RSA Dcsign k Socicty.

You knowmorc rhun you rhink you do:
dcsign us rcsourccfuIncss &scIf·rcIiuncc by LmiIy CampbcII,
Þsn ÞÞojrc1s, juIy :oo¤. Thc RSA’s ccntraI mission is to
fostcr good citizcnship by cIosing thc gap bctwccn our cvcryday
bchaviour and thc futurc to which wc aspirc. To cIosc this
gap, contcmporary socicty nccds to bc morc rcsourccfuI: its
citizcns morc cngagcd, scIf·rcIiant and coIIcctivc in thcir
striving. Yct a combination of profcssionaIisation, burcaucracy
and consumcrismthrcatcns to rcducc our rcsourccs of
common compctcncc and as citizcns wc oftcn appcar to bc
Icss rcsourccfuI than cvcr. At thc samc timc our consumption
has diminishcd thc carth’s rcsourccs and wc nowhavc fcwcr
rcsourccs of cncrgy and naturaI matcriaI at our disposaI.
Dcsign k Socicty argucs that dcsign wiII bc fundamcntaI
to cIosing thc gap bctwccn our bchaviour and our aspirations
bccausc of thc particuIar rcsourccfuIncss that dcsigncrs
rcprcscnt. Rcady to improvisc and prototypc, bravc in thc facc
of disordcr and compIcxity, hoIistic and pcopIc·ccntrcd in
thcir approach to dcfining probIcms, dcsigncrs havc a vitaI roIc
to pIay today in making socicty itscIf morc rcsourccfuI.
Thc RoyaI Socicty for thc cncouragcmcnt of Arts,
Manufacturcs k Commcrcc has vigorousIy supportcd dcsign
sincc it cmcrgcd as a profcssionaI discipIinc in thc carIy :oth
ccntury, and carIicr. Onc of its bcst·rccogniscd cxprcssions
of support was thc RoyaI Dcsigncr for Industry |Þoi) award
cstabIishcd in thc i¤(os to rccognisc dcsigncrs of cxccIIcncc,
raisc thc profiIc of thc cmcrging profcssion of dcsign and
promotc thc contribution of dcsign in manufacturing and
industry. Thc sccond is thc studcnt awards programmc, dating
back to a bursarics schcmc born in thc i¤:os and currcntIy
cntitIcd Dcsign Dircctions, that cncouragcs and rcwards thc
bcst cmcrging taIcnt fromunivcrsitics.
changcs in bchaviour, and grcatcr rcsourccfuIncss?
Thc radicaI dcsign profcssor Viktor Papanck famousIy
cIaimcd that it is naturaI to dcsign, sincc ‘thc pIanning
and pattcrning of any act toward a dcsircd, forcsccabIc
cnd constitutcs thc dcsign proccss’.
:
If dcsigncrs
wcrc to practisc rcstraint – Icaving thc job Icss than
fuIIy compIctc – couId thcy activatc pcopIc’s intrinsic
motivation, thcir naturaI instinct to dcsign?
(
Dcsigncrs arc uscd to accommodating our
bchaviour, but howcan thcy takc a dccpcr roIc in
influcncing it?
±
Many dcsigncrs study human factors
and uscr·ccntrcd rcscarch, if thcy coIIaboratcd morc
with sociaI scicntists – psychoIogists, bchaviouraI
cconomists, cthnographcrs – wouId it cnIargc thcir
undcrstanding of human dccision making and
wouId thcy dcsign diffcrcntIy?
Good dcsign in itscIf is not a guarantcc of
good citizcnship. As it has cvoIvcd as a commcrciaI,
industriaI, profcssionaI activity, dcsign is motivatcd
morc frcqucntIy by commcrciaI impcrativcs, pcrsonaI
rcputation, functionaI cconomy and finc craftsman·
ship for its own sakc than by sociaI bcncfit. In many
cascs it is cnIightcncd commissioncrs and imagina·
tivc consumcrs, rathcr than dcsigncrs, who dcscrvc
commcndation for thcir undcrstanding and practicc
of good citizcnship. Thc Dcsign k Socicty programmc
invcstigatcs what happcns to dcsign and to socicty if
you shift good citizcnship froma sccondary bcncfit to
a primary goaI of dcsign.
