza has no The beginning of the third pMa exact counterpart. though mutilated.). perhaps acceptable here. 78 .

? ? " „ [4ite sati prachiti* pra] [Foot-mte * : Fr. verse I have introduced the certain correction Pftli maranuntam. Au{dh)akar . struction permitting of sense. long since urged by (. Pra. the traces that exist below the line after the letter r demonstrate it.. is not exactly readjusted is This the glass-case. Anyhow our text has the In the future as as^ainst the present of the PA-li. by bhetsi/ate) can.( 71 ) say. Dhammap. 146. If the reading is not conclusive. the Prakrits offer more than one recall I should only like to bhtsana. it is also sure that we liad something else than the termination °kare or karam . fits well. In all probability. C xxxiii. c-mmencement contains w^arranted a portion of what /. which begins the last pAda. a glimpse into the general . this tendency of on the contrary.kar. The in sheet. and nnsalisation before the sibilant. be justitied of which Pali trace. torn in this place.. seems to indicate that the termination was alike in the two parts. 4 ko \m h an.. I have not arrived at any convincing 1^ restoration.hilders. it gives no component parts of a con: . n.appears to suggest itself. and prachita = praki^hipta equally only the termination ti is astonishing . esides the metre. we should have here had an equivalent of andhtkarena onaddha. it is at least certain that our text had a variant h^re. by the fragment which follows. /n*2. bhimsaria = an example here. 5 yam avi eva padhama rati gabhirasati manavo thi'' The transcription in Sansksit i/am eva prafJiamam ratrim gambhlrasmriir manarali apt dhi.] Cf.

( 72 ) 6 yasa rativivasina ayu aparato sia apodake" The gap.." ?dha phalana pakana nica patanato ™ „ - ya ayu payeti Cf. again renders the remnants impossible here. a half of each of these The final u of ay a. Suckling infants or mature men (on all) always (hangs) the dread of death. O The final 1/ is joined to the following d in a cursive connection forming a ring. '* to suck. Cf.inseribe fjast/a rafriviva''<enn . I do not hope to fill up the gap. The bottom of the initial letter is give any sense." Bhai/eyn is the potential of dhayati. as far as T can see. I ayur aparaiwm syat But I know no instance of the use of idpodake. 576 evam jatanam maccanam niccam maranato h hay am. : ye hu dhayeyu'' dahara ye ca majhima porusa sa nica maranato bhayo* anupa ? a." understanding of the : tr. is still more doubtful than that of dhayeyu in the preceding line . Suttanip. somewhat of the same method appears briefly indicated. Eyen with nparata *' we hardly see what the subject can be whose life stops with the dawn. aparala^ and apardnfa would not. a. which does not this time hinder the understanding " of the uniform sense.. though quite incoherently. however necessary it stanzas. it is perhaps u which perhaps not completely intact the manuscript originally had.. may be. Our verse seems to be made up by patching together. which marks perhaps an intention to denote n\ anyhow it is necessary. Suttanip. : h. 576. which extends too much. . 195. panina'' O and Dhammap..

= sayam sai equation. whether for vracha or for ruJckha. : gradually not sure of the reading rac/fa or vac/>a . anyhow I can only see in it a reflex of vrksa. see how there can be any doubt on the I do not know how . nor for the second and third p^das. " As a river end.'' beginning to flow. but on the strength of tlie etymoloo^y and the evidence of the Abhidhanappadlpika.ti(?) pranayo aviPsati. but this intercalary I do not. IV. chapter I " Like the waters of a stream. carries it runs to its end/' I am = away the trees towards its terminus/' 10 yadhavidanivikoti yayedevaoduopati apakabhotivo 11 emam yaya eva manus s(?). to explain our form sati or sadi would do well. which the discovery of a Sanskrit or Pali counterpart will. in the sense of " suppression.( 73 ) 9 yadha nadi pravatia raeha vahati tavi a. Having nothing probable to suggest for the first two padas of the first stanza. at least. The uncertainty weighing upon many readings gets complicated with ' the lacunae. . for they fail me. some day. render superfluous. ? ''. dental is. 1 prefer not to multiply conjectures. of the IJdanavarga the hours of man's life lapse day and night . 127. J^taka. highly exceptional. 6 (Dasarathaj^taka). oharanaseva satii O What we see more clearly here is that the verse is inspired by the same spirit as verse 1 8. st. ?)rati(?) maranaseva satii I regret not to be able to draw any continued sense from these two remnants of verse. not on the strength of any instances. however. 12 na disati pratu ditho bahojano pratu eki na disati sati ditha bahojano O sati"* eki Cf.of tlie second. Lastly. a. 1 take oharana. Pravatia pravarteya.

] Cf. C xiv. rinoj.. Cxxii^°. apparent carry the vowel 15 . suppose it is necessary requires a to read flhitijivife. either wann'sa or some equirecognisable. C XLi^^.( 74 ) 13 tatra ko vispasi macu daharo dhitijivit/ ?vi miyati nara nari ca ekada^O a. could in this world All (mankind)." h. the place of the Pali chuUho. are destined to die one day. in our text. " in this world. of life. that is to say..[^athini tani distani ka] rati \_Foot-notes -. MaG}i=-viariyah. rude.^' Our text appears also." may very well take. of which the first letter appears still sufficiently = Before it. a. and none of We the letter-heads standing stroke e. to have replaced ajoefa by s jme synonym. men rely on the duration of life? or women. like the i of the Devan^gari alphabet. discover in fact a character besides. " What mortal. Above the ca appears a sort of valent is dropped. in the compound apetavifiuano. of which in fact 1 believe 1 and I take dhitijirita. the duration Tatra^ I . Fr. ^ * ' Fr. solidity. ii?????« sisaiii tani pni distani ka] rati^O disodisa''^*^^ 16 [^yam'mani prabhaguni vichitani - kavotaka].] . that reco^-nise the traces the sense which is to say. vo C XXII C XIV." 14 ayirena riichu'*] vatai kayu padha viiiana riiratha ha [^siti kadigaruO iFooi-note: ^ Fr. Dhammap. however Aoung. Vk\\ rnkkho rough. dhrtijlviiam somewhat in " the w*)uld require jlmtadkHi." As vispasi complement. I consider in to be the second syllable of sarvi sarve. .. " Bucho. I perceive neither the utility nor the possible signification of it. Pavathani a ] . O Fr.. Fr. '' v\\% despicable. 41.

ni pad a of the two sisani. ) Cf. and as an i accompanied the or nvmedha would appear nimadha consonant. Dhammap. Vrahhamgimi (written in the same character 2iS prabhaguna of the next line) implies a base prabhangu. lines interpretation of remains uncertain. though not identical.( 75 149. I am indeed of opinion. a. This verse sense may 321 of the is analogous in more in structure. this hypothesis. first syllables of this the result is that tlie what remains 7^he last visible. "" O ^ iFoot-note : Fr. identical in meaning W\t\\ prabhaiiga. is certain. . preceding it will be rendered probable j it is assured by line 20 . Certainly we have not in our manuscript the first person form nimmissam but as the third letter d/ia . have brought together these two stanzas. can be avaihani alapnni confidently restored: [i/a7mnanf\ va sarade noDe oi the traces that remain contradict I veise . C xiv. although the i affects a form which is purely conventional.] a. Vichiani = vikship- 17 [Mmina putikaena aturena pabhaguna nicasuhavijinena jaradhamena s] dha parama sodhi yokachemu anutara . The verse form. pro b/mngnfia. dmhct. but not unacceptable in this form. The construction is therefore less normal. has ta7ii disfa7ii as c. The reading does not seem to be contestable. be compared with stanza which. as an m (perhaps ti^e ?) appears also certain immediately before. . b. in Pali and in ou! that follows confirms this tdni. This line. Theragatha. It would seem rather derived from the dental /. which has given. opposed to tmi duvTma of the P^li. our line 20 precisely corresponds : and quite similar and to which ajaraifa jiramanena tappamanena nibbutim nimmissam paramam santiiii yogakkhemam anuttaram. a halffrom each of wliich makes up a whole stanza in Pali.. I have no means to re-establish the line .

] a. supreme bliss. Fr. I refer back to the verse of the Theragatha which I have cited with reference to line 17." . Fr. impurities. i. obtain the undiminishing the joy." 18 [Hmina putikaena viclvarena p(nicasuhavijinena)] dha parama sodhi yokachemu anutara ^ O {^Foot-notes : 2 Fr." "With this body. Fr. incessantly full of impurities. C XL. rottenness. the perfect purity. doomed to destruction. h. Fr. "With this [body] doomed to decrepitude." I understand nicahiha\njinena-=-nityam' " ever full of I translate bhai-iclrnnena.] 19 [^imina putikaena visravateiia putina^ nica]['^suhavijmena jaradha] -[^medha parama sodhi yokachem. obtain perfect purity. from vi-srn " flowing. subject to decrepitude. b.] a.] anutara iFoot-notes » : ** * « Fr.( 76 ) " make." Puti. visravantena. XIV. bliss. the supreme . C I. being decomposed. adjective. which is nothing but a therefore : which is diseased. to suffering. C XXVI. 17. cf. C xxi. 1. Yqx nimedha. 20 [^ayara] jiyamanena dajhamanena nivruti"* nimedha*] [^parama sodhi yokachemu {Foot-notes " : anutara] ^ Fr. These fragments enable us to recognise that the two stanzas were generally cast in the same formula as verse 17. Vi'sravatena. C xiii.

may he restored with certainty. such as I have transcribed. comes to destruction . ^ee any other possible reading. I believe. royal n which begins the third pada . rat. 348. For this beginning of line fragment has preserved but few traces of heads of letters. C i. that in the light of the Pali and on the analogy of what follows.] Cf. but to the present partiwhich is so suitable to the conciple muncan. struction.. inspite of all its splendour.( 77 ) 21 [^jiyati hi rayaradha sucitra'' adha sarira bi jara [uveti na ta tu dharma ca 3a]['^ra (u)veti^] kaO ^ [Foot-notes : 2 Fr. Pr. Fr. that . XXVI. of an interpretation as I have given. the letteia. Perhaps the verse-end would have explained the present tense " The I understand the verse thus here. I : chariot. p. in the light of the Pdli version. I have enclosed the last pada in parenthesis the traces remain of it. h. Dhammap. this * Fr. but destruction never invades this Law " 22 ["^muj. a. however. The s] telling nmj'ii corresponds not to the imperative muHca which the P^li has. The peculiar form is of a somewhat do not. muj][*u pachatu ](na iFoot-notes ^ : majhatu muju'' bhavasa parako jatijaravuvehisi)* sarvatra vi punu C i. 1 will say the same about the character which follows r//^«r/f/^. and which 1 transcribe as ca. . C II. similarly destruction invades the body. Jlyaii^iryate. permit. But evidently I cannot vouch for the several details. however.] a.

which we must read.. as vi and la appear certain. but as nominatives. cannot be pu on the other hand. 26 matrasuha dhiro sabasu Cf..] Cf. . . Dhammap.( 78 ) 23 .. 25 eta iiatvci saghara parama duha yajdhabh.tu nivana paramo suha"* O [^ [Foot-note : ^Yr.] Cf. y 290. and I believe that the PA._ „. Dhammap. In the Pali Ave must choose between jighacchaparama and samkhara roga with samkJiaraparama dukha parama dukha with jighaccha paramo rogo. as members of compound.. it is most probably vitmla for vipula. C ii.„. V7i.. In vaspasa instead of vi°. _ga25] 24 [^aroga vaspasa"" parama labha satuthi parama dhana parama mitra] nivana paramo suha [Foot-note: ^ Fr. a. Sabasu^ sawpasy nv . 203.. we have a clear instance of I believe that the negligence of vowel-notation. with the usual softening^ of the The missing letter tenues into sonant after the nasal.li should have arogyam and vissaso exactly as it has 7iibbdnam. a. C II. vi . word really contains two vowels and that it should I take arogya^ santuWii and vissasa not be vispaso... la suha"* O Dhammap. 204. a.

197. Childers {Bict. in our copyist.( 79 ) 27 u esu anusua . perhaps to it is if. 200. which partially corresponds to this verse and the next.) hesitated on the translation of kiUcana. It seems that the declouhlement of the dosa.. (usu)esu manUvSesu viharamu anusua Cf.. 199. ^' a. The locative vennesu of the P^li is indeed difficult enough. 8uAni — suk/id7/a. that happiness. be only explained. vairana. which might be explained as r//«>^ . with. moha ? stanza in our text indicates that the two possible ideas floated alike in traditional thought and were afterwards detatched each into a particular strophe. even as I have proposed to do in the ease of verano. v." It is to say. O Dhammap. In the present case. . Whatever it may be. . may have had the impression of an adjective verana and not of verina quite dei'ived seems that fiom rerin. u . Was the word composed by means of the technical substantive kincana which comprises the triple category raga. the negative averana is taken as formed from a substantive verana. start = 29 suhai jivamu kijanesu akijana"" kijanesu a. not as improbable as it appears at first. I would readily incline to allow an adjective averana as the original reading . I think.. Dhammap. haramu akijana O In interpreting Dhammap. the necessity for tihis periphrasis appears to me quite striking. 28 suhai vata jivamii viranesu averana [Weranesu majnusesu viharamu averana [Foot-note ^ : O Fr. . the adjective kincana can. which is reflected in arerino of the Pali.^ s. ma u . the adjective hincano of the next verse would support this interpretation. as derived from the negative akiftcana.] Cf. for happiness. vairin. C xxiv. who writes verann everywhere.

a. ya asa for ya ay asa.lianani aha dhira ya asa daruva f babaka va"* saratacita manikunalesu* putresu daresu ya ya [aveha Cf.ta dridha ban(d. do not decide or aha dhlro. The metre proves that the word being an adjective. the last letter might perhai^s be Yet the transcription strictly read. I take daruva for daruyam. Dhammap. w?/. 'Vhe first = darnvam. of word? like moksa may have facilitated . 346. for instance. but. as the PA. is The form mo = nah the language of the MahEivastu. The reading snmrattacitfa the Vk\\ sarattaratfa is which is certainly preferable to obscure. that to say. daiujam and not for daru It is curious that in the next word followed by va. 200. the hardening of y into is k. a. a. which I give is to me by far the most probable.( 80 ) 30 suhai vata jivamu yesa mu nathi kajani^"*^^ kijanesu manusesu viharamu akijana Cf. of the copyist. in Kajani is a mistake 31 na.. kundala. sisila 32 eta dridha ban(d)hanam aha dhira oharina eta bi chitvana [drupamuchu'' anavehino karnasuhu parivrayati [prahai Cf.li text indicates.. we habaka b. The memory the mistake. Dhammap. for kijona. tolerably Knitala. Dhammap../// instead of eJiu. I the original reading was ahii dhlra error of the in does not consist a inversion copyist simple yaasn^ for ay asa. \ have already pointed out the substitution of 8 for a th etymological . inversely. if 345. find. known. in the omission of the second ya.

36 d . 11 hardly satisfactory. like our own. . 109. appears to me indeed On Pali with lectio the the other hand.. 1 . which had annvata{m)fi. I would not have hesitated to take it for anuvartanti instead of annpatanti. bh p .? . the meaning of is which. a. Mah^vastu. . has vlra like our preferable. a. Dhammap. 193. The scribe has made a confusion between apncdyin and ought to have written either vridhoA comparison with P&li upacdrm. 347. It should be hirti^ kirtli. the repetition agrees text and with the metre so as to is condemn our sukham modati.tvana parivrayati anavehino kamasuha [prahai Cf.. Dhammap. where this verse is repeated. however. He luiyarino or vridhavayayino. Dhammap. 109. III. r s. for the P^li text. turns the balance in favour of the second form. which of nothing but a facilior introduced through the unconstraint our scribe or his predecessor. But 34 ahivadanasilisa niea vridhavayarino " eatvari tasa vardhati ayo kirta* suha balaO Cf. yati viru ta kulu suhu modati*0 Cf.( 81 ) 33 ye rakarata anuvatati'' sotu saigata eta b. The second expression appears to me so httle natural that I have to ask if anupatanti is not the result of an artificial restoration made on a text. oi*al or written. oh.. 5. which Ms.. I. h.

( 83 ) 36 P?????? ya narethina* v.]. 38 [* dukha . Of course it should be understood in P41i as mkho The last pMa is less clear in sense sikkhifasamvaso. plural instead of the singular of take soi/im as a common aorist which amounts to the sense of the present tense.u. daj-sana. * Fr C XVI. I do not see any waj^ to do away with the hypothesis of a mistake by the copyist.vasu amitrehi ya savrasi^O ^ [Foot-note : Fr. Dhammap." 37 ['suha darsana ariana sa][*vaso vi sada suho** adasanena] balana nicam eva suhi sia O * [Foot-notea . a. The omission must naturall}^ be supplied as^a/«°.. in the corporation of life. and the addition pi marks the gradation. suha sichijtasavasa kici tesa na vijatPO ^ : [Foot-notes : Pr.lasagatacariu drigham adhvana soyisu'' balehi] . 206.] Cf. C ix. to say. Here we have the the P^li.] a.[' .] Cf. I take narethina = naritthinam. The association with learned men is a : blessin^^j they have no stain. The only variant of our stanza. It seems to me that the I . C XVI. noticeable from a comwith the PMi. the sikkhitas)) akincana bhonti.. " of men and women/' h. * XVI.itis ^carina or ^carinu that we expect to have. is savaso pi for sanninaso . and I render " . Fr. a. Fr.. C C ix. Dhammap. the parison sense is equivalent. I take it as equivalent to te (that is than in form. :207. from accidental connection.

39 of this manuscript 1. of the line and the following does not leave any doubt in this respect. 207. ^ 39 " f -^ suhasavasa iiatihi va samakamo dhjpira hi pranai] bhayeya panito dhorekasila [vatamata aria" ' {^Foot-note* : 3 Fr. so as to get a form mrvaso. sarva ca suhu] ichia sarvakama paricai {Foot. '^cari i would be In sagaia the form of the g carl (for canno) ca. preceding stanza. C xx. Inspite of the punctuation at the end of two p^das of 1. will be noticed j = b. 38..noies : - Fr.] Cf. Fr. Savrasi can only correspond exactly to sahbada if we admit a double irregularity. on the right of the vertical stroke..Dhammap. Pr. 208. C XXXV. a Magadhism and the substitution of ? for s. the two characters differing only in the elongation. s and dh differing in this manuscript only in the direction of the lower hook. C xx.h.] 41 .( 83 ) simplest correction would be to admit that the copyist has written ii for /. Fr. ^ 40 [^tadisa sapurusa sumedha bhay . a. lines We see that in these three the verses overlap one another.] . the commencement with .. . to the verse like belong. the first 207 of the Dhammapada. C xxxvi. The comparison ..nofes ' : O * Fr. C XXXV. To my mind it is much more probable that the scribe is mistaken and has read -savrasi for savradhi {sabbadhi in PMi). C XXXV. Dhammap. which is thus The metrical difference between made up of six p^das. [^nachatra- [patha va cadrimuO rajdbe arovacamasa parikica uvahana'^ ' \_Foot. of the extremity of the lower hook .„ [^jabati kamana tada sa majati] [*s.

The traces preserved by Fr. represent suha. as is to be met with so often in the style of the Mah^vastu. 41. and supposing this transcription to be pxact. Our dkoreka is Sanskrit dhaureyay with k for = y. Admitting then that majaM= Sanskrit 7najjati and that s." . P^li dhorayha should veritably dhauravdhya (after Fausboll and Childers). "when one suppresses the desires. our text deviates in a manner which is sensible enough the verb bhajati repeated in the last pada appears from the first .^' but besides the fact that this would be quite confusing I cannot imagine. I get this meaning let a man wish for one plunges into happiness : : happiness and let him cast off all desires. as we have already met if with. What follows must have been a with 1. Inspite of its resemblance with the PMi version. so that the whole beginning remains quite obscure to me. has finishing not the h. I much d. I cannot decide if pandito is the subject or if it represents an accusative panditam^ coordinated with others. and that the addition tasma hi is not a minor extension of our simple particle. the doubt very be = I regret not to have been able as yet to discover a counterpart of this stanza.( 84 the ) 208 agrees with punctuation that follows cadri/mu. fresh sloka of six ])?ldas -10 moreover. xxxvi for the mencement warrant the reading suhasavaso. sukham. 40. exception precedes do not doubt that our text had not a good tradition. we might draw out of it some sense like " having prepared the strap for the foot-board that helps to mount the car. I think that it is necessary to complete the commencement as yada. The /n that follows dkira seems to be equivalent to : tasma hi. how the beginning was joined to the end of the stanza. I take hamana either for kdrndni or for a genitive performing the function of the accusative. It seems that the first padas ought to be transcribed in Sanskrit ratha {°t/ie) dropyacarmano pariskrtyodvdhanam. it is here in the third person. so as to prove that with this word ends a new stanza in the middle of 1. which by a this strophe in the PMi singular I text. and. concluding punctuation at the end. com- c. an extension that would quite explain the frequent use of this formula in other constructions. given what follows.h. our 1.

and compare more analogous to. ing..Dhammap. That is to say. subject to production and destruction scarcely are they produced when they disappear their suppression is a blessUpaji for upaja. of prasahati is I do not see how very clear. We see that onr text has sayati or kett wHhout any differentiation. 43 jaya v." what is na is lost with the is first pMas) is with. * Fr.] Cf." .ra ['-prasahati'' dukhu sayati parayitu uvasatu sohu sajyati^ hitva jayaparayaaO [Voot'iMie. nnitya vata mmshara ntpadavyayadharminali ivtpadya te nirndhyante iesam upammah mkhah. "The samskaras are impermanent. likey^ for ca. be anything else than a gross mistake of a. b. C XIX. Dhamraap. 201. : .] a.] a. " He (whose description not freed from sorrow.( S5 ) 42 [^ nena yo atmano] ?? so duha na parimucati'^O ^ [Foot-note: Ft.. 189: This what I can — ^ahhad>tikkha iMmuccati. The h this could the scribe. 44 anica vata [^saghara upadavayadhamino upaji ti nirujhati] tesa ' uvasamo Fr. suho'* [Foot-note : C xix. C XIX.

1 sanatu sukati yati drugati yati asanatu ma 2 sa vispasa _ savutu pratimukhasa idriesu ya pajasu pramuni anu 3 . suhavijinena jaradha yara jiyamanena dajhamanena nivruti _ nimedha? 3 4 jiyati hi rayaradha sucitra adha sarira bi jara uveti na ta tu . 11. I of mark by the sign ro (recto) dark colour which must be connected fragments with that face of leaf C which I have denoted in the same way. U a : 3 sadhu silena sabano (ya8abho)hasamapitu yo natmahetu na parasa hetu pavani kamani [samaya- . the analogy. 19-22. a7. C^°. 11. fits below Cf.29. See C". v. 11.t sudhasa suyi. rat. ii'". dharma ca ja (muj p. .. Cf. ir°.„ ^^ 1 2 . I^^ fits below fr ii'".. mu j) fr. fits above fr. 1 2 .s. iv^". 0\ . and by ^*^ (verso) the fragments of brighter colour which belong to the opposite side. .( 86 ) Fragments or To preserve C. 24-26.

. . may be transcribed samuccaret. xiii'^°. Cf. 30-33 1 _ carita cari 2 dhamayari suh. vidvm idaih avadi/a{m) : b. although. IV^"".-. fits fr. 2 .-. on It the contrary.... 11. 1 2 a. the use of samuccarati be very rare. Cvo.. fits 11. 1 2 ya keja yatha va ho.^.^. R. (aho) nako va sagami cavadhi vatita sara ativaka ti . va lok _. Cf. and that of samaearati.ga 25 3 aroga parama labha satuthi parama dhana vaspasa parama mitra 4 eta natva ya saghara parama duha III'°. yis .. above"^ the fr.( 87 ) IF^ 1 fits below fr. ii'^and with the commencement of 22-24. ch on the right with V'^ The top of C'°. frequent.. avaja ida vidva samucari'' pruvina savasanoyanachaya O O The fragment clearly has mu. u pachatu majhatu muju bhavasa parako sarvatra vi -. Line-end. 3 silamatu s . i^". 22-25. It may be transcribed : parvena sarvammyojana- kshaya{m)..

xv""".ga 15 3 ji hasasahasani sagami raanusa jini sa bi ya gasana anathapa"* a. „.. ... 1 2 ya narethina v suhu darsana ariana sav .__. yamaloka VII^". fits 1 2 gadba masamavsi sahasina yo yaea IX'^**. ... belongs to line U of C^". 36. sa acata drusilia malua vavi lata vani kuya su taclha 4f yok d bh . the foot of the character has disappeared. belongs of fr. 37. VHP".( 88 ) 3 .. ^ samase sabasena yo yaea satina ca neva below line 10. and fits on with fr. forms the commencement of its left lines C'°. ji to 11. VI^^ fits with C'*'......_.„... 4 Or anart/fo? . XI.. and fits with the last line 1 ?ne abhi.. 1.o 2 _. 4-7 of C'".. eka . IX'-''.

XI-. and hndilhasffa himsadarsl kkahi (B. the same here. 21). = khal I .( S9 ) sadhasa hisadasi //. . I suppose to transcribe but the frag-ment is too ii |)r()]jose short to permit of anv attempt at interpretation until the Sanskrit or Pali redaction of it be met with else- where. gii siidliasa posarudra" We have already met with that it is r/ti.

( 90 ) 3 imina putikaena aturena pabhaguna nicasuhavijinena jaraclhamena s 4 (nicasuhaAajinena) XV^'^ 1 hhayo emu 2 jatasamaca ya emu ne(?)rayamuca XVr^ 1 fits with 0-% 11. suha sichita 2 (sa)vaso vi sada suho adasanena 3 Jasagatacariu drigham adhvana soyisu dukha balehi XVII^-. gachu na nivatati O Ya mansana ki tesa ukumulana" O ti so . 36-38. satohisasabhi pravera(ya) XVIir^ 1 2 Line-end.

(

91

)

1'he transcription of these few remnants does not, at least with regard to the second Hne, afford any
'' he never complete sense sa gacclian na nivarfati '' turns back from his course mai'tisandm kin tesam ; MUmsa should be the i)art of a okaunmulaiiam. compound referring to tesam. If the form only were taken into account, one would think at once of a form ulka-nnmTdana but this is a form of speech
: :

;

which

is

very

little likely

and

I believe rather
:

transcription which I have suggested .". tion of their abode
.

in the " The destruc-

.

XIX'".

ao^rees »

with

lines

42-44

fo-.

1

nena yo atmano
sahati

2

dukhu

sayati parayitu

uvasatu so hu
3
upaji
ti

s

saghara upadaYayadhamino
nirujliati

XX'^
1

fits

after

fr.

xxxv'",
?

11.

39-41.

U

.

S .V. s

disa sapurusa siimedha

bhay

jahati

kamana

tada sa majati

XXr^

fits

below

fr.

xiu'". Cf.

11.

19-20.

iminaputikaena visravatena putina nicas

XXrr".
1
2

fits

with line Cv^ 31, on the
?

left of fr. v"".

drusilo hi bah
ichati

tmana yadha na visamu

(

9-3

)

XXIX^'\ Coinnienconicnt

()!:'

line

C",

21.

eka

ji

bhavitatmana muliut

XXX''\
1 2

fits

after

fr.

xxvii^".

Cf.

11.

38-40.

ma

kicakari no

i

kica kiciali adea

suhatu parihayati

3

ya kitva

nanutapa(?)ti

XXXI.
line

fits
'l^),

with the
in
:

fi'a<j^ments

of

letters

preserved

by

samidhi atmano so silava

XXXIF\

fits

with C^",

3.

prabhaguno bheiisitip.ti
XXXIll^".
with C^^
4.

fits

lite sati

an.kar.? pracliiti pra

xxxiy"\
suruga

XXX Y^^
ricrht

fits

on the
fr.

left

with

lines

39-41, and

on the

with

xxxvi and xx.
ira hi

1

pranai

2

nachatrapatha va cadrimu
s.h. sarva ca

O

ra

3

suhu

(

'Ji

)

XXX\

V'\

Jits vvitli

t\w precediiii^.

s.li.s.v.s.

natihi va

samakamo

clh

XXX MI''.
,

j

.

.

.

t .s

chirena

XXXYIII^'.
rasa sasra

XXXIX^ \
ka parama. ok.
riiha paricai

XL'".

Reinuant of
preserved.

line 19

;

only

the top of

itie letlers is

medlia paramasocllii yokacliem

XLP\

belongs to C'",

1.

34^.

galO
XLl^'^
Hts with C''\ 14.

siti

rucliu

XLir^

fits

with C^'^ 15.

ea satena ca

(

^'^

)

M. SENART'S POSTSCRIPT.
be able now to leetify the transcription induced to suir<^est for the verse of the " Dutrcuil de Rliins " that forms h*ne 38 of C^'^. manuscript I had reasons to j^resent my interpretations only as a provisional The tliscovery which 1 have made, in a hypothesis. recent reading", of a very analogous Pali counterpart, though not wholly identical, has put me in a position to improve it
I

am happy
I

to

which

was

at

first

sensibly.

I do not see
of

the

any reason to change the material reading characters, but rather the divisions of the words,

and

I transcribe

now

:

kici kicakali adea pure i kica parijaga ta tadisa parikamakicakari no i kica kiciali adea

found in the Samuddavanijajataka This is the history of a thousand (Fausboll, IV, fg.). families of carpenters who, harassed by pressing creditors, exPali

The

verse

is

166

patriated themselves on a boat constructed by their own hands. The wind drove them into the open sea towards a fortunate isle where they settled down The only to live in abundance.
into two, and each obeyed its chief; was prudent and the other was swayed by greediness ; the latter manufactured rum and through intoxication lost the condition which the deities of the isle had put on the sojourn of the new comers. 'J'he deities became inclined

company was divided
one
of the
chiefs

avenge themselves by raising up a flood of the ocean that would sweep away the entire island. Warned by a compassionate deva, the wise carpenters prepared a vessel on which they escaped
to

of danger, the others preferring to believe in the promises of another deva; they perished victims to their idle optimism. A moral in three stanzas is put into the mouth of the Buddha {a/j/nsamd?(dd/iar/(('t//d), urging on the necessity of The third one is construed in the text of M. Fausboll foresight.
in

the

moment

delusive

as follows

:

Anagataiii patikayiratha kiccam ma mam kiccam kiccakale vyadhesi
tani tadisam patikatakiccakarim na tarn kiccam kiccakale vyadheti
It is necessary to anticipate future emergency, so that in the hour of netd it may not lead as to suffering he who acts thus, who does what should be done to prevent the occasion, liim, in the honr of need, it docs not load
;

"

to suffering."

(

9C

)

I

tarn

;

but

left open to interpretation. Vjjadheti is, I believe, = ?;3/rt///rt'yrt'/^, although the scholiast may seemino-ly write V7/adJtesi, which the metre does not sn})port and which he seems to take as a denominative from vijadhi.

would prefer to have in tlie second p/ida 7na nam or 7na strietly, bv sni^])lyino' /// at tlie end, tlie first person is

Whatever it may be, the direct relation of this stro[)he with that of our Kliarosthi ^Is. is not less apparent than the differFrom a comparison it follows that ences which distinguish it. it must be understood, by restoring the anusv^ras which the manuscript does not note, as follows
:

pure (h)i kica(m) parijaga ma ta(ih) kica(rij) kicakali adea ta(m) tadisa(m) parikaTnakicakari(m) no (h)i kica(rii) kica(k)a]i adea

are not avoided though the general sense There is first of all the gap of four syllables for the first two I can only provisionally maintain the conjecture by I have proposed to complete parijagarea virtue of wdiich parijaga being perfectly clear, I do not see how a literal correspondence with patikaroti of the Pali could be admitte(h The next two syllables would be ma nafii or iifa tarn.
difficulties
is

The

certain.

:

;

In
little

the third pada jjarika/iuf, pari karma is on the whole but the substantive cannot removed from praiikrta
;

If krti/a were not the function of the participle. " in the sense of in all the strophes want", wholly employed '' what has to be parikarmakrf/ja would very well be rendered done by way of preparation.'' Inspite of the difficulties which the particular application of krf//a in kicakale seems to present against this interpretation, T do not yet see anything else to

exactly

fill

:

suggest.
If we pass from the i, certainly wrong, of kici for kica to the second and the fourth padas, there still remains a stumbling To judge it by the Pali, it would be vadhea-=block in adea. A similar deformation is too abnormal to be easily rjiaihayeya.

admitted, but the explanation which I have attempted = ^r/6?^rtm I have nothing satisfactory to suggest; failing necessarily, " to be could of sense in from the explained, adtyaii^ adei/ya,
take, to domineer, to rule", only
in

by forcing the ordinary meaning

a troublesome way.

The Chinese recension. as in other chapters. the Magga and the Pakinnaka. and title But the are to be found in the Pali Dhammapada.. as may be judged from its colophon ga 30 (J. With the exception of the first three which are to be traced in the Samyutta-nikava. But. as a matter of fact. " *' chapter. which are named and juxtaposed in the same way as in Pali. Mag"avaga] is is not chosen The sugo^e^ts itself from the burden of tlie verses themselves. our own. viz. a^. all the stanzas The heading found to be here. The total number of verses may itself be regarded as a proof of the combination of two groups of verses of the Pali recension under one chapter of the Prakrit.e.II The Kharosthi Manuscript of the Dhammapada With improved readingfs and readjustments [i.. distributed in two chapters. and the latter 28. of which the former contains 20 stanziis. Rockhill's translation of the Tibetan version of the Udanavarga shows that the verses under notice are distributed in the latest known Sanskrit recension in two chapters. in the Kharosthi manuscript. of which 17 {i. contains 17 stanzas and the Pakinnaka 16. The Maggavagga which just precedes the Pakinuakavagga in the Pali recension. 10-26) are missing from the manuscript in hand. verses 4-9 being in the Pakinnakavagga and 27-30 in the Magga. Fa-khen-lcing has two chapters. . 5) consists of 30 stanzas. the stanzas being entirely different though the chafitcrs bear the ^ same title. the similarity between the two recensions js only in name. the Marga and the Smriti.

Notes. Buddhist teaching to a yana or ' * The reference is to M. Feer.— Ti»e Prakrit verses (1-8). 4^)) renders: Straight is the name that Road is called. 33t :— Ujuko nama maggo abhaya nama sa disa Ratlio akujano* nama dhammacakkehi saihyuto. Senfirt's f ' An asterisk indicates ns. Is Heedfulne?:s I say. as they complete toj^ether a sort of allegory founded on the imagery which likens The Pali veliicle '. —whieb " Mrs. Senart's identification. 3) Samyutta. and this reading is adopted in the commentary. be it man for whom Such chariot doth wait. as M. by that same car Into NibbcTna's presence shall they come. M.( 95 ) L (u)^3Uo magu abhaya namu sa disa radho akuyano namu dhamatrakehi sahato O name so (A4.ivlds {" Kindred Sayings^^'' p. And be it woman. Yassa etadisam yanam itthiya purisassa va 8a ve etena yanena niblianass'eva santike. Uhys D." . arrangement. . p. are closely bound up iti thought. Hiri tassa apalambo saty-assa^ parivaranaih DhammA-haiii sarathim brumi sammaditthipurejavarii. 1)^ hiri tasa 2 avaramu smati sa parivarana dhamahu saradhi bromi samedithipurejavu O 2) (AS 3 yasa etadisa yana gehiparvaitasa va sa vi etina yanena nivanaseva satie O (AS Cf. so ed. " The variant . nliufayio. and Right Views. Senart points out. \yith wheels of Righteous effort fitted well. and Free From Fear the Quarter whither thou art bound. I. they that run before. Conscience the Leaning Board the Drapery the driver is the Norm. - Supplied by The Singhalese edition reads is safas^^ta. Thy chariot is the Silent Runner named.

I. 49 Sec. But the mythological conceptions of heaven and hell being anthropomorphic. The A cchar a -verses. I. I. troops of female prevent<N taking it as appositional with accharagana. by contrast with the popular aspiration to attain rebirth in the heaven where Indra. 148-9. seem to have reference rather to Indra's visit to the celestial pleasaunce or paradise than that of an ordinary devaputta. dressed and armed like men. The idea that the chariot was made similarly resonant can be supplied from the second verse. escorted by troops of ferocious soldiers* .*' i. and which reads : Accharagana-sangliuttharii. the description of royal visit to the Buddha in the Digha. visits the enchanting Nandana-grovc in a rattling chariot. pisacaganasevitam Vanan-tarii mohanarii nama.e. as the commentator rightly suggests. and a priori with the popular admiration of luxurious life of princes on earth. nymphs." The troops of male fiends. p." The commentator can rightly suggest this in respect of a god who is surrounded only by the troops of nymphs. katham jatra bhavissattti ? The imagery developed the in these verses serves to throw Buddhist idea of the silent spiritual progress of man the path of Righteousness into clear relief. contrasts the life of the gods in the heaven of the Thirty-three with the summum honum cf the Buddhists. Fasc. where the description of the Buddhist Path compared to a chariot rattling noiselessly on' {ratho a-kujano) implies by contrast the idea of a chariot of just the opposite character. and his interpretation fits well. i..( 99 ) parallels of these verses are as belonging to a group of to be found in the Saiiiyutta four stanzas. same way the royal women and bands of with a life of pomp and pleasure. * ^ in Buddhaghos:i takes pisacagann in the first Acchara-rerse to be " " tarn eva acharaganam pisacagariani. named Jcchara the nymphs ') from the catchword of 'ts first verse (* which is left out in our text. 3 who frequent in the pleasure grove. .. surrounded ' ' by troops of nymphs making the chariot and the along resonant witli their music and paradiire melody*. into the context which he has supplied. 2. "accosted as their locd by nymphs with song and music. though from what source of authority nobody knows. in other words.^von\i.^ in its more primitive natural ^ The first of the Acchar a.' grammatical form of the expression pisacogana. Cf.. king of the gods. the apposition with accharagana troops of nymphs are but the troops of fiends. taken together.. 9 Sumangala-vilasinl.f. The central idea of these verses.' unless it be supposed that the former alludes to the female bodyguards. quoted above. pp. expressly mentions the pleasaunce as the place which is resounded with the song and music of the nymphs. ^ The text of the ^cc/iam-verses. and Lankavatara-Siitra. the imagery of the verses Can be interpreted also US i-nplying a contrast with the sensuous and luxurious life of princes : ' ' on earth. . divested of poetic imagery and spiritual contrast. no doubt. and attended by a ^ guard of fiendish warriors'^. p.

and the link in the transformation is preserved in a few technical expressions which. iv-v . pp. 8." Verse I. our verses may be justly regarded as a later recast of the idea of the i'rirayana discourse. p. nivaranam (of the Suttanipata) -dud parivaraua (of our Prakrit) . Compare " also Mann (II. 8-9) : " Atmanarh rathinam viddhi." ca.'— the same as uam/t^ which occurs twice in this The shortening: of na into 7ia is due to a special verse. r exactly as in Pali. which as a separate entity constituted one of the oldest known materials of the Pali canon. containing Buddha's rej^lies to the questions ot* the Brahman youlh Udaya. The initial 7^ stands for the The guttural /• is elided between ti Sk. rju. samedithipurejavn . 11 00. Atmendriyamanoyuktarii bhoktetyahur manisinah. away with all long vowels. M.astvavijnanavan bhavatyayuktena manasa sada Tasyendriyanyavasyani dustasva iva saratheh. y. sariram rath am eva tu Buddhiiii tu sarathim viddhi. have at least a striking likeness proving their kinship e. thougli not exactly identical in both. . 188. d/iammatakkajiiAvejava and dhamairakeJd sahato. feature of the dialect of our text whicli completely does = ' . The balance of probability lies with the form 9mwn. 7iibbanam Hi vnccafi and tnviinaseva The known and here it may be noted with profit that the . 1107. Senart is not fully certain about the reading o in the syllable mo of ?iamo.g. Suttanipata verses themselves presuppose similar Indian ideas. The word is a derivative of ujti. Yasta vijnanavan bhavati yuktena nianasa sada Tasyendriyani vasyani sadasva iva saratheh.( 100 ) psycholog-ical form. can be traced in a few verses of the Suttanipata e. such as those which can be traced in the Kathojjanishad satie (I. nama (from naman). poem questions and replies together constitute a as Udai/amdnavajjiiccha belonging lo the Parayana-group. — (\5)}ViO = vjid'o. mauah pragraham eva Indriyani hayan ahur visayariistesii gocaran.' called. Buddhist India.* In fact. 1109 and 1111. straight. but the change of n into o in this exceptional form may have been Fausboll's Preface to the Suttanipata. 'by name.g.' NamO Pali namoy^k. Sk. satassa and smafisa . 88) : — Indriyanam vicaratarii visayesvapaharisu Samyame yatnamatisthedvidvanyanteva vajinam. ^ and 0.