Thcrc arc prcssing rcasons for dcsign to bc rcconsid·
crcd in this way:
— 4 prcvuiIing poIiricuI ugcndu of incIusivcncss,
pcrsonuIisurion, purricipurion und co·producrion,
in which rhc uuronomy of rhc profcssionuI is
incongruous
— 4 corrcsponding inrcrcsr fromrhc privurc sccror
in choicc, cusromisurion und rhc crcuriviry of
consumcrs, which profcssionuI dcsigncrs urc uskcd
ro uccommodurc und cnubIc
— 4 downrurn in rhc big, commcrciuI murkcr, which
wiII forcc dcsigncrs und urchirccrs ro uppIy rhcir
skiIIs in u smuIIcr, IocuI conrcxr morc IikcIy rich in
sociuI rhun finunciuI rcsourccs
— 1hc dcpIcrion of rhc currh’s nururuI rcsourccs
of cncrgy und ruwmurcriuI which shifrs somc of rhc
rcsponsibiIiry of dcsigncrs uwuy fromproducrion
rowurds rcducrion
BuiIding on this history, wc arc dcvcIoping fivc
projccts that cIoscIy aIign dcsign to thc Þsn’s corc
mission of progrcss and changc today, and contain
a broad rangc of dcbatc and action in dcsign undcr
thc hcading of Dcsign k Socicty.
In thcsc projccts wc rccognisc thc formaI
judgcmcnt traditionaIIy associatcd with dcsign, and
dcsign’s csscntiaI optimismwith rcspcct to progrcss
and changc. Wc nowwant dcsigncrs to dcmonstratc
howthc insights and proccsscs of dcsign can incrcasc
thc rcsourccfuIncss of pcopIc and communitics.
RcsourccfuIncss: why und how?
Iikc aII profcssionaIs, dcsigncrs arc broadIy thought
of as doing somcthing that non·profcssionaIs cannot
do for thcmscIvcs. Without Iowcring thc thrcshoId of
skiII and judgcmcnt that dcfincs a dcsigncr, howcan
thc rcsourccfuIncss of dcsigncrs bc sharcd? Is it possi·
bIc for dcsigncrs to rcdcfinc thcmscIvcs – or cxpand
thcir dcfinition of thcmscIvcs – not mcrcIy as making
morc bcautifuI rcsourccs, but as making pcopIc
morc rcsourccfuI?
Of coursc rcsourccfuIncss has many mcanings.
RcsourccfuIncss is ingcnuity: thc abiIity to think on
your fcct, thc abiIity to adapt onc soIution to anothcr
probIcm, thc abiIity to makc somcthing out of IittIc or
nothing. But rcsourccfuIncss is aIso thc confidcncc
that comcs with knowIcdgc: having a skiII or a rangc of
skiIIs at your disposaI, knowing cnough to makc a wisc
choicc, having anaIogous cxpcricncc, having conncc·
tions to drawon and knowing howto coIIaboratc.
This knowIcdgc fccds thc ingcnuity, and vicc vcrsa.
Standing in thc way of rcsourccfuIncss is firstIy
our ignorancc – thc oppositc of knowIcdgc – but aIso
a pIcthora of iIIs and habits frompovcrty and cxcIusion
to Iack of timc and conccssions to convcnicncc. Wc
arc Icss rcsourccfuI bccausc wc foIIowthc crowd, whiIc
thc status and gratification of consuming stops us
imagining hownot to.
In onc cIassic dcfinition of dcsign as probIcm·
soIving, dcsign takcs probIcms away. Instanccs arc
wcII·documcntcd and justIy ccIcbratcd and many of
thc soIvcd probIcms havc bccn sociaI in charactcr. But
can dcsign do morc? Can it showyou howthc probIcm
is to bc soIvcd without doing it for you? A product
whosc dcsign rcvcaIs howit’s madc might cncouragc
you to fix or modify it
i
but what arc thc Iimits? What
is thc thrcshoId at which wc shouId cxpcct thc profcs·
sionaI dcsigncr, architcct or cnginccr to takc our
probIcmaway? If wc raiscd thc thrcshoId, or had morc
tooIs at our disposaI, whcrc might wc cxpcct to scc
: You knowmorc than you think you do: dcsign us rcsourccfuIncss &scIf·rcIiuncc
dcsigncrs takc a scat aIongsidc sociaI scicntists,
anthropoIogists, cnginccrs, civiI scrvants, cntrcprc·
ncurs and othcr contributors incIuding, most impor·
tantIy, scrvicc uscrs, in a proccss with outputs that,
whiIc not intangibIc, arc mctaphysicaI: ncwscrviccs
that rcspond flcxibIy to uscrs and customcrs, ncw
vaIuc buiIt into sociaI nctworks, ncwtooIs and confi·
dcncc for citizcns to do for thcmscIvcs, ncwways to
gct somcthing donc without buying anything.
This nco·discipIinc of scrvicc dcsign makcs thc
incIusivc motivation of dcsign cxpIicit and incvitabIc.
Thc outcomc or soIution is owncd by aII mcmbcrs
of thc community that crcatcd it, this corrcsponds
with a poIiticaI cIimatc sccking grcatcr sociaI cquity
and an cnhanccd scnsc of citizcnship.
— 4ccommoduring consumcr choicc, cusromisurion
und crcuriviry
Our abiIity to makc things as individuaIs, and to
manufacturc as a nation, arc touchstoncs of our
rcsourccfuIncss and scIf·rcIiancc. AIthough amatcur
and IocaI production was abundant in thc prc·
industriaI pcriod, wc havc stoppcd making many
things as individuaIs, and it has bccomc cconomicaIIy
unfcasibIc to manufacturc as wc oncc did. But
tcchnoIogy and austcrity both havc thc potcntiaI to
cncouragc consumcrs to bc Icss passivc, and raisc
thc prospcct of a ncwmanufacturing paradigm
bascd on IocaI suppIy.
Wc knowthat IocaI production has thc capacity
to crcatc and sustain IocaI suppIy chains. It can
mitigatc thc consumcr·passivity that markcts inducc
by promoting thc notion that probIcms arc not onIy
soIvcd by mass, industriaI mcans, that customiscd
and IocaI soIutions arc possibIc for citizcns to invcnt.
But tcchnoIogy has diminishcd our abiIity to makc
things as much as it has cnhanccd it: tcchnoIogy has
Icd us to cxpcct gIobaI brand standards that thc IocaI
cannot match. Consumcr habit and Iabour cconomics
makc it chaIIcnging to conccivc of thc conditions that
wouId fostcr a ncwcuIturc of smaII scaIc manufacturc.
What tcchnicaI and busincss framcworks wouId
cncouragc cntrcprcncurship, and what coIIcctivc
rcsourccs wouId fostcr a cuIturc of common artisan·
ship among non·commcrciaI individuaIs? What
changcs to cducation and common cxpcricncc wouId
givc us robust confidcncc in our abiIity to makc and
rcpair and thc wiII to do it?
Busincss Ianguagc today bctrays a conflation
of product and scrvicc, to thc cxtcnt that a train ridc
or a dcntaI appointmcnt or a Ianguagc cxamarc aII
‘products’, whiIc at thc samc timc manufacturing
and scrviccs continuc to bc prcscntcd as antithcticaI
— IncIusivcncss, pcrsonuIisurion, purricipurion
und co·producrion
Thc chaIIcngc poscd to dcsign by today’s sociaI and
poIiticaI agcnda of incIusivcncss is to casc thc distinc·
tion bctwccn thc profcssionaI skiII of dcsigncrs and
thc insights of uscrs, to makc thcsc compIcmcntary
and intcgraI to thc soIving of probIcms.
¸
But thc popu·
Iar narrativc of dcsign history stands in markcd con·
trast to thc agcnda of incIusivc proccss. Thc Dcsigncr
– in fiction and oftcn in rcaIity – is famcd for his or hcr
passionatcIy pursucd, authcntic and uniquc visuaI
Ianguagc. Thc dcsigncr is known by his or hcr mcdi·
atcd icons. Thc dcsigncr is famousIy unbcnding in
his or hcr choiccs and onIy cvcr wcars bIack.