O thou shouldst not take to what is of the The underlying moral magu (^ straight by name is crooked" {BaiuhUia-Gdn Pali and Sk.. that a thus made out for the form nanio in preference i^ is to itaiinr. such masculine and neuter stems are distinguished in not so distinctly as in Pali. as nom. and supplies a bond of kinship of the dialect of our text with those of the Shahbazg. dh. the^ame Here is an instance stem in view^ of the uncertainty of the reading*. avarmim (verse We meet with a regular form niago 29 below. afjhaj/a. though i I'd i kamwe rd bale i vd i rd^' masculine form mostly as terminating in u. v'alf/ii purisa-thamo.* case is preceded nnd followed by words This is not to say. as in o sc-unds. Namu— ^^see Namo makes the w^ord more akin to Sanskrit than to Pali. Doha. 56: Buddhist version of the dnctrine of Pakudhakaccayana. for the final vowel. the Ajivika '* ti'aithi iitthane teacher). in o and the neuter. §166). For the shortening o see Namo .g. Both the forms wagu and niago stand nearer to Sanskrit {ma'gah) than the more primitive forms w^here Magadhism holds a greater sw^ay and where the masculine and neuter stems ending in a are declined alike in the nominative ' (Digha I. Mag'll=Pali ntagyOySk. —an Radho = Pali of /// [cf. . ^'leaving what is straight and straight indeed. p. disd. (7-declension in of the final vowel.^ extract from siihhe diikklie jirasatfame ' the : i ririije i rd piirisakkLirapparakkawe In our text Leo. of whic the Jaina jiarallel reads: singular.] Prii/adrakiiie chariot. Magu is tlw rtfore to be regarded as optional. ttjuo and -so. I. 49). instance of the regular the masc. and ^'li'aithi attakare. 32. we shall see later on. e. rathah. 58 extract from the Buddhist 'version of the doctrine rf Gosala.e. p. — of a is ending of o in a in i). instead in V. ii'atthi parakare ii'aUhi purisakare. however. Cf. p. ahhayd. Prii/adrasiKa raiho. n'atthi mriy m. sin<jular . into (Shah. ii'atthi " pnrisa-parakkamo (Digha I. ujn re uju cliddi nid lehii re vanka. n^aitlii lialam. the declension. Sk. i). viargah^ road.sj The s Disa (feminine) = Pali disd. Sk. form Edicts i).irhi and Mansehra recensions of Asoka's Rock (Man. cF. form where a masculine decl ned with the termination Uj For n instead of o. sentence iijuo nawo so the road ') is a familiar Indian idea which is expressed more clearly in the later Buddhist songs. changed nom. Sa = Pali and Sk.( 101 ) due to euphony. above. sing. So as in Prdi. ending strono. Abliaya = an instance of the feminine the nominative singular. and in of o. above. No. (UvasagadasSo. an elder contemporary of the Buddha).. VI. cf.

no more have been displaced. 188). straight' and 'free from fear*.' ' ." In fact. Even the substitution of cakra. p. dharmacakraih. not to say. as suggested by M. Sk. nearer the expression sameddhipurejava verse of our text. Senart. once established. Dhamatrakehi — Pali dhammacakkehi Samyutta) and Sk. was natural and reasoning granting that there is no mistake on the on. it is. a word has not been met with in (according to has suggested with strong reasons on his side that the correct reading in Prakrit can only be dhamatrakehi or dhamafirst of which may be interpreted as drakehi.^ is quite unprecedented in Indian The meaning which literature. M. Svher« the wicked are none. and the same reading is followed commentary.' This interpretation of akHyano and the Pali reading akujano on which it is based^ are open lo dispute for the obvious reason that the meaning suggested and applied to the chariot is hardly in keeping with the Akuyano=Pali a-kujam ' appositional adjectives ujho and abhai/a.' akujano.non {Buddhist India. iind the the be uj reading. "being more ingenious and piquant could. to quote his own words. although to complete the " Path " with the idea of the analogy of the Buddhist ' ' chariot rolling for wheel' noiselessly ' tarka. the dhammatakkeJii in Pali and dharynatarkaih in Sanskrit. the reading in the Singhalese edition of the * — in the In the language kujali na viravati lasnia akujano ti ". is 'that which is free from creaking' i.e. The \qyy Qx^\'eBS\or\ ratJw aktijano. 7ia " Samyutta is akujano. Senart Pali phraseo- aMiavimokha as dhamniatakkapiirejava. dharmatarka. but sense of Pali ahiymo^ i. unidiomatic. fits into the context. consequently. as applied to the road and to the direction. which explains the word as follows : — such logy. ' the resort meaning". in the next Considering that the Suttanipata versB is found in the Parayana-group of poems. which as a separate entity formed one of the oldest materials the Pali ca.'''' It must be readily conceded that the Prakrit form dhamatrakehi clearly preserves the memory ot' the Pali expression dhammatakka. inevitable. quite probable that the reading which speaks a form which of is larka \& oV\qv than the reading c«/*r^/. 'the chariot Avhere the wacked are not.y 'runs noiselessly on. He cites the evidence ot* the Suttanipata verse 1101. as of suggested by M. woidd aa a ah.e. Senart.( 102 ) to the Samjutta accordiug k Sk. "the silent Runner.. would be of honest people and the explanation. of our text tiie form akvyano can also be allowed in the 'not a bid vehicle'. which.

40. an instance of meaning. Pali. where r is substituted for /. Senart. plural termination <?/^« is a common feature of all Prakritic languages and alike of their ancient protoPali samhato types the Pali and Ardhamagadhi. Epeuthesis. Sahato according to ]M. Tasa = Pali tnssa. v. M. The Samyutta variant of the word samyuto ('connected'.. drnmior darsz Shah. ynktena manasa. Sk. conscientiousness.. dhrawaior dkarma. drnracha drunivarana iox duraksi/am dnrgatih (Citavaga. 23). Sk. 10) . 'roinided off with (the wheels of) reasoned discussions on the Norm'. according to the commentator. compare ndnmiresu — udiimbaiesu in B. 'linked') would be the proper Pali equivalent. d'ighaw for dirgliani (Snhavaga. v. 8) . v. tara ^oy karnidntara.e. i. V. kratpviyeiox kartavya M. tasya. S. p. Girnar v grabha for garbha. — two dialects (cf. vi . the phrases breathing the Buddhist intellectual bias and moral sentiments. 'skid. drugatio (Bhikhuvaga.' The meaning wliich agrees with the commentary is 'leaningboard' {Kindred Sayings. ' ' ' ' Verse 2. v. hiriottappam. durgat {ibid. * Cf. the Prakrit form must wheels/ The change of tarka be taken in the sense of itito traha is accountable by the principle of Metathesis. drumedhino for durniedhasali (Apraraadavaga. v. v. This is the only instance. prnva for pnrva S. Senart. —Hiri = = Pali. the Pali dhammacakkehi counterpart of psychological samyuto. fitted with the wheek of Righteousness '. As m n/b. of which the Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra recensions have so close a kinship. kind of change is familiar to the student of Asoka's Rock Edicts. modesty. and the phrase yvkfena^ conveyincr the idea with mind linked to is an older i. This 1). and of the Prakrit dhammacakkehi sahato. according to Senart. M. i. in respect of phonology and orthography. xi. apalamho. savm for sarva S. M. a wooden structure protecting : The . 38). M. for = word means. vi . kramU' . but it seems that samhito. 5) .. Mans. hri. ii . 4 5 yodhanam apatanatthaya darumayam alambanakam. Avaramu as noticed by M. 'fitted with') attests the correctness of the above The instrumental = — The Upanishad passage ^ingled out above as suggestion. S. the basis of the l^uddhist verses contains the expression linked with'. drvgha for pravitatho for parvatasthah {ibid v. drugati for 4).( 108 ) part of tlie scribe or in the readini^. with the dialect of our text a feature which goes to prove the common geographical location of the {dnr-raksyani) durnivarariam (Dhamathavaga. sahito ('joined'. hi)i.

or by o as \. Smatisa 6'w«// fl'5^ Pali safy-assa. or -sattassa. is a later counterpart nasal of The prevention. Yana final a. The + = + + = Prakrit form technical term which more akin to Sanskrit s rliy a Buddhist means mindfnlnesss. Senart renders the roof Pali. is *'sueh a vehicle whereby a person can reach the untraversed = Pali and Sk. driver. generally by n as here.( 104 ) the soldiers from falling down). followed the Pali in dispensing with f. Nirvana. compound.a li u Q. such. later than at/aiia or wngpa of the older Buddhist dis- Verse 3 —Yasa = = -s = courses. but neither the Prakrit hromi nor the Pali hiumi may be said = = -. region {agatam disam). hrarlmi common in the Pali and all Prakritic languages.. i. but unlike Pali it and in this respect stands closer to Sanskrit-. The scarcity of double consonants is a characteristic feature of It is to be noled that final am of Pali and Sk.' lates it The absence of the cerebral is > ^ ' .). Rhys Davids. as has been pointed out above. Saradhi For dh-=thy see radho Pali sarafhim. is the text. or satassa {saii-\-assa). = PaIi yassa. see parivara%a v. charioteer. The word.li htumi^ I The Prakrit form is (verse I). another instance of sandhi dJiamu -\. Cf.' Parivarana = which M. SameditMvowels Pali a fiammadittlnpurejamm. This is also an instance of ssindhi ara aramn. DhamallU=Pali dhnnmaham. following the commentary transthe drapery.' as implied in the Dhammapada verse 'STd. but Mrs. ' n is a peculiarity of the language of our text.^ {^aiipaiilimasiiitay MnjjJi.oxYQs\)OU(\mg to Pali cUiawmam + ahom. piirejavu views which like Hhe run ahead. yannm. 2. see etadisa above. Sk. This Ekayano ayam maggo imagery was consum- mated in the subsequent growth of the conceptions of .' horses right meaning The form same stands closer to the Sanskrit saynyak phonetically than to Pali saninia. the shortening of ava into o is nearer to Sk. conception of the Path as a vehicle is a later imagery. eladrsam. represented in our Prakrit. both denoting 'path. and occasionally by ^^ as in parivarana. For the The vehicle. Etadisa Pali The Prakrit has etadisam. Bromi say. Note also the change oi p into v. yasya. correspondino^ to Pali apa cdamho. parivarariaTh. sense is that mindfulness {smati) is like a drapery {^parivarana) preventing the influx of impurities from outside.e. like this.. to square with this rule unless it be supposed that the and i are assimilated into o or u. The significance of the word 'such. For retains a nm. Sk. } nivaranam {SuUanijJaf a 1(16) or ^ '' — elrewhese. Pa.

( ' 105 ) xviahayaoa prominent the lines. of yaua. yanena. The genitive termination has been dropped in gehi metri causa. Yanena Pali and Sk. provision had to be made both for the householder and the sarva. Vi Pali ve.e of Pali. Here is an instance where Pali is = /' represented of Pali e by into e. compare etina etena following (in the verse). vra. F<i = Pali means 'of the in one religious scheme. 'indeed. Satie = Pali and Sk. the change etina below. {See B/iabra Edict). phases perhaps on in a sense. as pointing to a time when Buddhism was considered fundamentally a religion of the Bhikkhus. For the i in vi=.e. parvahita in the St. the intervening h preventing hiatus like the y of the ArdhamagadhT orthography. The a-i in parvaitasa is not to be As a matter of fact. l^\Y2^Yi2b^&V2i. of the Vedic and post-Vedic and ^ of distinction difference between Bevayana and Pitryana. probably on account of a false analogy with forms like = and The whole expression Sk. reails praujati. near. an instance of sandhi corresponding to Pali nibbanasseva=. as was done by Asoka Sa Pali 50. interchangeable. to its destined end. vZi. salt. while the Prakrit seems to belong to a time when the Buddhist community. Sk. Si.' The Pali verse has the variant iithiya pnrisassa ra. i. Sk. Bhikkhu = = = = — supraudliu praujhati^ imi gotamasavaka vesa diva ya rati ca nica budhakata smati ^ O (M4) The Kharosthi Ms. 32) is no more than an instance of the interchange of i and e in the Prakrit itself. nivanasa-\-eva. as two Hinayana/ distinguished the Buddhist faith. i. has noted 2. The opposite i is Prakrit for process. u . having been formed. with this that the word yana in the older texts does not imply the idea of conveyance but of the path along which the soul proceeds...e. i which are stands Pali etena that is to and e Parvaifasa V2i\\ pabbajitassa. householder or of the recluse.' The Sanskrit diphthongs ai and au are absent in our Prakrit. M.' The Pali idea seems to be older. The occurrence of an alternative form satii (B. santlke. vai. after death. the elision of k between i and e. Note 7iibbanassa-\~eva. The nm is a metathesis for the Sk. 'of women or of men. Gehiparvaitasa va Pali (/ihiao pabbajitassa va. instr. Petersburg fragments. Senart regarded as a diphthong. as distinguished from a mere Bhikkhusarhgha. noticeable in . say. pravrajifasya.

(" smrti *' ^'). Dhammai^ada. Cf. Cf. UdanavargaS ch. 7) :— Suppabuddham pabujjhanti sada Gotamasavaka Yesam diva ca ratio ca niccaiii Buddhagata sati. 13: — " The disciple of Gautama is always well awake. (" smrti "). xv. 8) : — Yesam Suppabuddharii pabujjhanti sada Gotamasavaka diva ca ratto ca niccam Dhammagata sati." 5 supraudhu praujliati imi gotamasavaka yesa diva ya rati ca nica dliamakata smati O (AS 5) Cf. 12 : — " The disciple of Gautama is always well awake. Dhammapada. v. Udanavarga. day and night reflecting on the church. v.{ 106 ) Cf. 9) : — Suppabuddham pabujjhanti sada Gotamasavaka Yesam diva ca ratto ca niccam Samghagata sati. ch. xv." ^ Rockhill's translstion of the Tibetan version of the Udanavarga. Dhammapada. day and night reflecting on the Buddha. v. day and night reflecting on the law. 297 1 (Pakinnakavagga. 296t (Pakinnakavagga. Udanavarga^ ('^ smrti"). 14: — The disciple of Gautama is always well awake. Cf. ch. xv." 6 [sjupraudhu praujhati imi gotamasavaka yesa diva ya rati ca nica saghakata smati O (A^ 6) Cf. . 298t (Pakinnakavagga.

( 107 ) 7 [sup]raudhu praujhati imi gotamasavaka yesa diva ya rati ca nica kayakata smati O (A^7) Cf. (" smrti " '^). 299t (Pakinnakav. 301t (Pakinnakav. Udanavarga. ch. 12): — Suppabuddham pabujjhanti sada Gotamasavaka Yesam diva ca ratto ca bhavanaya rato mano. day and night delighting in kindness of heart. 18 : — The disciple of Gautama is always well awake. 800t (Pakinnakav. v. Dhammapada. 11) i :— Suppabuddham pabujjhanti sada Gotamasavaka Yesam diva ca ratto ca ahiriisaya rato mano.." 8 supraudhu praujhati imi gotamasavaka yesa diva ya rati ca ahinsai rato mano O (A^8) Cf.. xv. xv. Dhammapada.. ch. 10) :— Suppabuddham pabnjjlianti sada Gotamasavaka Yesam diva ca ratto ca niccam kayagata sati. reads praujati. ^ The Kharosth! Ms. v. . Cf. " Udanavarga. Cf. 21 : — The disciple of Gautama is always well awake. v. ("smrti")." 9 supraudhu p[r]au3hati^ imi gotamasavaka yesa diva ya rati ca bhamanai rato mano O (M9) Cf. day and night reflecting on what appertains to the body. which is evidently ati error of the scribe. Dhammapada.

as well as after I he fourth. (" smrti "). The Udanavarga which prean older Sanskrit recension. Dhamma Dhammapada." "They who day and night are reflecting on the church (sangha). . these men have the profits of mankind. xv." "They who day and night are reflecting on the law (dharma). The total number of Udana verses cast into the same mould are J 7. are analogous in thought to the first three of our series. these men have the profits of mankind. which has some bearing on the age of the The ^ ' Supraudhu the Three the {loc. Udanavarga. contains all these supposes six —The verses in its Smrti-group. as will appear from Roekhill's translation quoted below : of the — " They who day and night are reflecting on the Buddha. and who go to the Buddha for a refuge. There are three verses (9-11) ' in the same chapter Udanavarga. cannot be found in eulogise any other canonical text than the Dhammapada. which. preceding the Suprabuddha' series. and who go to the law for a refuge.C 108 ) C£.'' r to verses which are primarily intended disciples of Gotama." Notes.) how the eulogium of Refuges came to occupy a prominent place in the Buddhist faith and how the older conception of the Three liefuges (tisaranas) in the DhammTidasa (Digha. to The ruling Supraudhu which seems have been a supergrowth of the fisarana or tiratana idea. cii. to the verses (4-9) correspond in wording and sequence verses (7-12) in the 'Miscellaneous' group of the Pali Dhammapada. 98) changed the Three Jewels ideas of into the later poetical (firatanas) in the Ratanasutta (Suttanipata and Khuddakahave further shown that this change of idea patha). these men have the profits of mankind. 22 '^ : — The disciple of Gautama is always well awake. a negative evidence. the sequence being broken after the third verse. by the intervention of some additional verses which seem to have been composed at some later date on similar lines. II. ch. and who go to the church for a refuge. though not regular counterparts. must be relegated to a time when the savakas became the mainstay And judging from the optimistic of the Buddhist faith. " We have discussed in our " Asoka's We ' place idea of the took in no less ' than verses a century. p. day and night delighting in meditation.

( 109 ) tone of the verses.. and as 17 verses (10-26) of Magavaga are missing from the Kharosthl Ms. The Prakrit has kept to the Sanskrit so omission of h between T^he far as pr is concerned..^ The conjunct in Pali and Ardhamagadhi and seems to be a special feature of the dialect of our text as well as of the Shahbazgarhi In and Manschra recensions of Asoka's Rock Edicts. It is. The word is cognate adverbial object to the ' verb praujhatiy the idea being they awake with a good consonant pr is not to be found awakening. some at ' to the group. One may that the look upon this nical new tion : that it brings out certain ideas which are central theme. Supraudhu Prakrit verses outnumbered the ' and least in t3rd in order. 331. other Pali. it is difficult to vo "^ ^' ' * ' say how many Hut we have of ^upraudhu group. reasonable to think in the Kharosthl Ms.g. tatra. the Prakrit and — the older Sanskrit being 2nd therefore. Brahmadatia. varies in different recensions. contains all the Supraudhu verses of the Pali text. -fir^t. — multiplication of verses as a result of a most mechaattempt to swell the number of verses without any But to us it lias a two-fold significaarticulation. that of the verses missing — must have belonged words. the Prakrit Dhammapada. mj^pabuddham.. in Verse 4. that it sets the implicit forth a chronology of thought as well as of literature. and with a f-^w words like yatra. ^u'^Y2bU6}\}X=V2>\\. other instances where the number of verses them belonged to the ^ ' of a particular group. come out and flock to Buddha's standard) and " Ko attho supitena The Pali (what's the use sleeping?). umber minimum contains of Dhammapada Supraudhu^ verses and the Udanavarga the maximum.' v. which latter merged See references under Suttanipata^ V. in such exceptional — cases t as dentals and dm Brahma^ Brahmana. a and u can be explained by an intermediate change of the labial h into the semivowel ^'. and secondlt/. Pali r combines with a preceding labial /. the r. li .^ the ^Sahassa' group. c. hhadra and indriya. the minimum generally being in the Pali and the maximum in the Udanavarga. Our text. ' Apramadavaga. it seems that these were the compositions of a time of active Buddhist propaganda when Buddha's disciples deserved to be praised as truly awakened only by carrying their master's behest expressed in the words ' ' "arabbhatha nikkhamatha yunjatha Buddhasasane"^ (start. accusative adverb.

This reading is. The jh seems to have been simplified from jjli which corresponds to Sk. think that a general term like sad'd is better. 'turned towards The ^//*^/. svprmtdliu. The Verse 5-— Dhamakata = Pali towards the Dhamma\ dhawmagnia. Ca form 1/a above.— A. in our text. ratah. The Prakrit stands For the closer to Sanskrit so far as the s is concerned. the — equal to Pali ga. the ijam is an instance of phonetic Pali rata.lri. Cf. 19). .and Pali s. Yesa Pali j/^m7rz. ahimmyam. Rati— Pali ratti. the plural is shortened. sing. ahinmai/a. . Sk. The of ddh the many instances which exemplify the tendency of the dialect of our text to do away with double consonants. 2). Nica Pali niccam. 'turned the Samgha y^v&Qd. rd.57. Ilato Pali mano J Sk. Verse 7. Sk.). as all long vowels are. Sk. The final i = = . The fi which is a plural termination corresponding to Pali and Iini nfi. parejavn. Senart. final a standing for Pali am. dhyayjjJiayjha in pvavjliaii ^turned towards above. Y2i. Sk. instead of to have been ratto.( no ) into u^ the two sounds vu and simplification n being into dli very is much one of similar. 'they awake. v. Sk. context. see ?/a?ia (v. according to M. The The final a of to stand midway between Sk. This of is an instance seems genitive compound. niti/am. S. For the change of e into Prakrit i see eiina (v 3). yesaih. The final n=am (cf. verse 2. = We = . pahijjhmitij Prakrit and Pali forms are in the Parasmaipada. much better than the Pali sada. man ax. is locative) perhaps an instance of false analogy with We have an optional diva considered as nom. Buddha\ The Prakrit ka is here word is a compound. 'delighting in ^ Mano decay. The idiomatic form ought The form rati (nom. For Sk. dhy. Gotamasavaka Pali GotamasavaJca. sing. Pali and Sanskrit diva.]linsai = Pali replacing an instance of phonetic decay. Sk. Sk. corresponding to vgha is perhaps '. between a and v cf. Praujhati = Pali "* The prahiidhyante. ime.s' = = = — = Budhakata = Pali Buddhagata. is an instance of phonetic decay. while the For the omission of h Sanskrit is in the Atmanepada. a?jara = acarn (B. Smati See tya^cca'^ca cf.—Bagliakata — 'V^Xx sanghagata. ^sravaMh. Diva ea. But we cannot agree with him as iwi is quite the verse being detached from the unintelligible here.

this is he no more by pain the way to perfect purity. p. 1) Cf. he is no longer afflicted by pain : this is the way to perfect puiity. xit. Dhammapada. ^ M.. meditatioa\ . {'' The . — Sabbe samkhara dukkha 'ti yada paiinaya passati Atha nibbindati dukkhe. 27^ savi saghara anica ti yada pranaya pasati [eso tada niviiiati clLikh(a''^) magu visodhia]^ O* (A3. '' Udanavarga. 278t (Maggav. Cf. v into m cf. . Sk. 5 :— 'All created things are this when one has seen impermanent' through knowledge. and Fr. are xii.. Dhammapada. 27 7 1 (Maggav. A^ commences with our 27. ('' The Way "). hhavamy 77i.— Bhamanai 'ill = Pali 35). verses 10-26 are missing from the KharosthI Ms. Pali nam a (B. ." M.( 111 ) Verse 8. * Supplied by us. esa niaggo visuddhiya. Cf '• . Senart refei's to two small fragments where he finds traces of the * clause e§o magitj vi{_kod}iia\ which completes the verse. that is to say. * Supplied by us." 28 savi saghara t-ada niviiiati dukha ti yada praiiae gradhati dukha eso magu vis'odhia O (A% 2) 6) : Cf. 6 :— this : 'All created things ' grief is when one has seen afflicted through knowledge. 69 : — 5). esa inaggo visuddhiya. Theragatha. and Sabbe saihkhara anicca 'ti yada panfiaja passati k. Seuart's Fragment A* ends with our verse 9. Way "). Udanavarga.zai'V/7n = Prakrit For the change of thavanai/a.i\\i\ nibbiiidati dukkhe.

cardinal motive of Buddha^s admonition. 7 :— 'All created things are empty (^unyata)' when one has seen this through knowledge.!). 3) Cf. '•' 157. : Here is another o^roup of verses. Dhamina. and he was as consistent to the end.. and non-identity. x[i..e. three in number. Cf. be energetic in the performance of duties). suttas of the Majjhima Nikiiya..C 112 ) 29 sarv'i clhama tada nivinati anatma ti yada pasati caehuma dukha eso mago visodbia O (A3. Notes. suffering and unsubstantiality.. 7) :— Sabbe dliamma aiiatta "ti jada paniiaya passati Atha nibbindati dukkhe. C' The Way"). Nirvana. " Udaiiav. who were in a similar stage of ignorance and inexperience. he is no more afflicted by pain this is the way to perfect purity/' . the necessity of constantly being mindful of the three supreme truths or facts of common experience It Rahula* Not viz. though the views of life which they embody can be ascribed to the — Buddha is himself. trying to incite and inspire the thoughtless and indolent to be active and energjetic for the attainment of that tranquil and serene state of consciousness which is possible to attain through the effort of human There can be no mistake about this will in this very life. that he was indulging in a pessimistic vein. suffering. evident from Buddha's exhortation to his son that he wanted to impress upon his son and to others. viewing fact as fact.. which inculcate the religious significance and necessity of viewing *all created things'. A growing \ : ^ The Mahd-Rahalovada and the C ulla-Rahidovada Digha II. as These verses constituting the patli to Purity i. may be judged from his " Tltnula ddnl bliikkliave last utterance: Zimantayami vo ""^ -sankhani appamadena sampadetha (Now I vai/adluuiima subject to decay are created charge you. esa maggo visuddhija. in the light of the Buddhist doctrine of impermanence. cannot be traced in the older portions of the Nikayas. O bhikkhus things. p. but that he was. impermanence. . •279t (Maggav.

( 113 ) change ciples the later moralizing so great a Buddha's doctrine of Appamada is perceptible in tendency and pensive mood of his disand followers. Sk. forms are pranae (v. The Pali and Prakrit bear applicable to the sense here. Sk. the of to final i affording another instance the interchange of ^ and ^. Tada Pali and Sk. however. impermanent.' or the guttural nasal n is an Sk. 29. turned out in the hands of his followers to be almost an end in itself. The s makes (I. Senart's sarva. for instance. created things. SS). with the nivinati dukh{a eso Q). tesam vupasamo sukho result to 'ti. v. and that Which had been to Buddha a means to an end. pasyati. Cf. A^. regard it as an optional form of sarvi which makes a nearer viugo vi'sodhia : : approach to Sk. 'PQiS2iti= F^lipassati. 157. p. has nothing to say regarding If the reading savi be correct we have to difference. Cowpensalio?/. The correct In other instances also we meet reading appears in v. Saghara = Pali -w?lMara. with clear yada. sarve. an instance = paiiudt/a. The Sk. of vowel sandhi. jTrajfiatjd. See.^\i. which held a permanent sway over the Buddhist mind till at last the spirit of the doctrine was lost sight of. Nivinati= Pali nihbindaU. sarve. 4. with TV instead of simply v. Thus Sakka. The came — The second line : vv. Pranaya = Pa. samskdrah. 15 .Savi=Pali sahhe. Anicati=anica-\nica^ anityah. Verse help of 27. GOYYelative o^ 7/ada. forms mean gains. king of the gods. Yada Pali and Siv. it Here ' may be supposed stand for ' ' organisms organs of sense and of sonant (//i for the surd instance of M with bodies with their different The substitution of the action. M."^ was that the Buddhists of subsequent ages regard the truths as formulas for mystic repetition and as mantras for counting beads.' which is not nirvindati ov-te. Sk. [sa]rva'kelemj and B xiv fragments B vi this Senart. Anica=:Pali anicca. Uppajjitva nirujjhanti. tadd. M. and it is no wonder that the death of in man like him served to heighten the feeling of impermanence and excite a pessimistic mood. Sk.pra'fiai The optional cognition. 9). 27-28 as follows may — tada be restored. was made to sing perhaps long before the •' Dhammapada verses were composed : — Anicca vata sankhara uppadavayadhammino. the Prakrit form closer to Sanskrit. II . ili.li = ' ^ Digha.

^^ ga. 9: dpo ca pathavl tejo vayo na The difficulty is to account for the gra in place of gcidhati. Accordingly.' the the Sanskrit form grhnati from ^/grah. 28). ii another instance of Cf.'\i we are to derive p.but in idea they seem to be connected with Sk. p. Senart's ingenious enough. the proper form being grafhnati. anatma (v. sees. an aec.' Gradhati=^grantJi >ii 'penetrates. apparently used in the same sense a^ pnkati of the preceding verse. though a locative singular construction would have been more idiomatic.' ' as to M. Gradhati Sk. it must be equated with a Pali or a Sanskrit word of which the derivative meaning would be Such a Pali word we can think of is gadhati (Sk.' hence gahate) " Yattha Pali Udana. Verse 28. of r compare sari above Dukh(a) stands foi Pali dulih/ie." n for nd is a phonetic decay.e. ' in which case the verb nivinati must mean rightly underAs regards the Pali dtiJckhe. familiar notion of the grahya-grahaka relation of sepses ' . The equation of gradhaii with granthati would be quite on the lines of the change of sankhara into saghara (vv. 27). — Jivi)sh3bt\ = du'kha-\-iti.' Sanskrit. to receive. concludes. Senart. : . and would have commended suggestion if the form could be settled itsftlf to our ready acceptance from the philological stand-point. M. It may be neeessaiy to inquire if the Pali passaii.' M. Gradhati is the present case by the meaning cf the word. This may be explained by a process of False Analogy with ' ' . 29). 1. of v. Senart quotes Childers out by the Tibetan version. 9).'' Cf the to dive. arising out of a true knowledge of the real character of existence. 27.^ the change of the first aspirate conjoined with the nasal of the group into But the equation is not permissible in the second aspirate. Senart). according is no such word as granthati in There reasons.( 114 ) resemblance to Sanskrit only in form.pranai/a granihati the final e standing for i/a.Q=.' This is is and also borne meaning suggested by Buddhaghosa. Vx2i^2i. to realise. i. plural. 'dives it from the root graih is ' to link. vowel sandhi. means. he deduces. *' who interprets it only does he conceive disgust for For the omission [existence which is nothing but] pain. nn'veda. 'to see. The Prakrit seems to be an accusative singular corresponding to Pali dulikham.'' to penetrate. into.. to weave. Prakrit word has anything to do with Pali gadhati (Udana. understands. Pali niohechiy * sense of indifference in regard to pain. (according to M. we might take it as stands '. 27. to be explained on the = Gradhati ^iani^s for analogy of sanWiara-^saghara (v.

a^. Buddhist theory of ^no-souF replaced these older ideas by a psychological theory of the mind as a stream of consciousness. Sk.' For the change of kkk the Prakrit keeps closer to Pali. and avechiti a reading also meet with for avekkhaii (I. the praj'M being considered as the prajfia-caksu. an is an instance which shows that the Prakrit like Pali has done away with the final consonant. Such instances as these may. cakhuma in the next verse. 14). gadhiti occurs in a Jataka (Fausboll. '"' A '' phrase verse i/aitlta paiiHa III. * Upanishadic theory of the soul as an unchangeable substraof all changes and mental functions as well as of the naive animistic notion of an in-dwelling spirit capable of going out and coming into the body at its sweet will. similar to dukhali in v. lies in the fact that it makes manifest the underlying metaphor of wisdom regarded as an eye or mode of perception. both ancient and modern.' The negative form of the word atma or atman does not imply the negation of all the idea of a It implies indeed the negation of the older percepient.( 113 ) and objects being presupposed. ' he who has eyes to see.iti) Sk. auatmeii {and. compare rachati ^oy rakkhaii (I. This is another instance of vowel sandhi.y meaning (where wisdom) gains no footing/^ 508 f .tnuL + iti). conception has been so much misunderstood by critics. na p.e. 8arve. as that of 'luatma. and gadhati is explained in the commentary as ^' ^^ gad/iam 2^atitiham na labhati^^ i. a^. so that the equation would be ma ma^ but since our Prakrit has no long vowel. — Sarvi= Pali 6Yf^^6'. the i replacing the e. The verse under notice does not seem so much concerned to tum bring out the philosophical idea of ' no-soul ' as to accentuate the necessity of renunciation. '11 The Prakrit form keeps closer to Sanskrit. cahklmmciy In this instance Sk. into ck. and anicatl in v. the Zi is shortened into a. The Prakrit form almost coincides with the Sanskrit. 16). .). a feature which is very common in the Prakrit of our text. caksnmim. 28. which is first palatalised into cc/t^ and then reduced to ch for facility of pronunciation. The change is from ks through Cachuma = Pali We assimilation into kkh. a The notion which is prevalent among all ancient peoples. No Buddhist . Ma for St. which literally means no-soul. have been the results of the process of Sanskritization of an older Buddhist dialect. Verse 29. Anatmati = Pali awdtdti {anatta-^. The interest of the reading pa'sati cachiima instead of pranaya is II = pahaii as in verse 27. we think. and pranae gvulliati as in verse 28.

v. " Maggan' atthafigiko settho saccanam caturo pada. Pali attha. meaning that which has ' the eightfold.e. while ' '' (Uiica in the Udanavarga it precedes the verse. (" The Way ^'). of the Paths:= among the Paths.' AfJta is simplified from Sk. an instance of sandhi and compound {atha-\-agio). — theme of our verse serves to wind up the teaching of this chapter. angiJcah. astmigikah. O . dhammanaih dipadanan ca cakkhuma. as will appear from the first quotation above. Athagio Pali afihaiigiko. is Ehayano ayam " the only Path {Mahasatipatthana-suttanta. Compare. "— = = . eight parts.( 116 ) 30 magana athagio setho sacana cauri pada yiraku setho dhamana pranabliutana cakhuma (A^4) Cf. v. genitive of the Prakrit mago or magu. asta through the intermediate V^\ Agio Jt has already been noted that ii angihoy Sk. This verse.. 27. v. In our " anatma " text it is placed after the verse. 5) Notes.) :— virago settho C£. . i. occurs at the beginning of the Pali Maggavagga.. 29. the four truths the (are the best) tlie best of ways tlie best of bipeds the greatest of virtues (dharma). plural of the word mago or The significance of the genitive magu is that it makes explicit the contrast of the Buddhist Path with those followed by others. passionlessness. and in the Pali it is placed before three verses preceding the " ^' am'ca verse The verse under notice cannot be traced in other extant canonical work.^. the expression " *' hhikhhave maggo This. Dig ha II).. The genitive is in the sense of the locative . O bhikkhus. Dhammap. v. 4 : — Among eightfold is way is he who sees . Udana^arga." ga 30 (A3. ]y[agana = Pali magganaw. for instance. 1. . truths ch. f. 273t (Maggav. xii. a contrast which is tacitly implied in many genuine utterances of the Buddha. though the underlying any The praise of the Path which is the idea is a familiar one. Sk.

b. savaka (vv. srestliah. cf. 4-9). It strictly equates with Pali cattari. 32). 27 sagapa for sanl^appa I. if we four divisions. Senavt rightly points out that cattan or dialects readily used for catvari is in the Buddhist He further suggests that though cauri the masculine. where it is . For the omission of /• between i and e. The k is dropped between sagamii for saiigamo (1. (v. the change of o into i being only Indeed cauri is the result of a mixing up of mechanical. cf. Pada corresponds to the Pali reading ^^^r/i^. M. a generic name for all painful The significance of the term experiences of mankind. v. concerning the way. leaves us in the dark as it may stand alike for pada Prakrit pada.o^emtive plural. 5. The corresponding form in Sanskrit would be padZini (neuter pi. nasal is dropped but the sonant remains unchanged. Sk. 9). sati/anam. the fourth. masculine form of the Pali will be well accounted for. appears to be the direct reflex of catvari. 12). 1). ' is that the Path is expounded as consisting of Eightfold eight parts or categories.( 117 ) of Pali and is dropped in our Prakrit in instances the same conconjoined with a surd of and the surd sonantal itself group. between i and i cf. 6). the right views.. v/^.g. a^. See M. it may better be connected with cniiiro. 3). Atthaiigiko or 'the eightfold Budcllnst technical term denoting the Buddhist Path which leads to JSirvarta conceived in its negative aspect as the complete cessation of suffering. ' = the two forms masculine and neuter caturo and cattari. between n and ' o vjvo {y. for and padZini. c^'". Sk.). considered without the neuter numeral to the gender it denotes.. catvari. changes into the corresponding sonant {e. i and o here. as in ahuyana is a (v. scUii (I. Senart the intervention . salie Sk.'' For the conception of \?ik\n^ padah in the sense of mcltrah. Cauri corresponds to the Pali reading caturo. But here we have an instance where the nasal of A^. cf. 27). the right resolve. 1)..' the Sanskrit catvarah pad ah. For c see anica (v. But the question is whether caturo pari d e3ini\ot be re<2:arded as the Pali counterpart of four portions or divisions. Sacana = Pah saccanam. etc. This path is counted as one of the Four Truths. the Mant ukya Upanishad: So'^yamdtma The jiralliamah padah. Senart's Notes (p. and so forth. But it is not dropped after a. saghara^ov saiikhara.' trace it to the Upanishadie conception of the ' ' fourpadas : ' The cauri. ^ ' — — catu^jpat cf. athagio above. The the guttural group is conjoined with the sonant g. In the ease of cauri we have presupposed with M. paga for Pali paiika I. catvari. Sk. Cf. dviflyah padah. Pa1i settho. §etho For the simplification of tjia from Pali Wia.

( 118 caturo.). however.) can be said case of the Prakrit pada. The Sanskrit genitive [)lural of prdnabkrt is prdnabhrtdm. The meaning is is Pali The living beings. pdnabhaidnam and the correspoLding Prakrit pranabUatana. though there is much in respect of grammar. For the change (v. A glaring instance of such confusion is furnished by the Buddhist expression cattari dh riinu apadiuii (in the sense of dhammajjada).' though in the garb oi pada. Budhakata for u for o. cf.' dipadariam ('of the reading bipeds '). ness. illustration bearing out our hypothesis of the derivation of ^^ Cakhuma keej)s . The 146). explained in the light of the old Upanishadic classification ^ four padas. 2. 189). explained also as the four divisions of the Norm. ^e keci not be free from objection on one ground or another. p. 2). a narrower comparison which is implied also in the Pranabhutana would with — Pali Udanavarga. ) of an intermediate forms siud —masculine and form A similar confusion of })1. and the final cf. 1).a^/r/ was forgotten in Plili and the word came — pad a. two i^itwiev.' Viraku = Pali k. closer to Pali cakkhumZi than cachnma Indeed this reading is a typical of the preceding verse. there is no difference in sense between T^a*^^ (masc.). an instance of saiiiasa. equate ' of partahhTitaiiam. virago. of As a matter of fact. the familiar expression for the Four Noble Truths. pranabhrtsu. the former of which. Sk.padah to hold good (Sk. the history of 7. that is to say. pyraaahliatava and the V^\ pa^riahhutavam seem to have been the result of a confusion of Sanskrit hhrta with hhuta. magic (v. which appears to have retained a It seems that masculine form in an undetectable way. Saccanam caturo pada is another way of saying cattari arii/asaccani.). Having regard to the fact that the older Upanishadic expression pranabhrt denotes a living being {ai. Cf. The form prdnabJirfandm will be justified if it is corroborated by the actual use of a stem prdnabkrta in The proper Pali form would have been Sanskrit literature. bhrta in the Nikaya expression bhato nrsam bJtarissdiui^^ (Digha III. this theory of Ait. paddni (Pali and Sk. II 3. 'dispassionateof the sonant g into the cor- responding surd generally after for a. The form panablmia equated with pranabJmia actually ptciriahhut' occurs in Pali. {ydM). Buddhagnfa 4. Pali bhato equating with Sk. viragah. would atlhi^^ expression v. the ^' : Prakrit (Suttanipata. Araiiyaka confusion would seem sufficient to explain the Pali or the Prakrit form as corresponding literally to Sanskrit pranibhuianam or prdnab/irtdndih. in the to be confounded with pada. Cf.) and pada (neut.