AIthough incIusivc dcsign has bccn common
parIancc for a dccadc, thcrc arc particuIar factors
nowthat makc this stcrcotypc – thc dcsigncr cxcIudcd
fromconspicuous pubIic rcsponsibiIity – disrcputabIc
today: thc gIobaI financiaI downturn, thc agcnda
of pubIic scrvicc rcformand thc risc of thc ncw
discipIinc of transformationaI ‘scrvicc dcsign’.
Thc austcrity ncccssitatcd by thc contraction
of financiaI markcts wiII affcct pubIic scrviccs: thcrc
wiII bc Icss to spcnd whiIc thc scaIc and compIcxity
of pubIic nccd incrcascs aII thc timc. It is widcIy
acknowIcdgcd that thc hcavy, patcrnaIistic, hicrarchi·
caI and burcaucratic post·war modcI of pubIic scrvicc
provision nownccds radicaI rcvision. A rcvision that
mobiIiscs thc vaIucs of scIf·rcIiancc and scIf·managc·
mcnt is thc onc most frcqucntIy invokcd, a pubIic
scrvicc systcmthat motivatcs and supports citizcns
to do morc for thcmscIvcs.
6
Iramcd in contcmporary
tcrms as a ncw‘rcIationship’ bctwccn scrvicc
providcrs and thcir uscrs, thc discoursc focuscs
on thc cxpcricncc and participation of uscrs as thc
tactic that cnsurcs quaIity, rathcr than a managcriaIist
approach of targcts, rcguIation and inspcction.
;
Thc Govcrnmcnt’s pubIic scrvicc rcformdis·
coursc rcpcatcdIy invokcs thc idca of coIIaboration:
8
bctwccn parcnts and schooIs, paticnts and doctors,
rcsidcnts and poIicc. Dcsigncrs arc particuIarIy
compctcnt in mcdiating bctwccn suppIicrs and uscrs
for a good rcason. Thcir function is intcrmcdiary
rathcr than autonomous: dcsigncrs opcratc in thc
scrvicc of somconc cIsc’s nccds or ‘bricf’. Thcy
nccd to undcrstand thc probIcmin ordcr to givc
it a soIution. Ior this rcason dcsigncrs can aid thc
proccss of coIIaboration.
Bccausc of thcir appctitc for soIving probIcms,
dcsigncrs arc oftcn abIc to appIy thcir visuaI and
spatiaI flucncy to systcmic probIcms and scrviccs as
wcII as to thc matcriaI worId, as if systcms and scrviccs
wcrc things. VariousIy known as scrvicc dcsign,
¤
dcsign thinking,
io
or transformationaI dcsign,
( You knowmorc than you think you do: dcsign us rcsourccfuIncss &scIf·rcIiuncc
aItcrnativcs rathcr than compIcmcntary factors in any
succcssfuI cntcrprisc. HowcouId a dccpcr intcgration
of product and scrvicc makc socicty morc productivc,
and howcan dcsign hcIp this intcgration?
High tcch post·industriaI manufacturc faciIitics
Iikc rapid prototyping and digitaI printing opcn up
manufacturing possibiIitics for spcciaIists – dcsigncrs
and manufacturcrs – but what of cvcryonc cIsc? In an
obvious scnsc, thc cxponcntiaI growth of cIcctronic
tooIs aIIows cvcr grcatcr amatcur participation in
dcsign, cspcciaIIy in pubIishing and thc customisation
of intcractivc products Iikc gamcs and wcbsitcs.
Dcsktop pubIishing gavc thc cxciting prospcct of pagc
Iayout to anyonc with acccss to a computcr. Nowsoft·
warc and cIcctronic tcmpIatcs aIIowus to dcsign our
own grcctings cards, wcbsitcs, gaming cnvironmcnts
and cvcn visuaI data dispIays. But howdo wc cnIargc
acccss to tcchnoIogy? Howdo wc match tcchnoIogy
with thc judgcmcnt ncccssary to usc it cffcctivcIy?
Iurthcrmorc, thc incrcasc in amatcur dcsign pro·
vokcd by cIcctronic dcsign tooIs brccds quantity morc
than quaIity, it adds to thc compIcxity and abundancc
of our worId, rathcr than producing cIarity. Iikcwisc,
ncws stands and tcIcvision schcduIcs arc bursting
with homc·makcovcr and cooking titIcs. AIthough
both gcnrcs rcprcscnt a high·amatcur convcrgcncc of
dcsign, craft and styIing, thcy fucI consumption rathcr
than dccisivc and Iasting acts of dcsign. Howdocs thc
profcssionaI dcsigncr both incrcasc acccss to dcsign
tooIs, and raisc thc quaIity thrcshoId of thc amatcur?
ii
— CommcrciuI downrurn: morc sociuI rhun
finunciuI rcsourccs
If it is truc, as Dcsign k Socicty argucs, that dcsigncrs
arc cspcciaIIy rcsourccfuI, thcn in a ncwcIimatc of
austcrity, in which Icss might bc donc to us or for us,
or avaiIabIc to buy, it is cxpcdicnt to makc cvcryonc
morc Iikc a dcsigncr in thcir rcadincss to improvisc.
CharIcs Icadbcatcr, in his cssay Iroducrion by rhc
Musscs, argucs that thc futurc roIc of profcssionaIs
|dcsigncrs, for cxampIc) is to guidc non·profcssionaIs
into a condition of scIf·rcIiancc, rathcr than to ‘do’ for
thcm: “ProfcssionaIs shouId bccomc campaigncrs,
counscIIors and advocatcs…”, hc writcs.
i:
In a simiIar
vcin, Richard Scnnctt’s book 1hc Crufrsmun contains a
passagc on what hc caIIs ‘sociabIc cxpcrtisc’, comprc·
hcnsibIc, transparcnt, sharcabIc knowIcdgc among aII
profcssionaI groups: “thc sociabIc cxpcrt…capabIc of
mcntoring”.
i(
AIthough non·cxpcrts might not put thc
knowIcdgc into practicc, thcy undcrstand its aims
and standards by virtuc of thc cxpcrts’ ‘sociabiIity’.
Dcsign k Socicty wiII invcstigatc howthcsc ncwvoca·
tions of counscIIor or mcntor might bc intcrprctcd for
dcsign in ordcr that pcopIc and communitics arc abIc
to bc morc rcsourccfuI.
Icadbcatcr has aIso obscrvcd that “profcssionaIs
crcatc a distribution bottIcncck”. Thc profcssionaI
worId of dcsign ccrtainIy has somc of this Iockcd char·
actcr sincc for a ccntury dcsigncrs havc bccn not onIy
thc docrs but IargcIy aIso thc critics of thcir own work.
WhiIc it is casy cnough to idcntify amatcur artists and
photographcrs, gardcncrs, cooks, wood and mctaI·
workcrs, cmbroidcrcrs and nccdIcworkcrs, amatcur
dcsigncrs arc not vcry visibIc as a catcgory.

Thcrc arc
oiv, crafts and hobbics, typography of thc ‘Iost Kittcn’
gcnrc, thc improvisation of trcc·houscs and dcns
among famiIy mcmbcrs, but wc tcnd not to cdify thcsc
things with thc Iofty, form·giving dcsignation of
dcsign.

Iurthcrmorc, dcsign has acquircd an indivis·
ibIc association with industriaI production, and sincc
individuaIs and sociaI communitics arc unIikcIy to
havc acccss to morc than a domcstic scwing machinc
or a powcr driII, wc don’t caII what thcy makc dcsign.
Dcsign aIso tcnds to prcsupposc voIumc production,
whcrcas amatcurs in ncar·anaIogous crafts and oiv
arc IikcIy to bc improvising a uniquc soIution.
If anaIogics for thc rcsourccfuIncss and skiII of
dcsigncrs arc hard to find among non·dcsigncrs, this
is particuIarIy truc of architccturc: thc scaIc, cost and
pcrmancncc of buiIdings cxcIudcs anyonc but thc
tcchnicians froma scnsc of owncrship and compc·
tcncc, a situation provokcd furthcr by thc guIf that
cxists bctwccn thc criticaI tcrms of rcfcrcncc avaiIabIc
rcspcctivcIy to architccts and cvcrybody cIsc.