Apramadavaga] ^ head. to for gadha {galha)^ (ja to st. and we shall see more of it when numbering we deal with the next group of verses. use of this Senart takes it thereby interpreting contains 30 stanzas. It will be noticed how M. X. but there are some in the Prakrit text and the Udanavarga which can be traced.ind imply that the group or chapter But unfortunately he has not made to systematise tlie verses according to chapters as has been attempted in the present edition. These three recensions of the Dhammapada have many Appamada verses in common. and forms the second chapter of the book. 168t (Lokavagga... The title in the Chinese Fa-Kkeii-pi-u (see sec. This has been the cause of a very serious drawback in his otherwise valuable work.in e of the tinal may M. The Udanavarga " " verses grouped vender Purity Apramada (wrongly rendered by Rockhill) number 35 and form the 4th chapter. The reading. 2) : — Uttitthe nappamajjeyya dhammarh sucaritam care Dhammacarl sukharh ^ seti asmirfa loke paramhi ca. as may be judged from the number mentioned in the colophon ^^ga 25 " (I.( 119 tliis ) many Prakrit words of text throQi^h some intermediate Pali forms. The Pali 'Appamada' verses can not be traced in any other canonical text. Senart's edition is uti/ha. but the chapter has hardly any verse in common with the latter. a^. v. Senart has labonred under a disadvantage in trying to number seiialh^ whole verses on a leaf. 8). Ga 30 — M. Dhammap. In the Pali recension the Appaniada group has 12 verses. Beal's translation) is the same as in Pali. . of verses under this is The group and this ' ' ' ' ' ' 1 utithe^ na pramajea clhaniu sucarita cari dhamacari suliu soati asmi loki parasa yi O '(A^6) Cf. but he says that the omission be due to the negb'gence of the scribe and not to any- dialectic peciiliarity. all deal with aprathe justification of the title we have chosen for it. Tha group consists of 25 stanzas. [2. regardless of their central theme and of the number indicated in the colophon marking the close of a chapter.

as here. as has been done in the Pali text and the Udanavarga. implies primarily an idea that of a state of inactivity. uttMiet ^J'he word reminds one ittJianasuita ir>' : (Optative). This verse which marks the beginning-." .. indolence. the most important verse e. i. II. the occurrence of it in the ^Loka^ group of the Pali text is hardly justifiable. is generally loose. Therag. in the group.( 120 ) Notes. The compiler might as well have put it ^ in the Appamada group. the verse seems to have been included in the Loka group simply because it happens to contain a word about Loka. 27. (i) 1 Cf. according to our arrangement. ma. o£ the second chapter of the Prakrit text seems rightly inchided in the Apramada group . Sk. which brings out the essence of the teaching ' of the Apramada discourse as a whole. v. ' ' ' ' should rise up. 2 : — II" Uttisthata ma svapta agnim icchadhvam Bharatih. the Prakrit text has quite consistently grouped together all the verses of which the main theme is apran^ada. and secondarily. it has a serious drawback in that it does not put in the beginning." Kathopanishad. keeping close No.14 Uttisthata jagrata prapya varan nibodhata Ksnrasya dhara nisita duratyaya dnrgaiii pathastat kavayo vadanti : (ii) — " j| (iii) " Taittirlya Aranijalia. present verse. to 10^). 411 " :— Utthahi nisida Ktitiyana md niddJibahulo aha jagarassu. 'one 7iappaviajje?j7/a. though mechanical. though a greater stress is laid on Appamada than on Loka. I. (v. '^apramadu amatapada " etc. tarn alasam paniattabandhu kuten' eva jinatu maccuraja. 6 infra). as noticed before. the compiler having in many cases made an injudicious selection of verses for a group. energy and religious enthusiasm to strive for the best within human reach. but so far as the device is On the other hand. as its relevancy to the general reflections on the world is very slight.. moral cowardice or a want of wall. I. as opposed to ntithe.g. for he seems to have been careless of the distinctive tone of a paricular verse justifying ' ' — its inclusion in a particular For instance. The Pali arrangement of verses.' the Pali in attlio Utithe = Pali uUiUhe. relax/ form Pramajea. should not the Pali. thoughtless- ness. he is consistent. sleep or dozing or a morbid state of body and mind as experienced by a person dead drunk.isldalha 'one ho — of the exhortation ^ Utthahaiha Na of pramajea = Pali an optative supitena (Suttanipata. Bk. 3.

e. 4 ff. 11. evincing a tendency to incline to the latter form. :— » The wise man through earnestness. 4 f.. virtue. 30 another evidence of the irterchange of c and ^. more to say. Magava.. desire to maintain a rhythm with the / of the previous I... As to seati M.e. here it means the enjoyment of a blissful rest. v. Asmi = Pali asmim. iv. Taittiriya command one should not swerve from the principle (see Taittiriya In Hncarita carl tve have another instance Up. " ch.( 121 ) sucarita cari. perhaps. That the normal use is sefi is clear from I. 25 t (Appamadav. supraudhi pravjhati. For dhamacari fon)pare a variant dhamayari in I. reminds us of another Ulharman na pramaditavyam^ i. The in a locative sense Yi = Pali (ef. c"^". Tne of yi is. vv. Nirvana. asmin. v. Senart thinks that it rests "not on the usual form heti^ but on the form kiyatiy ay a being written e '\ But it would have been. /' word ab?ni. c''*'. V. In the Prakrit of our text Parasa = Sill. 'fulfil the law' but not discordant with the cosmic). 5): — Utthaiiena appamadena safmameiia damena ca Dlpaih kayiratha medhavi yarii ogho nabhiklrati. I. i. due to a Magavji. 2 uthanena apramadena safiamena damena ca divu karoti medhavi ya jara nabhimardati O (AS.^.. Sk.)." 16 . Cf. that it is a compromise correct between keti and sayafi.. 3).. Dhamu dhammam — ' ' — word f^eati is significant as showing how the Buddhist verse dwells upon the idea of sleeping . a form with a genitive termination but used sagarandasa for samkarakTitasmim^ the usual form being ya (see cii. c""". Pali parassa. and purity makes himself an island which no flood can submerge. is nowhere changed into mid. (^'Purity ").j. 1). of a Buddhist expression where a past participle sucaritaA^ used as a coy^nate adverb (cf. perhaps. unlike the Pali. v. when coupled with na praniajea. 5 Udanav. This expression. 7) Cf. which eorrespouds to the Pali sncarifam care^ reminds us at once of the Taittimoral riya command 'dhnrmam cava' (/. 30. Dhammap.

Dhammap. {'' Purity "). end with the readin^r jara nabhimardati.. while the Dhammapada and the As Udanavarga agree in having a different reading. v. v. In the second line we concerned. Pali expression oglio ndbhiklnti appears more it is. rv. 'decay does not crush'. M. So karohi sudipara attano tvaih. is explicit by jara^ and abkimardati abhikirati 7) \ is aptly used with jara Senart's suggestions (I. But virtually there is no difference. for it is really 2. as with ogho. the appropriate than the Prakrit yW« ^^a^//^V?^«rr^r/^^ in a simile where the imagery of an island is present. have. and in merlhavi a nom. so far as it may be judged from The verseRockhill's translation. " v. by their whole " life which is according to the law. . our text. of which the ndbliiinaddati.. exactly corresponds to the Pali. in hnroti^ a present singular form in place of the Pali optative plural kai/iratha. and far-fetched. form in place of the Pali plural medhavl.( 132 ) Notes. Utthanavato satimato sucikammassa nisammakarino Sannatassa ca dhammajiviuo appamattassa yaso 'bhivad- Cf. is similar to the Prakrit. na hi tanaih tava vijjateva amiam. their perfect observance (of the commandments). 24 t (Appamadav. the purity of their lives.. that is meant here. verse so far as its — The Prakrit first line is Udaiiavarga reading.. The sinof. 6 :— diligence. as is evident from the Pali would be /(^m to is peculiar testimony of Therag. their judgment. jara-oglia^ Hhe flood of decay '. seem rather laboured 3 uthanamato smatimato suyikamasa nisaraacarino saiiatasa hi dharnajivino apramatasa yasidha vadhati (A3. " Udanav. 8) O Cf." sense of ogha Prakrit makes in it The the ' the Pali reading as a"^. 4) : — dhati. ch. 412 : — Sayathapi mahasamuddavego evaih jatijarativattate taih. V. is too indefinite. 'Tis the earnest that become far-famed by their reflection.

. v. is in tone the same as vv. wbo is always careless in his tbougbts. who. 4 uthanaalasa^ anuthahato yoi ball alasieuvito sansanasagapamanosmatima^ pranai maga alasu na vinati O (A. xxxi." Notes. the initial vowel being elided through In this verse. and — This verse in a vowel sandhi in yasidha {t/asa + idha). of dhannnacanno. (" The Mind")..3 9) Cf. as in many a sandhi with the previous word. alasa anuthahato = Pali uiihanakalamhi aimiihahano^ "he who remains seated when it is time to rise" (Udanavarga). the change of k into c in nisamacarino. reads uthane alasa.. 1-2.( 123 ) Notes. sits slothfully at home. and corresponds form to the Pali except for hi in place of ca after saHatasa and yasidha vaclhati in place of yaso^hhi''. a ^ The Ms. tbougb stiong and young. Udanav. exactly corresponds in form as well as of in tone to the Pali except for the word smatima in place ^ M. ball v. others. 280 t (Maggav. Senart's suggestion. This verse which sets forth the evil effect of indolence and thoughtlessness. The expression msamacarino might also be equated with Pali nisanimacarino which is a synonym. Cf. The alteration has been according to M. ch. There is nothing more to notice than the chano^e of c into y in suyikamasa. the total Uthanaeffect being the intensification of the main idea. 8) :— upeto alaso Uttbanakalamhi anutthabano yuva Saihsaniiasafikappamano kuslto alasiyam paiinaya maggarh na vindati. unless it be sup2:)osed that it is asmatima. Smatima is joined to the preceding word because of sandhi. i^enart rightly points out that indolent. 82 :— "He wbo remains seated when it is time to i-ise. v.' hmto. made above . Dhammap. one cannot fail to notice the Buddhist method of defining a term by juxtaposing a host of synonyms differing from each other in slight shades of meaning. — the expression smatima is inexplicable. in a narrower sense. will not find the road to wisdom.

v. the old evil crept into the who them Buddhist system.. f/ { = a/n'msaya). parasa in t/o v.li samsavnasaiikappamano. Senart. is compared to a cowherd counts the cattle of others without being able to claim as his own. yo dhammarii na-ppamajjati. 'iO. of ca and ho( /V^^y) values 'much learning' without any original vision or perception of truth. Dhammap. reference to the established method of Vedic study — = : " Bahumpi ce mhitam hJiasaw. 4) : — Na Yo tavata dhammadharo yavata balm bhasati ca appaiii pi sutvana dhammarii kayena passati lioti Save dhammadharo Notes. since yoi may alike be equated with yiiva. 8..j V.^^ the Udanavarga we have yuv'a. for cujam. o]).). v. cit. ^ansanasagapamano =^Pa. He Dhammapada and assuredly j^referable to jjnva. 5. V. vv. 1. 5 na tavata dhamadliaro yavata baho bhasati yo tu apa bi sutvana dhamu kaena phasai O sa ho dhamaclharo bhoti yo dhamu na pramajati O 11) (AMO. As for the notes 27.ano''^ etc. accordinoj to M. The lack of insight and originality of . Cf. In the Pali Dhammapada we have two other verses. and we need not necessarily suppose that yoi^^yo ay am. Magavaga. or when the Buddhist texts were compiled. and saghara. In course of time when Buddha's doctrine and discipline were rehearsed and put together. where this Buddhist view of learning is inculcated more emphatically and with a direct ef. A man who can recite many hymns (samhifa) bnt does not act according to the injunctions laid down therein. fully a^ree with uthatiaalasa we have another form with a i^enitive termina- We tion for is the locative (ef. Slaving an irresolute mind. i being a change from va^ perhaps through an intermediate ya. 18-19. v. 259 t (l)hammatthav. Jaravnga. change of athagio in iik into {^aga]pa^^8an]xa'pp)(i\ see on Magavaga. thinks that ^^this But in both the is retained before -s as in aJiiiisai V.. Senart that in second foot. and hliensiii { = /jIietsyati).( 124 ) nes^ative expression followed by a positive synonym in the M.' * In a few instances the nasal ii in a state of indecision/ reading Yoi stands. The expressions of the Prakrit verse are similar to those of its Pali counterpart except for tu in place in place of The verse underve.

Dhammap.( 125 ) conception have been the bane of all Sanskritic studies. ch.. v. 6 apramada amatapada pramadu mucuno pada apramata na miyati ye pramata yadha mutu O^ (A•^ \%) Cf. Here reading phasai is as good as the Pali pissati^ a of a we have kayamkkhl (see A^iiguttara.' Nevertheless the Prakrit * sees. The Buddhist judgments on two contrasted types are well worth consideration (1) a Dhammadhara without an original vision. {'' Purity . v. v. 1) — Dlpavaiiisa p. impure 7 dies repeatedly. i. 21 t = rausboll's 40 Jataka. v. (Appamadav. Majjhima. 478). 2) :— Etarii visesato natva appamadamhi pandito Appamade pamodanti ariyanam gocare rata. Mahaparinibbanasuttanta a Bhammculhara. ^'). 22 t (Appamadav. has been distinguished from a Vinayadliara or a mahkadhara. Dhamu kaena phasai would strictly equate with a Piili dhammam kayena phnssati^ touches tlie law with his mind.. 1 :— The pure man knows not death he who is impure dwells with death he who is he who is pm'e will not die . p. v.. I. description : ' T. iv." apramadasa panito apramadi pramodia ariana goyari rato eta visesadha fiatva O (AM 3) Cf. .e.. p. In a passage of th« custodian of the Buddhist faith. v. . Cf. and {i) a Kai/asakkhl who has a direct perDhamadharo= Pali (Ihammadharo^ a ception of truth. ^ The circle is supplied by us.. 99 :— Appamado amatapadarii pamado maccuno padaih Appamatta na mlyanti ye pamatta yatha mata. p.. 118. " Udanav. a custodian or rehearser of the Sutta Pitaka in later nomenclature. Dhammap. the terms being replaced in later phraseology by Vinoy a Pitaka and Ahhidhamwa Pitaka.

however. genitive appamadauilii termination for the locative singular. Verse 7. v. tv.. vikef^airam.j = Therag. (•' Purity ")." Notes. 'difference' Apramadasa Here is another form with a. as a matter of fact. vises zUam. —The teaching in of nut-shell verse 6 ' ' Verse 6. it seems that i'is^'m(l/m=Psk\[ Pali'. -n." .. 2. cf. the whole chapter is put in a and.. Pamadam Cf. = Pali . v. p. Udanav. {'^ Purity ''). 883 : — anuyunjanti bala dummedhino jana Appamadan ca medhavi dhanarii settharii va rakkhati. I. The Prakrit reading seems more emphatic than the Pali. iv.' mrfah. while the valiant die but once. this their pleasure is difference delight in that of the elect. M.( 126- ) Cf. V. v. = Samyutta. v. parasa.srir///Y7 as 'formed by the sufRx dha. Senart takes ?-28r. Magav. 10 :— "The (mind is of the) fool who is given np to carelessness perverted the wise man must be careful. Dhammap. this verse is put at the head of the chapter in other recensions than the Prakrit. . vlset^jia of Sk.. 26 t (Appamadav. The moral inculcated reminds one of Shakespeare's famous pronouncement thnt ^cowards die many times before their death'. ch. which may in this ca^e very well supply tlie suffix fahof the To us. cli. 2 :— modesty " The wise who knows and purity . Sk. (sino^ular) //afJili —Yadha mutu i/atkd mato. meaning particulaily (cf. as is the head of a caravan watching his treasures.. ' —Visesadha improves the ' Pali leading ruomto^ the commentary). 8 pramada anuyujati bala drumedhino jana apramada tu medhavi dhana sethi v^a rachati O (AM4) Cf. with a Pali would strictly equate ' like one dead.. Udanav. 6) v.

. 9) : — Appaiiiatto pamattesu suttesu bahujagaro Abalassarii va sighasso hitva yati sumedhaso. which gives only " a vague and colourless ])retation explain than the according to M. v. the second line is that of a race in which a fast horse leaves behind a weak one.. factory s'lfjIuiMo. as the commentary suggests. va is not at all colourless seems that the expression clJianam settham as he thinks.sso the Hare and the Tortoise. story of is which = = = meaninof ' having a good brain-power. 29 t (Appamadav. Avalas Pali abalnssam. simile in The bhadro kasamiva. a compound (bhadra + am). Senart the reading sethi appears to be decidedly better than the Pali seftham. the idea being as a * ' man seven * e. in . a sandhi Sumedhasu Pali suynedhaso.' which is a synonym of medhavi in the preceding verse. M. a vowel sandhi {avala-\-asa).e. The teaching of the present verse is somewhat different from the moral of the a. Dhammap. v. Senart singles this out as the only instance where v has been substituted for b.( 127 ) Notes.g. that the slow but steady win the race.' f jr instance. —There is nothing more in this verse to simile dhana sethi va rachati. Dhammapada.^sop's Fables. an antithesis of avalasa ( = '^^<^'5'^^55tfm) than The term bhadrasu denotes a well-trained horse." " '^ of set/ii as a banker. Senart. Bhadrasu Pali bhadrasso. over the keeps watch over a precious possession or over a jewels. Notes. v. M.. Pah* dhanam setthi va While we cannot dispute his interepithet. which. —This of verse for as closely 1'he resembles in form ( its except place the reading bhadrasu = dhadrasso) is Pali parallel in less slf/hasso.. 143. the head of a caravan it (Udanavarga). Kohinoor. expression hJiadrasu satis- cf. like a banker watching his treasures). should be equated with a To rakkhati {i. . ^ The circle is supplied by us. 9 apramatu pramatesu sutesu bahojagaru avalasa va bhadrasu hitva vaii sumedhasu O^ e/ (AM5) Cf.

steadfast tlirough wisdom. t (Appamadav. The - * circle is supplied by us. Cf. . Senart's edition madena malcahha are linked together (see.( 128 ) 10 pramada apramadena yada riudati panitu pranaprasada aruyu asoka soino jana pravatatlio va bhumatha dhiru bala avechiti O ^ (A^ Cf. p. 17 and A^.. perhaps. . The circle is supplied by us. they ascend to above the abode of the gods. in spirit the —The teaching verse previous with this difference the u of resulting y in more from yh than from that it is due. Since the Prakrit form appears to be possible pt { — hya^ = We liy. 4 :— When the wise men through earnestness have overcome lieedlessness. see M. have sins^ular accusative endino^s." of this is Notes. same as that of the that the similes are changed. In M. Dhamma]). (" Purity''). ch. A". '28 = Vinaya 1. 387 : — 8) Pamadam appamadena yada nudati pandito Pannapasadam ar ay ha asoko sokinim pajam Pabbatattho va bhunimattlie dhiro bale avekkliati.5= Miliiida. v. v.. I. free from sorrow and pain. oO t (Appamadav. iv. Bhumatha and bala il apra[madena makabha'^ devana sarnidli(i) gat]u apramada prasajhati pramadu garahitu sada O^ (A^. to the loss of the aspirate partly from the interchanged positions of h and Pali. who walk along the street.. v. 10): — Appamadena Maghava devanaih setthataih Appamadam pasaihsanti pamado garahito ' gato sada. it is necessary to point out presupposes a Pali oiiginal. then.. 16) Dhammap. they look down as from the summit of a mountain at the fools on the face of the earth. Av\i'yVL V§M arm/ka. 1). For the might just notice that reading.. The first simile is that of a roj^al personage looking down from the balcony of a ])alace at the multitude. v. 1 completing entire verse) together the Cf. p. v. Senart's Notes. " IJdanav. and.

. Notes. 7 is a momentous event in the compilation of the present edition. . we have an exhortation not to have verse. 172 t (Lokav. rosfcbi of the plates of the KhaMs. appears as a remnant of a verse of which he was able to trace no parallel. — In M.. ^. 167 t (Lokav. p. ing. -. Senart assures us of the correctness of his readBut we should have expected a reiding like prasansati. in our text the m is changed into n 12 (hi)^na dhama na sev(e)^a michadithi na roy(e)'^a pramadena na savasi na sia lokavadhano O* (A^2) Cf. samiddhim att no^ Vra8ajhati=V2X\ pasamsauti. We need not point out at length the errors to which the French scholar was led on account of this oversight on his part. santi. Senart's suggestions. The k for the change of gh into Samidhi Pali samidhim. cf. v. 1) : — Hinam dhammam na seveyya pamadena na samvase Micchaditthi na seveyya na siya lokavaddhano. wrong views and popularity.. 84. 17 . Dhammap.. (5 remembering that before s. 13 so ita yo tu puvi pramajati pacha su na pramajati loku ohaseti abha muto va suriu O (A'^ 3) Cf. v.. 1 with A^. II. 105 v. Sk. is which = anything to do with sensuality.( 129 ) Notes. M. aspiration of compensates through an intermediate g. v. v. Supplied by us. = Therag. V. some in accordance with M. = MaJ3hima. 1. pra'samDhp. The discovery of the connexion of A^. line A^. 6) 871:— Yo ca pubbe pamajjitva paccha so na-ppamajjati So'raaih lokarh pabhaseti abbha mutto va candima. to — In its this Pali of place exactly similar in expression rocei/i/a) in counterpart except for royea { seveyya. Dhammap. with the reading '^ waclenamahahha devanasamidli{i) gat y.. = which may be substituted as a synonym for the Pali setthatam. Senart's adjustment 1 Makabha = Pali Maghava. thoughtlessness. * ^.

The expression than the Pali candima. — etam. I. 1147 = Samyutta. according to M. 5 :— He who formerly was heedless and who afterwards has become careful. Cf. eb. cf. while in the Dighanikaya vv. vv. v. Senart's Notes. 15 and 16 constitute a whole. 138 Arabhadhvarh niskramata yujyadhvam buddhasasane Dhunlta mrtyunah sainyam nadagaram iva kunjarah. 156-7: — :— Arabbhatha nikkhamatha yunjatha buddhasasane Dhunatha maccuno senani nalagaram va kunjaro. Prainajati=^Pali pamajjaii. pp.. ('^Miscellaneous"). like an Angulimala. have been pra7najeti ov pramajiti—jjramajitva. he brightens up the whole world. and cannot aspire to live a better life on account of their sinful disposition. A right reading would. v. sTtrii/o. the Samyutta and tha Divyavadana. Theragatha t. 256. Udanavarga. like the moon free from clouds. xvi.( 130 ) Cf. ch. M. Divyavadana. In tbis verse we can perceive a change of tone. Cf. " Udanav . aspirate after y aruyn (v. 14 being absent. . 68. pp." Notes. 34 : — "Arisfi. as an elephant does a house of mud. iv. Suriu Pali — As iov ita in the = Epenthesis {I'ln — ryaK). v. 10). the commence a new life." ^ This verse together with verses 15 and 16 i^i to be considered as a blended whole. as we have in it a message of hope for those who have so far been thoughtless. The teaching of the simile in the second line is that sin is but a passing shadow of the mind which darkens man's spiritual prospects. vocalized and changed into Prakrit reading is a stronger 14 ^ arahadha nikhamadha yujatha budhasasane dhunatha macuno sena nalagara ba kuiiaru o (A2. Senart. the counterpart of the Prakrit verse 15 is absent and those of vv. In the Theragatha. see an instance of language ( It seems that is f our text an 71 . 14 and 16 only are found grouped together. ("Purity").4) Cf. turn towards the doctrine of Buddha trample down the hosts of the lord of death .

Dhunatha Pali dhunatha dhu7iUa (Divyavadana). 28). a lion's roar. Digha. if —Now comes the awe-inspiring in = = = = 15 apramata smatimata susila bhotu bhichavi susamahitasagapa sacita anurachadha O (A2. hhavatu. as command or the charge. Sk. II. Seiiart cites as a parallel the DhaTiiinapada Terse 327. is truly moral and who delights in earnestness brings thus all his thoughts well under con- and his mind is in safety. No. Here. death is but another epithet of the tempter ^lara. "trample down. 1201 :— Appamatta satimanto Susamahitsankappa Cf. 33 Udanav." J^otes. ch. vv. whose fighting units are mentioned in the PadJianasiitfa (Suttanipata. ("Purity"). —This = M. and the expression is weaker than the Prakrit or its Pali counterpart. p. :— "The Bhixu who trol. used with a plural nominative. . Macuno sena hosts of the lord of death" (Udanavarga). iv. a singular verb Bllotll ed mind. from a great conquerer like Buddha the Sakyan hero." The expression is metaphorical. v. The command and its tone are indeed worthy of such a master who achieved selfconquest through a valorous will not to cease to strive.. It will be noticed that the Udanavarga verse has a different simile. whether ^ the sky be rent asunder or the earth leave her fixed station^ {nabham phaleyya^ patjiavim caleyya).. susila sacittairi hotha bhikkhavo anurakkhatha. verse sets forth the first requisites of selfBhikkhus intent on defeating conquest which are that the the hosts of Mara must be of an undaunted spirit and wellbehaved. 4'36-39. 5) Cf.( 131 ) Notes. having a well concentrated will and a well controllPali hotu. implying the idea of distendPali maccuno senam ^^Vi\Q ing cotton.

(^Turity"). in gentleness and purity..'^ Notes. Udanav. in heroic command support We = 17 yu vadami bhadranu yavatetha samakata apramadarata bhodha sadhami supravediti O ta . according to M. . v. 327) for the 3rd foot saddhntmne 8U])pavediie (Itivuttaka.( 132 ) 16 yo imasa^ dhamavinau apramata vihasiti prahai jatisansara dukhusata^ karisa(t)i O^ (A^ C£. Senart's reading sa is connected with dhama. p. p. will. Senart. would be duJchatata. of —Now the comes the persuasion as an argument in the preceding two verses. = Therag. having cast off transmigration. The correct reading. Jat. v. IT. p.i87. It —The is Pali counterpart of this verse cannot be traced. 157 Yo imasmim dhammavinaye appamatto vihessati Pahaya jati-samsaraih dukkhass' antarii karissati.. 35 "Whoever has lived according to this law of discipline. . 1. 6) Digha. (A^7) Notes. 21)— for the 1st line . iv. Divydvadana^ p. wias :'tm) is another instance where a genitive termination has been used for the locative. V. Cf. The circle is supplied by us. v. Ill. 12I = Samyutta 257 :— I. have just to add that imasa ( Pali Senart's Notes. 337 . . 78) —for the 4th foot. ch. Cf. — ^ 2 3 In M. the result of a new combination of three set express- ions. p. (2) (3) appamadaratci hatha (Dhp. which are : — (1) Taih vo vadami hliaddam vo yavant'^eUha samagata (Dhp. 68 : — :— Yo hyasmin dliarmavinaye apramattas carfsyati Prahaya jatisamsaraih duhkhasyantam karisyati. put an end to his misery. For comments on this verse the reader is referred to M. .

278) sup]dies us with an almost exact Pali parallel pp. Senart reads prata and svhino as one word. eh. think ^ -. however. VI. The Pah counterpart of this verse cannot be traced." . (AM) Cf. which are quoted Lelovv : — Tesam sawjmnna sllanam appamada vihZirinam Sammadafifiaviniutianam Maro moggam im vindati.. We. reads parivajeti the alteration has been made according to M. — — 19 . 57 and the Udanavarga. " Udanav. v. prata suhino^ apramadaviha . to the 2nd line by the readins: Bhareti hisalain flhamviam yogakhhemasm paiiiya. There is. vi. Senart's suggestion. It is unmistakably true that the verse under nolice is modelled on a gat ha of w^hich the counterpart is supplied by the Dhammapada. The Prakrit form rests on a Sanskrit lather than a Pali word. . trnnslation of the Tibetan version of the verse. Notes The Suttanijiata verse 4-^5 contains the expression yogakkhemassa patlii/a which corresponds to the Prakrit verseAs a matter of fact. Rockliill's rendering of apramada. a Jataka verse (Fausboll. 275.— The Rockhill's is Pali parallel of the above verse cannot be traced.( 133 ) For the explanation of the referred to Prakrit forriTS.. ond.. moreover^ no certainty that the second line of the Prakrit is identical with that of the Udanavarga verse. . The Ms. cited Udanavarga above^ is also so tentative that it difficult to establish a complete identification. 20 :— This is the road that leads to happiness he who has entered on this road of perfect purity^ will by keeping to it cast off the bonds of Mara. 19. 1. M. {'' Morality"). the reader is M. Notes. Prataa = Pali /^«/^/^rt. v. it better to separate ^ them in the light of our restoration. ^enart's Notes. 18 pramada parivajetva^ apramadarata sada bhavetha kusala dhama yokachemasa prataa. ch. v.

we are at a loss to decide whether these are similar to those of the Dhammapada verse 57. in the hght of the Dhamma])ada verse cited As regards the third and above.( 134. 187). and the second. will not meet with the road of Mara. vi) UdanavL rga verse 20 in — apramata viharata jaJiati (3) rabanana Q ") : in the light of the Majjhin.. meaning as parainu su]:hu. the Apramada v." might be completed. ) " They therefore who leave in thoughtfulness. 25 Seuart's A'. p. as apramadaviJiarino. as le clien ajpraia SMhirio.e. III. who are perfectly purified by their moral conduct and who are emancipated by the perfectness of their knowledge.a verse (" Sabbaverabhayatlta sabbadukkharii upaccagum — savavirabhai/atHa sa?vaduha uva-ai (4) in the light of O {i. fourth feet. a synonym of Nibbana. or of tiie Majjhima verse or of a In Ihis state of uncertainty we can at the different one.y 'those who = Pali happy after having attained to the state of security. are i. in the light of the 'khemapatta siikhino (of the Pali verse in Majjhima. Nirvana ^ Chema is a shorter form of i/ohachenia in same yogakkhema. 7):viliarata pranoii paramu apramata sukku Q restored Adopting the thus : — last alternative^ the verse might be (te chema)prata suhino apramadaviha(rino) apramata viharata pranoti paramu sukhu Q Chemaprata SllMno==Pali Hemap^^ita sjMino. This is the 20 apramadi pramodia apramato ma garni ratisabhamu hi jliayatu visesa adhikachati O (AS 2) . first The foot te expression most hazard (1) this fourfold restoration : — in the light of the Dhammapada verse 57 vi7iati : — : samadafiavimutana maro magu na (2) in the light of the O (eh.e. or of the Udanavarga verse 20.

II. 7) I. than the Pali = Variant. p. 11 :— who finds " He who delight not given up to carelessness. v. p. 25 884 :— Ma pamadam Appamatto Cf. v. eh. and the parallel cited above is an extract from the verses ascribed in the Majjhima Nikaya and the Theragatha to Aiigulimala Thera. 21.. Dhammap. exaet counterpart of the Prahrit verses connot be traced in the P^li canon. is always attentive. will put an end to sorrow Notes. 27 t (Appamadav. Have nothing Cf. . Notes. The verses are in essence the same. and there are numerous instances where new verses are manipulated by adjustment of certain set expressions. have to For do with the indolence'. hi jhayanto pappoti vipularh^ Udanav. the Prakrit verses were manipulated later on one single model which is no other than the Pali verse. V. v. The parallel cited from the Udanavarga is similar to v. — The We Verse 20. iv. Ibid. 105 = Samyutla v. nothing change of thoughtless into see M..— Apramadi pramodia Pali appamade pmnodeyya..( 135 ) 21 apramadi pramodia ma gami ratisabhamu apramato hi jhayatu chaya dukhasa pvamuni O 3) (AS Cf. eyya gami is abetter expression. (" Purity "). paramam. The variations are not inexplicable. eh. " anuyuiijetha ma kamaratisanthavam sukham. pawadam amujunjetlia. = Therag. . Senart.. is IV. The Pali verse cannot but think that occurs also in Samyutta I. whose mind ".. 'one should delight in earnestness \ which is a positive * expression for the Pali md. have nothing to do with the heedless he who delights not in false theories shall not continue (in) the world ". no in pleasures. = Majjhima. 8 :- to do with false doctrines. Senart's Ma ratisabhamu ia. according to M.

— Here is out of settino^. v. of expression which is substituted for pappoti viptdam (or. 327) —for the firstfoot Of. Sk. the whole expression implying " do not proceed to care for fail to find any ''gross" mistake sense-delight". But raise question improves the Pali is rather desirable to leave open the by him as to the chronology of the two visesam adhiThis is a mode Jataka. v. gaccJiafi. Supplied by us. pp. Chaya dnl'kasa. ment which is Nibbana. Senart takes it 1 reading. as opined by M. sambhramam. 403) for the . Who knows that the reading sabhamu for the Pali sanlharam is not a gross mistake of the scribe. or that ga7ni is not a phonetic change from kama. Senart. 87). 'the destruction of suffering. 30. ma gami rati. . v. 435). and sabhamu= Sk. form of A^gam (to go). \ 2 -. some stereotyped The materials are lioilia just another instance of a new verse constructed Pali materials with a different : — 1 (1) appamadaraia of the Prakrit. 'one should not delight in associatHe takes garni as an aorist singular ing with sensual joys ". 22 (apramada)h^ata bhodha khano yu ma uvacai khanatita (h)i soyati niraesu samapi(ta)^ O^ Notes.( 136 ) ma kamaratisaniJiavam. Pali expression. 7 above. Visesa means an extraordinary achievepara7nam) snkkam.' is a negative expression iov parama 8iMa. the final i being accounted for as due to a desire to maintain rhythm with We in the rail following. (Dhp.— Chaya dukhasa pramuni = Pali hhayara dukkhassa papau' (Itivuttaka. (see Fausboll's Visesa adhikachati = Pali Verse 21. give a better meaning than samsfavam or ''companionship". KhaiuUlta hi socanfi virayamhi 315 Therag. ksayam dulMasya prap)nuyat. in the sense in We quite appreciate that it. v. (2) khano ve via 11 upaccaga \ saniappifa (Dhp. which M. I. except that or how samhhramam could it is somewhat elliptical. p. — ret of the verse. expressions.

. we have nothing more to add to M. "pull yourselves from out the evil away as an elephant pulls himself '" from out of the mire . — for the second foot. p. cited above. 1005). 26 :— "The Bhixu who delights in purity and who looks with dread on impurity will pull himself from out the evil way as the elephant pulls himself from out of the mire. Suttanipata v. 12) . v. Udanav. — The (1) form and to : the those analogous Pali materials are — of spirit of 22. iv.. for the secoad line. 327 t (Nagav. where V. Senart's notes than that the process of the change verses of ^« into e is through y^ changed into ya.e. we have the expression saddhamme sicppavedatha . v." Notes.( 1«7 ) This expression constitutes the refrain of two distinct (cf. well norm — — For the forms drugha udhvaradha. v. but compare Itivuttaka. the simile forms a refrain of the Udanavarga verse. 833 and Theragatha. 5) Dhammap. Cf. the above this verse are In case the new sadcUiamme the good siippaveclite. ch. v." ''under the well propounded system/^ which is the same in meaning as dkammapide sudesite (see reference under Pusav. ^ Variant : aatto. — "in (2) explained. ('Turity'O. 'mud-forts\ \ • Supplied by U8. i... For uvacai = Pali upaccagUy we have nothing more to add to M. v. ga-=^ja 23 apramadarata bhodha sadhami supravedite drugha udhvaradha atmana pagasana va kun(aru)^ O^ (AS Cf. sacittam anurakkhatha Dugga uddharath' attanam panke sanno^ va kuiijaro. 18 . Senart's notes than that the aspiration due perhaps to the lo?s of of the sonant in drugha is The word seems to have reference to at in Sk. durgat. 8) :— Appamadarata hotha. dugga nddharaW attanam paiike sanno va kuiijaro. 78. which is a later parallel of the Dhammapada verse 39.

ablative) would make the second line of our text close parallel to the Pali. V2k\i anveti instances where nve is changed intot7# (cf. is We = * A reading pramada might also be adopted at the risk of the supposition that the reading pramata is due to the scribe. from indolence pain follows a man as it follows the lion beguiled by the gazelle) for the second line. or pamada dukkham anveti siham va migamatuka {i.— This of which the parallel is cited from the result of a new combination of certain the Udanavar^a set Buddhist expressions in Pali which are as follows verse is : — (1) (2) nay am kalo pamadassa. therefore. A reading pramada ( = Pali a pramada. {'' Purity ''). we have a choice between avioti-={p)apponti. asavaWiaye (cf.( 138 ) 24 nai kalu pramadasa aprati asavachaye pramata^ duhu amoti siha ba muyamatia O (AS 6) Cf. verse-end appatio for the second 272) — (3) pamatta dukkham papponii (i. are also instances where v 6-11).. aveti There vv. 12 :— He who lias put an end to sorrow. . and is not given to carelessness in tliis world. asavakkhayaihy foot. provided that amoti could be equated with anveti oi the Pali verse.. to enquire if the change of papjionti. can no more be hurt by the careless than can the lion by the antelope. • the easiest possible. I. Notes. as suggested by M. 389 :— Na Vissasa vissase avissatthe vissatthe pi na vissase bhayam anveti siham va migamatuka.e." Cf. FausbolPs Jataka. Dhammap. for the ajjjoatte first foot. v. but we have to consider that in the following verse we have pranoti as a Prakrit counterpart of have. " Udanav. the v. Senart.. — Pramata = Pali pamatta. Thus. ch.e.f slha va migamatiika the indolent experience pain like the lions beguiled by the gazelles). and amoti=^ The change of p into m through an intermediate b anveti. iv. p. Sahasavaga. There are several nve {anveti) into mo {amoti) is possible.

. is = form is an immediate change from Sanskrit.. The Jataka story is that the trouble of the lion was due to his going to be intimate with the she-deer in disregard of any danger. Siha ba muyamatia would correspond to Pali siha (or slham) va migamatuka. Therag. 27).. re&da jayatu. Senart imagines that the simile refers to a story where the lion killed himself by his negligence in fancying to have to deal with a gazelle instead of some formidable enemy. 16-19. into 7n (ef. the reasons in support thereof. II.( 139 ) Muya = ^]s.. V.____ . This would ^ive us ameti or amiti for anveti. bring out Pranoti Pali pappott.. Bhikhuv. the second verse 25.prdpnoti. except for chai/i in place of Pali ajypnmafto hi jhai/mito pappoti the second line = para^am sukham (see Majjh. is changed V.__. 25). . with this is in tone the same as that of verses difference that while Nos. 884 . TkQ Ma. which we regard as a mistake of the Bcribe. in the Pitakas also results which no exact counterpart can be traced from a combination of three set expressions transformed into Prakrit. p. hence The chapter contains 25 » ga 25. and this may account for the absence of their parallels in the The exhortation of all these verses existing Pali canon. . M. 25 nai pramadasamayu apramato aprati asavachayi hi jhayatu^ pranoti paramu sukhn O (AS?) .ga25 (AS 8) Notes. pramadasamayu = Pali ndyam same as in is cJiaye pamadasamai/o.. namu:=:S^\\ navam. 14 and 15. Dhp. is to be noted that the Prakrit It specially Sk. and ma('ia=:Sli* matrliaya (abl. Pali 7tiatuJca{i/a). one apt to feel as though one original verse as represented by Dhp. Reading through the Prakrit verses 20-27. 27 were expanded to enclose within its two lines many verses constructed out of set expressions. maga^ miga . 105.). mrga=^V^\\y mnga. stanzas. . so that the first foot nai of —This verse the . v. verses 20-27.. no less than Nos._.^Qn^Lrfs amoti. If we accept this reading we cannot but have to dispute M. 14 and 15 purport to be commands.

. so much dwelt upon in the Apramada-Yerses. while. 37.g. it is impossible to say exactly how many verses were contained in the third chapter of the Prakrit text. MaitrayanI Up. containing 12 verses. Citavaga] M. leaving out of account the verse 45 which is a mere repitition of verse 44.. strangely enough. The (^itta-group. and the same group in the Udanavarga forms its 31st chapter and contains 64 stanzas. mind ^ itself. among others. of the Citta-group are cited in the extant commentary on the Telapatta Jataka (No. both pre-Buddhistic* and post-Buddhistic^..( 140 ) [3. E. it is placed in the Udanavarga immeThe significance of the arrangediately before the BJiiWnt. 5. of which only 2 or 3 are similar to the Pali.. are to be found in the Udanavarga in which the number of Mind-verses could so much swell up partly from the incorporation of verses occurring in different chapters of the The Chinese Fa-Kheu-King also has a whole section Pali text. So far as we can conjecture. E. These stanzas are no more than the Prakrit Five verses parallels of the Pali verses 37. of the strenuous effort of the will to attain the supreme good. J % and 5. . abound in self-same or similar ascetic reflections on the nature Indeed the Cita-Yerses teach that the necessity of the mind. It only remains here to point out that the Citta-group teaches nothing that is absolutely Buddhistic in its main conception. Senart^s But. etc. the Citta-grow^ stands next to the Appamada in the Fa-Kheu-King. Of the existing 5 Prakrit verses of the Cita-group only two. 84. 63. in the absence of the colophon which is missing from the existing Ms. on "the Mind '^. has altogether 11 verses. ment of chapters has been discussed in the Introduction. is apparent from the position of the '^ Fragments of A '^). this particular chapter contained no less than 11 verses in all. Senart's transcript of a few small. or more accurately. viz. representing as it does the third chapter of the Pali Dhammapada. 96). all belonging to the Citta-group as known to us through the Pali Dhammapada. for the Upanishads.g. immediatelyafter the Apramada. Maitri Up. arises from the of the unstable and pleasure-seeking dispositions flighty. fragments themselves (see M. of five stanzas. ' Ohandogya Up... 'Mind'-verses stood in the original Kharosthl Ms. 38 and 33.. 35. 36. 38. Like the Pali and Prakrit texts. and these are the same as the Pali That the existing group of the verses. Mahopa. VII. and probably a little more than that. broken and detached fragments shows clear traces. 39 and 33.

xxxi. 2 :— " To escape from the abode of Mara one is filled with trembling. v. Cf. e (Frag. 37 t (Cittavagga. 38 t (Cittav . 3 anavathitacitasa (Frag.. v. Cf. ('' The Mind^').( 141 ) 1 [d]ur. v. like a fish taken from its watery abode. Udauav. eh. 5) : — Durangamam ekacaram asarlram guhasayam Ye cittam safmamessanti mokkhanti Marabandhana. Dhammap.(?)ga. 4 anuvasutacita (Frag. 2) :— Yarijo va thale khitto okamokato ubbhato Pariphandat' idam cittam Maradheyyam pahatave. A i) Dhammap. 2 vario va thale chi _ (Frag. v. A i) Cf. 34 t (Cittav. 6) :— Anavatthitacittassa saddhamniam avijanato Pariplavapasadassa paiiria na paripurati. and thrown on dry land". A i) . Cf.. A i) Dhammap..

dridha handhana in C^o. real or imagined. he must straighten it by application as the fletcher straightens (his arrows) with tire ". to control. xxiiivo. no other assumption would avail us than that of complete identity or correspondence. v. 1) :— : .la cita druracha drunivarana u (Frag.. 32 . Dhammap. " Udanav. since instances are not rare where the verses in the two texts agree on the whole. also raklihati in A». ^ 1 cara in B. not immaterial. hanana in Frag. changeable. This word is nowhere to be found in the Kharo§thi Ms. 5 .14. {'' The Mind '0. 21. and yet there appear in them a few words. 7^ 33. Accordingly. however. 33 t (Cittav. Phandanam capalarh cittam durakkhaih dunnivarayaiii Ujuih karoti medhavl usukaro va tejanaih.. difficulty as to the interpretation of the above verses arises chiefly from their incompleteness. Cf. sarira in Cvo. handhana. cf. 9 Cf. v. therefore. 8 :— the mind being uncertain. 36. 9. C. 7) :— Anavassutacittassa ananvahatacetaso Puniiapapapahmassa n' attlii jagarato bhayam. The task would no doubt have been simple enough if it could be supposed that differences between the Prakrit and Pali verses were mere phonetic.. ye in Cvo. In the present ease. 39 t (Cittav. 53. and hard Notes. phrases or clauses. . Cf. 10 * Cf.. » • . flighty... 6. 31. eka in Cro. . But these difPerences. xxxi. One has to depend a good deal on conjecture in reconstructing the — The Prakrit verses from a few expressions or catchwords which now survive.( 142 ) Cf. the Citta-Yerses might be reconstructed and read as follows : — 1 dur(a)ga(ma) e(kacara* asarira^ guhasaya^ ye* cita sanamesati^ mochati^ marabanana^ O) .. " 6 Also sanamisati cf sanamu in B. and muto handhana in P. ^f. cannot be shelved as such and are. Cf. rachati for the Pali ' Cf. which greatly modify their sense. A viii) Dhammap.

anudhato for Of. in Cro. Brihad 10. C. an ' ^ instance of compound.( 148 ) 2 3 vario va thale ehi(tu^ okamokato^ ubhato^ * cita mucudhea^ pahatae^ pariphanatida anuvathitacitasa (sadharma^ avijanatu^ ^ O) 4 5 O) paripalaaprasadasa^ prana^^ na paripurati* anavahatacetaso^^ anuvasutacita(sa ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ bhaj o punapavapahinasa^ nathi^* jagarato cita O) druraeha drunivarana (phanana^" capa^^)la ^ vateyana^^ O) u(jukaroti^^ medhavi^'^ usukaro^ Verse i. 46. pave in B. ® f>>r Pali vipassato in B. ^° Cf. Iceles a for Pali A. 1. monkey-sleep (dreaming state). » ^ Cf. "^ Cf. also oTcamoTcadha. cf. nathi in B. : — . ^* ^* See f. feZesa in B. i7esa and Sk. ^^ Cf. p. before The Buddhist commentator's explanation of the g. 1-3. where Cf. * Cf. {hi)na in A^. xxxiiivo. 7. kurute in for the Pali Cro. mind has no exit in the east and other directions'^^.^^ That is. Yajnavalkya says Aranyaka Up.n. ciitassa hi mal<JcatasiiitamaUahampi ncima n'atthi . Kharo§thi Ms. vowel a appears unchanged. anaJcara in Frag. T. 38. maranato. Cf. 30) which equates In this latter Prakrit word the with Pali atihangiko. it entertains the object. reading would be duragama or chirugania must be left open. the Pali anuddhato in B. in M. Senart's reading. 1. The same holds true of the reading of the final syllable ma For mii of. 7 . 48 f '* lY. i' . 2. ^^ Also cavala ^» kuruti Cf. ci. This is : word durangama —" ^ ^ ^. v. ^^ Ci. pp. hence arises the predicate far-going ". Cf. the Milinda expression kapi-nidda (Milinda-panho. even remaining at a distance. The Milinda theory of dream has been fully discussed by Mr. maranato hhayo in Cvo. sadharma in B. 24. ° " No such infinitive form is met with in the Also Maradhea. 11-16 . n. For phanana cf. kuyana for kujana in A*. meaning that which far-going \ the The question whether correct Prakrit travels far'. '^ Cf. 14. **Na tatra ratva na rathayoga na Atha rathan panthano hhavanti. durangamam. 22. Also chiio. Shwe Zan Aung in his Introductory Essay to the Compendium of Buddhist Philosophy. 11 cavadhi for the Pali cdpato in Cro^ 31. 12. sumedhasu in A'. prasadasa in Cro^ 11-13. S.— Duragama = Pali and Sk. pariphanati (f. 16. cf. . ^ ^ Cf aveti for the Pali ariveti occurs nowhere in the Kharosthi Ms. 299). In support of the vowel a before g in duragama we might cite here a parallel instance. Cf. Tcarisati in A% 6. ^^ ^° The verbal form Cf. C-vo. 11. nivinati for the Pali wibhindati in A^. rathayogan pathah srjate" . cf. 15.. pr ana i in A^. pune. ^° above). 2. namely athagio (Magav. vivasatu Cf. 3. 2. ct. ratisabhamn in A^. dure puratthiymdi-disabhZ^gena gamanam aantam'pi pana aravimanam sampaticcJiatiti diirangamam * " even '^^ during namajataih. 3 . 9. pranae. P. 23. Also pariplava . prauaya. medhavi in A^. 23. or mu.

Aitareya Aranyaka. 53-2 "V. " Tannayatam bodhayed _ityahuh. strung together that they are not capable of arising at the same thought-moment. 3. Cf. ". . the Upanishad expressions aslne dure vrajati (Katha. VIII.. PauFs of in The expression cathedral the London.dhered to. Up. 7). III. (Mahopa. 67.. and one can safely regard it as a sound statement of the Buddhist psychological position which would demur a mere philological interpretation of durangamay a word which in its literal sense signifies a belief in the existence of a mind or spirit (German Geist) capable of going far away and returning at its sweet will to the body. . it arises as a unit. " seven or eight cittas are so life. just as a person in India can think of St. VII. durbhisajyam hasmai bhanati (2) yamesana pratipadyate. 2. others arise One must admit that this Buddhist one at a time*^^. 11). meaning ' that which moves According to the interpretation of the Dhammapada commentary.( 144 ) its authority from the time-honoured the Theras. 295 . 252) disease were supposed to be due to the fact that the soul had escaped out of the body and charms are recorded for bringing it back" (Atharva-Veda. mano durataram yaW'^ ekacaram^ about alone '. ekato kannikabaddhani ekakkhane nppajjitum Uppattikale ek'ekam eva cittara uppajjati. Brihad Ar.*iv! 3. Two VI. older notions cited by Yajnavalkya are : . the mind is duraiigama in the sense that it can think of a distant object. '^ II. 4. p. ^^ compound. Rhys Davids notes (Buddhist India. Up. this predicate implies the Buddhist belief in the unity of mental To quote its own words.. requires Buddhists ]ust one of the many instances where the read their own meaning into a current expression.. (Brihad Ar. Up. 18). IV. It seems certain that the predicate duraiigama has preserved reminiscences of primitive animistic notions of soul or explanation derives oral traditions of spirit* which are not without their influence upon the Upanishadie theories of waking. dream and sleep. " Sattatthacittani pana samatthani nama n'atthi. Ekacara = Pali and 20). When a consciousness arises. and this having ceased to be. IV. According to the Buddhist notion. niruddhe pana ek'ekam eva uppajjatiti ekacaram nama jatara 19 Chandogya. . (1) " Tadefce slokai : . III. tasmim 3. 11). which would yield a contrary sense if a literal interpretation were As we shall see in the case of ehacara and i. Sukrani adaya punareti sthanara hiranmayah purusa ekahamsah (Brihad Ar. explanation of ekacaram closely follows on the lines of ^ "Certain forms of Prof. city of a word It is indeed further explanation. other predicates of cita-y the expressions were manipulated by the Buddhists on the basis of Upanishadie phraseology. a . 12. j : bhavanti Svapnena sariram abhiprahatyasuptah suptan abhicakasiti. " Cf. Sk. 3.^ Cf.

19 . The Dhammapada-Commentary says.. cnritvcl''' {ibid. IV. V Cf. svajme ratva 11-12).( 145 ) Pratarclana's theory of the unity of mental life^ But the predicate eJcacara seems to have been based rather upon Yajnavalkya^s expressions. hence its predicate *a cave-dweller' ". Up. 'a cave-dweller'. 0. guha8aya7n. It is clear from the foregoing discussion of the historical significance of the expressions duragnma and the rest. 2 " : ekabhuyaiii va' pra. ^ This is a very common idea in the TJpanisbads..na bhiitva ekaikain sarvSn- yevaitflni prajuapayauti ". Up. 3 . and soul remaining stationary can travel far (* aslno dure r.. how close the resemblance is between the Buddhist conception of mind and the Upanishadic conception of soul (l) ciiia is : — the sense that it can think of an object durangaiiia from a great distance . nissaya vattatiti guhasavarii nama jatath". the operations taking place one at a time {'^ekabhui/am vai prarbUlihTdva eJcaikam sarranT/evaiiani cUta is asnrira praj'hapai/anii''' Kausliaki.g.^ <7/^//a<sfl!//^?n. {ibid... mmdi.rajaii'\ Katha.. ^' asaiigo na hi sajjate''^ (Brihad Ar. the heart '^. = Ar. '^ Cittasa sarirasanthanara va niladippakuro vanrabhedo va n' atthiti asarlrarh nania jatarh "... 2.. 3. '' *' ei-a/iamsah^^ IV. It is depending on the heart that the mind comes into play. VIII. 1. and all the senses being unified perform their functions. 20). 'that which dwells in '' nihiio "" guhayam of Pali the cavity Mundaka. e. ef. " the cave is that ahlrt/o hiryate''' reminds na hi us at once of Yajilavalkya^s sxpressions which is built up of the four great elements. as a unit with regard to time . Hhat which is without a body'. .2^ compound. III..15-16). IV. . Taittiriya. srapiie Brihad Ar. a * compound. citiam. bodily yellow IV. meaninf^ incorporeal '. Sk. Cita= and (Katha.. 1. Guhasaya=Pali ^ meaning that which lies in a cave'. II.'^ The Buddln'st predicate oL' citta reminds us at once of the Upanishadic notions of the soul. 5. hhavafyasango'\ hamsah . " III. Sk. Brihad Y. all applied to soul. idam ca hadayarupaih 3. e. Cliandogrya. » Kausitaki Up. 4). * "Gnhai nama catamahablmtaguha . 2).g. 3. 1. no as Mind has any such colour-distinction Such is the commentator's cate ^^ form nor ha? and the like^. II. Asarira=Pali asariram. (3) in . (Brihad Ar. (2) ciiia all mental ojierations take in the sense that is ekacara ])lace one at a time. Up. 12-16). III. The prediinterpretation. IV. o. and soul as a lonely bird roams about alone during dream {^'eltacariiva .6. 2. 4). 3. 20) . IV.

^'oliam paJiaya anilietasarl''). ram prayo The simile of the fish jumping when thrown on lopaK). been drawn into this blunder by the thought annvatJiita — annpasthiia. . the former standing for 'water' {ndnkam). land after having been taken out of its water}^ home. avijanato. meanirg 'of one whose mind is unsteady '. c. said to dwell in the cavity of the heart {^nihito guhayam') c£. 2: /i. citta is 4). q. gu7iasai/a in the sense that it comes on the heart as its physical basis . c. Sk. vv.. ^34 and 86). 92). d^j:). 'the kingdom of Death' (see Dhammapada. Okamokao Pali okamokaio. succeedino^ e.( 146 is ) in the Jii sense slryaie that it incorporeal. lapahhavahanana = (I. It in order to avoid '. f.— Vario = Pali elision of j between change of J The Sk. XX [ir^. and that the scribe has. M. is a familar and very striking imagery serving to call up a vivid picture of the innate strife of the mind to get off from the domain of death. perhaps. rarijah. Senart says that the 11 of ami is perfectly certain. p. and the latter for 'home' {alnyo. anavasthitacittasya. = Pa]i 'of one who does not know '. the expression resolves itself into two separate words. which meaning ' is the same in Mclradheyyam. p. an instance of compound. Mucudhea — Pali MaccuMeyyam. (4) )nto play depending and soul is . Verse 3-—Anuvathitacitasa = Pali annvaUJdtacillassa. Ma'aba7i(lhanat.. as much in this word as in anuvasufa of the next verse. 143. As an alternative we might accept a reading Uiavahanana^ answering to Pali hhavabandhana. cf.- 2. the later Buddhist expression 'ha(Jat/araflhu\ Marabanana or Marabandhana Pali Marahandhana. Avijaiiatu For the reading see foot-note S. Sk. seems that r in such cases was pronounced close to // and has here glided into the full vowel sound of the as . oka-m-ol-alo. a survival of the Yedic infinitive. j. 'from the = watery home\ According to the Dhammapada-Commen- tary. Ar. and soul \s ashyo na (Brihad IV. Such an elision as this varijo. Fr. 'from the bonds of Mara\ But it seems better not to introduce the word wara which nowhere occurs in the extant Kharosthi Ms. of which floated in his mind.. y. Verse a. on the strength of a fragmentary expression. Pahatae=Pali paJnUav^. presupposes an intermediate into the semi-vowel _//. fish. o i and is a common characteristic of all Prakritic languages (see Vararuci's rule IT.

meaning 'that which is difficult to resist*. 'unsteady'. Sk. dham(drakehi and notes.( 147 ) Verse thoiiojit'. pulsation of life (cf. Drunivarana = Pali dminivaranam. 4-— Anuvasutacitasa = Pali ^ anavassutacUiassd. It affords another instance of the change of d7ir into dru. life pulsating. spandanam^ vibrating. 2). vaf^uta Verse 5-— Phanana = Pali pluuiflanam. jmnya-papa. Like jiJiavaua. Punapava = Pali7. flurakl-ham^ Sk. Anavahatacetaso = Pali aiianvdhafacetaso. Capala=Prdi and Sk mind can be traced flash of lightning. {javavfi).ore scientific Buddhist theory of apperception capr'lam. For v standing for Pali areti equating with Pali anveti (I. 99- 100): Na hi cancalatahinarii manah kvacana drsyate. the keynote of Indian religions of which the good lies beyond both merit and demerit. or precipitating towards sensuous Here objects '. an instance of compound. '(of one who is devoid This expression strikes of) merit and demerit'.i7/?/z. Druracha = Pali a . a transcendental state of mind wliieh none but an Indian yogi can experience. to electrical Cf. pp. c% 11-16). as the Dhammapada-Commentary puts it. such as the Mahopanishad verses (IV. Kausitaki. meaning 'of one with unperplexed mind '. Caiicalatvam manodliarmo valmerdhai-mo yathospata Esa hi cancalaspandasaktiscittatvasarhsthita Tarn viddlii manasmi saktiiii jagadadambaratmikam. 102-3. dural^yam {dnr + raksyavi). pravatafJiOj p. as the reading onn- cannot be defended on the same o^round as aiinvathitaj and it is not unlikely that the scribe wrote anuvasuta on false analogy with amivatJiita.r. durnivaranam. Sk. meaning 'that which is difficult to guard '. and drug ha. III. The idea jiJiandana was deepened later into a m. the expression capala is to be taken in a figurative The genesis of this idea of the unsteady nature of sense. compound. 128. the phenomena. v. the expression 'trembling or vibrating' is used rather figuratively. an idea. its primary sense being associated with the * trembling. cf. pranorh prananfam. Cf. meaning We prefer of one of undissipated nnavaf^ntocitasa. 137. perhaps derived originally from the palpitation of heart. ^\i. an instance of compound.7^7l'?la/. p. a compound.

The 1 -ith section of the Chinese Pali I'p. Senart reads hisala. the Udanavarga collates the Flower-verses from the different chapters of the Pali text. is 15. 1) ko dhamapada sud. leaving out of As iti account the verse 20 which is a mere repitition of 18. viro (p. Ita whi' h is a variant of - ^ * eta of llie next verso. 5). The Pali Flower-verses number 16. The of them are rightly designated in the verses of flower-group'. Pusavaga] this The Pali distinctive characteristic of the virscs of in the simile of the flower whicli occurs in parallels each Pali of ' group lies them. In the Udanavaiga the Flower-group forms the 18th chapter and contains 27 verses. other instances. C. and the section contains altogether 17 verses. would be either an accusative singular form or a nominative plural. But exception must be taken to vv. vs-hich according' to tlie grammar of our dialect. 283-284 whicli have a very remote connection with the Flower-verses. Dhammapada Pupphacagga.2) ^ Verses 1-11 are migsing from the Kliarostlil Ms. hut the sense required here is that of the nom. as to the Fa-hheii-hing corresponds in the Pali and Prakrit texts. it is placed immediately after the Citlavagga .( M8 ) [4. ° This M. of the Prakrit verses. The mistake is perhaps due to is supplied by us. sin<i:.sita kusalo^ pusaviva 13 budhii pradlia siti yamaloka ji eta sadevaka budhu dhamapada &iidesita kusalo pusaviva payesiti O (C-. or more accuratelj^. the scribe. 26. Fracf. 88). the the 12^ [yamaloka ji]^ ita"* sadevaka payesiti O^ (C-. 4'he group is of little importance but for the simile of flower which seems to bring home the distinction between a good and a bad man in a very interesting and familiar wav. . and. IV.^Jphavagga. 0''°. The number chap. as may be judged from the colophon " **ga 15 (I. Only four out of 15 verses have survived in the Kharosth! Ms.

who knows most delightful law. xviii. (''The Flower^'). pacessati ? Sekho dhammapadam sudesitam kusalo puppliam iva Cf. Cf.( 1« ) Cf.e. who knows most delightful law. cicisiti. see. adopts vijessati. SO^ : — 'Who of his able to select (conquer ?) the earth (i. reads vicessati the Corny. of the Prakrit verses might be Pali gathas and those in the Udanavarga as follows : — The restored in the light — Fa-kheu-pi-u and the ko pradhavi vijesiti^ yamaloka ji eta sadevaka ko dhamapada sudesita kusalo pusaviva payesiti budhu pradhavi vijesiti yamaloka ji eta sadevaka budhu dhamapada sudesita kusalo puSaviva payesiti O O ^ '^ Some Ms. vv. 1-2 :— Who how is that can overcome the world of the gods. p. of the lord to ? death expose the (Yama) and of men. is able to cull the flowers of virtue ".. as one would and Notes. 1-2) vv. Dhammap. Jl-io t (Puppliavagga. the place abode). the Coinmentarj' adopts vacessate as well Fausboll reads iva-^ypacessafi . to escape Yama.. there of eh. as one would can overcome the world flowers It is the disciple (sekhas) who of the gods. avoids Yama. ^ Flowers"). illustriously repeats the verses of the Law. of the lord of death how to expose flowers. as vicesaati." the of men. kusalo puppliam iva pacessati'' ? ijessati Yamalokan ca imam sadevakam. . " Beal's translation. xii. Fa-kheu-pi-u. vv. . :— Yamalokan ca Ko iniaiii patbaviih vijessati^ sudesitaih imam Ko dhammapadam Seklio pathaviih \ sadevakam.. and lay hold of heaven ? Who (is able) to repeat the verses of the Law as one who selects choice (excellent) flowers ? is The enlightened (one) selects the earth. " Udanav. seizes heaven. * Also vijisiti vicef*ifi.

.e. Svill overcome'. v. the world of the gods".). apprehend. ari/apada. Dhamapada=:Pali dliammaSk.. world For the chano^e of pr to pr. = apai/aloJcam. "the acceptable. realise' ' :^ vicessafi =zvicinissati . beautifully expressed law-verses like a skilful wreath-maker = . rije^^mli vicessati^ Vijesiti = Pali ^^ translated super ahit^\ (Fausboll) /'. v. 88 (Cunda. vpavarikkhUmU . '' *^ can overcome " is able to select (Udanavarga) z. varga adopts a form similar to the Pali n'je-<!sati. cognise.. v.e. AVe also meet with the form padhavi in Jarav. are again passages where the term in a plural form is : applied to such moral topics as anahhijjlia. purity. of Death" == four nether worlds {catnhhidliam Dhammapada-Comy. 17. : = investigate '. Dhammapada-Comy. 164). ^ the earth'.. It is clear that the Udana(corquer ?)" (Fa-Kheu-pi-u). That the term implies the idea of the path or the norm. or Jarav. Ardlia * Magadhi tlie . p.//rt7. 'together with against it.a^/^ Law-verses". ''will vif. " " the v^erses of the law ^' legis by Rockhill by Beal " the and by Max Miiller of "the law'". Vol. Pt. and the The Fa-kheu-pi-u another similar to the Pali ricessnii. According to this interpretation. Verse i2. sutta. Sadevaka^Pali f<a(leralcam. path '^ " virtue = the norm or the path of virtue categorised of or 37 constituent the as parts enlightenment beatitude {sattfdimsa-hodlripaJikJdlxa-dhamina-sanl-hMam Dhammapada-Comy.. etc. Eta = Pali efaih. vijfiast/ati. II. vijaiiissati^ paUrijjhissali^ sacc/iikarissati. " that r//^(. 'will fully know. . contrasted with those of others. seems more suitable for To select or collect the a text like the Dhammapada. will discriminate. to understand the excellence of the Buddhist doctrine as The other interpretation. by the Tibetan translator of the Udanavarga and by the modern '^ translators ''will of the Dhammapada. vijcsmti^^ siqjeraLit ^\ conquer".. dharmapadam^ translated by Fausboll •' versus padam.li pathavhh.).^w. or any other s^^nonym of Nirvana is evident from the Suttanipata. Senart says that this reading is more appropriate Pali and we have nothing to say than the innnh. of men '. v. '^ M. Sk.<?. 23. overcome'^ seems more realm Yamaloka Pali Yamalokam. vijessati The other interpretation accepted seems = Sk. To discriminate the path of virtue according to this interpretation is to distinguish between a good and a bad doctrine. i. ef. I. vivriiti. virtue.--Pradhavi^Pa. explains vijesmti in the same sense as vicessaii vijessati vijinismfi. 6) ^o dhamviapade sndesite wagge jlvati (see There also the Paramatthajotika. jjrt//ir7/m.( 150 ) jjiid/nivlm.

it is to be considered a highly artistic product. The two 2 are answered in the verse under notice. technical term applied to per>ons Ailing up the sev^en Arahants who have ranks of disciples below the and spirireached the summit of moral perfection It is not clear how far the Prakrit hudhii is tuality. theme and the several logical sequence of thought. viva payesiti is the same in meaning as the Pali 'Hike a skilful (wreathhisalo liupphain iva pacessaii. rejected after a careful sifting. brings home how Asiatic nations. has made the lofty message of Buddhism appeal alike to the intellect and the emotion the preface : the the of so many by the The analogy. having taken flowers from a garden. is well of this brought out in explanation expression version which Tibetan translation of the llockhill's "" reads Like unto a clever wreath-maker. . of An interesting account Dhammapada is given in compilation to the Kusalo pusaFa-kheu-king. like a most skilfully woven wreath. a quantity of precepts from is he who. The Pali ' (Fa-Kheu-pi-u). who.( 151 ) is colkctirig the choice flowers and making them into wreaths to discriminate carefully the more exquisite and eleo^ant stanzas from others which are comparatively prosaic and. a poetic creation which. but judging it as a whole. the Dhammapada is not a mere mechanical compilation of select stanzas. An Indian maker) collecting the (choice) flowers ". a 'Leai ^ is a Sekho Buddhist "the disciple^' (Udanavarga). Verse 13— Budhu = Pali BmhUo. to collate and arrange them according to metre. system of faith was intelligently the entire Buddhist built up with its 37 parts interwoven into a harmonious whole to the exclusion of materials. 3 questions in sense of an Arahat. by the personality. has manufactured them into beautiful wreaths and has then given them away. as applied Dhammapada-Commentary. ^ having gathered out the k!astras and formed tliem into a pleasing collecThis goes to show that tion^ does teach them to others". as has been done in recensions of of the Dhammapada. though influenced Mahayana conception the substitution of of this Buddha's term for the Pali be taken sellio is a significant fact. ''the enlightened reading is seklio. But Liidhu may also simply raised in the v.

heap Notes.( 153 ) 14 yadha saga(ra)'udasa ujhitasa maliapathi padumu tatra jaea suj'igan((l)'^ha raanoramu O (C>o. and spread far and wide its delightful perfume. 15-16): ^ — Yatha samkaradhanasmiih^ ujjhitasmim mahapathe . p. xii. p.. viiro. the phenomenal world). beside the way of false speculation (universal inquiry). ' « Frag. C. gal5]'» (C-. Supplied by us. Senart's suggestion. the padma. so the disciple of the perfect Buddha shines by his wisdom among other men. 9-10 :— "As on piles of filth and in dirty water grows. the wise man diffuses his glad sentiments in becoming a disciple of Buddha ". heap of In all the older recensions of the Restored according to M. who are blind and (like) a of filtli ". 5) Dhammap. reads sanlara° and ''Hhanasmim. " sammasambuddhasavako. * M. Supplied by ns. 91 :— close beside the highway. unaffected by them. ^ For the word cf. pure. 88). sec. G. will midst.ch.(^'The Flower"). 90.. vv. 3) 15 (emu)'' saghadhadhamae*andhah(u)He prudi)ija[ne pranai samesabudhasavtika O' abhi(r)''o]'(a)''ti [. sweet-smelling and lovely. Some Ms. 88). Frag. Frng. viiro^ 2 (p. Senart's *' ' ' . Udanav. xv^'". *. xv:ii.." Supplied by ua. Padumam tattha jayetha sucig'andham manoramam Evam samkarabhutesu andhabhute puthujjane Atirocati pafiiiaya Cf. produce the lily in its Cf. As a ditch the field. 58-59 t (Pappliav. so in the midst of life and death (that is. Cf. ^ ^ M. 1 (p. "enart reads °dhamaa. restoration. wliicli we have slightly C. in — These a of a saintly two verses complete tos^ether the likeness Bhikkhu of humble birth to a lovely lotus filth. Supplied by us. in Flowers ''). M.^ vs. (" Fa-kheu-pi-u. ^ altered for symmetry. Senart suggests h(o)te.

W ) Dhammapada these are put at the end of the Ptipphavagga . through ing There is. no better than filthy heaps'). raised that dh in the Prakrit text mostly represents th^ seeing '^0 . to the persons of humble birth and of a feature which can be traced back poor circumstances. saghadha has. In these two equations. Dhamaa or dhamae is not certainly ^^^rw^^. growing among the heaps of refuse and filth beside a high road. would be written that the scribe mistake.-Sagaraudasa in = Pali as sankarakutasmim. Here are two instances where the Genitive ease-ending has stood for the Locative. They serve to throw into clear relief the contrast between the life of the multitude who are blind to the brighter side of human nature and steeped in the filth of worldliness. They seem to indicate the lofty aim of Buddhism. p. Therag. (U).. a ditch in the field" (Fa-kheu-pi-u). something for mrjara — mnl!araP wron<r somewhere. outshines them by their wisdom. UjMtasa = Verse is. As to the Prakrit reading. though born among the common mortals. and that of a Buddhist saint who. = perhaps = Pali xcmkhatadhammaka or sankhatadhammase (see Jataka IV. p. to him " the word remains difficult". Sk. or v. which opened the door of salvation. Saghadhadhamaa is vSenart says that the form mgliadhadhamaa certain. which speaks of a disciple of Buddha as samkara-bhutesn ' born among average men who are jpi puthnjjariesv. Senart locates it.).. tijjhUe = chaddifey "thrown away'* (Dhammapada-Comy. he says.-Saghadhadhamae this is substituted for Pali sam^arahhuiesn (see the Dhammapada-Comy. but not probably where M. an objection can be as to the possibility of the change of t to dh. samkara-pu'fija. elided between the two final vowels. 260) and saghuihadhamae = V2M sankhatd' dhamMake. like unto a lotus or lily. as he Some consonant like k appears to have been supposes. though the last letter might be appears e or i. — Verse M. many centuries before the advent of Christianity and Vaisnavism. the Pali counterparts of them can be traced in no other canonical text than the Dhammapada. and Nevertheless. jato.( 1. no doubt. (cf. the — M. 578) on piles of filth and in dirty water" (Ud&navarga) . to the Samailnaphala Sutta (Digha. I. which is the same samkaratthanasniim meaning samkaradhanasmim = * ^'in V2M ujjhitasmim. sweet-scented and lovely. i^uggests that the only way of avoiding the difficulty with " by admittregard to the first part of the word.

as d/mrmapadem The naming of of the exaltation 'the one^ out sahasravafgah''\ thereby undoubtedly presupposing an older Sanskrit recension. older. 17) °saghaclhio (I.'"°. [5. 31) for capafo . but that cannot be. sharply contrasted with those of the Brahmanie The increase of numbers in the later recensions . 18) for Pali visesato . c''". xxiv. ' the Buddha's disciples who explain well the law '. though they betray a common purpose in that they emphasize a particular fact. contains 16 The whole of a Sahasravarga containing 24 gathas stanzas. and = ' = = = The chapter contains 15 stanzas. and it is only in a few stanzas that the number 'hundred' is substituted for 'thousand'. Pali th. " is quoted in the Mahav. same sami/ak. faith. to cf. The corresponding group in the Udanavarga (chjip. change that of ak to ^. and for pr{n).«/y^z(. The 'Number'-group in the Pali Dhammapada (chap.). c^'°. a term that denotes and decay.}V«?6'. these recensions differ. and Sanskrit in the sense that it was the outcome of an earlier attempt at sanskritisation. it may be taken to refer to hiidkamvaha. of pr pradhavij vv. nsed in the Prakrit text is in the plural. visesadln (1. of 'a thousand^ forms the burden of the following group of 17 verses. Cf. b.( 154 there ) instances where dli a^. samadha (I. And the practices or principles thus emphasized are all Buddhistic. pp. i. persistence Prudhijane = Pali^. practice or pi iticiple by singling it out of a hundred or a thousand. As to the number as well as the arrangement of the verses. and Sk. we mean. alirocati (Pali). Senart holds that it may very well be ahhirocanti. 12-13. be accepted. viii. M. sammatta.istu (III. ours. average men ^ technical of persons as good {kalyaria) distinguished and most common. gotrabhu. If the reading saghadh idhamaa 37) for samata. (sec. For the (the instructed)' stupid {sthu^a). cf. since the nom. 37) for sangdtigo for kiislto . and note that e and i are Ab]liroati interchangeable in the dialect of our text. Sahasavaga] The chapter is. But are represents ^ also.) and the Chinese Fa-kheu-king. Prudhi Sk. -. The reading saghadliadliamae — san\liatadhammake^ "in the midst of life and death " (Fa-kheu-pi-u). would mean a phenomenal existence characterised by growth. cavadhi {1. xvi. a Buddhist below the rank '. 434-36). than the Udanavarga. as before.) has 34 verses. prthak^ 'other than ' or prthu. kusidhu (I.

Brahman priests with their elaborate system of sacrifice and mantras j^ and the Kesakambala declaration of the unfounded character of the sacrifices^ found a saner expression in the Buddha's utterances setting forth the sacrifices as less valued in comparison with the more dignified practices of religion.. a doubt is apt to arise if they were composed in the time of the Buddha. pp. sacrifices. And the best of all sacrifices is the four-fold meditation ". honey and sugar only ^ See the Mundaka and Katha Upanisads. perhaps the most powerful of all because of his synthetic The Munc'aka and Gotamaka condemnation of the genius. butter. especially that which is extended to holy and upright men. oil. one in a thousand. to contrast Seeing that the Number-verses are mostly intended the Buddhist pract'ces and principles with the rituals. borne out by the fact that we find one or two verse? in the Manu Saihhita and the Jaina text which in their present forms are far later than the oldest portions of the Buddhist Nikayas. . 13ut better than this is certainly the observance of moral precepts. during Brahmanic which several schools of Wanderers appear to have broken away from the ancient tradition and condemned the Brahmanic system ot learning and religious rites ard dogmas with a vehemence perhaps unparalleled in the history of human culture. or one in a million. 143 f. we have reason lue fco to believe that their several number was far less than what it is in the This hypothesis is recensions of the Dhammapada. present but a universal idiom. in their ultimate analysis. summary 2. 1 80-3) : milk. p. another revolutionary. Dial. Havincj regard to the fact that the conveying Number-verses cannot be traced in any otlier canonical text in the form in which they occur in the Dhammapada. Thus we read in the Kutadanta-sutta (Digha I. ^ Digha I. Sankara's views in the . " The sacrifice performed with ghee. of Buddha's views. This is a mere Viveka-cudamnni. B. hymn-chanting and poetic compositheir tion.( 155 ) is a most mechanical multiplication of the stanzas the same sense.g.^ One can justly ])oint out this prose discourse as the historical basis of the Number-verses which. Better still is the putting up of monasteries. systematic and compromising shape in the teaching of Gotama Buddha. These revolutionary ideas gathering strength with the progress of time assumed at last a more rational. II. e. is charity. origin cannot be dated farther back than the sophistic period immediately preceding the advent of Buddhism. Even supposing that these were composed then. pp. one in a hundred. *55. Cf. is better than that at which living Better than this mode of sacrifice creatures are slaughtered. V.

a greater conquers a thousand times a thousand men in conqueror than he is he who conquers himself. 1 Supplied by 2 us. vnro. and jini ( Pa]i jine). and that the Prakrit is older than the earlier Sanskrit. Mahavastu.( 156 ) 1 yo (sa)'[hasa sahasani sagami manusa jini eka jij^ (jini)' atmana so ho sagamu utamu O (C™. xiiro —not p^ag. eh. Cf. Senart suggests." Notes. as an inversion for the Pali sahassena. C. v. adjusted by M. 103 t (Sahassavagcra. Udanav. 6) Cf. xxin. . 1^ 2 Frag. the readinsj the Udanavarga verse is similar to the Pali. The of —As — = difference could be minimised. The Prakrit verse differs from the Pali by these two words sahasani { = VdM sa/tassmi). C. Sonart. ("Self"). 3 : — Yo satani saliasranarii Yo samgrame manuja jaye caikath jaje atnianam sa vai saiiigrainajit varah. v. 3 :- " He wlio battle. Dhammap. appears from Roekhill's translation. comparative study of these four recensions makes it clear that the Pali form is the oldest. v.. 3. 4) :-^ Yo sahassam saliassena sangame maniise jine Ekafi ca jeyya-m-attanam sa ve saiigamajuttanio.. as M. if sahasani could have been interpreted. v. But this cannot very well be done as we find that the verse in the Mahavastu contains the word satani the same in form as the Prakrit sahasani. The teaching inculcated in the verse is that the greatest enemy of man is after all is which A effort must be made to This of idea self conquer lofty -conquest is illustrated in the Buddhist literature by a graphic poetic description his own self and accordingly every self. S alias ravaro'a. Cf .

and Buddhacarita. It is ^\m\)\y sangamaji-\-uttama. II. 24. and no less by that of Buddha's disciples-. 3-4. 5. Dhamniapada. 2. IX. and a Jaina parallel of it is embodied in a The truth of dialogue of the Uttar^dhyayana Sutra '^. all. An earlier form of the conception of self-conquest. .( 157 of ) of the inner strusjo^le »!-> the ascetic Siddhaitha with Mara^. Cf samgramajit of the Mahavastu. Samyutta Nikaya. Cf. ' Bhikkhuni-Samyutta. RSjovada-jataka. xviil. xxi. If this be for Pali instrumental singular form must be interpreted as referring to manum^ like Mahavastu verse. . a marked advance on the 'tit for tat' principle. I. Padhana Sutta. Asoka's Rock Edict. 108. . came to be recognised by the Buddhist teachers and kings as a distinct principle of action.. + •' ^ ^ Uttaradhyayana. Mahavastu Mcirasamyutta. king Asoka both of of India and king Dutthagamani of Ceylon. where the aModhenn jine kodham principle is contrasted with the dalhena dalham hhepnnom. Sahasani = not an inversion sahassena^ it Pali sahassmij the Sk. sataiii in the M. 1. Samyutta NikSya. a compound. chap. v. No. bereft of the later Buddhist imagery of a heroic light with the lower nature of man is to be found in the teaching of the Mundakas^. XXV. 20-22. In tins respect Buddhism can claim as much superiority to : the juristic faith of the Brahmans^ as Christianity to the Mosaic doctrine of the Israels. claimed in the Kajovada Jataka". which by the Pali rule of sandhi hsis hesbome snnffffmajuf tamo. the teaching of the Buddhist verse under notice was confirmed by two powerful Buddhist kings. chap. xiii-xiv. Ho = Pali kho. . ^ . and that in a form of conquest of hatred by love^. Lalitavistara. No. Sagamu utamu=:Pali saiigamajtiMamo. whom came to feel remorse and intense agony of heart at the recollection of their experiences on battle-fields^. In the teaching of Asoka the idea of conquest by the dhamwa took the place of the principle of self-conquest " The idea of self-conquest n/M{kha)mnle dhammarijcuje '\ which shaped itself in the teaching of the Sramans proper. ^ MundakaUp. Suttanipata. 28 = Lalitavistara. * The Sanskrit Epics condemn only "wrath without any provocation " {vina vairam rudrata). sahasrani. Senart considers the Pali reading as the result of a But there is no confusion here at confusion of writing. Bks. an expletive denoting assertion. XIII Mahavamsa.

by . lO'l t (Sahassav. has been occurring in the succeeding verses. adjusted Frag. than to recite a hundred gathas which are not of the law ". xxiv. v. 3 e [sata bhase anathapadasahita]^ s. very doubtful word.( 158 ) 2 saha[sa bi ya gasana^ anathapa]^[dasahifca e]'^[ka vayapada]* sebha'"' ya sutva uvasamati O^ ^ (C^^ 7) v. Fa-kheu-pi-ii. 100 t (Sahassav. api v.. what there it in But to understand one is truth. xiro^ 1. Ms. 2 : is better to speak one word of the law which brings one nigh unto peace. not C.. Cf. eh. 104.:— thousand is "To repeat a profit words this ? to without understanding. p. though written in a peculiar hand in the The variants are sehu. xiro^ 2.. 1): Cf. 2.. C. " It ca gatha satarh bhase anatthapadasamhita seyyo yam sutva upasammati. Senart. ("Numbers"). 8) Dhammap. act accordingly. 8) : — — Yo Ekam dhammapadam Cf. v... Senart. seho verified by M.— by M. — . us. Sahassam api ce vaca anatthapadasaihhita Ekarh atthapadaih seyyo yam sutva upasammati. v. ' Fr. C. ('The Thousands").hu ya sutva uvasamati O^ (CCf. xvi. 1 : — Sahasram vacanam anarthapadasamhita Eka arthavati sreya yam srutva upasamyati. v. viiro^ 4. C. Mahavastu Sahasravarga. and hearing " deliverance. Dhammap. Udanav. 5 That the second letter is hh. see. ^ 3 Frag. p^ag. this to find Cf. xii^o. 1 A * « The The circle is supplied circle is supplied by ns.

Verse 3 above. C. JatakalV. sabba honti sahassiyo. xvi. ca gatha sataiii bhase anatthapadasamhita seyj^o yam sutva upasammati. v. p." '^ * ^ * M. this is not equal to the repetition of one sentence well understood. (" The Thousands*'). l. Attha te bhasita gatha. ^ (j^y j^ gadhas'ata^ bhase anathapadasahita eka gadhapada seho ya sutva uvasamati O (C»«. but understand not the meaning of the lines he repeats. p. 101 t (Sahassav. ce gatha v.. ix^o. Supplied by us. Sec. Supplied by us. Na me attho sahassehi satehi nahutehi va..( 159 ) The Prakrit verse can be easily restored : — O (yo ja gadhasata) bhase anathapadasahita e(ka dhamapada) s(e)liu ya Sutva uvasamati 4 (saha)^sa bi ya gadhana anathapadasahita eka gadhapada seho ya sutva uvasamatP O (C-9) Cf. Cf. Pacchimaih bhasato gathatb kame me na rate mano. 12 infra. Dhammap. anatthapadasamhita seyyo yam sutva upasammati. which is able when heard to control thought. v. 101 :— " Although a man can repeat a thousand stanzas (sections). Senart reads uvasamati. sec. Fa-kheu-pi-u. 175:— . v. Patiganha mahabrahme. Also ya Partly completed by Frag. 10) Cf. . . sadh'etarh tava bhasitaiii. 2) : — Sahassam api Ekam gathapadam C£. rendered in Pali The : verse can be easily Yo Ekam gathapadam Cf. 2 : — Sahasram api gathanaih anarthapadasamhita Eka arthavati Sreya yam srutva upasamyati. Mahavastu Sahasravarga.

uh. especially the Mahayanists. were not immune from the same kind of vannanddlni adverse at the criticism not only from the modern critics^. final s or h which s' is Similarly the may ^ See Di\ R. the mountains. . thousands or millions (as the Jataka puts it) of the Vedic hymns regarded as dealing with useless subjects. (2-5) are very much alike. —These four verses only. i. ("The Thousands *^). the forest and the like. the advocates of the Sahajiya doctrine'"^.— Eka vayapada would correspond to a Pali ckam vacapadam. see. L. Mitia's observations in tbe introduction to his edition of the A§tasahasrika Prajfiaparamita (Bibl. is far better and valuable than so many hundreds. the descriptions of the sky. Notes. however. p. Fa-kheu-pi-u.^ setting forth. Sebha = Pali seyyo. 2 :- " It is better to speak one word of the law which brings one nigh unto peace. The hh may be accounted for as due to the influence of the dropped in both Pali and Prakrit. 88. Sk. full of words of M. than to recite a hundred gathas which are not of the law ". be said to have been due to the desire to compensate for the lost sound r in sr. (" Numbers "). s et/as. goes padeJd samhitayd to prove that the Buddhists themselves. Verse 2. in the All detail. Historj^. Senart. this is the way to find supreme wisdom ". p. which do not throw light on the path to salvation {aka^avannana'pMatavannana'Vana- anaiihakeh pakasakeJii aniyymadlpakehi va baJmlZi honti).e. Udanav.. xvi. 104 :— " A man maj be able to repeat many books. in the language of the Dhammapada-Comy.( 160 ) Cf. but hands of their brethren. Cf.. Indica series). what profit is there in this P But to explain one sentence of the Law. differing in some differentiation of of them teach that one Dhammapada gathaj poetry and meaning. . xxiv. Baaddha Gan-o-Doha. v. and to walk accordingly. but if he cannot explain them.

Fa-kheu-pi-u.B. in which case it niu. ' sake of consistency witlitlie next verses.st be joined to the next word. " in the Buddha" "in the church" respectivelv.1 M. Yo jayeta sahasranarfi mase mase satam sataiii Na so dharme prasadasya kalam arghati sodasTm. 26-28 :— He who for a hundred years makes a tliousand sacrifices each month. '^ •21 . 27-28. " Althougli a man for a hundred years worship and sacrifice to the spirit of Fire. O 12) 8 masamase sahasina yo yaea satena ca neva saghi prasadasa kala aveti sodasa O (C-. his merit is not equal to that of the man who for a moment pays reverence to the three Holy Ones the happiness consequent on one such act of homage excels that resulting from all those hundred . ixro.buclhi sateria ca prasadasa kala aveti sodasa O (CM 7 I) [(ma)'^samase sahasena yo yaea satiiia ca neva]* (dhami)^ prasa(da)'^sa kala aveti sodasa (C'-«. . ' * also dhama. C. in place of of V. Udanav.( 161 ) G [masamasi sahasina yo yaea]^ neva'. 13) Cf. Senart Supplied by us l>ajr. \vi. p. " and For vv. C. . Cf •' . ch. vv. Supplied by us. 26. substitute '• in the holy law [N. Senart reads neci. {" The Thousands 105 :— "). suf^i^ests Supplied by us. sec. viiiro. 2. xxi\ (^'Numbers"). 4-6 : — ' Yo jay eta sahasranam niase mase sataih satarii Na so Buddlie prasadasya kalam arghati sodaslrh. We read neva for the Fx-ai?. years *'. ^ . as M. Mal)avristu.. Yo jayeta sahasranam mase mase satam satam Xa so saiiighe prasadasya kalam arghati sodasim. Sahasravarga. is not worth the sixteenth part of him who has faith in the Buddha". vv. Cf.

O (C/«. cro^ 25. C xr. (''Numbers"). eh. solasim. = Pali mp. 11 masamase sahasena yo yaea satena ea ekapananuabisa kala naveti sodasa O (C. Cf. 63). Supplied by us. all sacrificing elephants. and horses. p. p. and other things. Mahavastu. 14 : — Na so samkhatadhanimanam kalam agghati Cf. .16) 17 Cf. Sahasravarga. v.Ti'". Sahasravarga. Mahavastu.". the last halF of the V. v. Udanav. ("Metta"). S'd : — " He Avho for a hundred years makes a thousand sacrifices each month. 10 masamase sahasena yo yae[a satena ca]^ (iicva sabanasil)'^esu kala aveti sodasa O (C. 2 ' - ci'...15) Cf.( 16£ ) 9 masamasi sahaseDa yo yaea satena ca neva saghasadhamesu kala aveti sodasa • . is not worth the sixteenth part of him who explains well the holy law". uiid (I. this is not equal to one act of pure love in saving life. :— " If a man lives a hundred years. and engages the whole of his time and attention in religious offerings to the gods. 8 : — Yo Na jayeta sahasranaih inase mavse sataih satarh so svakhyatadharmanam kalam arghati sodaslm. v. Fa-kheu-pi-u. 7 : — Yo jayeta sahasranalil mase mase sataih Sataih So va sampannasilanam kalam narghati sodasim. 14) Cf. Panitavaga. Frag. v. niiahisa oi the next verse. 11) Dhammap. sec. Sahasravarga. 70 t (Balav. v. vii. For ^ sabano ( = Pali sampanno). xxiv. =Mahavastu. v..

(1) faith in the Three Jewels. Sk. A comparison of the Prakrit verses with their parallels in the Fa-kheupi-u and other recensions of the Dhammapada makes it clear how easy it ^^'as for the Buddhists to multiply the number of this class of stanzas by merely changing a certain word or expression. re would be the inversion nera may of be as na re. Senart for points out. by mistake that the scribe wrote av<ti for aghati. n'^era or Sk.— Masaxnasi. i". sahasena satina = Pali saJmsaeva satevo. It is also clear that the chief motive of these verses is to extol the principles of practical Buddhism. — We 7nase.. V. Tiaiva or We . But ne va taken from the risk = Pali regarded as »n free us such ' attains *. apnoti. vv... yajeta y and^ being inverted in Neva jay eta of the Mahavastu verses quoted above.^ ) Cf . which are of far greater worth than the hundreds and thousands of sacrifices performed each month by the Brahman householders. Aveti = Prili anreti would conjectures as nera—ndpi. must admit that the basic idea out of which they had grown. means 'extending In these verses there are numerous instanover a month ces where / and e are interchanged Sahasina Satena.( 16. 30. and (3) compassion for the living beings. trust that it was not 'deserves' [aggJiati ov arghati).se Verses 6-8. is not worth the sixteenth part of him who is merciful to sentient creatures (varied in vv. 53 :— varse varse 'svamedhena yo yajeta satarp samah marhsani ca na khadedyastayoh punyaphalam samam. {'' Numbers ").<^. viz. The Buddhist principles emphasized herein are just three. 29-31 :— "^He who for a hundred years makes a thousand sacrifices each month. 7na. and masawasi. (written neri in v. which is as idiomatic as sa/ia-srariam sntam saiam of ihe Mahavastu verses. which equates with the Prakrit form masawosi. masamase = Pali and Sk. mate In colloquial Bengali the idiom n?a''fi each month \ ' means quite the same thing. . (2) observance of the moral precepts. It is a strange fact that the parallel of none of these verses (O-'l) is to be found in the Dhammapada or in any other canonical text. 31 'animated creatures' and 'beings' respectively). appoti := Sk. \xtv. the Kutadanta-sutta of the Dighanikaya. 6)=:: Pali or vi Sk. Udanav. '. Notes. or Tidpi. 7ia as M. " bjr Manu. correct from The reading na . eh. is embodied in a prose discourse. Cf. Yaea = Pali yojeyy.

V. ' '. v. pa rasa (Apramadavaga. ch. v. . p. SabanasileSU would be in ^ Pali smnfamiasllesn.-SaghasadhameSU = Pali sanhhatadham- those wlio havo well understood the Norm '.. 123. the Mahavastu in the peculiarity For the opposite process cf. . 13) : — Yo ca vassasatam jiv^e kuslto hinaviriyo Ekaharh jivitarh seyyo viiHyani^ arabhato Cf. apramadasa (ibid." Verses 13 and l-i Another readinj?. p. (juoted above) Prakrit verses 9-10. Senart's notes (pp. 1*26. p.( lfi4 ) Verses 9-ii. ^ of those who have well explained the law'. verse for the mmpannahllZimm a of is noticeable V. Mahavastu. 152. a life of one single day is better if one exerts oneself to zealous application. {" Numbers "). would correspond to a Pali ekapanmiuEkapananuabisa of one who is kampism. v. with i metri causa. 17). p. v. Sk. 19 : — Yo ca varsasatarh jive kusldo hinavlryavan Ekaharii jTvitam si^eyo viryam avambhato drdham. xxiv. Dhammap. Sahasravarga. Vox the reading see mem. the explanation given in the Dhammapada-Oommentary. viryam. v. 112 t (Sahassav. " Saiikhatadhamma V. mga andasa (Pusavaga. 121 . 4 : — "He who lives a hundred years in laziness and slofchfulness. 132 12 ya JH vasasata jivi muhutu^ jivita kusidhu hinaviyava sebha virya arahato dridlia O (C-17) Cf. genitive (ef. dalharii.. 59-60).. Cf. 1). p. H). 4). v. v. ekaprandm'fkawpinahj compassionate towards a single living creature 16). 70 vuccanti fudadhaviiiia^ tiditadhammay The meaning of the word was changed when it came to be Sanskritised as '^iHikhjala-dharmonam. imtsa (ibid. have muhata. among those who have fully observed The adoption of the locative form the rules of morality '. vtJtanaalasa (ibid. Cf. IJdanav. ' among : — M.

Cf. Supplied by us. Hot (Sabassav. " Udanav. ^. Senart. 17 siho. Sahasravarga. •"' * — . traces of the previous word jivita. udayahhayam. 14 ya ja vasasata jiv(i)"^ m(u)%uta jivita dhamu utamu pasatu dhamu [s]"^e(b)hu apasu utamu O^ {0% Cf. v. Cf. xxiv.. and v.. 1 13 t (Sabassav. V. * Variant. bears " The circle is supplied by us. 6 : — He who and lives a hundred years without perceiving birth dissolution. 23 : — Yo ca varsasatam jive apasyam dharmam uttamam Ekaham jTvitam sreyo pasyato dharmam uttamam.. Mahavastii. v.. 19) Dhammap. 1.. Dhammap. 14) ^ : — Yo ca vassasatam jive apassam udaj^avjajarh Ek^ham jlvitarh seyyo passato ndayavyayarii. Frag. Cf.( Ifi'--' ) 13 ya ji vasasato jivi apas'u iidakavaya muhiita jivita sebha' pa'^ato udalvavaya O (C'M8) Cf. v. v. The Frag. v. Mahavastu. 16) : — Yo ca vassasatam jive apassam dhammam uttamaih Ekaham jTvitam seyyo passato dhammam uttamaih. ' The next verse has sehhu. a life of one single day is better if one perceiA'es birth and dissolution ". xxxviii*o. not adjusted by M. ch. Sahasravarga. (" Numbers "). C. v. 23 : — Yo ca varsasatam jive apasyam udayavyayaih Ekaham jTvitam sreyo pasyato iidayavyayam.

according to — it should be party art M ' M. 17 :— - " a man live for a hundred years in a forest. Cf. Senart puts it separately as sa pi telena. '^. xxiv.. ('' Numbers").. Senart combines the two words into yaji. Cf. and if lie but for one single moment pays homage to a man who meditates on the self. Dhammap. 8) : — Yo Sa ca vassasataih jantu aggirfa paricare vane Ekafi oa bhavitattanam muhuttam api pujaye 3^eva — pujana seyyo van ce vassasatam hutaifa. Udanav. * M. v. xxxviiro.( Ififi ) Cf. Fraof. He who 15 ya ja vasasata jatu agi pariyar(e)^ vane [chirena]'^ sapitelena'^ divaratra atadrito 16 [ekci ji hhavitatmana muhuta ]Siva p(u)^ a(e)^ sameva puyana sebha ya jF vasasata hotu O (C--^' 20-21) Cf. Mahavastu. vv.. xxtv. ("Numbers"). " Senart's suggestion." * M. 2. C. Senart. Udanav. C. 107 t (Sahassav. 10:— lives a hundred j^ears without knowing the ideal knowledge that is haid (to arrive at). Sahasravarga. v. 15-16 : — Yo Yo ca varsasatam jive agniparicaram caret Patraharo chavavasi karonto vividhaui tapam caikarii bhavitatmanam muhurtam api pujaj'et Sa ekapujana sreyo na ca varsasatam hutam. v. eh. v. - but suggests that or pariyari.. Senart reads pariyara. life of one single day is better if one knows the ideal knowledge that is hard (to arrive at)". eh. . Frag. not adjusted by M. this homage is greater than sacrifices for a hundred If years. Supplied by us. wholly relying on fire (Agni"*. xxix^o.

Samvaccharam yajetha pufniapoklio Sabbalii pi taifa na catiibhagam Abhivadana ujju^atesu seyyo. as distinjruished from the preceding one. -H : — No matter what to acquire to merit. A\bo Tpiifiavekhu. after this life expecting reward.( 167 ) 17 [ya keja yatha va ho(tu)^ va lok(e)'^]^ (savachara'^ yaea puuapekho'' sarva vi ta na '^caubhakame)'ti ahivadana ujukatesu siho O^ (C% Cf. Mahavastu. teaches that the spiritual efforts. Cf. . 1. Sahasravarga. cb. p. the philosophic insight and series —The * Supplied by us Frajr. — Yam kirici j'ittham ca liutafi ca loke eti. * ^ ^ '' Cf. v. * savitfu = Va. 9) ... 28). his happiness is not one quarter of that man's who pays homage to the good ". 108 t (Saliassav. Cf. Supplied by us. 64. Fa-kheu-pi-u.. p." gal7 (C% Notes. samvuto (C^o. v. xvi. xxiv. •' Udanav. A\so catubhuyatneti. see. ifo. cf. hottt of the preceding verse. C. a 23) verses (12-17) are a blended whole and constitute which. or. 17 : — Yat kiiiieid istam ca liutarh ca loke Samvatsaraiti yaj^ti punyaprekso. — (" Cf. The Thousands"). or panavechu. v. v. is a man may offer in this world not worth the quarter of doing homage one who has a quieted and upright mind. 2'Z) Dhammap. 108:— " To Hacrifice to spirits in order to find peace (merit).Vi * Also loki. . circle is supplied The by wa. sacrifice it ('* Numbers "). Sarvam pi tarn na caturbhagam eti xlbhivadanarii ujjngatesu sreyarfa.

hr. Mundaka Up. to be found neither in the Pali yathd. sUio Sk. Suhavaga. 80. Hinaviyava = Sk. The change of y to appears to be along the Hues of the change of j to k . pabbaja. }). arambhatah. Arahato = Pali arabhnio. equates w^ith Sk. n'atthi sukata-dukkatanam kammanarh phalaih vipako^. The Buddhist's is a simple moral under-estimation which must be carefully distinguished historically .?^^/^/^ (v. Sk. 31. -s meaning hluav~ir?/. 2. udayacyayam. 8 (I. : Muhutaviva would a vowel sandhi {miihuta correspond to a Pali iiuihuitamiva Pali 'S(7 ^^'/m a vowel sandhi {sa-\ era). babalxci = ^k. c^°. 1. Mahavastu reads sa elia"^. nor in the Udanavarga verse. 14). The Mahavastu lironio veise substitutes for it: patrdharo chavamsl vividham tapam. v. (1) from the MuiVaka's bold condemnationIs tapurtam maiiyamana varistliaih iianyacchreyo vedavante pramudhah Nakasya prSthe te sukrte i 'nubhutvemani lokam hlnataVarh vavisanti. are These instances where hreijali. Sk. .) = Pali is Verses 15=16. udayavi/ayam oy ndayabbtn/am. n atthi hutam. we must admit that these are in spirit the same.( 1G8 ) the higher form cf Buddhist worship are of far superior worth than the fire-worship and sacrifices of the Fdnaprastha hermils.— verse).mn (Mahavastu as the Pali hinaviriyo. The The reading san/eva is a change from saveva.— XJdakavaya= Pali cf. 55. 10. the latter having a milder form of expression than the former. But comparing the Mundaka views and those of the Buddhists a little more closely. Digiia. the which is same in Seb]ia = . Sameva= -\-ira). 'growth and loss'. /»• Verse 13. p. Verse 12. Chirena sapitelena divaratra atadrito This line khlrena uippl-teleua divarattam aiandito. 17) = Pali ^eyyo. (v. These forms go to prove that / and e^ and bh and // are interchangeable in the dialect of our Prakrit text.^ II and (2) from the Kesakambala's philosophical denial — X'atthi yitthatii. I.

-Yatha the Prakrit any transformation.. Cf " . of which none is to be found in the Prakrit group.ivagga of the Pali Dhammapada (eh. v. ("The wise man") . as before. The ta ita or Dhamatha group is importance . 3. who is perfectly virtuous. of the Udanavarga has 16 stanzas.) contains 17 stanzas. ("Morality") 20 — — — • ^ Frao. Udanav. M. 25 :— He who observes the law. it teaches whom and what should be his conduct. v. consists of '' be ascertained from the colopiion. and some of the rest of the same group in other chapters of the Pali. 22 . ^' ga 10 which the in v. ('^Agreeable Things^'). we are comparatively of little to regard as virtuous 1 [silamatu suyisacho]"^ dhamatho sadhujivano atmano karako sadhii ta jano kurati'^ priu O : (C--^4) Cf. The word has like the Sk. v. (Panditavaprjra) 14 stanzas' 17 „ Fa-kheu-pi-u. xiv. speaking the truth.. chap. chap. completed by fr.. undergone Ga 17 marks the end of the chapter and means. that the chapter contains 17 stanzas. infra.) also contains 17 stanzas which agree generally with the Pali. [6. modest. sec. of which four are similar to those in the Pali group. 1. vi. 3. dhamatha occurring ten stanzas. Chapter xi." ^ Dhammapada. vi. isimn. c''*^ 34). iv^o. 1 or Verse 3 of the Prakrit group has a parallel in one of (I. 9) — Attano Slladassanasampaiinarh dliammatthaih saecavadinarii kamma kubbanarh taiii jano kiirute piyaih.. delights the rest of mankind.). XIX. not. doing what he ought to do. ch. The corresponding chapter in the Fakheu-pi-u (see..( 169 ) Verse i7. Panitavaga or Dhamathavaga] of This group. the verses of the Panditavaggaof the Pali Dhammapada (ch. Udanavarga. as maj- name is suggested by the word hj panita in v. Dhammap. v. Senart dares not change it into kuruti. iifo. 217 t (Piyavagga. C. vi. is though he thinks such a reading very probable. C. xxvii. root in = Pali yiitham. Sk.' The Dhaminatth.

suyisacho etc. dalsi/a : . vidya. poses it to be. nro. '303 t (Pakiiitiakavagga. dliUi^ cago Ramayana. 280) : .. C/handog^ya. ficfccam. dhammo. Manu enumerates ten principles dhrfi. M)im people hold dear '. 2. Instead of (purity) the Pali ver. The expression o is ellij)tical.^e has dassofia suyi The Prakrit (insight). •or the Tibetan version itself^ seems open to dispute. This is not an accusative singular form as M. — The expressions in the Prakrit verse are somewhat from those in its Pali and Sanskrit parallels. : samacheram. mati. sochaye . sadhujivana (innocent life) and atmano cf. dai/~i. drsli. edition) : dhrti. saucam. Atmano karako would strictly Mie who does his equate wdth a Pali aftano I'arako. v.). ii ajmunave bahnhayaiie. Jataka verse (Fausboll.asfei/n. ls:imay salya. da fc. — ' own duty'. v. ^ Fra^. indrlya-7iigrahay dhi. and throughout the Aiiguttara Nikaya. sanca. : 8%clia {^x\\\\\i\Ax\^'^'&). 17. dama. . Asoka's Pillar Inscription.. r. safyam. S3me w'ord being understood betAVeen atma and karal-o. : i: tapa. priu=Pali 2 [sadhu silena sabanoyasabholiasamapitup yena yeneva vayati tena teneva puyita O (C. " Dhammap. Rockhill's translatioji ''he deliizhts the rest of mankind'^. C. Ta jano kurati tarn jano Inriite piyarii. l-arana (Jutifulnes^) . sacke. Silamatu would correspond lo a Pali silavanto^ almost the same in meaning ns stradnssanasmnpamiooi the Pali text. Senait suphe who is pure and trutifful '. The verse embodies some fundamental principles of Dharma^ esumurated differently in Indian literature. ahimsa and satyavacana.i).( 170 ) Notes. (Bombay III. also savabhutanam Rock Edict xiii achatim. sai/amam. 198 p.25) Cf. V. ksamUj dama. i fnadavam. : etc. The Jaina texts alsj are not wanting in this kind of enumeration.rjavi. Suyisacho a compound with a peculiar grammatical construction. IT'. . alrodha Similar principles are enumerated under teu (vi. reading kilamafu (as nominative singular) appears to be better than the Pali accusative singular. numerical heads in the Sant»!ti Suttanta (Dii>ha. dana. 5 Sankhasamhita. ii. d. 9. ^niii (purity). The principles different referred to in it are — hlla (morality). 14): — Saddho tilena Yam vf:ih sampanno yasobhogasaoiappito padesam bhajati tattha tattli' eva pujito.

notes (p. this first the faithful sad/iu ''. Indeed. abhivuya ( But it is more natural to think that it is r'/Y7. scho. vv. think that sion. adapting the lan^uao^e of the orisjinal verses to the local dialect of the Gaudharan region extendino: as far as Khotan. (8k. f<i/io ^efj/m. cf. v. 'whatever regions he adopts or lives in ') is quite diffeient from yena yena rayati i. Sk. 'passes'. 6f .( 171 * ) Notes. distint^fuishcs woid from • aiibwerii g Prakrit \\here s equates sava'' a ( k.^ravakah). Sahai^avaga sufrn (Sk. which it is very diflB<ult to interpiet. Pusav. 152) witli Hehii.'w//. . xxxi'-o.. 63).. the latter that of the journey of a missionary. Sabano^Pali AV/w^A/«. 2. '^ Supplied by us. seb/tu. The reading dhammlho is probably due The circle \s supplied by us. cf. B. . (pp. v. 15 (p. ^0. 83). see M. has sprung. the initial sibilant « to aaiihu.e. 26)/ Cf. C.. iiro. b}^ an inverse confuWe. mhbattha ve M. Dhammap. 3 fg. vrojnti Svalks^. is instarce in our . 3. the latter expression is quite natural to a Buddhist missionaiy from India. Frag. v. C. This not the Sk. = : = = = ' [yo natimahetu na parasa lietu pavani kamani samayaj^rea na ichia (adhamena)"" [samidhi atmaiio so silaya]^ O^^ panitu dhammiho^ sia (C^«. compiling a text of the Dhammapada.e. by or through whatever (land) he passes \ The former conveys the idea of settlement in a place. v. snitra) ibid. '* Vayad miuht strictly be explained aiter the analogy of Pali abhib/iTiya). Vayati would straightway equate with Pali vnjafi. 31 as the Pali bhajati. For bhoha bhoga. to the error of the scribe. on our } art. II). from an original rajaii '^ the expression yam yam padesam bhajati {i. 'travels^. — ^adhn = V ^W scuhUo. and I should rather believe that bhajafi of the Pali^. 9) :— Xa attahetu na parassa hetu na puttam icche na dhanaih na ratthaiii N' iccheyy' adhammena samiddhim attano sa sllava pafmava dlianiniiko siya. 84 t (Panditav. !b8).^o. ]58-ir)7) . ^ Frag. Yor 6 = }i?p see anua6isa (p... SKi^ali). Sehart's (Sahasav. v. ^enart sajs mpjjvrisa vnjanii (Dhammap.

) Notes. IV. 27) For the last pada.7 /i(?/'/i. duggatim. lord b7ianf. Senart reads sainiicau. cf. aJam bhikkhave ma bhandnuam. not so. though it is certain that the teaching of it is very familiar to a student of Buddhism and that it strikes the keynote of Indian relio^ions.e„ — We = = Ma= : .i. ma. p. Frag.( 172 . ^ M. The particle is used here without the verb expressed. . 1. iti vidva samaii care. i^a hliaya (fear) and molia :— pandita attasukliassa hetn Papani kammani samacaranti Dukkhena phuttha khalitA-pi santa Chanda ca dosa na jahanti dhammarh. 147 (delusion). Jat. ^ ' Frag. Drugati Pali For the form drugati '^k.. Tiie Prakrit reading- equate with a Pali papani l'a?nmdnt samTicareyya . 4 ma [safiatu sukati yati drugati yati asafiatu sa vispasa]^ [avaja icia vidva samu cari^O]^ (C-. The form {Q. Cf. viz. Seuart. This See Childers md. The Pali counterpart would be : — - Ma Notes. expressions. not adjusted by M. 172 : — Pathavya saliyavakarh gavassam dasaporisam Datva va nalam ekassa. inipra. nritlier sake '. chanda (personal pa Vani kamani samayarea would dom (hatred). atimaliehi and p irasa hefii. attaheiu na on personal o-rounds nor fo'* others' natima is an instance of sandhi and of Epeiithesis Pali = Zif'Ui. consideration). v. —Natimahetu ' na parasa hetu=Pali na atuma jOd^rd!^<f. ^'itavaga. 1. p. 5. durgatimy cf. are meant the four ayatis or principles of iniquity. J at. h'evam u$age is: not uncommon in Pali. r/r?/yr«c/^</.a). are unable to trace any Pali or Sanskrit counterpart of this verse. Pali and Sk. it brings out the underlying idea of the verse more clearly tiian the Pali na puttam Tnere is reason to believe that by the two ioche etc. C C iiFo.9. V. Sannato sugatim yati duggatim yati asaniiato so vissasa-m-avajjo idaiii vidva samam care. i'"^.

jaijeilia^ Cf. But p. Ill.li acajjo Sk.) For the last half cf. 164. pamadi. pcuvada joj/aie mado Bhnralusnhha t is where = /«a = pamajja^ ma Childer. arajjo. inferior. vidvaif. ma ma mado. 162. v. Apramadav. V. 27. p. uo quarrelling. auuabua-=anukampinah. . C. The any combination of the half. 15. as M. 840 t Samvuto patimokkhasmiih indriesu na paficasu (Sati kayagata tyatthu nibbidabahulo bhava. p. p. . Vidva Pali ludva. It cannot. 132. also Jut. vv. 2. have not as yet been able to trace to a certainty or Sanskrit parallel to the above vorse. Senart. suggests a reading sumii-ccaret (Sk. Notes. 99. "^ ^ Frag.verses belonging to two different stanzas is an innovation in the Prakrit text. Senart has suggested. saghara sankhara. equate with Sk. 5 [savutu prafcimukhasa idriesu ca pajasii pramimi anii]^[pruYina savasanoyanachaya O]'^ C^ For the first 28) half : (Hahulasutta. Senart. Suttanipata. 131. Pajasu = Pali Pali — We Tiie change of flc to the paficasu.i75. p. 6) — cf.. . Apramadav. v. iiiro. * M..-J says ai-addtabbo ft Tika. yavatetha^yavanVettha (ibid v. Pratimukhasa is an instance of the genitive for the locative. I) : — Papune anupubbena sabbasarhvojanakkhayam. dukusata = diikkhass^ aiitam. 11. Magav.. v. bad. See notes on sabanmilesu. 132. : — mada priests. Ida Pali idam. 17).. 16. aecordin": to a arc/d/^ah. 4.( 173 ) enough 306 V. sa^apa'-^sankappa. Pusav s /ffara sankkard. p.— not adjnsted by M. = = p. Li-. C. Sahassav. v. v. which would be meaningless in this context. 128. v. as tlie scholiast explains.28. one should lead a life of spiritual calm'. pp. ^in regard to five^ sonant of the palatal group is characteristic of the dialect of the Prakrit text cf. Avaja = Pa. 152. on the stren^ih of the Jalaka parallel. kltaijo \ pamado khaya padosa jaj/avti.). 278 (Jat. Samu cari — PaU samam caj'e. V. no 2 JFrag. the last two padas of the Jataka verses on pp. Pali = low. cf..

21). Frag".? Anupruvina= 'by degrees'. as it can be traced. by vs. 6 [sadhasa sada pliai^a^ sudiiasaposadhu^ sada]"^ [sudhasa suyi]^(kamasa sa)Ma^ samajate^ vata O lii (C--^. : ' No. 3. «?/?/. C. like Hraiimanisii). Yatthujiama Sutta. Senart has kigxi. the i""".t. ^ - . Senart has posnrudra his readin?. This word iudieates that Buddhism. Senart. though in a less pronounced form. 107). as well as the Brahmanie method of sabbath-keeping. Frag. 3 * '' not adjusted by M. by actions pare confest. provided for a grriduated reliy-ious training S3^s:em of ad/nsllusikkha. III. 134. M. (cf. the the Sarassati. in the Munc'aka. the Adhikakka. the Katha and other Upanishads. the Sundarika. Their every offering is blest ". Yov pru=piir^ cf. . of the Buddhist.?^. 29) : ("f. ^. The subject is discussed at length in the Ganaka-Moggallana Sutta (Majjhima. pure deeds he keeps as this against the Brahmanic faith is not peculiar to the (or sin in the sacred waters. M. 4 mprn. Senart reads scnnoja/rura^fl. Pali '^6^^. pp.verse is completed. p. adhicitta' nkkha and adiiipanfuinkkha. Phaggu). 135. Suddhassa sucikammassa sada sampajjate vafcarh. The verse teaches that a man is really purified by his pure actions and that by doing Such a protest the-. drngati in v. I. Fracr. suddhass'uposatho sada. C. 'gradiudly'. Notes. Majjhima.. Sonart reads a''. which maybe supposed to embody the views of the Mundasavakas. sabbath. half.. accordiug to 3). The pure keep endless holy day The pure. ^ Supplied by us. 20. ' . the Gotamakas and other Bhikkhu the M. C. xi'o. Gaya Payaoja and the BahumatJ.^. — which " is translated by the Bhikkhu Sllacara : — the pare smiles constant May.( IH ) vv. jhai/atu=jJiai/anio (ibid. 39 — Suddhassa ve sada phaggu. M. — The Pali parallel to the above verse belongs to a group of stanzas in which tiie Buddha deprecates the washing of Bahnka. i'"^. Upon .

".p. future forms being Frag. C. i. India. xiiiro^ Fraa-. so '. l. the 1'aittirTya command ^^ yanyasma^mra sucaritani taiii tmyopasya variant heati in Apramadav... v. Vol.. « Supplied by us. —With this verse compare v. Dhammam Cf. — may very well bo Pali f^ubstituted the Pali Sudhasaposadhu ~ suddhass' iiposatha. Dhamu cari SUCarita=Pali dhammam care p.. ^ Supplied by nowhere met with us. Nikaya (see Buddhist Hi — Mndeed for Dial. II. 2. C. 3) :-^ O 30) Of. . B.^ v. v. such ^ in the Prakrit text. 145 The readinoj of the frao^menis in M. p. 1. 2-20-22-!). 164). Pt. vrll.* tentative suggestion. For this exhortation cf. Dhammap. sncnriiam. 119. xxiiro. hardly satisfactory. 2 s ^ * . Dhamma<3arr sukhaiii care sucaritarh na tarn duccaritarii care. ch. For the m of samajate see notes on nunahisa (Sahasav. 1. 1) : — Aham nago va sari^ame capato patitarii saram Ativakyarh titikkhissarh dussilo hi bahujjano. 'surely^' ve. 1 of the Apramadavao^a. Se?iart's edition far as this verse is concerned. " Fraof.g. xiiiro. xxx. 0. £ Udanav. vro^ 2. evil deeds Notes. is. C. 320 t (Nagav. (''Happiness"). : — " Perform all in the precepts of the law abstain from he who keeps the law finds happiness this world and in the other. Supplied by us. vo. 7 [dhamu cari sucarita]^ [(na ta du)*^cai'ita cari suli(a)'^]* seti dhamayari asmi loki parasa yi (C% 169 t (Lokav. .. v. pp.. seti asmirr* loke paramhi ca. carefully : . an instance of vowel sandhi [sndkasa-'tuposadhu). v. Dhammap. v. I. Seti has a 8 [alio]^[ nalvo va sagami cavadhi vatita 8ara ativaka ti]^(tikhisa)^ [drusilo hi bahpo jano O (C-81) Cf. C.( 175 ) orders referred to in the Aiiguttara . —a Frj. Frag-..

Ardhamagadhl and = ^e = .. II. capaio. I By sincerity and truth escape the unprincipled man (lawless man)".( 176 ) C£. 47 :— Ativadamstitikseta navamanyeta kancana Na cemaiiT deham asrtya Tairam kurvita kenacit. 21 :— As the elephant in battle (is patient though) pierced the bow^s. comment on this to M. presuppose a Sanskrit parallels. version. without any fear of the arrow wounding the middle part). 16. sec._ ^emainnig an elephant in battle. Ajaramga Sutta. p. explaining in the last resort to a popular us leads that common —The Prakrit verse and its Pali. Fa-kheu-pi-u. so likewise be patient by the arrows shot from under the unkind words of the crowd ". Aham Ativakyam titiksami duhsilo Cf.en to patiently Indian maxim. Notes origin bear up All these teach n. add to more have nothing Senart. 2-3 :— Tudamti vayahi abhiddavam nara Sarehi samgamagayam va kumjaram Titikkhae nani adutthacetasa. xxix.. pierced by Pali capatah. Udanav. Cf.|pa]titam ^aram hi mahajanah. word with one another. Cf. ("Day and Night"). of which the as follows (Yugavarga. VI. ("The Elephant "). xxxi.s the final vowel e is partly word than^hat the form with maintain to rhythm with the preceding due to an attempt Pali ana same sagamu Vatlta the ending. v. Sk. Cavadhi vet patient. The of the original Sanskrit is : Tibetan is above an ch.. ch. 171:— fighting* 1 am like the middle arrow (the elephant. vv. naga iva samgr[ame]. xxix) — English rendering. the simile o£ the of multitude. by words with the unkind the arrows. Manu.

v. v. 334). = Frag. kuryat. {'' The Sramana (is ''). xxiro. v. Sk. all his xi.{ 177 ) Sk. daiihailyam. brings himself enemy would like to bring him Notes. —Drusilia = 'iniquity'. supra. 10 :— He who. v. . which may very well be used as a synonym of the Pali diso. Pali nity'. ch.. tanha vaddhati malma viya (Dhammap. Ativaka Pali and Sk. v. Sk.. to ". Sk. ativakyam — atlvadam (Manu). held) as is a Sala tree that state to which his dimilyam. cf. C. 'maligform is an instance of false Malua va vitata analogy. 4. = = 9 [(ya)^sa acata drusilia malua va vitata'^ vani kuya su tadha]'^ (a)*^[tmana yadha na visamu ichati O]' (C^°. The form vaha presupposes an intermediate change of hya kka through to assimilation. but Here the Prakrit rani may be taken to stand for salavani. 32) Cf. 0. Frag. 6) :— Yassa accanta dussilyarh maliiva salam iv'otatam Karoti so tath'attanam yatha tarn icchati disc. Supplied by us. 8. sitpra. vani = Pali malnva va otata vane. 2. duhsilah. ^ Senarfc reads vavi lata.. " Qdanav. Cf. The derivation is through a false analogy with forms like dnigatiy v. breaking vows. The change of the p to v seems to have been effected through an intermediate change of 7? to h. Dhammap. The the imagery is that of a sala forest overgrown by the intertwining and fast growing Mdluva creeper. ^ * Supplied by us. M. 3. patitam. The simile is less expressive or pointed than the Pali nuduva salam iv'ofatam. cf. Visamu Pah visamo. drusilo. Kuya Pali kareyga. vo. Drusilo Pali dusstlOf Sk. by a creeper. Senart's reading malua vavi lata vani gives the simple notion of the creeper rapidly growing in a forest.. = = ' an enemy '. IC2 t (Attav. visamah. ^ M.

d. . ix. sacldlia-iieyyani hhojanani hhwfijitvay Digha. 3) tatto aggisikhupamo Yaii ce bhufijeyya dussllo ratthapindam asannato.. ^ vv. v. 4. 308 t (Nirayavaorga. Frag.. = Itivuttaka. cf. Sk. in the light of verse and its parallel in the Udanavarga. pp. as seho ayokudo bhu*-o tatu* agi'sikhupamu ya ye l3hujiya drusila rathapina asanato.. think the allusion is to a horrible form of punishment where the criminal was killed bv a red-hot iron-l)all thrust We Ayokudo = PaH into his mouth. Seyyo ayognlo bliutto Dhammap. 43 : — v. —The : the Pali follows — Prakrit verse might be restored. 34) Cf. 138. 1. C. Bhujiya * rathapina- Pali hhvfijei^ya the raUhapirLcldm. The chapter contains 10 » * Frag. C' Deeds''). 5-1. 33) [galO]^ (C-^. Notes. XLiro. pp. ayognlo^ 'a (red-hot) ball of iron'. a-prate (FSli (cppatte. hhY a rathapina asanatu O^ (C^ -..( 178 ) 10 [yok. C. " Better Udanav. stanzas. 2 :— it would be that a man should eat a lump of flaming iron than that one who is unrestrained and who lias broken his vows should live on the charity of the land". For the second ^ t The circle is snpplied by cf. p. ns.. vo. 139. eh.?. aprapte). charity of the that (a-wioked mendicant) should live land'. 24. Apraraadav. Cf. v. 25.

M. xiii. 1 ida ja mi keca ida ji karia ida kari vinamana abhimadati muca??^ sasoa O^ (C% Cf. while the of consists Dhammapada (ch. however. The I^alavagga of the Pali otdy 8 stanzas are preserved. quite relevant that. as as difficult to sugg-est definitely a title for the present it was for the preceding one.( 179 ) [7. have nothing to say against this sanskritization except hasj completely lost sight of the spirit of the It teaches that death overpowers the fool ha e tentatively interpreted it as mucu. XII..wa = ?H\i muiicafi na sa soha This would. leave ahhirnadati cf. 175. the group as we have it in the extant Kharos hi Ms. 35) Mahabharata. by two doubtful letters. unconstrued. 20 :— Idam krtam idam karynm idaiii anyat krtakrtam Evamlhasukhasaktam krtanta kurute vase. — No parallel of it this verse have we been : able to trace either in Pali or in Sanskrit. vindamano.. Senart's niuca. Balavaga] It is group that fool. sasokaih. 42). But it appears the It group is. ' The circle is pupplied by ue. bhimardati mrtyu. is not complete. so dxiha na parimucati (I. Notes. Senart Prakrit stanza. ^ We followed . .) contains 21. 5) corresponding group in the Fa-kheu-king (see. some idea should be given of a fool and his manners. Wliatever its appropriate name. after having dwelt upon the conduct of the wise in the fore^^oing chapter. 16 stanzas. We that M. Co. tempts us at the same time to a reading for a similar construction muca(ti) (na) sa . Senart remains of Idan ca would give in Sanskrit — thinks that what me krtyam idan ca karyam idam k . dilates chiefly upon the wavs of the moreover. This group forms the 13th chapter of the Udanavarga and has 16 verses. But M.

let them be subject to me such is the mind of the fool. . In determining the real purpose of the verse we have to fall is who overestimates verses of the group. v. and his desires greatly such as those embodied in the above verse. : — . it is clear that the spirit the same as that of — Dhammap.. as follows upon other to meant : ida ja mi keca ida ji karia ida kari(miti) (suhu) vinamana abhimadati niucu (balu) sasoa this O teaching If restoration is in of this verse (1) " be correct. verse 74 : — Mam' eva kataih maniiantu gihi pabbajita ubho Mam' evativasa assu kiccakiccesu kismici. borne out bj the word vinamana. in the light of its Sanskrit parallel from the Mahabharata. whosoever they may be. who was so very anxious to make his influence strongly felt among reflections The may be others. 2 Pdlia vasa karisamu ?dlia h. in whatever imagine that it is I (who have done it) is to be done or not done. supposed to have beeJi the outcome of moralising upon the tragic end of persons like Devadatta. . 286 t (Maggav. most of which are bring out the thought and conduct of a fool.mataffi (C-. which. verse " ch. as we take it. xiii. iccha mano ca yaddhati. !<. Dhammap. 36) Cf.. 14): — Idha vassaih vasissami idha hemantagimhisu Iti balo vicinteti antarayaih na bujjhati. is an accusative singular form = Pali vindamanam. and (2) Udanav..( 180 ) his owu This contention undertakiugs. v.. Let both priests and laymen. We might restore it. " Iti balassa sankappo.

ch. C. 3 ta putrapasusamadha [sutu ga] ''^_ (C% Cf.. natural to the recluses who were the avowed champions of summer — morality and self-control.). The the ciated with the same in meaning as the Pali vassam Prakrit expression is a later idiom^ assoidea of the Buddhist Lent (" catumasam — vassam vasissami'^ — Dhammapada-Comy. Also. 38 : — . I. The sentiments displayed in the verse are very p. v. 15). He reads suruga.. in the light che Udanavarga. . xxxivo^— not adjusted by M. v. himataginiisii. Frag. Udanav. Senart. Notes. ) C£. 37) Dhammap. v. Vasa karisamu vasissa^ni. four months in the rainy abode. :287 t (Maggav. as idha vasa karisamu idha hematagismisu iti balu viciteti ataraya na bujhati O We verse have to time in reason to think that there is an allusion in this the frivolous life of the rich who spent their the company of women.( 181 i. four months in the winter and four months in the as described in the Vinaya Mahavagga (Yin. {" Impermaneiiey ''). 15) : — Tarn puttapasusammattam byasattamanasarh naram Suttara gamarb mahogho va Maccu adaya gacchati. 'This (abode) will do for winter and (this) for summer' thus ponders the rapidly decaying fool who has not seen the danerer".. The Prakrit verse of the Pali gatha and its follows : — might be parallel — in restored.

p. and the end of life which quickly comes as a bursting torrent (sweeping all before it) in a moment". 15. viasatamanaso. Mahabharata. . . while the in the present verse a case is made out against the householders in general who are unable to pursue the higher aspirations of human life on account of their excessive attachment to their wife.( 18^ ) Cf. Samadha = Pali sammattam. '•Men concern themselves about the matters of wife and child they perceive not the inevitable law of disease (and death). only (S'uttanipata. children and wealth. ^ Also. the miserable life of the householder is dwelt upon. Fa-kheu-pi-u. is drawn between the two modes of human life. — The ta Prakrit verse might be restored as follows : — sutu putrapasusamadha (biasatamanasa^ naru'') ga(mu mahoho va mucu adaya gachati Q) In the foregoing two verses the term 'fool' is applied to Bhikkhus and princes who are ambitious for Jordship over others. notes on sagadJia (p. : — ' Putta m'atthi dhanaiti m'atthi ' iti balo viliannati. abhJiokdso pahhajja painful is household life. however. into to ' 5wf/«m gamam mahogJio va. 157 :— sec. No. 154). and to the rich who had a frivolous life. 'maddened of ft tli. (^' The Wav '0. Thus a sharp distinction free is the life of renunciation. Cf. 18 :— Tarn putrapasusampannam vyasaktamanasam naraiih Suptam vyaghro rargam iva mrtyur adaya gacchati. Sutu like gamu mahoho va = Pali \ The change presupposes an intermediate change of tt See Pusavaga. v. '' Bnkkho gharavaso. as also in the Dhammapada verse 62 '"'.. Notes. and the contrast is beautifully brought out in the Dhauiya Sutta In the Prakrit verse. Cf. xxviii. great Hood (sweejMng away) a sleeping village '. XIL 175. 2). naro. dh a Also. The simile is perhaps the outcome of a knowledge of the torrential river-floods to which the people of the Punjab and Bengal are a victim.

466 t (Fausboll's Jataka. Senart at first (see his Postscript 3 ^ on read tata dlia (see p. na tarn kiccam kiccakale vyadheti. and M. kiccakale vyadhesi. ^ 2 Supplied by ns following M.( 183 ) 4 puve i ta tadisa'^ parika]*[makicakari kica parijaga [(ma ta)^ kicP kicakali adea no i kica kica(k)ali adea^O^ (C--^ 38 . 1. 39) Cf. p. Fra^. see also p. Notes. explained in the expressed in Pali by aiiagatam Jataka -Corny. 96. ^ * . 1. this early Buddhism. 166) : — Aiiagatain patikayiratba kiccam. 261 karaniyani paccha so :— icchati Yo puhbe Sukha katum so dhauisate thana paccha ca-m-anntappati. M. C. ^ 10 The circle is supplied by' us. Frag. xxx^Oj 2. This verse. Senart understands it as such. 67). 2. as jouretararrh Parikamakicakari Pali patikataUccakarl.). No. xxxro. patikatakiccakarirh. Senart's reconstruction on p. Therag. IV. C XxviFo. 5 ya puvi ka^aniani [pacha sakaru^ ichati atha dubakati balu]^ [suhatu parihayati]^^ O^^ (C'-o. — — = meaning harei/ya. Samuddavanijajataka. {patigacch''eva Jcatiabba kiccafxan . 225. Frag. xxviFo. 96). ma mam kiccam Tarn tadisari). This reading is adopted after the Pali parallel. as also the next. vv. 96) Cf. condemns procrastination and urges immediate action one of the salient features of Puve i = Vsili jj a dde /it. M. « « Could it not be read sahatn ? Frag. C. C. The original reading in his edition is hicaldci all. Senart understands it as Tcica after the Pali parallel p. * one is ' otherwise duty beforehand Jataka-Comy. doing his patikai/iratJia. 'beforehand'. ^ " The circle is supplied by us.

6 akita kuki(ta)' [sehu pacha tavati clriikita kitanusukita seh]"^(u)^ [ya kitva nanutapati*]^ O^ (C^^ 40) Cf. I. wishes to get (them) well done '. . p. so sukka na vihai/ati (Therag. v. Senart entertains doubt about the letter it. satthink katitm) icchati. * The circle ia supplied by us. xxviiro. Dubakati Pali * cluppakatiy Sk. 70:— Yo pubbe karaniyani paccba so katum icchati Veranakatthabhanjo va sa paccha-m-anutappati. PisehePs edition) : — v.. duskrtam. Udanav. kind of phonetic influence. Panitav. Dhammap.. Cf. Sakaru or sakatu ichati = Pali salkutum (ue. 319. Frag. 9) Akatarh dukkatalh seyyo paccha tapati -dukkatam Katan ca sukataih seyyo yam katva nanutappati. vv. Supplied by us. = Samyulta. v. Notes. 3. 314 t 49 : — (Nirayav. dusprakfti. 9.. cf. the same meaning might be made out of M. an instance of false analogy.. 53 ("B 41^^ in Prof. Fausboll's Jataka. 69). and he puts a query '' after '' (see p.. - %>a. Notes. I. p. C. Sk. C. M.( 184 ) Cf. 23-2). 3. cf. ill-natured ^ For the expression ' We = = SUhatu parihayati V. 8. — The Prakrit verse may be read Yo pubbe Atha duppakati in Pali : — karaniyani pacclia sakkatum icchati balo sukhato parihayati. Supplied by us. This drusila. v. Akrtam kukrtac chreya(h) pascat tapati duskrtam Socate duskrtam krtva socate durgatiih gatah. —Drukita = Pali dukkatam. ante. xxxro.. which is 8akaru sankara{w). Senart^s interpretation. xxix. to is due Iranian evidently change ^ * Frag.

42-4a) v. v. in the absence of the remains of the middle line. v. Dhammap.. However. to say against M.. and for want of a parallel of three-lined stanza in any other work. {'' The Mind ").( 185 te ) 7 asava tesa vadliati ara asavacha (C% Cf. '2o-5 t (Malavagga. 19) — Asava tassa vaddhanti ara Notes. . o6 (?) :— attentive mind delights in the truth and adheres the (four) truths. v. he alvviiys walks in the way with his body. Paravejjaimpassissa iiiecain uj jhanasanniiiu so asavakkliaya. 41) : Dbammap. ^aravejanuhasina.. to ^ He whose Alao. Cf. one would be justified in restoring the Prakrit verse. he will experience no more suffering ".\^y infra). 293 t G36 : — (Pakiimakav. 4) Yesan ca susamaraddha niccam ka3^agata sati Akiccan te na sevaiiti kicce sataccakarino Satanam sampjijaiianaui attliaiii gacchanti asava. casting off sorrow. = Therag. in the light of the Dhammap. he is safe in speech and in mind. v. and. or the thought. if there was any. v. v. have another instance where the padas of the Puli (jaiha are inverted in the Prakrit (see Jaravaga. as follows — AVe have nolhing We tions : — asava tesa vadhati ara te asavacha(ya) (paravejaniipasina^ nica ujhanasaiiina O) 8 yesa tu susamaradha nica kayakata satana sabrayanana tasa ? sma (C^ Cf. Seuart's observaexcept that we need not suppose that a sloAa of six padas. 253. was collected into a single stanza in the Pali text. \. " Udanav. xxxi..

such as the Samyutta Nikaya. The first chapter of the Fa-kheu-king. the Sutta-nipata. 1-2). as may be judged from the colophon '^ga 25^'' (1. form (trsna). 23). and we cannot say if there were more verses after this. c^". in the light of its Pali counterpart. {Tanha) of the Pali text. [8. thirst. {lanha). Senart considers keeps closer to to be a mistake for iesa. Jaravaga] A few chapters appear to be missing from the extant Kharosthi Ms. {Citfa) and xxiv. The Udanavarga has no separate chapter on ^Old Age'. The Prakrit group contains 2 verses which are to be found in The chaps. irsa The Prakrit it M. The Jara group. the basis of the . Sanskrit.— This the verse with which the chapter. remaining verses are collected from various canonical sources... contains 21 verses. between the Bala and Jara groups. 1) is to be found in both the Pali and Prakrit chapters. as it survives in Kharosthi Ms. which deals with 'Impermanence''. as follows : — yesa tu susamaradha nica kayakata sma(ti) (akica te na sevati kici satacakarino) satana sabrayanana tasa (gachati parichaya O)^ Tasa = Pali tasim desire. Sk. Jaravagga and contains 14 verses. of which 4 are contained in our Jaravaija. The same group forms the 11th chapter of the Pali Dhammapada and consists only of 11 verses. it cannot be said with certainty whether the Jaravaga The Prakrit formed a sequel to the present chapter. contained 25 stanzas of which 2 are missing (vv. of the Chinese recension bears the title chapter. of which one (v. III. The colophon indicating the total number of verses contained in this chai:)ter is missing. is broken off. Thus it introduces us to the teaching of the Jaravaga. but treats of 'Impermanence' ^ It will be noticed that the 6th foot of the Prakrit verse differs from •' thatrofMhe PaTi fhe~ restoration has been suggested on Dhammapada-Comy. the Thera-Therigatha and the Jfitaka.( 186 ) Notes. emphasizes the necessity for constant meditation on the transitoriness of the body. verse might be restored. but in the absence of a complete and unimpaired Ms. of which two occur in the Prakrit Jarava^a and one in the Pali Section xix. where atthani = pankJ{hayam.

" ? '^ indicates that there are faint traces In his text the sign of characters. has in his excellent in edition of tlie Dhammapada noticed a Manu-sarhhita. 217 : — Dhitarh jam mi jare atthu dubbannakarani jare Tava manoramam vimbatb jaraya abhimadditam. ?re^ athu ? ? ?? (C-. which contains 41 versus. four in the Jara group and the rest in other Fausboll groups. The TJdanaAarga and the Prakrit text have many verses in common. a verse. Notes.( 187 ) and 'Old Age' in its first chapter. the Mahabharata and the Ramayaiia. M. similar to those in the Dhammapada vv. We read the word in the light of the Pali parallel. Of the Udana verses 1 3 are to be found in the Pali text. seriously — attempted ^ There are 23 verses surviving altogether in this chapter a»d they occur without break. i. Old age brings with Cf.. Udanav. I) Saihyutta. two verses are missing towards the beginning. Senart was able to read only ra athu of the first line. loss of all bodily attraction ". Y. jare. but the colophon records the total number as 25 consequently. Senart reads ra with the preceding query (standing for a doubtful character) put apart. p. M. Fa-kheu-pi-u. see. ("Impermaneney'*). hopelessly how difficult a task it is to find out a parallel in Pali or in Buddhist Sanskrit. i. the few slokas 8^ ?. so the identification of as mutilated the under can realise one discussion. (^' 43:— it Impermaneney ''). is Thou right . 148 and 150. 30 : — " art foolisli and despicable. p. Cf. . v. It was indeed by accident that we after repeated searches chanced upon two verses in the Saihyutta. and dost not that which for that body (rupa) in which thou delightest wall bs the cause of thy ruin". ?. ch. and the bold dots mean that so many letters None but those who have ever are completely missing. containing ascetic reflections on /Impermanence'. .. Cf '• .

A -. b. 27. 111). p. " IJdanav. p.'' Notes. 217 :— yo pi vassasataih jive so pi maccuparayano Da kinei parivajjeti sabbam evdbhimaddati. - The form . 6/iflje. 2. mrtynpnrayanahj ^subject to death\ In many instances Pali words seem to obey the grammatical rules governing the changes while the Prakrit of our text. V. Also jarae * Cf. parivajetva (Apramadav. (^'Impermaneney"). Mucuparayano = Pali druvranaharani.( 188 ) next one. 6. is to be taken tentatively. p. " half of Rockhill's The second translation seems open to dispute. Cf. ^ M. Senart has taken so mnch pains to establish in other instances. pp 5-6). 28. ^ ci. which is evidently incorrect. Senart reads We read hi for hh. v. it might be reconstructed as follows : — (dhitu jami ja)re athu (druvanakarani^ jare tava manoramii viba^ jaraya^ abhimardita* O) 4 yo vi varsasata na kijP pari jivi so vi mucuparayano Cf. 121). " Cf. Supposing corresponding to this verse and the that the Prakrit verse is on the whole similar to the Pali. We may as well read vima on an = approximate likeness with gamira P&U gamhhira (I.'iiyutta. —The yo na Prakrit verse might. 18. 133). 1.. v. . ). whicli M. note. perhaps. v. live . i. eh. stroke of much like the peculiar hh. or else he is carried ". (see I.. pranaya praiiac (Magavaga. as appears of n into n. vv. yet he is subject to the one may reach old age. 27). jam nahhimardati (Apramatlavaga. The stroke over the the ja justifies reading ji instead of je. p.. The appearance of the character is consistently with the Pali counterpart. 31 : — One may lord of death off by disease a hundred years. p. maccnpnrayonj. be reconstructed as follows :— mneuparayano sarvam evabhimardati vi varsasata jivi so vi kiji parivajeti^ O Sk. Sa.

—The similar might Prakrit verse. Senart reads hhajey which gives no meaning. have an alternative form of kiji in Hci (Suhavaga. infra) which stands closer to Pali MUci. then its beauty fades away in sickness. .( 189 ) from M. as the portion which surviv^es indicates. " Fa-kheu-pi-u. reflections similar to those contained in it are with throughout the texts of the Sutta Pitaka. supposing that it is on the whole to the Pali. M. v. be completed and read as follows : — parijinamida ruvu roanida prabhaguno bhensiti puti(saneho^ maranata hi jivitu* O) —This met though verse cannot be traced in any other canonical texts. 118 :— When old. is characterised by the absence of the cerebral nasal. 3) Dhammap. xix. Hficit. p. 13. Kiji Pali kinciy Sk. — . v. lH-112). C. v. 27-29. this body bent down by age. Notes. v. * . see. Also. = We 5 parijinamida^ ruvu roanida [prabhaguno bhensiti p. xxxiivOj M.ti]^ (C-.. death and life both conjoined '*. 35 : — "The end this of life is death.. Senart reads parijinam ida. pp. cf. Cf. nivinati (Magav. Frag.. this receptacle of disease. Senart's readings. Cf. Udanav. jivita.. Senart reads prabhaguno. vv. 3) : — Parijinnam idarii rupam roganiddaiii pabhangunarii Bhijjati putisandeho maranaiitarh hi jivitarh. i. 148 t (Jarav. Cf. is rapidly wasting away mass of corruption will soon be destroyed". ("Old Age"). ("Impermanency"). For w = Pali nd. eh. * ' =» M. what paleness and leanness the skin wrinkled. the flesh withered.

II. Comy. One will look in vait» through the older Dharmasutras for sneh pessimistic reflections on the destructive side of nature. V. 105. 207 and XII. arukai/am. a compound. see M. XT. 77. Senart's notes (pp. VI. 2. cf. meaning *the abode of diseases {roganam nivesau. Putisaneho Pali putisandeho.( 190 ) Fausboll has drawn his readers' attention to similar reflec- Mann. Manu. The Mann and Visnu codes in their present form are recasts of a time when a Stoic mode of life was so firmly established among the ascetics and recluses as to tions in the the naive positivism of the juristic not be surprised to come across these reflections in the Hindu Epics. Sk. a compound. considering that these are inevitable experiences of mankind. v. ' ' : * * ra makes Sanskrit and keep closer to the For bhensiti. which mainly uphold and idealise the systems of the Smritis. and na instead of Dhamma- the word deviate from = ' deho. Dhammapada. a compound.h. cf. . As will be shown below. to identify nidda with nida or mdya. pufiJidi/am. was primarily intended to exhort people to keep up their spirits in the midst of trials and bereavements. aturamm Manu. Ihe Ramayana. Pali. Comy. DhammapadaIt is clear rogdyatanam). meaning * which is stinking the body {putiko samano tadeva or fragile^. .oanida=Pali roganiddam. VI. like the version in the Mahabharata. R. 77. infra). Prabhaguna = Pali joalhangunam or pnhlianguram. an alternative form of roka (see Suhavaga. V. Manu. VI. v. rajasvalam. pada. 70-71). some of the important Jara-xerses of the Prakrit text are to be found in the Dasaratha Jataka.iftkdnam. a Buddhist version of the older Ramasi ory whi<. an instance of intervening 7n having ' wasted is Parijina or in as the same meaning jara-so^a'Samavtstam virtually and sorrow ') of Manu VI. 147. We need Parijinamida = Pali parijinnam idam. because the epic kernels which survive in the shape of ballads in the canonical Jataka Book and the Upakhyanas of the Mahabharata bristle wn'th them. The final letter 77. 147. that which is frail prabhanguram. meaning {parijina vowel-sandhi developed + ida). Dhammapada-Comy. 77). V. vv. find its way into thinkers. . 829. and the Mahabharatf^. 14. It (' permeated with decay will be noticed that the Prakrit form stands close to the Pali. 77 from this that the Buddhist commentator is inclined Roa is nest'. cf. but the latter fulfils the grammatical rules about the changes of n into n. 48. which the Prakrit does not. the to prevent hiatus. VI.

the third Life great leader of the Ajlvikas. p. . divisible into four pairs ninddy pasamsd. V. aniiymn of life (Mann. '22. a verse incorporated in the 16 and the Divyavadana. dnkhe (Dlgha. st. I. Surely this dark and dreary (Avorld) is not fit for one to seek security and rest in ". 553). p. v. maranam. vastu. 25-26 (Kumbhajataka. and death are one of the three j^airs of constant and opposed phenomena _ whereby Makkhali Gosala. 117 : — "What (room for) mirth. v.. Divj^avadana. : two principles. ?)faranam)K principles (attha loka-dhavima). 512).. p. hi jivitam. xix. Fa-kheu-pi-u. 1920. II.. Jour. ("Old Age''). Ko iju lia«o kini anando iiiccaiii pajjalite sati. sangraha.sis can be seen from the Theragatha. alahham. remembering the everlasting burning Tor fire). Udanavarga. and pleasure and pain {labham. siikhe. III. All these come under Pakudha Kaccayana^s vv. v. 147). 14. hi partino YI. ihifi (Dhammap. the two remaining pairs being those of gain and loss. jivitam. 105. 105.? ? [lite sati prachiti pra]^ (C-. 100 . 11. sec. of Letters. 77). jata jata marantidha evamdhawma Note how in this idea ending : with death is expanded Ramayana. Aiidliakareiia oiiaddlia padlpam iia gavessatha. * Dept. Vasubandhu's GathaFa-kheu-king. Calcutta University. 183. 116t (Jaravagg. characterised the organic world. l) = Jat. p.( 191 ) Maraiiata hi jivitu = Pa]i marananfam marandnfam hi jnntam (cf... Maha- V. of the Dr. v. No. Dhammap. I. dukkhamy to which was afterwards added another pair viz. p.kar. a lab ho ^ yasOy aT/asOy snkham. 664-670. v. p. 100 — Sarve ksayanta nicayah patanantas samucchrayah Samyoga-viprayog^nta maranantam ca jivitam. Sk. 6 ko nu h an. labho. Cf .^. I. siiham^ ditkham. Hamayaija. p. what (room for) laughter. This corresponds to the expressions n\Uthi . p. 41 23). Barua's paper on the Ajlvikas. 4) Cf. 11. dhuvam (Therag. II. 56). 11. Vol. 25. The Buddha conceived of eight jlvei/mh. and v.

prachiti is penuissible. III. ch. or pp. cf. — The : follows — Prakrit verse might be completed and read as ko nu h(aso kimanano^ nica praja)lite sati anakarasmi" prachiti^ pra(dipa na gavesatha* O) verse cannot be traced in any canonical text other the Dhammapada. 66-67) on the basis of Kukkulikas are said to have formulated a better. if it I. Also. Cf. anakarejia or andluil-nrena 52. which the Gokulikas. with *' and the of Controversy ^^). 7. Dhammarakkhita had made the principal text of his sermon to the people of Aparanta. pp. 7. the ' ' doctrine of universal pessimism (Kathavatthu. " Udanav. Ko nu liarso ko nu anando evam prajvalite sada Andhakarasmim praksipta alokarri na prakasava. hhavefha.. p. —This than 1 Cf. 27-29. ("lmj)ermanency"). B. 31). 8Also. The Prakrit verse seems to be older than the two verses in the Mahavastu which appear to have been quoted from an older Sanskrit recension of the Dhammapada. a case of locative absolute. XII. - Following the Mahavastu. The Prakrit text substitutes in 2nd line the for Pali onaddJia. nivinati (Magav. 376 :— Ka iiu krlda ka nii rati evam prajvalite sada Andhakarasmim praksipta pradlpam iia gavesatha. The exhortation of this verse is no more than a poetical summary of the teaching of such Fire-sermons as (1) the Adittapariyaya-sutta (Vinaya Mahavagga. iu I. bhodha.( 192 ) Cf. batidhana in I. vv. why seek ye not a light ? Notes. gavisadhu j is cf. Mahavastu. The reading of prachiti the Udanavarga seems to have been analogous to that of the Pali text. 111-112). what subject of rejoicing ? Ye w^ho dwell in the midst of " darkness. 4 : — To one who is being burnt.. and to Points Preface Corny. i. the (Jl) the Aggikkhandhupama-sutta which.. A-. v. . . according to Ceylonese chronicles (see Mahavaihsa. what joy can there be. ^ * The reading Cf. I. Asoka's Indo-Bactrian missionary. A".

C. which gives no sense. Anakarena (Mahavastu). 5 The padhama ^ = Pali i/am eva + eva) . audhakarasmim praksipta . cf. —The : verse might be completed and read as follows yaraeva avithi(to eka) padhama rati gabhi vasati manavo va saya)ti so gachu na nivatati O Yameva = Pali yam cf. i. evam. expression ?/am eva ^the patjiamaih rattim. is locative absolntej meaning Svhile the world painful burning (with passions and mental qualities)'. Cf. * Frag. Notes. The Mahavastu reads prnjmlitesada." Prakrit — {or. 304) — andhakare khiita (Comy.\i pajjalile sati. ch. 27). parijinamida. 7 yameva^ padhama avithP rati [ti gabhi vasati^ manavo so gachii na nivatati O]* (C5) Cf. rattihhitta (Dhammap v. I.. cf. xviipo. It seems that andkahare pakkkitta is more grammatical than aadliak'drena . 494) .) . IV. M. p. put apart. ^ .— No.ra\y correct gahhirasati would be = Pali gambhirassati. Senart. Ayogharajataka. But. Yam ekarattim pathamam gabbhe vasati manavo Abbh' utthito va sayati sa gaccham na nivattati. we have in Prakrit gamira for gamhhira. supra. Senart reads gahhirasati. 25 . ra^i v. (** Impermaneney "). Senart's yam eva have been joined together here on account of sandhi. which is ha. v. 510 (Fausboll. a. Udanav. vowel-sandhi (ya M. B. prachiti would strictly correspond to a Pali andhakarerua imkkliitte^ an ex})ression which is the same in meaning as andhaharena ouaddha. ' M. 6 (p.( 193 ) Trdi^alite SSiti •other = V3i.— not adjusted by M. 1. 6 : — "One who birth has heretofore been subject to the misery of from the womb may go to the highest place and come no more back again (into the word). Senart reads avi thi.

26 :— Yassa ratya vivasane ayum appatararfi siya Appodake va macchanam kin nu komarakarh tahim. (see Sumangala-vilasini. avi standing for Pali abhi. 163). kkiddabhumi. which. illustrated by a carving on the railing of the Bharaut Stupa). etc. who has inverted the reading. 538. ^ M. The developmental stages of man mentioned in the Comy. etc. Miigapakkhajataka (No. = + I. 38). 31 (p. * Frag. M. comes into existence. thai rato '^ .C 194 ) very jjani first first night '. 30. ^ M. For v=hh^ cf. va Accordingly. seems a mere etymological conjecture. the one nia^ht when for the ' time '. Comy general piece of cloud having arisen. Fausboll. 0.. our reading is tentative. kkidda. a vowel-sandhi {avi td/iUo). According to the " Just as a the sense of is the verse . Senart reads ukiemulana.abhtbhui/a)j ' : mandabhumiy I. the mother's in ralti fact the that at conceived in a malter of the womb appropriateness of are generally night. though. which gives no sense unless it be supposed is a change by Metathesis from taro or that the reading is Jcuto. The Pali parallel being °tariim. suggests abbho-^nWiito. fact. abbJmtthifo sayaii may be rendered he lies down as if being upborne'. 8 yasa rativivasina ayu apataro^ sia apodake [vamansana ki tesa nu'^ kumalaka' oy (C-6) ^ Cf. it is clear that the Prakrit aparato cannot bat be due to a mistake of the scribe. to A-Coordi ng the word the lies commentary. in the same way a man since his first conception in the womb undergoes successive stages of gestation and development in such a manner that he cannot retrace the steps that have already been undergone". remind one of Gosala's eight stages. Senart reads aparato. p. as men and night. however. VI. xviiivo. [=. The Comy. p. Abbli* idihito may simply be equated with Sk. Senart reads simply u. Senart. manda. B. is somewhat different from the Pali ekaraUim pathamam. and explains abbho as meaning a piece of cloud. ahhyutthiiah. raUi includes both day Avithito Pali abbk^iitt/iito.— not adjusted by M. abhivui/it. 2. but the Prakrit reading gives a better sense. moves about being chased by the wind..

( 195 ) Cf " . ^young age'. Kumalaka or komalaka or komaraka Pali komaralcam. 12 :— Ratryam ratryam vyatltayam ayur alpatarait* yada Tadaiva vandhyarh divasam iti vindyad vicaksanah Gadhodake matsya iva sukharh vindeta kas tada AnavapteSu kamesu mrtyur abhyeti manavam. 34: — Man is like a fish in a shallow pool of water day and night this life is passing away what subject of rejoicing is there in so brief a thing ?" . XII. (p. which is at best tentative. . is a form of speech. the Prakrit read in sj must be either rativivasani or rativivasane. 11. " Udanav. Sk. bheiisifi (Sk. locative form of lam. Apataro Pali appntaram^ — Rati vivasina = M. i. Usam^ and is closer to Sanskrit on 'less'. The correlative of ?/asa is tasa. (Jataka-Comy. 'in that'. For 71. hhetsi/aie). Cf. but here fe^n The Pali reading *is ta/nm. haumuryaw — iarunahhavo. Tesa Pali tesam. He also points out that if the form only were taken into account. which. (or exhausted)". Neither oka-unmulmia nor ulJcannmTilana very little likely. cf. With regard to his reading nku7nulava. viioUyZmam^ 'of fishes'. ('^ Impermanency^'). Pali raUivivasena. olia-unmulan im. there and all is gone. ("Impermaneney "). 70-71). = s. Rockhill's tianslation of the Tibetan version of the Udanavarga. Notes. 40 :-- Every day and each one born . Senart's notes under C*'. meaning 'there'. eh. Mahabharata. 'lesser'. M. Fa-kheu-pi-u. p. in so brief a thing". Sk.M..9 =tsy^ ef.) 'youth'. see niglit takes i. v. = Senart's reading aparafo conveys no sense. In order to equate with the Pali raf^a rivamne. 3 (pp. the Udanav. 175. expression "there. Jaravaga. he says. one would think at once of a form nlJcd-unmulana. connects the " What idea of mirth with this clause subject of rejoicing account of the = — .. ratnvivase??n (if Senart^s reading is eorreet). a appears to refer to the fishes. Sk. Senart suggests that it " might be equated with Sk. v. from the little space given to the gradual decay of a few j^ears as the waters of a pool are cut off is Cf. can fit well with the meaning of the clause ki fern etc. Mansana = Pali macchanam. 189). the destruction of their abode". 5 and M. Sk.

p.. 72). udake ummujjanimnjjam equated water with (cf. Senart could not discover. v. a Pali oka nmmiijjanam^ Supparakajataka No. and the gap thus caused is filled by Frag C. In adjusting the reading of the first pada we have the advantage of the Pali parallels. it might be slightly altered into uknmujana ' arid jumping out of Fausboll.. xxiiivOj have reason to change his pahha into paka from a comparison with kije which he read incorrectly as hhaje (see v. Dumapphalan' eva patanti manava Dahara ca vuddha ca sarirabheda Nariyo nara majjhimaporisa ^ *. Accordingly. 461 (Fausboll. Cvo. 4 supra). 139.. first line Vessantarajataka. cf. Senart. 198). IV. IV. p. and Dasarathajataka. p. maccha . M. our side. ca. Fragr. 10 infra p.( 196 ) is there in so brief a thing ?'' The idea of rejoicing can very well be associated with koimrakam. (Fausboll. 510 (Fausboll. of which the first letter is written in such as to easily warrant a reading vu. ^ not adjusted by M. 8 an arrangement which is established beyond doubt by the fact that there is an exact Pali counterpart to the Prakrit verse thus adjusted {q. Senart reads hn dhayeyu. i. a way — We Q — . 127) :-- No. Senart has sa nica maranato hhayo (see Cvo^ 7. p.. the aforesaid quarterverse has been shifted to the line-end of v. No. p. 572).e. who reads lapabhavnbanana. VI. tatiy' etarh varaih vara. 463. ' 9 ye vudha^ ye yu^ dahara ye ca majhima porusa anupa ? [lapaka va banana]'^ O (C^^ 7) For the first half. 10. but a careful examination of the shape and position of the fragment makes it clear that it fits into the main plate only when it is pushed a little below and thrust into the next line. Dahara ca hi vuddha ca ye bala ye ca pandita Addha c'eva dalidda ca sabbe maccuparayana. For the last quarter-verse M. which M. Supposing that the reading nlumnlana is on the whole correct and that it has reference to fishes. Cft Ayogharajataka. 547 of verse 642 : — Ye Mam ca vuddha ye oa dahara ye ca raajjhimaporisa eva upajlveyyurh. C. xxiiivo with sufficient reason or. 495) :— No. under v. IV. karonti).

The reading phalapaka iw. stanza our with Accordingl}". But these plus pahhava-bandhana. raja mutto'smi bandhana or . Senart. a verse similar. keeping might be completed and read as follows banana. It admits of either (1) lapa hhavahanana-=. A detached fragment. 1. Senart's reading must hi slightly altered as {pha)lapaka va banana or {ta)lapa'ka va — ye vudha ye yu dahara ye ca majhima poruga anu(patati sarvi te ta)la paka va banana O —which will read in Pali : — Ye vuddha ye ca dahara ye ca majjhimaporisa Anupatanti sabbe te talapakkaih va bandhana. 27) : — Tattha ka nandi ka khidda ka rati ka dhanesana. v. ) Cf. is line of the above verse missing from the extant Kharosthi Ms. UdaDav. has no suggestions to offer. like ripe fruit falling ". in thought to : ' the following stanza (Jataka. perhaps. VI. and t lapaha Udanavarga verse va banana by the final words of a verse in the Pali Udana This simile of a fcilapalikam va bandhana. too. Two assumptions are possible either (1) that it contains the line-end of one of the first two /«. banana — V?^\phalava pakkam bandhana) is suggested by the final words of the " like ripe fruit falling ". by degrees they do disappear. but we know of no verse of the plate under notice into which it may fit. (I. Notes.. interpretations afford us no clue to the adjustment of the fragment. {^ : : (2) chat it contains the line-end of the verse under discussion.V2X\ a two-fold construction * cut off the ties of existence \ or lapa hliava-handhanam^ Pali some word ending with laox la la pahhavaha7iana-=(2) —Almost the whole of the second — O— : — the ties spring from '. in which latter case M. .v?-verses which are missing. some are grown up all . Let us suppose for argument's sake that his reading is correct and see if any meaning can be made out of it. ('^ Impermanency "). 10 :- Some are old. contains the line-end of a certain This fragment with the verse belonging to Plate 0"^°. and some are young. Kim me puttehi darehi. M.( 197 cli. i. 10): is quite in ripe fruit or palm falling from the bunch the Prakrit verse. p. marked xxiir°. vadanana needs line-end lapab/i adjustment.

VI. so likewise he who has been born is filled with the fear of death Cf. Senart. Frag. begins yadJia^V^Xx epic. —The simile and main idea of one. 199). v?(d/ia It is obvious that syllabus ?/a has viz. Ramayar. 34. as the line-end of this verse. 461 (Fausboll. (Suttanipata^ No. of three vn dha and ^je yu da. ". V. C. Udanav. i. Notes. v. intrinsic implied in that of the foregoing historical Its and significance He we Supplied by us. 1 1 : — As the ripe fruit is always filled with the dread of falling. 3 This line-end is connected by M. II. IV. p. yatha. not adjusted by M. 28) :— Phalanam iva pakkanam niccam patanato bhayaiii Evam jatanaih Cf " . ("Impermaneney"). maccanarii niccam maranato bha^^aiii. v. No. 1. and Mugapakkhajataka. p. with verse Prakrit the and Sk.a. v. 17 :— Yatha phalanain pakvanam nanyatra patanad bhayaih Evaiii narasya jatasya nanyatra maranad bhayam. Dasarathajataka. Sallasutta Nikaya).. while the simile is indicated in Pali by the particle In both the epic and the Prakrit iva^ put after phalanam. Senart with the preceding verse. Majjhima 576.( 198 ) Yu been is nothing hnt ?/a ( = ca). but reads instead ya ayu payeti panina hav« transferred it to the line-end of the next verse on the strength of - 1 — — Q— a cloBofitting Pfili parallel (g. 536 (Fausboll. . 105. eh. xvvo. 10 emu (ya)Mha phalana pakana nica patanato [bhayo jatasa macaj^sa nica maranato bhayo O^ (C-8)Cf. lies this verse is tacitly value indeed in the fact that it stands in form midway between the verse in the DasarathaAs in the Sanskrit jataka and that in the Ramayana. No. 127). p. influenced by vn of tendency to read two sets 1/e as a result of the natural alike.

peculiarity of the Prakrit of our is not rare (see v. which is preserved in ballad forms in the aforementioned Jataka. Senart with our 10 (see V Frag. is a but the form eca 11 [ra emu jara ya mucu]^ ya ayu payeti panina O^ (Cvo. see. notice that the original story with its morals still lurks within its four corners. occurrence of identical and similar reflections in the Dasarathajataka and the Ramayana goes to prove that the narrative of the Sanskrit epic was woven out of an older Rama-story. 7) : — — Evarii jara ca Yatha dandena gopalo gavo paceti gocaram maccu ca ayu pacenti' paiiinarh". 2. ch.- emu ne(?)rayamuca 2 f. 39 : As a man with his staff in his hand goes along tending and pasturing the dattle. v." Cf. jata -jatay singular The while in Pali the form is that of a genitive plural. so disease and old age bring mankind to the lord of death". . they also watch over the life that perishes. C. ("Impermaneney"). n ' A Burmese Ms. reads pacefi. i. p. Although the epic narrative has text far we have — outgrown one may its original and completely changed its moral. the Mahabharata.— not adjusted by M. v. xvvo follows •• — He reads the fragment as .{ 199 ) a genitive form. i. (" Impermaneney").. evam. ya M. 198. v. Udanav. of v into m. v. so are old age and death. 135 (Danclavagga.. p. 8) Cf. This line-end was connected by 3). Senart. and in the first canto of the Ramayana itself. Cf " . Fa-kheu-pi-u. Emu = Pali and Sk. 14 infra). The change text. " Dhammap. 17 : — ''As a cowherd with his staff gathers his cattle into the stable.

As has been established. fits better with v. 26) :— Yatha varivaho puro gaccham nupavattati Evam ayu manussanam gaccham nupavattati. and the remnant inisplaeecl by M. so flow on by day and night the hours of man's life . Senart has tavi oharanaseva satii which. M. That which is gone knows not any return". a patchwork of two half-verses. 42) . 9) Cf. tw/ra (Cvo^ 31). manikunalesu ( = Pali manikundalesu)^ Suhavaga. the preceding verse. 39. ("Impermanency"). — Q— : . The simile calls up a vivid picture of a cowherd driving the cattle of a village to the common pasture. 8. though to the end of fragmentary. our adjustment of the fragments has gone a long way to enable us to complete the verse as follows : — emu yadha danena^ gopalo gavo payeti goyara jara ya mucu ya ayu payeti panina O stanza cannot be traced in any other canonical text than the Dharamapada. dana ( = Pa. p. v. such is the life of man. not by the scribe but by himself. No.. Senart's 0°. p. i. I. VI. as he says. Cf. v. however. 13. and strikingly brings home to an agricultural people like the Indo-Aryans the idea of the manner in which death drives all beings to their destiny. 536 (Fausboll.li daiidam. — This Payeti = Pali joac^^e. it draws nearer and nearer to its end ".( 200 of ) Notes. 1 Cf. Yatha varivaho puro vahe rukkh'upakulaje Evam jaraya maranena vuyhante vata panino. 12 yadha nadi pravatia racha vahati ? (C^°. 18) of ** As the waters of which the final words correspond to oharanaseva satii a brook. However. is — Almost the whole the missing from the extant Kharosthi —ya — ayn payeti panina Q has been who tags it first line of the above verse Ms. an instance of causative. Mugapakkhajataka. bat of two separate. ' For the line-end here M. and once gone. never return. Senart. 39 : — As the waters of a river ever hasten on and flow away. Fa-kheu-pi-u. sec " i. p. verses which have been wrongly adjusted. The Udanavarga has a verse (ch. B. 8 is not.

p.ti2i to flow '. Giriiar version. 73). cf. clearly has. cf. 179. Pali malavaccham. anyhow I can only see in it a reflex of vrksa. seems to have been influenced by the o of the preceding word Wwti. He joins the words together as yadhavidaiavikoti. vo° which. 12 (see C^o. 13 yadha vi dani vitati^ apaka bhoti ^vitavi ya ye deva oduopatP oharanaseva satii O^ {0\ ' 10) M. Senart's edition the words are run together and read ijayedevaoduopati. In M. Senart's edition and read apakahhotivo * He connects the line-end tavi oharanaseva satii with v. iavi oliaramseva satii better with the line-end of the The following verse. but this does not give any sense. Q— Prakrit verse might.''^ II. "^ 26 . 9. Seuart which fits reading. whether for vi'achaox for rukkha. vrksam (cf. Racha Pali rukkhnra^ Sk. II.. The words are run together in M. 'beginning FY3LVa. a gerund. 15 : — As a river that is always running swiftly by and never returns are the days of man's life they depart and come — back no more ". cli. M. Our adjustment is warranted by the sense of the verse as well as p. (''Impermanency^'). rucha. '• Udanav. as a line-end. Senart reads vikoti according to the script. : " For the form vracha. Suttavibhariga. by the mutilated shape of the line-end. He reads. Senart says I am not sure of the reading racha or vaclia . Sk. If I. be completed in one following two ways : — of the ^ yadha nadi pravatia racha vahati (upakulaja emu jaraya maranena vuhati vata panino O) 3^adha nadi pravatia racha vahati (na nivatati emam ayu manusana gachu na upavatati O) ^ V8i\i povatlilvd. again.( 201 ) Cf. and the Ms. Notes. i. The final i is due to the influence of the preceding syllables. The form is closer to Sanskrit. in spite of M.— The whole of the second line of the above verse is missing from the extant Kharosthi Ms. v. it vracha in is vacha^ Asoka's Rock-Edict. pravar///a. Asoka^s Rock-Edict = = Mansehra version). however.

The Prakrit (loe. would 14 expanding the idea of the Pali clause read in Pali: — Evam Yam yam eva manussesu abhidhavanti panayo avisissati rati maranass'eva santike. Senart's s into dh. out or out The reading. Sk. 28-29) see also M. Dani vitati Pali tanie man's life. Supplied by us. Mugapakkhajataka. 538 (Fausboll. Oduopati. 11 (pp. is very doubtful.( 20^ ) 14 emam ya ya eva manus(esu)^ (avi)"dha'^(va)ti^ praiiayo avi(si)^sati rati^ maranaseva satii (O) (C-ll) Cf. reminds us of the ancient myth where the Goddess of Fate to illustrate the course of is : . p. though t*»ntntively. ' is '. 'to enter'. madkuiaml. a f Vviii. YI. M. of in the fac-simile. hence 'to approach. s Filled by us on the strength of clear traces of the upper part of an s We have taken avisisati as the future. Yatha Appakam pi taiite vitate yam yam dev'upavlyati hoti vetabbam evam maccana jivitam. V. . masiiru iov viadhxirxi^VSW. 16 itifra.s * ' ** . Hhe loom being spread out '). if the reading be correct. udvapati. no spun out than what remains to be -a spun grows less and less striking illustration of how the The imagery hours of man^s life ceaselessly pass away. This gives us avidhavafi. — = M. occupy'. 3rd pers. Oharana avaharanaj better apaharana. : . — is represented as a woman engaged in spinning the thread of verse 13 differs from the Pali by its closing words oJiaranaseva satii (which would equate with Pali oharartass'eva santike). B. quite sufficient for °smUi). ^ ^ Supplied by us. -ZQ) :— No. cf. Senart Sk. strictly correspond to Sk. in V. tamtre vitate. would used impersonally. which are bound up too^ether in thought — and serve of weaving. which we have tentatively filled by a reading va. Senart entertains doubt as to the correctness of his reading here aa well as in the previous words. After M. * We have changed M. sing. absolute. as casts east meaning vitate^ ISk. meanicg they run the course of life (quite in keeping with the simile of the thread being spun out). following the sense of the previous verse. The Pali verse seems to h ive been expanded later into two Prakrit stanzas. Notes. a synonym of marana is = Verse evam maccana jivitam. as these two letters have '. Senart's °dhiti for °siti ( = Pali there is a gap. The sense sooner are the threads human life by the imagery when the loom is spread out. 14. often been confounded in the Kharosthi Ms. Senart's one letter. also of opinion.

(

203

)

eki na disati pratu ditho'^ bahojano pratu eki na disati sati ditha bahojano
sati^

O
(C^o, 12)

Cf.

IV. Dasarathajataka, No. 461 t (Fausboll, No. 538 p. 127)_, and 'Mucrapakkhajataka, {ibid, p. 28) :—
dissanti pato dittha bahujjana,
difctha

Sayam eke na

Pato eke na dissanti sayam
Cf.
"

bahujjana.
"), v. 7
:

Udanav., eh.

i.

("

Im permanency

in the forenoon, some of whom one see in the afternoon one sees many men in the afternoon, some of whom one will not sse in the (next)

One

sees

many men

will not

;

forenoon

".

and Sk. 5ayrmi, cf. nai — The i has intervened ndi/inhy Apramadav., 24-25). For the first o in through False Analoojy with disati. bahojano, see porma (v. 9. mpra) = Y'2X\ porisa (also purisa). The Prakrit o can also be explained as having been lengthened from u to make up for the loss of a j in the
Sati stands for sai
(

= Pali

vv.

Pali jj following.

16

tatra

ko vispasi macu daharositi^

jivit.

?vi miyati nara nari ca

ekada

O

(C^«, 13)

Cf.

Mugapakkhajataka, No. 538 (Fausboll, YI.
p. )c6)

:-

Daharapi hi miyanti nara ca atha nariyo, Tattha ko vissase poso daharo 'mhiti jivite.

sai would do well. Bitho has a variant ditha in the second line. ^ M. Senart reads dhiti, which is clearly a mistake for °siti {°smiti). lu Kharosthi the letters dh and s, being very much alike, have produced many a confusion of reading and writing, cf. masuru for madhuram (I. B, U,
^

M. Senart says that

-

pp. 28-29).

(

201.

)

Notes.

It is clear from the above citation that the lines of The first line the Pali verse are inverted in the Prakrit. Pali maccOy 'the mortal ') of the Prakrit verse has macu ( Instead of Pali nara ca atha nariyo^ for poso of the Pali. the Prakrit verse reads nara nari ca ekada, which appears to be an improvement on the Pali reading without altering The Prakrit verse might be completed thus the sense.

=

:

tatra ko vispasi

macu

dahara

hi

)

vi miyati

nara

daharositi jivit(e iiari ca ekada

O

Vispasi = Pali ^•«55a,s^, ^\i. visvaset, an optative, 'one Pali {a)mhUi^ Pali and Sk. {a)s}nttdj should trust. Siti The mistaken reading a vowel-saiidhi {rla/iaro + asmi + iti). dkrfi (see d/iift has led M. Senart to equate it with Sk. footnotes under avidhavati, v. 14 supra).
'

=

17

ayirena vatai kayu padha [siti vinana niratha ba kadigaru ruchu]^
^.

O

(C^^ 14)
Cf.

Dhammap.,

v.

4 If (Cittavagga^ v. 9)

:

Aciram vat' ay am kayo pathavira adhisessati Chuddho apetaviiiiiano niratthara va kalingaram.
Cf.
"

IJdanav., eh.

i.

(''

Impermanency

''),

v.

36

:

Alas this body Avill soon lie on the earth unnoticed, empty, senseless, thrown away in a cemeter}' like a billet
!

of

wood

".

Cf.

Manu, IV. 241 :—

Mrtam sarirani utsrjya kasthalostrasamam ksitau Vimukha bandhava yanti dharmas tarn anugacchati.
Notes.
Prakrit verse or its Pali counterpart which is one most important and exquisite in the whole collection, cannot be traced in any other canonical text than the It appears to have expanded the idea Dhammapada. of the first line of Manu, IV. 241, which also occurs
of the
^

—The

Frag. C. XLivo.

(

m
It

)

in

the

Maliabbarata.

seem?,

moreover, to be

a later
1

poetical summary of the Vijaya Sutta (Suttanipata, No. 1 ), vv 8-9, and Sumedha's i)salms (Tlierigatba, vv. 468-469), containinij ascetic reflections on the loathsomeness and

transitoriness of
verses

the

body.

The

interest

of

the

Vijaya

and
richer

Sumedha's
:

show
the

))salms lies in the fact that these combination oF the Dhammapada verse and

Mann

sloka

ca so mate seti uddhumato vinllako, Apaviddho susanasmirh anapekha honti fiatayo. Khadanti nam supana oa sigala ca vaka kiml, Kaka g'ijjha ca khadanti yeca afine santi panayo.

Yada

(Vijaya Sutta)

Nibbuyhati susanam aciram

ka3^o apetavifmano Chuttho^ kalingaram^ viya jigucchamanehi natlhi. Chadduna"' naui susaue parabhattam nhayanti jigucchanta Niyaka matapitaro kim pana sadharana Janata.

(Therigatha)

—We

are far from saying that the Buddhists were borrowers from the Manavas or vice versa. The truth is that both the Buddhists and the Manavas^ no less than the poets of the Mahabharata, had drawn upon a common source, which goes back at last to the people at large we mean that the higher reflections contained in the notice verses under sprang originally from a cruder wisdom, crystallized in the shape of maxims which popular are preserved and used by the community in more forms than one. The language of these maxims in their popular forms is generally Prakrit, the term denoting no more than the current speech of a locality or community. Sumedha's verses preserve a few remnants of Prakrit forms, e.g., ck/itt/w for (Jinddho ; kalikaram^ kaliibkaram ioY kalingaram; ch:(dduna, chatkuna, chathana^ chaWiana for ckaddita ;
:

nii/aka, a

Prakrit

survival in Pali.

The

reflections in the

Vijaya

Sumedha's verses are only a poetic version of the teaching of the Idj/dnnpassana or kayagatamfi section of the prose Satipatthana Sutta (Majjhima, I) or
Maliasatipatthana Suttanta Up., Prapathaka I.

Sutta and

(Dlgha,

11);

see

also the

OhuUha may also be taken in the sense of chaddita, 'thrown off', considering that Sumedha's expressions are almost the same as those in the Chuttho Manu sloka kalingnram viya — utsrjya kasthalostrasamam. Cf. Bengali, chiUa, choda. chonda. Prof. Pisohel notes a variant cuddho. Variants kalikaram halinkaram. ' y SiriO/Xits ^chnthuna, chathana, chatthana.
^
:

(

206

)

The Prakrit verse might be completed thus
ruchu

:


O
this verse

ayirena vatai kayu padha(vi adhise)siti ^ (apeta)vifiana niratha va kadigaru

The Dhammapada groups the
under the
Cittavagga,

Pali counterpart of
it

but

has

main theme of the ehapter. The word rifimna or of the idea that a corpse Hes
devoid
of

bearing on the mere occurrence of the
little

senseless or
it

consciousness, does
it

not surely

entitle

to

a

place in the Cittavagga.

The Prakrit

text and the

Udana-

varga have rightly grouped

among

the Jara verses.

Ayirena = Pali and Sk. acirena, an adverb with instrumental termination, meaning ^ without delay ', Wery soon'. The Pali form aciram is a counterpart of Sk. acirat which has an ablative termination. Vatai = Pali vatdyamy a vowel-sandhi (vata + ai); for ai = ai/am, cf. 7iai — ndyam, (Apramadiv., vv. 24, 25, pp. U^8, 139). Padbavi = Pali Sk. prtJiit^yaM. ptfdkavim, Ardhamagadhi, pathavim, The form of the Prakrit text stands mid-way between the Pali and the Ardha Magadhi. Adhisesiti = Pali adhisessafi, 'will lie (on the earth) ^, can be compared with mato
lies down in the cemetery ; the expressions give an idea of exposure of dead bodies. We must undei stand by the word adhisessati ov seti not that a man casts off his body, like the brute creation in general, to lie on the earth (which is rather an exception than a rule),^ but that after his death his body is thrown away by

sefi

'

susanamnim,

the deceased

'

kinsmen or friends (natayo or bandhava)^ in a S7nasana where it undergoes the natural process of decomposition"^ or is eaten up by the worms and carnivorous birds and beasts'''. EiUChu is according to M. Senart = Pali rukkJio rough, rude ', which may very well take (Sk. mhsmah),
his
'

But we the place of the Pali c/mddko, vile, despicable '. cannot fully agree with the French savant, for the Prakrit rncAu is a weaker expression than the Pali chuddlio which does not surely mean Wile, despicable" as he supposes.
*

Also a'peia or aveta. For aveta, cf. nveti, v. 24 imfra Tn cases of deaths by accident, e.g., of persons dying by ship-wreck, The Apannaka Jataka (No. 1) or in a desert or out of the way place. caravans over a vast of a perilous journey of preserves the account Indian merchants lay dead or killed, their sandy desert where hundreds of dead bodies or remains being left undisposed of. Cf. a similar account of the fate of the pesanaJca cord in the Vedabbha Jataka (No. 48).
'

-

3

*,^ See pp. 58 fg.).

See Manu, IV. 241, and Sumedha's psalms cited supra. Vijaya Sutta, vv. 8-9; Satipatthana Sutta

(Majjhima,

I.

(

207

)

His renderiiii^ of the Pali word, no less than the commentators' paraphrase, is tentative and ultimately untenable.
Chud(lho

= apavi(ldhOf

'

cast-off chuddha—chaddita, (Jataka-Comy. The former interpretation is based Fausboll, V. p 30':5). upon a canonical text like the Vijaya Sutta, v. 8, apaviddho susaiuisniim and the latter on Sumedha's psalm (Therigatha, v. 469) chadduna nam susaite. These

'despised 'forsaken',

(Dhammapada-Comy.)
*
'

;

— —

canonical passa^^^es do not bear out these interpretations. In the Vijaya Sutta the meaning of chuddho is expressed by these three words ; 'uddhiuiiato, vinllako and apaviddho, bloated, discoloured and despised '. Both the words cJiuUho and cJiadduna occur in Sumedha's psalms (Therigatha, vv. 468-469), and the former word might have been useless taken in the sense of (c/mtfJio kaliiigaram vii/a^nirattham va laliiigaram), if it had not referred think that the Pali chuddho is the Sk. to I'a^o. This word indicates the successive IxSiMhah, agitated '. decomposition undergone by a dead body in stages of a cemetery (cf. Vijaya Sutta, v. 8 ; Satipatthana Sutta, Majjhima, I. p. 58). Such a condition was very useful to the development of the science of anatomy in India, charuel fields served well as natural decomposition in

'

'

''

We
'

=

'

'

scientific dissection. Aveta-(or apeta-) apetavi'Mtanam, lit. 'from which conscious' devoid of consciousness \ senseless '. ness has departed ', that the Prakrit text appears to observes Senart M. have replaced ajieta by some synonym but does not suggest what it might be. Kullukabhatta,, the commentator of ' sensethe Manu Samhita connects the idea of acetana^ with a log of wood {ka-^thalostravad acetanam), less Kadigaru = Pali ' halingaram (variant, halikaram), 'a log or billet of wood = hUtha]ihanda (Dhammapada-Comy.) The Prakrit is, on the whole, hasthalostra (Manu sloka). more correct than kalingaram, and it stands closer to the Pali variant kalilara, even if the forms kali, kali and kadi may all be said to have been derived from the Sk. kdstha ef

the

vinana = Pali

purpose

of

'

'

=

:

.

According DhammapadaComy., the comparison is with the useless parts of a tree left off in the wood, and this explanation is borne out by a Manu sloka (v. 69), the first line of which contains the
expression aranye kasthavat iyaktva, 'casting away like The word kadigaru a piece of wood in the forest ^
or kaliiigaram may also mean a log of wood, lying useless in a smasana, partly burnt or wholly unburn t, if not in the sense that it is not brought back home for consumption.

Bengali kadi, katlii, kath.

to the

(

m

)

18

....

[avathani a

.

.

u

? ? ? ? ?

]^[ni sisaiii tani distani ka]'

rati
1.5)

O

(C-

19

[yanimani prabhaguni vichitani disodisa
^

kavotakaJ'Xni)

[athini tani distani ka]^ rati

O

(C^^ 16)
Cf.
Yaii'

Dhammap.,

v.

HO

t (Jaravagga,

v. 4)

:

Kapotakani
Cf.

imani apatthani*' alapiin' eva sarade attliini tani disvana ka rati.
sec,

Fa-kheu-pi-u,
like

\x. ("Old Age"),

p.

120

:—

"When

autumn leaves, decayed and without ebbed out and dissolution at hand, little "^ good repentance then
old,

covering,

life

!

Cf.

Udanav., eh.

i.

(" In:ipermaneiiey "), v. 5

:

" Those pigeon-coloured bones are thrown away and scattered in every direction w^hat pleasure is there in looking
;

at

them

".

Cf.

YasLibandhu's Gathasafigraha,

Udanavarga, Appendix)
"

:

v.

21 (Roekhill's

They

(the bodies)

every direction, like
pleasure, then, is

are thrown away and scattered in those pigeon-coloured bones what there in looking at them ".
;

Fausboll

identifies
in

following

the Prakrit verses the Divy^vadana, p. 561
:

with

the

Yanimany apaviddhani

viksiptani diso dasa

Kapotavarnany asthlni tani drstveha ka ratih. Imani yany upasthanani alabur iva sarade (?)* oankhavarnani sirsani tani drstveha ka ratih.
^^.^g. c. xxiivo, ]. Frag. C xivvo, l. Yvag. C. xivvo, 2. (see I. Cvo^ 16, p. 74). Supplied by us, in place of the dot of omission ^ ^ Yariiint, nvatthani. Frag, 0. xxiivOj 2. ' Beal's rendering seems far from correct. * The Ms. used by Cowell and Neil reads scrahhe, which is rneaninglees. The mistake is perhaps due to the scribe.
^

2

3

*

nearer in point of date to the Pali gatha. verses appear to have grown out of one verse incorporated in the Pali Dhapmnapada and the Udanavarga. 2-7 = Satipatthana ^ With regard to the restoration of the first line we have followed the suggestion of M. p. p. of which the Pali gatha and the Prakrit verses The expressions saghavarnani sisani (i. But instead of alapu one may read alavu. these two verses. and it leaves to verses 1 8 and what befalls the bodily remains after decomposition and consumption by the worms. 6-7. The Prakrit verses stand. vv. v.. on the whole. 75). bhassantahutiyo" (Digha. probably from an older Sanskrit recension of the Dhammapada resembling that from which a whole eliapter is quoted in the Mahavastu.. 17 and complete the description of the fate of a dead body thrown away in a charnel-field. Sutta. parapata" pakWia-vannani (Smnangala Vilasini. viz. pp. I. * the skulls looking white like conch-shells ') and havotakani atliini {i. 3=Vijaya Sutta. asandipancama purisa matam adaya gacchanti. and are. one can discover that these form an appropriate sequel to v. sees. I.. For such ascetic reflections in Indian literature. e. The story of Oiilakaia and Mahakala in the Dharamapada-Coray. fact. the skeleton and the bones. 434 foil.. Verse 17 does not proceed farther than the description of a dead body undergoing the process of decomposition and lying in the difficult to ^ somewhat a log of wood. Ajitakesakambala says. ^ Also. —The two Prakrit Verse 18 might be restored as follows (yanimani) avatliani a(lap)u(ni va sarade^ : — saghavarna'^ )ni sisani tani distani ka rati It is O say whether it is a charnel-field or a crematorium. III. the pigeon-coloured bones ') can as well be associated with a burning scene^ as with the picture of a charnel-field But scanning the verses closely. as the resemblance of certain words go to prove.g. and k votakani of the Prakrit verse) sankhavartnupmibhaiii (Majjhima. vihhhittani.( 209 ) Notes. kapotakani atthini bhavarti. p. depict the scene. 55). 58). Kapotakaniti kapotaka-vannani. I. ySva alahana padani pannapenti. '• ' " 27 .e.e. I. p. it is important to bear in mind the following references. °vranani. atthi- kani setani (corresponding to kapotakmi of the Pali. similar to two verses quoted in the Divyavadana. are based upon the Kay^nupassana sectiorf of the Satipatthana or cemetery to like 19 describe Mahasatipattliana distinctive Discourse. which actually contains the disa-virlisa expressions. 166). : — Maitrayanl Up. birds and As a matter of beasts. gives a detailed account of the possible changes of a dead body during cremation. which are interesting 1. Senart {q. no less than verse 17.

prahhangura. This may be an idiom. ' Avathani = Pali Sk. apatthani (variant. the latter portion of sec. Mike difficult (Dhammapada-Comy. p. seen'. supra. * as a past participle qualifying tani. diso disam. . Seuart says that the construction " less is normal. The word in this plural form cannot be equated with Sk. have a singular form of the word in v. Mn various directions '.( iJio ) 2. Alapuni va sarade = Pali alapun^eva sarade. We Disodisa = l^ali and Ardha Magadhi. 17 Dhammapada. we can explain the form as distana. Sk. ' 8 in of the Satipatthana Discourse. fragile '. the first portion of sec. avoMhani). saradakale vatdfapahaiani taitha vippaMnna-alapuni Distani would strictly correspond to Pali dittkmif viya). The Prakrit form keeps closer to the Pali in having a suffix ' similar to the Pali tvana. v. Prakrit verse vv. When applied to alapuni (' pumpkins 'j. drstva. understand how this meaning could be derived from avat/iani. ' on all sides'. 3. identical in meaning with prahhaiiga. M. 8. 5. Senart rightly suggests that it implies a base prahh'igu. Buddhist Sk. 8. Prakrit verses 18-19 Divy^vadana. 8-9=TherIgatlia. but not unacceptable in this form ". the history of the science of Anatomy particularly in relation to Osteology (see HDernle*s Studies in Indian Medicine ^ Pt. long before the time when dissection became a desideratum. The Divy^vadana verse reads diso dasa^ 'the ten cardinal points '. clearly indicates the fields importance of especially its ' charnelin India. displaced '. alabur iva sarade. Buddhist * thrown of^ (D'wy^vsidabUaL) =ckadditani. But if tani distani ka rati be not regarded as an idiomatic construction and distani not taken ' pumpkins * . 56 Satipatthana Sutta. latter portion. 41=Vijaya Sutta.) = to '* * exposed to heat : scattered like pumpkins. unless we suppose that it is the neuter plural of avatka = Vsk[i apattham or avatthardf 'dislocated'. M. 468-469 Satipatthana Sutta. at sixes and sevens' (Dhammapada-Comy. a Gerund corresponding to disvana of the Pali verse. I). vv. the final i being accounted for as having developed out of rhythm with the preceding tani.). drstani. The Buddhist Sanskrit form in the Divy^vadana is also a Gerund. during autumn and wind daring autumn' (DhammapadaComy. avathani=vippakinnaniy * scattered. upadkanani It is thrown away" (Udanavarga). = = = = See. Prabhaguni.

2^ Supplied by ns. "»' v. To delight in and of the pains of old age and death.( 211 ) 20 [imina putikaena atarena pabhaguna nicasuhavijinena jaradhamena s]^(avaso)^ (nime)^dha parama sodhi yokachemu anutara O (C^^ 17) 21 [imina putikaena vidvarena (pabhaguna)^]*^ [(nicasuhavijinena)]^ (jaradhamena savaso)^ (nime)^dha parama sodhi yokachemu anutara O (C-«. '* 1. 1. Sariiyutta. of which the upper portion is in tact in the former. 131 § 5 :— Imina putikayena bhindanena pabhanguna C£. 43 : — What use is this body when it lies rotting beside the flowings of the Granges ? It is but the prison-house of disease. " Fa-kheu-pi-u. 0. xivvo. 92). suggested by five queries (p. ^ ' The u is supplied by us. C. 3. xiiivo. C. 4. * ^ Supplied by us. C. xxvivo.p. TherajT. '. " 12 10 u^ Supplied by us. Frag. ("Impermanency"). 0. xlvo^ and Frag. Cf. the latter preserves. Frag. Frag. Frag. C.8 SuppHed by us. so many faint traces of the bottom of the characters. I. xxivo. 32t :— Nimmissam paramam santim yogakkliemam anuttaram. xivvo. C. as is Frag. . 18) 22 [imina putikaena visravatena putina niea]^[suhavijinena jaradha]^\mena savaso)^^ ^* (ni)^^[medha parama sodhi yokachem(u)^^] anutara O^^ (Cvo. 19) Cf. Frag. ivo. ^ ' *' The circle is supplied by us. see i. p.

However." Notes. i. always emitting some impurity. though the combination seems somewhat incongruous. s?ipra. this body. which are quite peculiar to the Prakrit text. " Udanav. (and a posteriori of vv. 19. be found out in not yet discovered. some other Pali We : : . forgetting tlie great change that must come. ^30. verses. and that in all probability the number of verses was originally less than three. 22) is in — These three the Sarhyutta verse cited above. the construction lacking in some expression to complete the Stoic rune like that which might be translated "what do you gain (by)". the original verse consisted of two lines. and one need not be surprise 1 if the parallel of the middle to all the verses. The linking together of three lines. are bound up together in fchoui^ht as completing the ascetic reflections in v. they seem to admit* of a two-fold interpretation: either (1) that there is a break at the end of the second line.. v. 5. undermined by age and death. is bat to increase the load of sin. in that they draw the hearer's attention away from the vain moralising on the transitoriness of the body to the real purpose to which the body should The second interpretation leads us to be employed. into one verse. serving to give altogether a new idea. ch. and ended with the question '* what is the use of it ?" or *' ka rati " as in v. 21. however much a commentator may try to make out some grand meaning by his ingenuit3^ are confident that the process of such co-ordination is earlier in the Buddhist literature. of three separate ideas. appears to be a novelty. they betray quite a mechanical growth. the line. The Pali parallel of the first line of v. or with such reflections as we find in the second line of the Samyutta verse attiijami hariyami kamatanha samuhata. supra. taking the verses as they are. and the inconstancy of human life. 32. and to be greedy after self-indulgence." Cf. that is. understand the underlying idea of these verses as follows ' Taking for granted that the body is such and such. 4t any rate. is which common verse. v. 37 :— Continually afflicted by disease. what is the use of it. or (2) that these verses mark a turning-point in the general trend of thought. and that of the third line of each of the three verses occurs in the Theragatha. As may be conjectured from the Sariiyutta verse and that in the Udanavarga. ("Impermaneney"). and perhaps not more than one.( 212 ) pleasure.

Parama Sodhi^Pali paramam suddhim same in {ov saiuldhim). which as is quite in keeping with the spirit a heroic faith sought to shake off the cowardly ponderiogs over the loathsomeness of decaying body. is) Some of the Pali Mss. p. meaning as suddhim.. 147. body Aturena Pali and Sk. Is it not proper to create for each of us an unsurpassed This state of safety even with the help of such a body ?' of Buddhism. arahadha. supra. the Samyutta read hhindarena (instead of bhiMdanena). be regarded' as a case in the V. ' forms etc. corresponds.— Putikaeua = Pali = meaning V. impurities '. conveyhj (that which ing the same sense as the Pali bhindauena^ hhedanadhamme ff. another synonym of Nirvana. Verse 22. 'with this putikayena. '10 1). Therlgatha. and aturam in Dhammap. (see would give place to a form nimesa. risodhi ' is a curious Prakrit form. brittle kalevare. a The Theragatha reads Nirvana. peace '. from the root Vsru ' (to flow). vv. nikham. according to M. footnotes Nimedha. would classed with such bhodha. ' ' Verse 21. to Sk. and nimedha as is sometimes the avidJiavati. 5.— Vidvarena — bhindarena. ivith roanidii in v.— Visravatena vissavantena putina=Pali with impurity flowing off '. of V. which is identical in Verse 20. 5. tranquillity (Magav. cf. Sk. what use we should make of it. paramam is the highest purity which the synonym ' of '.. form nimmissam tally well with the Pali first-person If it be not such a mistake. parijina in v. piituaneJio in v. * permeated with The expression is not to be met vvith in Pali. (Udanavarga). . Ms. 380 . under Jarav. a variant which has a justification from eases like pabbangnra The Prakrit vidvarena sounds closer to pabbhaiiguna. aturena. supra. 130-1S7). dha must be equated with the Pali suffix tha. emitting impurity'. 5. 14. ^asso'^continually if the dha what is conditioned to decay by disease " '. as (pp. which clerical error for sa. cf. niiydhihha-viclrnnena. putina. '.( 213 ) question henceforth arises. . Senart. then of the Theragatha verse..adhaj second-person udhvaradha. 27-29). Nicasuhavijinena Jaradhamena savagO=Pali jaradhammena ciation with afflicted samvaso.

however. cf. Senart. aikra of the Manserah Edicts). 215). gives tentative. Senart reads na ta tu. Here the change is JSk. but doubts the na (p. 3. He also doubts the character which follows dharma. 'the undecaying Jiyamanena = Pali y2^raw2iiM^««. ivo.( 214 ) 23 [(a)^yara jiyamanena dajhamanena nivruti nimedha]* [parama sodhiyokachemu anutara]^ (O)^ (C^^ 20) Cf. person in a state of burniog '. C. may very well appear like ka. M. « ' Frag. xxvivo. ti. Senart has unfortunateFi-ag. nirvrtim. 2. 'by a person '. who reads not 0. Our no which has Senart meaning. •. In Kharosthf. Therag. which is peculiar to the Prakrit text. if written hurriedly. xviivo. reading. or from vr into vr. 3 The circle is supplied ly missed. sets —This forth Suppiya Thera. a synonym of Nirvana. 77). khane khaue jaraya ahhibhuyya' manatt a jiramanena (Paramatthadipani). either from rv into vr as in Pali (cf. 3. 32 t :— yogakkhemam aimttaram. Frag. = 24 ^ [jiyati hi rayaradha sucitra adha sarira bi jara uveti na^ 3a-]^[ra (u)veti]^ [sato hiva® sata tu^ dharma sabhi praveraya]^"ti" (Cv«. of Nirvana. by us. Senart* reads ka. C. The letter is somewhat mutilated. » satohisasahhi pravera{ya). a synonym Ayara=Pali ajaram. . Our restoration is based on the Pali parallel which M. in a state of decaying '. 2. C. clearly the moral of the foregoing three verses. and which he tentatively reads ca.. See notes (p. Dajhamanena = Pali dayhammendj a synonym of tappamanena^ 'by a Nivruti Pali nibbutim. is M. ivo. xxvivo. V. C. 21) O 1 The a • is supplied by us. by adjusted Frag. ^ ^ M. The Tberagatha ascribes the authorship of the Pali parallel to verse. ^ * Frag. hisa. ^« M. Ajararii jiramanena tappamanena nibbutim saiitim Nimmissam paramam Notes.

3. Bengali sadhu-santa. " then. and the royal personage rejects a (broken) spirit flees. Sarhyutta. Cf. 171 imam does not approach Mam rajai at hup am am). " Fa-kheu-pi-ii. fitting sequel to the foregoing one. 494:— Jiranti ve rajaratha sucitta atho sarlram pi Satan ca dhammo iia jaram upeti jaram upeti santo have sabbhi pavedayanti. Notes. xix. The only thing that 484). hiva from havi (by Pali sanfo who have Metathesis) ( = 1^8.11 This is extant Kharosthi Ms. Pali have. I. as a mistake for hiva standing." . pavedat/a ti). Senart. * same thing the attained the discuss with state. is I. see. which V. v. with inverted vowels. " Udanav. ("Old Age"). M. IGO. 3.. p. V. For the second r of praverayati Sk.. ch. is unintelligible unless it is taken. 151 p. ('* Impermaneney '^). Cf. v. reach in it a point where it is the turn of the compiler to say if there is anything within human experience which The reply does not decay in the midst of decaying things. that is to say. 6). p. so when a do the scattered and dispersed. in place of the Pali have. teaches others this best of all good laws. and Dhp. For santo. tentatively. is in the affirmative. p. decay is sata dharma = Pali satam but a synonym of Nirvana (Jataka. 118 :— And when flesh the body lie dies. 483. Sato hiva as sabhi praverayati means the have sahbhi pavedayanti. as chariot. persons tranquil Hisa of the wise '.( 215 v. the only instance of the equation of r with d in the = = . astadasa 'PaM 'iytharasa. quoted anle. pp. ) Cf. cf. dhammam. (Jaravagga. 29 : — Even the who know body also draws nigh chariot of the king is destroyed. the dilating upon given popular comparison of the body or material form to a chariot or royal — This verse forms a we as chiriot (cf. the to old age but the best of men. Jataka. can one place on the body ? and bones What reliance. : Katha. 71 . Dhammap. V. ct. shall not old age. brilliant i.

v. 848 t (Tanhavao^ga. 465 (Fausboll. with the exhortation not to proceed again towards birth and decay and with the suggestion about the means thereto. the Pali parallel Frag. ch. puna. ^ Having regard to the 2 means. ^ We ivo. Notes. Yugavarga. rat. Agge Evam me Cf. xxix. have followed circle is * The M. C. . V. having cast off what is in the middle. xxix. 59 cast off :— is Having what is before. iivo.( 216 ) 25 [muj. one goes to the other shore of existence when the mind is free from everything. 156) :— No.. sarvatra vi mu3j^[u pachatu majhatu muju bhavasa parako ]^ (na punu jatijaravuvehisi)^ (C™. ' 66 (B 57) :— Muiica purato munca pascato madhye munca bbavasya paragah Sarvatra vimuktamanaso na punar jatijaram upesyasi. p. Senart's restoration. verse. Udanavarga (Prof. " TJdanav. C. Cf. mufica bhavassa paragu. prgg. C. Dhammap. ^ supplied by us Frag. IV. ca cbetva majjhe ea paccba mulaifa vichindatba chijjamanassa na dukkbarii maranam siya. one w^ill not be subject to birth and " death. ('^Day and Night'O. comes rightly at the end of the — This Prakrit chapter. punafi*' jatijararii upebisi. 15) : — Munca pure muiica pacchato Sabbattha vimnttamanaso na Cf. having cast off what behind. l. Bhaddasalajataka. Pisehel's Turfan-Recensionen des Dhammapada'). ch. . p. 4. majjhe v.. v. 22) [ ga25]^ Cf. iivo^ 2. " Variant.

{i. is this Katham . Thera Mahakaccayana's interpretation of the Discourse (Majjhima. In the Pali verse we have the locative form pure. thus atitesu khandhesn alayam nikantim ajjhesanam patthanam varga).. Pacliatu=Pali what is behind pacchato. MajjheHi paccuppannesn the dealing with. part. atitam ndmagaineii ? Iti me caklhnm aJiosi ntUam addhanam iti rupd ti na tattha hoti chandaraga: paiihaddham 28 hoti vinHanara ? — '* (^. (Udanavarga).. what is in the middle' (Udana^ ' The majjhe has a locative termination. in the light of the Pali gatha and the English translation of the verse in the Udanavarga. : the diving into. Sutta No. as we take it. of place there because no verse in which the negative and positive phases of a single idea are not contrasted deserves a place among the " Twin-verses '\ The Prakrit verse might be restored. entitled (in translation of the Udanavarga) ^^ and But it is RockhilFs ". pnratah. 133) which is the historical basis. corres- Day Night It is out f)onding to the Yamakavagga of the Pali text.( 217 ) is entitled to a place in the Tanhavagga. as follows : — rauj(u) p(u)ratu mnju pachatu majhatu muju bhavasa parako sarvatra vi^mutamanaso) (na puna jatijaravuvehisi O) Muju would strictly correspond to Pali mnncam (pres. Puratu = Pali purato. Pali Tha Pali of : pariyogaham paraniasam tanham. Sk.. the seeking after.)/having cast off' (Udanavarga). appattan ca anagataih. quite out of place in the chapter. ' Majliatu=Pali majjhato. of the Sabbatthivada doctrine. nappatikankhe anagatam. pa'scaio. Sk. the future and the present aggreThe exhortation of the above verse is expressed gates '). the solicitation for. puratUy pachatu and majhalii are counterparts MuHca pure'ti explained in the Dhammapada-Comy.. the past.e. Yad atitam pah man tarn. 'what is before' {^purato. in another form in the Bhaddekaratta Discourse (Majjhima. Suttas 131-134) : Atitaih nanvagameyya. the dwelling upon.^. In the Pali verse we have an imperative form of ^mnc. 'Free yourself from the thirst for. does not pursue the past ' Such was How is it that a person my eye in the past. Paccuppannan ca yo dhammam tattha tattha vipassati. Udanavarga). . — tesiipi Mnnca pacchato'ti anagak/umdhesu Tdaydcllni muftca.

the bright prospect the religious life of the Buddhist Bhikkhus. similar to and partly identical with the Sukhavagga of the Pali text (ch. not adjusted by M. of the future and the same explanation holds true . ^ ^ The circle is supplied by us. Supplied by us. ^ scribe. 0. Supplied by us in the light of the Pali jigaccha. Senart reads Jca. of the Fa-kheu-king. xv. and the same group in the Udanavarga (ch. 78). Frag. it may be judged from the general trend of thought tbat the group ended with the 20th The juxtaposition of the Jam and Snha groups is a stanza. Sec. iivo^ 4.). that lay before 1 [aroga parama labha satuthi parama dhana vispasa^ parama mitra]^ nivana paramo suha (O)^ (Cvo. to such a thought his mind is not attached with a passionate longing. put within ^ » Frag. xxx. are supplied by us. remarkable feature of the Prakrit text.)^[cha^ parama (r)ok(a)]^ [saghara parama duha eta natva yaJdhabh(u)Hu nivana paramo suha (C^^ 25) O M. Senart tentatively reads vaspam. ^ M. stanzas. and the present. corresponding to the Pali Sukhavagga. 3. Suhavaga] of the optimistic outlook The following 20 stanzas expressive of the Buddhist recluse life constitute a group. . " Frag. contains J 4 verses. Senart r and a. all collectively termed lihandha in the Dhammapada Oomy.) contains altogether 53 verses. — . l. by a contrast of two modes of reflection on two aspects of human life. The chapter contains 25 [9. which is no doubt a mistake of the See his notes on the word (p. xxiii.") So also with regard to the remaining senses. 24) 2 (jiga.. C. 0. brackets. where the total number of verse is 12. iivo.( 218 ) of this kind'. xxxixvo. Although the colophon indicat- ing the total number of verses in the Prakrit group is missing from the existing Kharosthi Ms. and it serves to bring out prominently.

Etam natva yathabhutam nibbanam paramam sukham. indeed. and decrepitude there is a state of health. 8. Senart. The Buddhist teaching santidthi paramam dhanam. eontentedness the best of riches. contentment and The logical succession of thought is bliss which abides. xxxixvo. . samkhara parama dukha. kept up better in the order in which the verses occur in Prakrit and Sanskrit. (" Nirvaua ^'). as. 6-7 : — Absence of disease is the best of possessions.. are the greatest of pains.. one has found hunger the worst of diseases if he has found the highest nirvana. Jigaccba parama roga. used great gain '. this out. — impermanence. nibbanam paramam sukham. Buddhist phraseology to denote in the figuratively negatively a state of the absence of hunger or appetition. 26) ^ Frag. " Notes. vv. santutthi paramam dhanam Vissasa parama fiati. 2 2. These two verses form an excellent pair serving to throw by contrast the two aspects of human life into After lingering so long upon decay and clear relief. that which is free from sense-appetite. {saiirye^ vlrye^ balasi).( m ) C£. All " compound things (sanskara) . Supplied according to M. 203t (Sukhav. ch. Senart's suggestion. 7) :— Arogya parama labha. That health is a great blessing of life is a common-sense view. Health is a medical term. vv. Cf " . 204. perhaps. ' aro^^a parama lahha. of all A.— not adjusted by M. C.roga is parama labha = Pali health a forms of dhana = Pali is vigour and energy serves only to widen the idea of health. which is a state ol well-being of A healthy mind is the body as well as of the mind. the natural desire of mankind. * contentment Contentment is a positive possession \ clature for aroga. " nirvana the greatest happiness. a great relief to read two verses In the midst of decay which contain a message of hope. a great nomen- 3 [suhaparicai]^ matrasuha dhiro sabasu vi(vu)^la suha O -#- (C^o. as wealth is that for gain. Udanav. a true friend the best of friends. it is. who reads rulia°. vv. Satuthi parama life being to live in valour. Dhammap. xxvi.

32 : seeks for great happiness. Dhammap. ^ From 2 Cf. There are many other instances of such Optative forms ending in i. 4 u esu anusua viharamu manusesu anusua O (usu)esu . v. and would happiness. 25) when a man has a choice between two measures of happiThe principle ness. Dhammap. p. 290 t (Pakinnakav. 7. B. I75. (" Happiness '^). 'a larger measure'. Apramadav. 159). Cf. 3. If the stedfast man give up little Notes.( 220 v.ifta. Sk. p. In the Devadaha Sutta is an individual experience. the . be —The :— caji^) probable restoration of the Prakrit verse would (matra)suhaparicai (pase* yi vivula suha matrasuha dhiro sabasu vi(vu)la suha • O —-Two words are important 'a smaller matra = Pali m. matra. 199 t (Sukhav. and that to not-self. v... v. No. 158. xxx. iivac<ii : = Pali npaccaga. 3) :— Susukham vata jTvama ussukesu anussuka Ussukesu manussesu viharama anussuka..e. v. measure'. tity implies no more than intensitj^ of feeling. 101) Buddha refutes the Jaina theory In his opinion of the quantification of pleasure and pain. Cf. a comparison with the form hhase (Sahasav. eh. (C^'^ 27) Cf. let him cast " away the little happiness and look well to the great one. Udanav. ) Cf. 5. v. and vivula = Pali and ^V. v. pp. form cari. 119. 3. 1. inculcated is not Utilitarian. The verse teaches that (I. 1) : — — MattasukhapariccSga passe ce vipularh sukham Caje mattasukliam dhiro sampassam vipulam sukham.. vipulam.. (Majjhima. the greatest happiThe happiness aimed at ness of the greatest number. vv. he ought to strive for the larger one.. Panitav. p. i. one cannot say this quantity of pain {ettakam dukhham) Here the idea of quanis due to self. °paricai = Pali ^pariccaga.

("Rest and Repose^*). but my life (conduct) is free from anger. without hatred among haters. sec.. . (" Rest and Repose *^). *. 44 : — Ah ! let among men who " of the greedy. Cf " . 197 t (Sukhav. but I have none. v. Verinesu manussesu viharama averino. Cf." My Cf. v. sorrowless in the midst men have sorrow. sec. 6 suhai (vata)^ jivamu kijanesu akijana kijanesu ma(n)^u(ses)*u (vi)^haramu akijana O (C^^ 29) = Fraj?. xxx.( 221 ) Cf. Fa-kheu-pi-u. eh.. living without hatred " hate. without greed in the midst The probable restoration of the Prakrit verse would be : — (suhai vata jivamu) u(su)eSu anusua (usu)esu manusesu viharamu anusua O 5 suhai vata jivamu viranesu averana [veranesu ma]^nusesu viharamu averana O :— (C^^ 28) Cf. 137 :— life is now at rest. eh. with no anger amongst those who Men indeed on all sides are angry (or those who hate). living without greed are greedy. xxx. Supplied by us. us live exceedingly happy. (" Happiness "). xxiyvo. 137 :— of " My all life is now at rest. (" Happiness'^)." sorrow . 1) Susukham vata jivama verinesu averino. 48 : — Ah ! let amidst men who us live exceedingly happy.. " Udanav. C. xxiii. Pa-kheu-pi-u.. v. feel anger. " IJdanav. xxiii. p. 2. '. v. Dhammap. p.

for hijana. ch. xxx. p. 50-51 :— " let us live exceedingly happy though there be nothing to call our own.. Cf . xxiii. p. Fa-kheu-pi-u. we shall feed on happiness. Jataka VI. The circle is supplied . 55 — v. copyist. Dhammap. ^ The Ms. (Pisebel). sec. Cf. Senart points out as a mistake of the by us.( 222 : ) This would give in Pali — Susukhaiii vata jlvama kincanesu akincana. v. 4) = Susukham vata jivama yesaiii no n'atthi kincanam Pitibliakkha bhavissama deva abhassara yatha. ! Ah . 7 suhai vata jivamu yesa mu nathi kijana^ (O)'^ kijanesu manusesu viharamu akijana (C^^ 30) Cf. [Susu]kham bata jivamo yesam no nasti kincanam Pritibhaksa bhavisyamo satkayenopanihsrta(h). 200 t (Sukhav. which M." " Ah let us live exceedingly happy. relying on nothingand though there be nothing to call our perishable own. like the bright personal aim. : Fausboll. ('^liest and Repose'^). 80. 49-50 :— ch. 137:— at rest. vv. feeding on (unearthly) " gods above (Abh^svaras). Kincanesu manussesu viharama akificana. 2 See p.. lias Tcajani. withoat any joys. (Sukhavarga). Susukham bata jivamo yesarh no nasti kincanam Pritibhaksa bhavisyamo deva hy abhasvara yatha. "] ! . " My life is now in perfect peace. ("Happiness") vv. Udanav. we shall feed on happiness like the shining gods. [Roekhill's translation. xxx.

pp. Ratthe vilumpamanamhi iia me kinci ajiratha. especially in its Buddhist form. Mithilajam dayhanianaya na me kinci adayhatha. 50 :— Susukham bata jTvamo yesarfa no nasti kincanam Mithilayam dahyamanayam na no dahyati kincanam. " ! Udanav. "). 219. — These bright four optimistic tone. bring home one fact. Fausboll's Jatika. namely. VI. 49 : — Ah let us live exceedingly happy though Mithila burns. Indeed. for I have nothing. xxx. Susukham vata jivama yesam no n'atthi kincanarii. that the personal a From several recensions examples of these princes gave a great impetus to the ideal of renunciation. nothing of mine does burn. which will ever be read as Indian ^ the largest collection of the older specimens of ballads and folktales.( 223 ) Cf. p.^ Notes. 539). comparative study of this sub-group in its we are led to think that the Dhammapada verses betray a process of later manipulation on a common model. 453. such as those of Makhadeva. of which Mithila was the capital. while the Prakrit verses differ by substituting certain expressions which modify the sense. 54-55 :— Susukham vata jivama yesarr no n'atthi kificanarii. (" Happiness ." Cf. There is a general agreement in the reading of other recensions. XII. in. in Indian literature. The Jataka literature. All the stories that are preserved.. Nimi and the Janakas. 1 :— Mithilayam dahyamanayam nSsya dahyati kiflcana. of Videhan kings. the (4-7). v. Mahabharata. Cf. Mahavastu. But it goes without saying that the Prakrit stanzas have considerably deteriorated the lofty tone of their Pali and Sanskrit parallels. eh. and that this model is no other than the verse which occurs in a story common to the Mahabharata and the Mahajanaka Jataka (Fansboll. designated on the " Janako raja railing of the Bharhut Stupa as the story of Sivali devl". both the Mahabharata and the Jataka Book go to prove that the teaching of the verses under notice was formulated for the first time in history by a king of Videha. all characterised by a highly constitute a sub-group and clearly depict prospect that lay before the Indian religion verses of renunciation. is found to associate such Cf. No. .

Rockhill translates the Tibetan those who are anxious'. while happiness follows UsueSU anusua Pali imuliesu as a matter of course. happily'. Not Nor that they have not developed fulfil the secular functions of human life. like a star' from all earthly good. These set forth the remote object possession of recluse life which is to impress on the householders that the true source of happiness is neither material prosperity nor earthly power but renunciation and contentment. are quite in accord with the national spirit of the Hin ius in whose life. v. ' . seems better than the Prakrit which implies that happiness is the end of recluse life. But that who have made so gigantic an effort to prepare their mind to dwell apart And whatever their political status. The adverb susuhham signifies. they have a distinct have a distinct message to impart place in the history of the world and they to other peoples. but it does not affect the mind of its ex-king. that the reliof happiness'. from the dawn of intellect. who lives exceedingly happy. 75). Verse 4.( 224 ) examples with the kings of Mithila and Benares. one leading to material advantage and the ocher Bhikkhu who to Nirvana {anfia hi fabhupanisa. but in bringing home to them the sharp contrast that exists between the two pursuits. reading susukham. throwing all material interests in the shade. anna nibbatiagaminij Dhammapada." and rendering of utsuhesu as Beal translates the Chinese rendering of anutsnkah by " sorrowless. Max Muller was fully justified in making this observation with that the Hindus have all ceased to regard to the Hindu civilisation. The city Mithila is set on fire. the spiritual motive of ^ predominates. far so as the are verses Now.'^ Neither of these two renderings are up to = ^ Prof. having no earthly The sentiments displayed possession to claim as his own. They also imply a criticism of ascetic rigorism tending to the opposite extreme of civil life. " among men who are greedy. they Dhammapada are intended to contrast the life of the householder. concerned. and teach that the right method of stimulating religious fervour among people at large lies not in appearing more miserable in austerity than they do in their worldliness. on the other hand. with that of the is so very happy and contented. although has he none. ' without anxiety among annssul'cly Sk. ' gious life is lived for its own sake. ittsukesu miutsuJ^ah. secular Sciences and Arts in their extravagant zeal for the pursuit of the there is no other people on earth higher aspirations of religion. who is so unhappy with his riches and relations.— Suhai would be in Pali sukliaya^ 'for the sake The Pali a dative singular form of snha. so long as they are true to this spirit of their forefathers.

'.^ eager to learn something. 80). p. Says corresponds to Pali no. The substantives lUsii'ka and amifstd-a imply greed as a remote idea. "the form mu. vv. and even in expressame. 34^5-316 t (Tanhav. 29 . to denote a person who is inquisitive. but no less so the Pali verinem. 32) Cf. The Prakrit forms are difficult of explanation. Verse 5.( 225 ) the mark. Senart is of opinion that the Prakrit forms are derived from some words like vira or Sk. :— Na dhira yad ayasath darujaih pabbajan ca Sarattaratta manikundalesu puttesu daresu ca ya apekkha.— ViraneSU averana = Pali verinem averino. Verses 6-7. Sk.g. 3 The circles are supplied by us.v. Dhammap. e. according to M. 31) 9 eta dridha baii(d)hanam aha dhira oharina eta hi chitvana parivrayati anavehino sisila drupamuchu kamasuhu prahai (O)'^ (C^o.— These are essentially. the Mu language of the Mahavastu. Senart's suggestion The omission seems to be a mistake of the scribe. The Pali parallel to verse 7 contains a more striking moral.. viz. M.' In Bengali the word titsuhx is used in a good sense. mo-=nah is known in the sion. Senart.. antsii'kya or * over-anxiety. tarn dalliam {q. their primary sense being connected with the Sk.^ of feeding on joy like the shining nah. M.'' These two words vera^ phonetically inculcate the Buddhist principle of stopping enmity by is = love. gods. vaira^ 'enmity." 8 na ta dridha saratacita ban(d)hanam aha dhira ya a(ya)^sa daruva babaka va manikunalesu putresu daresu ya ya aveha (O)^ (C^«. bandhanam ahu ^ The ya is supplied by us. 12-13) vv.

the hard bound fetter from which it is difficult to escape. than this. has its gyves and fetters. Fa-kheu-pi-u. The reply is that a man can be free from attachment by getting rid of the pleasures of lust and walking out of the world after cutting the Gordian knot which is the affection for wives. How- looking the other way. wood. ear-rings. " as The wise man regards lust as the imprisonment of hell. Verse 8. he it is who is in real captivity.( 2-26 ) Etara dalhaih bandhanam ahn oharinam sitliilam duppamuficam Etam pi chetvana paribbajanti anapekhino kamasukliam dhi'ra pahaya. where we may expect to learn how to be free from attachment or what the fetters of attachment are. indeed.. ch. A reading aha dhiro or ahi dhira would have been quite CQrrect. There is no other way of escape children and wealth. vv. ever. This couple o£ verses seems rather out of place in the Suhavaga. . he may that being free from any such cares (or. says the Blessed One. desires). :— Look rope at those who are fondly attached to jewels. but the wise man the foolish man who is regards not these as captivity immersed in cares about wife and child and their personal adornment. and do soon depart (to Nirvana)." . The stedfast. ii. find rest and peace. to their children (those are fetters) but iron. pp. Tt/s^-verses in other recensions of the — Dhammapada." make Notes. and therefore he desires to separate this and cut it off for ever. — But it is not uncommon in the Prakritic ." (" Desire''). it appears to form a logical In it we reach a point sequel to the previous verses. and not strong fetters. Aha dhira corresponds to Pali aha dhlray an expression which would be grammatically incorrect. xxxii. Cf. " Udanav." " It is hard for one who is held by the fetters of desire to free himself of them. (^'Lust"). who care not for the happiness of desires. cast them off. 5-6 Cf. 179- 180:— " Hell. sec. says the Blessed One. as it serves to rob the optimistic reflections It has found its right place among the of their geniality.

^ ^. how the falseness of the thing. Cf. 15 infra). * Also makaiako.. Apramadav. xxxii. 4-7. 147). v. so is he entangled in his own love of sensual pleasure. 181 : — " The can he regarding the outward form as an excellency. v. 14) :— jalaih Ye ragarattanupatanti sotam sayamkatam makkatako va Etath pi chetvana vajanti dhira anapekhino sabbadukkharh pahaya. pp. Sk. 139) and from ihk to g (cL paga for verse is —This ones and differentiated . vv. ("Lust"). (luppamnncam. v. 23. sums up the teaching of the two previous from them by the simile of a in its own The probable restoration net. see M. Pali Sk. 24. 347 t (Tanhav." fool know Notes. Saigata = Pali sayamkatam. ^. 33) Cf. liar from ya{m) to i (cf. Dhammap. 80). Fa-kheu-pi-u.( e27 ) languages to find a singular verbal form used along with plural nominative and vice versa (see v. For daruva and babaka. In rakarata. h stands for g cf vv. — Drupamuchu = The change pp. kata for gata (Magav. entangled spider of tlie second foot would be saigata mrahatao'^ va jala. v. . Verse 9. see. made by selt^ The change is quite famisvayamkrtam. 10 ye rakarata anuvatati sotu saigata eta b(i)^ ch(i)^fcvana parivrayati anavehino kamasuha prahai (O)^ (C^«. nai for nay am. p.. as the Pali text indicates. -25. in the omission of the second ya. p. may be viewed either as a case of inversion or as an instance of false analogy with druracha drunivarana (Citav. of duspra to driipa duspramucyam. Senart's opinion the metre proves that the a error of the copyist does not consist in a simple inversion yaasa for ayasa^ but.. 101-107). 137). pp.. ' — paiika. ya asa for ya ayasa. for like a silkworm enveloped in its own net (cocoon). Apramadav. 5. Ya a(ya)sa=Pali Tjad ayamm^ 'that which is made of iron.' In M. . Supplied by us.. 142. Senart's notes (p. 138.

II. promulgated respect to the elders as one of the seven condisetting forth the maxim The teaching thus of national prosperity and communal well-being (Dlgha..( 228 ) 11 ahivadanasilisa nica vridhavayarino catvari tasa vardhati ayo kirta suha bala O 34) (C^'o. four happy consequences increasingly attend that man beauty and strength. They presuppose a common substratum which is no other than a —The Prakrit extol politeness social virtues. v. 77). the second line reads Catvari tasya vardhanta ayiilj prajfla yaso balam. and life and peace. In his younger days he was unwilling to admit in theory any seniority by age. p. Manu. by the number of Lents kept by them. Cf.. : . II. v. tions A]li° the stands for Pali and Sk. verse and its Pali and Sanskrit parallels and respect to the elders as the two cardinal and inculcate that these serve to inciease the life. ahlu^. and as a matter of fact. 71. peace and influence of a man. Fa-kheu-pi-u. 121 (quoted by Fausboll) :— Abhivadana^Ilasya nityam vrddhopasevinah Catvari tasya vrddhante ayur vidya yaso balam. (" The Thousands "). 108 :— sec. general sense of Hindu inculcated is completely in Buddha accord with the Buddhist idea of discipline. to others. he adhered to his theory throughout his The seniority of the Bhikkhus by age was determined life. only instance in our text where h This perhaps corresponds to is In Jolly's edition. ^ Notes. : Cf " . xvi. 109 t (Sahassav. ever intent on good conduct and due reverence venerates old age. pp. 10) : — Cattaro Abhivadanasilissa niccam vaddliapacayino dhamma vaddhanti ayu vanno sukliam balam. Dhammap." is He who who always — Cf. popular society. fame.

Mahavastu. that people finds happiness. 15) :— Dullabho purisajanno iia so sabbattha jayati Yattha so jayati dhiro taiii kulaiii sukham edhati. p r s . in the Prakrit of our text. '0. Cf. v. II. the earliest embodies No. Mahapadana his followers. " Udanav. ? yati viru ta kulu suhu modati (Cvo. xxx. Vridhavayarino = Pali as meaning the Manu vaddhdpacat/ino. p. 35) O Cf. M. eh. 1 . v. everywhere wherever such a steadlike unto meeting one's kinsmen fast person is born." An : . see 12 d . Fa-kheu-pi-ii. 109 : — Dullabho purusajanyo na so sarvatra jay ate Yatra so jay ate virah tarn kulath sukhamedhati. .e. and as such . p.. C Happiness . p. 132 . 81. to as a man is difficult to be born when Buddha is also difficult incarnate is difficult and to hear the preaching of the Law of Buddha is difficult also. III. 193 t (Buddhavagga. bh. v.( 229 ) hh. . . Senart's notes.. see. the same in vrddJiojmsevinahj a vowel sandhi The {vridha-\-arai/arino)." To be born live long) is . ('^Buddha").— The probable restoration of the Prakrit verse would be:— d(u)l(a)bh(o) p(o)r(u)s(ajano na so sarvatra jayati yatra so ja)yati viru ta kulu suhu modati O —The deified verse is the utterance of an age when it the Buddha was cannot be dated by The earlier than the first century of Buddha's demise. Cf. xxii. Sutta 2) (Digha. Dbammap. :— to attain to years (i. change of c to y is very common For the anomaly in the r. Notes. Cf " . 29 :— he does not appear omniscient person is hard to find 'tis happiness to associate with the steadfast.

: (Digha. sees. referring to 'man'. ^ not in every place and family '. counterpart siikham edhati. of the verse quoted above is quite clear. v. 'attains happiness. The figuratively in the sense of *best'. ^ of the expressions in didlahho jmrisdjanm. 2*24<-ji25. 182 (Buddhav.' Suhu modati has for Pah* . i. as developed iii the subsequent Jataka literature. Jja7io here it is used is used of a horse of the finest breed . p. hard to ' find. II.'' According to M. instance of sandhi {porusa-\-ajana). Compare also Kiccho mannssapatilabho Kiccharh maccana jivitam. Senart. while it is involved far more difficult to see the advent of a Buddha who stands far above the level of common men. This doctrine enumerates the general conditions of the advent of great men such as the Buddha. have only to note that looking more closely into it one can at once see that there is really a comparison is it hard to be born as man. commonest Sanskritic expressions however to denote similar Dulabho porusajano = Pali of man = purusavyaglira. 225). qjant/nh..( 230 ) specimen of the Jjhammata doctrine. corresponding to the Brahmanical theory of incarnation. far less to speak of three or four' idea. If the construction correct in Prakrit. Uhe noble breed is hard to find'. 13. are forms like pnrusasimk ' 7 ^ expression dulabho. 4) — 14). Kiccliam saddhammasavanaih Kiccho Buddhanam uppado. pp. the Prakrit reading is a lectio facilior introduced through the unconstraint of the scribe or his predecessor. As for the some light on its significance is thrown by a passage in the Mahagovinda Suttanta which expresses the following sentiment of the ' Impossible it is that two gods of the Thirty-three supreme Buddhas should arise at the same time and in the same world system. suhu ( = Sk. and it is in the light of this doctrine. that the significance the verse can be understood. Na sarvatra. v. : Dhammap. and the phrase would be ' idiomatic and mean (he) delights uninterruptedly. suhham) sitJiii modati be must be taken as an adverb. not in a country other than India. notably the Nidanakatha.e. Fo nisaj a fio is an ^k. not in a province other than the Middle country and not in a family other than " Ksatriya We The general sense : and high class Brahman its (see Milindapanho.

so far as it can be made out from ness arising — say tentative because the Senart's reading ?????? y« narethina v. iv. 36) Notes. Therefore. in which latter case kici must be regarded as a mistake for kiji { kifici).]^[. Thus the pada must be rendered either.iv. ixvo.e. A. tentatively.( 231 ) 13 (s)u[hasino ye^ kamaye^ narethina v. — A which find their proper places in B. As M. l. until the discovery of a ' We We read the first syllable as t/e. 36. 1. C. we do not read the ya apart. of We illegible traces — letters in M. though read without the stroke of e. they ' have no stain is hardly in keeping with the construction of the last pada. xvivo. . in M. ^ ^ Frag. Of these two renderings we prefer the second. The slightest amount of happi- from association with the cultured does not exist among them. 0. which according to M. Senart's arrangement of plates. but have thrust it into the previous word which is thus constructed as hamaye. of men and women. A. Senart's edition.g. A. A. VI. or. iv. yoTcama. e. * M. A^ and B. A^. have been read with the help of Frag. suha sichiJHasavasa kici tesa na vijati O (C^'«. IV. there are some fragments of a tentative adjustment. Senart says (p. for everywhere in the Prakrit text lie has been represented by^. (The happiness of an association with the cultured) does not exist in their Neither the Pali verse has been traced. IXVO. i. Kici tesa na zijati is apparently a Prakrit expression corresponding to Pali kicce tesam na vijjati or kind tesam na vijjati. Senart has Frag. The ya preceding narethina (Fr.u. calls frag. the verse under notice. Senart rightly takes narethina as equal to naritthinam.e ( ). 23). v and Such was the disorder in which these fragments came into his hands that we should not be surprised if what he A. uhasino yo kama. A. as it seems more in harmony with the sense of the first line. ought to have been adjusted in a verse included in one of the plates A^. Frags. for the y of Jcamaye in Fr. admit that there is a great deal of uncertainty in our adjustment which can not. — — The — = line of action {kicii) . nor the Sanskrit counterpart o£ this M. Senart's rendering of the second ' h'ne association with learned men is a blessing . completing Frag. Cixvo) perhaps makes up the last syllable of Tcamaye.' although he has not been able to suggest any meaning of the first line taken as a whole. C.e... really belonged to his C^o.. A^. There is a blank represented by a dot. * Frag. M.

v. be finally we can only think In these circumstances removed. " Udanav.: — To see the elect righteous is happiness.( 232 ) parallel verse." to associate with the is happiness not to see fools is always happiness . 14 [suha darsana ariana sa]^[vaso vi sada suho adasanena]^ balana nicam eva suhi sia O (C^^ 37) C£. ing is appositely placed after v. v. . is ' —This verse ^ Savasa might. » Frag. 10) :— Sadhu dassanam arij^anam sannivaso sada sukho. Moreover. .. ch. 27. C. and act well and virtuously by himself !" ! Cf.. xxx. 13 and its teachrelief by the contrast implied this verse explains the expression sichitasavasa of the previous verse. Notes. see. xxii. v. the cultured Frag. {'' Buddha"). v. Dhammap. the Oh. 134:- Oh. in with 2 which case the expression sichitasavasa would be in apposition happiness which is association with preceding it. C£.. the sense being '.. ! p. 15 fg. of a restoration like the following : — (s)uhasino ye kamaye narethina v(asu) (s)n(hu) suha sichitasavasa^ kici tesa na vijati O — of which the Pali counterpart would read : — Siikhesino yo kamaye naritthinam vasam sukham Sukham sikkhitasarfavasa kifici tesaih na vijjati. 206 t (Sukhav. thrown into clear between them. Adassanena balanam niccam eva sukhi siya. •. ixvOj 2. and it praises association with the Aryas or the elect and condemns association with ' No friendship with a fool {ii'atthi hale the fools. be taken as the Prakrit equivalent of the ' Pali eamvaso. happiness of being able to rely on him as present the joy of the man who is able to avoid the company of the foolish. " Fa-kheu-pi-u. xvivo. as in suha. (" Happiness'^). the happiness of seeing the Holy One Oh. 0. g.

xxxyvo. 38) 16 (dbiro ca)"^ [suhasavaso^ natihi va i]^ samakamo dh]^[ira hi prana bhayeya panito dhorekasila vatamata aria (C^o. The three dots of omis. The expression balana ( = Pali halanam. ° For the final 0. ra. xxxvvo. C. ^ Frag. 1.( 2. xvivo^ 3. according to M. Senart's cote h (p. C. though the latter does not answer to the four dots of omission in M. 13. when interpreted in the light of v. 39) Frag. latter is wanting. Supplied by us. 39) [tadisa sapurusa sumedha bhay(eya)] (A ^ [nachatra- patha va cadrimu O^ portion of C^^ 40 completing C^^. xxvo strength of a form bhayeya occunng in the self -same verse. . C. The Prakrit reading agrees with that of the Udanavarga. which belongs to the next verse accordingly. ^ ^ '. Senart's suggestion. viz. 84). The addition of the particle by the exigency of metre. Frag. and that witli regard to the expression savaso vi {=V2\\ samva^o pi). is = Pali apt) necessitated Pali niccam eva. Senart reads pranai as one word.33 ) iahayata) is an emphatic pronouncement of the Dhammapada verse 330. 0. Senart's edition appear hardly warranted. see M. M. 'oi fools') denotes. Senart's edition. ^ The bracket has not been closed after the circle as there remains a portio?r of the fragment. Nicameva = substituted {a)vi ( for sannivaso. Frag. 2. persons who desire the pleasures of household life. the closing bracket is put after ra there. whereas the metre proves that only one ' . 15 [(ba)4asagatacari u drigham adhvana soyisu dukha balehi]"^ (sa)Vasu amitrehi va savrasi O (C^°. 8 the eya of the last word is supplied by us on Frag. We must note that the Prakrit verse sh'ghtly differs from its Pali counterpart. * Supplied by us.=iion in M. xxxvpo. a vowel sandhi (nica + eva). which are hardly in keeping with the metre. aa they indicate that three letters are missing. 0. 30 .

16 is connected in the Fali text with the counterpart of v. 11-12):— 207-208 t (Sukhavagga. 27) as nom. Dukkho balelii samvaso amitten'eva sabbada.. as they express. venture to correct it to cadrima (for ca7idri "a). . the very idea of v. though the nominative tense. 14. a form which is interpreted by M. nothing to comment upon. ch. Balasangatacarl hi digliam addliana socati. " Udanav. 7 (p. as = = = sahbadhi. Dhlro ca sukhasamvaso^ natlnam va samagamo. ("Happiness").( 234 ) C£. The first line of v. 28-25 : — as great suffering to be in the company of fools as in that of enemies he who associates with fools will repent him of it for a long time. (Tasma hi :) Dhirafi ca paiinafi ca bahussutan ca dhorayhasllarh vatavantam ariyam Tarn tadisath sappnrisam sumedham bhajetha nakkhattapatham va candima.— Soyisu Pali socimsu^ an aorist form which M. A' stands tempt one But the sense do not such an interpretation. aha dhira. 16." " 'Tis' happiness to see a virtuous man to see one who has heard much is happiness Arahats who are to see delivered from existence is happiness. 15. though in a somewhat different form. a procedure which is hardly justifiable. sahbaso. . for y. with which it goes hand in is against We hand ^ in common speech.— Dllorekasila = Pali dhorai/hasUam. to a false analogy with suriu. All that we can say is that cadiimu is perhaps due sing. The Prakrit text and the Ildanavarga have rightly linked it with v. vv. vv. in the sense of the present Note that the verb is plural. B. Cadrimu occurs with a u which may to regard the word as an accusative form. Max Miiller corrects the readijig to sul-ho ca dhirasarhvaso. There is. — is Verse 15. . C£.. in the verses. Senart as due to Magadhism. Verse 16." 'Tis . Vv. because the very form cadrimu occurs again in I. Savrasi Pali is singular (cf. Dhammap. Senart points out. Notes. xxx. Nevertheless^ he says that the reading Pali have been savradhi^ in which case it would be might used. v. 8 a ove).

Frag. 44-45 :— Kincid eva maraatvena yada bhavati kalpitam Tad eva paritapartharii Yad sarvam sampadyate tatha. The interpretation may also be M.. vv. so when one has cast off desires. ce. ^. * '^ ta da { = ta fa) = tarn tam. kamanam tat sukhasy^bhipuryate Kamanusari purusah kaman anuvinasyati. ^^ Fausboll wrongly connects this line with the previous verse in his work.. yat tyajati ^ Continuation of Frag. Udanav. Also. 11-1^ :—- As the shoemaker. xxxvvo^ 3. C. XII. let him cast off all desires he who has cast off all desires will find the most perfect happiness. IV. 172. ^ Supplied by us. Cf. C. • " . eh. Rathakaro va cammassa parikantaiii upahanam^o Yam jam cajati kamanarh tarn tarn sampajjate sukharh. 467 (Fnusboll. . Senart reads dhe arovacamasa. can use it to make shoes. when he has well prepared his leather. Senart reads sa majafi. KiXmajataka.( 235 ) 17 [raj^dhakaro va camasa^ parikica uvahana (The remainder of C^«. xxxvvo^ 2. pp. Frag. 174. "We have followed the reading adopted by the Jataka-Oomy. 40) (yacla)'^ [jahati kamana tada* samajatP]^ ichia [s(uj'h(u)^ sarva ca suhu]^ sarvakama paricai O 41) (O^ Cf. ^ ^ Variant. Cf. xxvo^ 3.3):— No. ii. he has the highest happiness. ya ya supplied by us. . Sabban ca^ ^ sukham icche} ya sabbe kame pariccaje. (" Lust "). Mahabharaiii. C. If one longs for happiness. ^ ^ M.

the form ought to have ^katn. verse teaches^ Notes. p. one must cast off one's desires. For the ns cf. Senart. - XII. in the light (para duhuvadha) nena yo atmano (suhamichati) verasasaga(sarisatho)^ so duha na parimucati O 1 2 3 Frag. xxxviiivo.' Phonetically the Prakrit ¥orm = Fall pa?ikicca. Apramadav.. 'cutting' or 'fitting. should The elision of j in the give up parityajet. Cf. v. Sk. xixvo. Dhammap. v. 18 [nena yo atmano]^ [(ve) rasasaga]^ ?? so duha iia parimucati O (C^'^ 42) Cf. been pankata or Paricai = Pali pariccaje. xxx. truly happy. Prakrit form presuposes an intermediate change to y. V. Sk.. 3 supra. rasa saga. 4. 2 : — He who canses misery to others in seeking for his own welfare brings without distinction misery on friends and foes. who reads Frag.( 236 ) Ibid.. Not-e that we had paricii also for Pali pariccaga m ' '.. - —This his leather Parikica = Pali parlJianfam. C. . ('' Happiness "). 48 :— Yad yat tyajati kamanarh tat sukhasyabhipuryate Kamasya vasago nityaiii duhkhameva prapadyate. To equate fitly with parikantam. by the simile of a shoemaker fitting by getting rid of its useless parts." Notes. ch. 2): — Paradnkkhupadhanena yo attaiio sukham ichati Verasathsaggasamsattho vera so na pamuccati. sansana (for Pali samsanna). parikrt^a. " Udanav. 177. 291 (Pakinnakav. not adjusted by M. v. C. 123. that to be happy. as follows —restored. — The Prakrit verse might be : of its Pali counterpart.. v. i.

of Supplied by us. It egoistic teaches that a so man can not his aspire for happiness interest of others. Cf. 2. Here at last we reach a verse which manifests the Buddhist tran seen den talist view of happiness. ("Happiness"). 43) Cf. Samyutta I. xixvo.( 287 ) The the interest of this verse lies in the fact that it makes clear Buddhist position as to the pursuit of happiness on lines. ' Frag. 83 : — t (Sukhav. 201 p. Udanav.. ch. v. Our reading rests upou * ^ the Pali pasavati. xxx. but says that it is nothing but a gross miatake the scribe. Notes. ** . — relative feeling only. Dhammap. 0.. M. v. Senart reads prasahati." rancour the defeated foe is in victory and defeat he will find the . I : — " From victory : proceeds off misery if one casts happiness of peace. To be happy in the absolute sense. the happiness resulting from victory is a victory and defeat . long as legitimately pursuit injures the 19 jaya v(e)^ra [prasavati^ dukhu sayati parayitu uvasatu sohu saj^ati hitva jayaparayaa O (O''. v.. a man must rise above the opposites. 5) Jayam yeram pasavati dukkham seti parajito Upasarto sukham seti hitva jayaparajayam. even though the h may be very clear.

. though he considers the reading as a gross mistake of the scribe. The circle is supplied by us. 'Pr2i83iV2Lti * = 'PaM jjasavali. C. 199. pp.158. Samyutta. resulting from v oi prasavati. II. ^ • Frag. This verse which is very familiar to the student of Buddhist literature is chanted a5 a mantra or Pirit at the It is the result of an after. I.thought death of a person. 44) Cf. begets '. hardening of a y. §6:— Anicca vata sankhara uppadavayadhammino Uppajjitva nirujjhanti tesam vupasamo sukho. It teaches that the body is destined to perish. formed a fitting conclusion to this chapter. 3. from moralising upon the demise of a great man proceeding and teacher such as the Buddha. — Although the colophon is we are confident that this verse missing from the extant Ms.' generates \ Senart reads prasahati. and that happiness results from the complete cessation of organic existence. p. If the latter reading be h the can be said to have resulted from the adopted. 20 anica vata [saghara upadavayadhamino upaji ti nirujhati]^ tesa uvasamo suho (O)^ (C^o. Digha. xixvo. . 157.( 288 ) M. Notes.

edition of the f. Verse 1 = Levi's Apramadav. 35= Roekhill's Udanavarga. 119 ff. V.'^ — transmigration. R. . in cast ofp an end to his misery. will.. put Verse 2 = Levi's Apramadav.. v. 191^. Sylvain Levi and (J. 6 : Utthanavatah smrtatmanah §ubhacittasya nisamyacarinah samyatasya hi dharmajlvino hyapraraattasya yaSo' bhivardhati. 235 Vallee Poussin. : — IV. For the verses of the Apramadavaga. S. p. 35 : Uttisthen na pramadyeta dharmarii sucaritam caret Dharmacari sukhaih §ete hyasmim loke paratra ca. Here our references apply 191'2. some other chapters (J.ADDENDA Containing certain additional pa^'allels and notes. 5 : Utthanenapramadena saihyamera damena ca Dvipam karoti medhavi tarn ogho nabhimardati. partly to M. I. Levi's p. A. and to Poussin's edition of f. v.). " Whoever has lived according to gentleness and purity. The following Sanskrit parallels are quoted from the fragments of the manuscript of the Udanavarga of Pelliot and of Stein. v. xx. Apramadavarga 359 Vol. p. having this law of discipline. Verse 8 = Levi's Apramadav. in the collection The credit of noticing to them belong de la partly to M. A.).

1-2 Apramado hyamrtapadam pramado mrtyunah padaih Apramatta na mriyante ye pramattah sada mrtah. Apramadav. though they have heard but little of the law. 2l = Roekhiirs IV.( 2 ) Verse 4=Poussin's Documents. you be. Apramadam praSamsanti pramado Apramadena Maghavan ^ garhitah sada devanarfa sresthatam gatah. Verse 5 = Levi's 21 : Apramadav. . have understood the law. Verse 10 = Levi's ApramSdav. have followed its " As many as commandments. is The translation tentative. V. Verse 8 = Levi's Apramadav. 4: Pramadam apramadena yada nudati panditah sokinim prajam tvasokah Prajnaprasadam aruhya Parvatastha iva bhumisthan dhiro balan aveksate. they who follow the law have understood the law. v. V. 24 = Rockhill's = Udana- varga. vv. Verse ll = Levi's IV. Udanavarga. 33 : Utthanakalesu nihlnaviryo (yava ball Sadaiva samkalpahata kusldo jnanasya — s-/>-/)ko nirasa (h) margain satatam na vetti.'*^ : Verses 6-7 -Levi's Apramadav. Etam visesato jnatva hy apramadasya panditah ApramSde pramadyeta nityam aryah svagocaram. Na tavata dharmadharo yavata bahu bhasate Yasfcvihalpajn api srutva dharma kayena vai sprset Sa vai dharmadharo bhavati yo dharme na pramadyate. Cittav. v. §resthiva raksate. I declare unto you that those who. v. 24 : v. 1 : Pramadam anuvartante bala durmedhaso janah Apramadam tu medhavl dhanam v.

v. iv." Verse 14 = Levi's Apramadav. 12 (Roekhill's Udanavarga. Add the following quotations p.. v. Hinan dharman na seveta pramadena na saihvaset Mithyadrstim na roceta na bhavellokavardhanah " Have nothing to do with false doctrines. IV. sukham. 27 : Apramade rato bhikguh pramade bhayadarsakah Durgad uddharate' tmanam pankasanna iva kunjarah. . have nothing to do with the heedless .. Verse 24 = Levi's Apramadav^ v. v. . ii) : Pramadam nanuyujyeta na kamaratisamstavam Apramattah sada dhyayi prapnute Verse 23 = Levi's Apramadav. 13 : N4yam pramadakalah syad aprapte hy asravaksaye Pramattam Mara anveti simham va mrgamatrka. Verse 15 = Levi's Apramadav. Verse 12 = Levi's Apramadav. he who delights not in false doctrines shall not continue (in) the world. V. 8 : = Roekhill's Udanavarga. v. 37 : Arabhadhvam niskramadhvam yujyadhvam buddhas^lsane Dhunidhvaih mrtyunah sainayam nadagaram iva kunjarah. 36 : Apramadarata bhavata suslla bhavata bhiksavah Susamahitasamkalpah svacittam anuraksata. just below the Pali verse quoted on Levi's 135 : Apramadav.( 3 ) " He whose has speech will exalts earnestness and who always than he despises heedlessness be greater among 8 the gods who made a hundred sacrifices/* v. v.

does conquer this flighty mind. v. Therig. C£. kalo me na pamajjitum. thinking not of the body.. 8: Spandanam capalam cittam duraksam durnivaranam Bjum karoti medhavi isukara iva tejanam. v. " 9 : who. 2 : Varija va sthale ksipta okadoghat samuddhrta(h) Parispandati vai citta(in) Maradheyam the prahatavai. . 28 = Rockhiirs A(nava)sth(itacitta)sya saddharmam avijanatah Pariplavaprasadasya prajna na paripiiryate. " He whose mind is not stedfast cannot understand the holy law.( 4 ) C£. p. lives in a cave. Verse l=probably Rockhill's Udanavarga. Verse 5 =PoussinV Documents. Therag/v. and is He delivered of the greatest of terrors. xxxi. 28 : Cittav. xxxi.^' v. Cittav. v. : — v. Udanavarga. he whose faith is fickle cannot acquire perfect wisdom. II. V.. 95: jivitam Appakam mayham jara byadhi ca maddati Purayam bhijjati kayo na me kalo pamajjitum. 2nd line Abadho me samuppanno. One need not be okaogha samndhrata. 30.*' Verse 2 = Poussin^s Documents. For the verses of the Citavaga. Cittav. and wanders about all alone. surprised if Prakrit 2nd foot resembled those in Sanskrit and expressions of the read somewhat like Verse 3 = Poussin's Documents. 140 ff.

14. 7) : Dhammap. 5= „ „ „ . half of v. cf . p. V. v. 865 : Sllakkhandhe patitthaya satim paiinan ca bhavayaih Papunim anupubbena sabbasamyojanakkhayam. 6-11.. Note on p.) Jataka verse quoted below. just in the middle of the : cf. 46). to Franke cavadhi=capat adhi. cf. the first line of the v. 119). p. is an exact For the verses of the Sahasavaga. Pusav. yaea Pali yajetha).. v. v. should be samacarati ace.jaea (Pali jayetha). (Leumann's Aupapatika Sutra.( 5 ) Cf. cf. V. 6-11. For the verses of the Panitavaga. Sahasrav. : — Verse 1 Verse 3 or 3 (J. 152 . cf . 24 : [Narakam papakar]maTia(h) krtapunyarstu svargatim For verse 5. the in Poussin's Documents. The Jaina expression caficala-cavala-cita s. Therag.) Q.. 1910). Anityav. p. Sahasav.A. v.. For such for Present. optative to a forms standing vyadhesi adea = Pali vyadketij (Balav. Pali pamajjeyya (p. 176 that ace. pramajea. 169 ff. Mase mass sahassena yo yajetha sataih samam IV. 183). 4. p. =Pelliot Ms. first line For the first verse 4 . as also for Past. III. For instances where the final d^ con esponds to the Pali suffix tha (3rd pers. 106 (Sahassav.i. : — The Pali Add 6th line the following notes on p. 2 „ For the first half of each of vv. p. Note that the Sanskrit verse counterpart o£ the Prakrit. . v. counterpart samayarea (sing. 35. 154 ff. 172.

and death. l p. : — = Rockhill's " Verse = Poussin's I. which I. thou art . we feel constrained to accept the explanation of M. in the if its sense be what is brought out by parallel Udanavarga. Anityav v. Anityav. one crushes pains of it. by children and flock. Verse 3 = Poussin's Documents. disease. '' Such and such actions are a source of performed them." The meaning and the restoration p. suggested by us on 180' are rather based upon p- a verse of the Mahabharata." The Sanskrit parallel and its translation quoted above fully He who bears out the general sense of the Prakrit verse as M. 39 : v. children mother. 38. v. 41 Udanavarga. v. 39 = Rockhiirs Tarn putrapasusammatarh vyasaktamanasam nararh Suptam gramam mahaughaiva mrtyu(rAdaya) " Thou who art surrounded are no refuge. Iha varSaiii karisyami hemantam grlsmam eva ca Balo vicinta (yat)l(ti) hy antarayam na pasyafci. Documents. 179 ff . without a refuge. Senart and restore the verse as follows : Verse 2 = Poussin's Documents. while its second in accord with The Prakrit word at the end of the verse might as well he pasati. i. will overcome age. v. gacchati. and kinsfolk.i e :) V. 40 : Idam (me karya)m kartavyam idam krtva bhavisyati. nor are " father.. Anityav. prepares himself in this manner. Udanavarga. Note that the the Pali. Senart " : death and the suggested by by properly understanding one's duty. For the verses of the Balavaga. having acquire. quoted on 179. will felicity. first foot of the Prakrit foot verse is corresponds to that of the Sanskrit. Ity evam spantano martya jara mrtyus ca mardati. Although we are unable the verse under its to understand the propriety of the inclusion of the Balavaga.

. who reflects." " ." He who has done that which is when hereafter he will be in the evil is wrong. the original of the text IV. Yesam tu snsamarbdha nityam kayagata smrtih Akrtyarh te na kurvanti krfcye satatyakarinah Smrtanam samprajananam " as tarn gacchanti asravah.e. is made happy. and when he will be in the happy way he will be happy. vv. contains rather the text of an older verse-order compilation of the Udanavarga^ portion of the Chuh-yau-king. 19-20: v. He who comprehends the nature of the body. is The order of the expounded two verses thus of formed of inverted in the Udanavarga. he who hereafter has done that which right. Poussin^s vv. with memory and understanding will put an end to his misery. for he will have no affliction. it is good for one do what *' right. 44 ( : For verse Q. and way he will suffer . for is he who does will suffer . xxix. and does what ought to be done. 20 = Rockhill's Udanavarga. vv. 45. does not what ought not to be done. This fact inversion and the discrepancy of verse-numbers suggest that the Turfan Ms. and when he has put an end to his misery (asrava)." Here is another instance where we find each of the two lines of a verse similar to the Prakrit or the Pali has been into one complete verse. therefore. 41-42 Akrtam kukrtac chreyah pascat tapati dnskrtam Socate duskrtam krtva socate durgatim gatali Krtan tu (siikr)tam sreyo yat krfcva n^nutapyate Mandate sukrtam " It is krfcva nandate sugafcim gata(h).( 7 ) Documents. suffers for it. better in both (this world and the other) it if one has not done to evil. Yugav. he will find the untroubled state. Verse 8 = Levi's Apramadav. and whose exertions are unceasing. i. = Rockhill's Udanavarga. cf.'' He.

i vantakah. ff. For verse 12 cf. Anityav. Anityav. • • = Poussin's rnam Documents. idaih v. v. Anityav. Poussin's i. . Anityav. For the verses of the Jaravaga.( 8 ) VI. . v. : v. Documents. Anityav. Anityav. Verse 4 = Poussin's Documents. 37 : Anena putikayena hy aiurena prabhanguna Ni ( ) ? pararh santiih yogaksemam anuttaram. v. 30: Yo pi varsasatam jivet so Ann hy enam ja(ra yat) i Verse 5 — pi * i mrtyuparayanah mo. 29: Dhik tvam astu jare gramye (varna)pakar(i)n(i jade Ta)tha manoramam bimbaih tvaya yad abhimarditam. Anityav. : — Verse 3 = Poussin's Documents. 186 v. 34 : (Par)ij(i) (ru)pam roganidarfa prabhanguram Bhetsyate putyasandeham marauantam hi jivitam^ Verse 8 = Poussin^s Documents. p. v. 33 : Yesam ratridivapaye hy ayur alpataram bhavet Alpodake ca matsyanam ka nu (tatra rat)i(r bhavet)." Verse 17 = Poussin^s Documents. 33 Ayur diva ca ratrau ca caratas tisthatas tathS Nadlngrh (hi) yatha sroto (ga)c(cha)ti na nivartate. Verse 20 = Poussin's Documents. " This like the life is fleeting away day and night . it is unstable stream of a great river one goes on not to return again. 32 and Rockhill's Udanavarga. 35 : (Aciram bata kayo' yam prthi)v(Tm adhi)§(e)syati Sunya vyapetavijfiano nirastam va kadaihgaram. v.

p. xii. v. VII. 140 : Imina putikayena. '^13) equates better with the Pah' nimmiddham Verse 24=Poussin's Documents. v. : yah pasyed vipulam sukham Tyajen matrasukharh dhfrah sa(m)pasyaih vipulam sukhaih. Verse r)=Poussin's Documents. Verse 4< = Poussin's Documents. 36 : Kim anena sarlrena (visra)vapiitina (sa)d(a) (Ni)tyam (r)og(a)bh(i)bhutena jai^-maranabhiruna. Anityav. 50 : Na khalu mama hi dahyate' tra kincit. Sukhav. 222. Anityav. 44). Sukhav. 218 30 ff. 28: Ciryanti vai rajaratha (h) siiciti^ hy ato sariram api ja(ram upe)ti Sat(a )n tu dharmo na ja(r|^)m upeti santo hi taib satsu nivedayati. Note that nimedha (p. 223 belongs to the Udanavarga (Sukhav. v. no for j/esarh no in i/esan the Sanskrit verses p. Note that the Sanskrit verse quoted on quoted on p. v. 43 : Susukham bata jivamo hy utsnkesu tv anutsuka(h » fXDtsukesu manusye^a vi(ha)rama hy aijutsuk^ (h). (Ma)ti'5 (sujkha parityagad v. v. Mahabharata. For the verses of the Suhavaga. aturena pabhangunS Verse 22 = Poussin's Documents. 219.( ) Ct Tberig. 4/ : Susukham bata jivamo Vairikesu Substitute vairikesu tv avairikah maiiusyesu viharamo hy avairika' h). v." . : — Verse 3 = Poussin's Documents. Cf. Sukhav.

v. Verse l7 = Poussin's Documents.M. . vv. Sukhav. Kamav.G. kujja sahuhi samthavaih. 24 : Dnhkho (balair hi samvaso) hy amitre(neva sarvada) Dhirais tu sukhasaihvaso jnatlnam iva samagama(h). 52 cf. v. Verses 8-9 = Poussin's Documents.). D. 11-12: Rathakara iva carmanah parikartunn upanaham Yad ya(jja)hati ka(m)a(n)a(natu)t tat sampadyate sukhaiii Sarvaifa cat sukham iccheta sarvakamaiii (pa)ri(tya3)et SarvakSmaparityagl hy atyantaih sukha(me)dhate. For verses 18-14 (Z. Verse 12 = Poussin's Documents. Etad drdham bandhanam ahur aryah sania(m)tatah susthiram duspramuficam Etad api chittva parivrajanti anape)ks(i)nah kamasukham prahaya. first half of verse 16. : Leumann^s Dasavaikalika Sfltra Vivitta ya bhave sejja. 5-6 : (Na tad drJhaih bandhanatn ahur arja yad ajasam daravam balbajarn (Srhraktacitta manikLiiidalesu)p(u)treS(u) dare8(u) ja ya aveksah. 29 : Durlabhah puruso janyo nasau sarvatra jayate (Yatr^sau) jayate viras tat kulam sukham edhate. Sukhav. Poussin's Documents. Sukhav. For the second half of verse 15 and the cf . vv.( 10 ) The filokas be found in correspouding to the Jataka verses are not to the existing texts of the Mahabharata. narinam va lave kahara Grihi-salhthavaiii na kujja. viii V.

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