ProfcssionaIs in dcsign havc thcir rcsourccfuIncss
to sharc with non·profcssionaIs, but what can thc
dcsign industrics Icarn fromamatcurs? Thc amatcur
modcI of sociaI organisation is scIf·cIccting, scIf·rcgu·
Iatcd, coIIaborativc, criticaIIy nctworkcd and ncccssar·
iIy Iight·handcd in tcrms of administration, abovc
aII it is motivatcd by a magic combination of pcrsonaI
growth and positivc sharcd outcomcs. Howcan thc
profcssionaIs in dcsign and thc amatcurs of othcr
discipIincs nourish cach othcr’s rcsourccfuIncss?
— InvironmcnruI dcgrudurion: nor producrion
bur rcducrion
Dcsign has a spcciaI rcsponsibiIity for abctting
cIimatc changc, and a corrcsponding opportunity
to contributc to its arrcst. Thc profcssion of dcsign
grcwout of thc industriaI capacity for mass·producing
goods during thc Iatc i¤th and thc :oth ccnturics.
Dcsign has thcrcforc bccn principaIIy associatcd with
vaIuc addcd to goods by skiIIcd acsthctic judgcmcnt,
an undcrstanding of matcriaIs and manufacturing
proccsscs, and thc cmbodimcnt of tcchnoIogy in
± You knowmorc than you think you do: dcsign us rcsourccfuIncss &scIf·rcIiuncc
objccts that arc uscfuI and pIcasing. This was rcvoIu·
tionary whcn it was ncwand particuIarIy in thc carIy,
idcoIogicaI pcriod of Modcrnism: widcr acccss to
quaIity goods was an cxpIicit principIc of a fair socicty
shaking off ccnturics in which onIy thc rich had
dcscrvcd bcautifuI things of high craft and appIicd art.
In thc :ist ccntury, howcvcr, thc association of
dcsign and architccturc with matcriaI production has
bccomc Icss gIorious bccausc of thc ovcr·abundancc
of goods and rampant growth of consumcrism, and
bccausc of thc dcgradation of thc naturaI cnvironmcnt
through manufacturing and construction. Many
dcsigncrs arc conscious of thcir compIicity in con·
sumcrismsincc so much of thcir work is intcndcd to
cocrcc thc acquisition of morc and morc goods and
products. Dcsign uscd to bc known as commcrciaI art,
and it has bccn thc handmaidcn of consumcrism.
AcccIcrating cnvironmcntaI dctcrioration joins
thc gIobaI financiaI crisis in provoking austcrity:
wc’II havc to consumc fcwcr of thc pIanct’s rcsourccs
of cncrgy and matcriaIs and to usc what wc do usc
morc thoughtfuIIy. Arrcsting or sIowing down thc ratc
of cIimatc changc dcpcnds as much on thc aggrcgatc
cffcct of individuaIs’ rcstraint and rcsourccfuIncss,
and thc moraI prcssurc thcy cxcrt, as on massivc,
govcrnmcnt·scaIc rcguIation and tcchnoIogy
initiativcs. Thcrc arc aIrcady masscs of individuaIs
attcmpting to practisc rcstraint in thcir usc of cncrgy
and matcriaIs. Car·sharing schcmcs, scasonaI organic
box dcIivcrics and rcaI·timc homc cncrgy dispIays arc
aII tooIs dcsigncd to cquip non·spcciaIists with thc
mcans to rcducc thcir carbon cmissions. Dcsign can
hcIp to givc morc tooIs to pcopIc conccrncd about
thc cnvironmcnt so that thcir community grows in
confidcncc, influcncc and numbcrs.
WhiIc dcsigncrs’ commitmcnt to rcducing thc
cnvironmcntaI cffcct of dcsigncd products incrcascs
graduaIIy, thcrc arc two promincnt symptoms of
dcsign’s hcightcncd consciousncss: thc cmcrgcncc
of a discipIinc – scrvicc dcsign – that docs not aim
at matcriaI production at aII, and a groundswcII of
intcrcst in howdcsign can changc pcopIc’s bchaviour
and ‘nudgc’
i6
thcir dccision·making.
i. Thc Morris Minor, for
cxampIc, is rcgardcd by cnthusi·
asts as thc idcaI cIassic car
bccausc thc cnginc is of a simpIc
dcsign that is straightforward to
strip and rc·buiId. It is rcmarkabIc
to rccaII today that thc i¤;os
Bang k OIufscn BcoIit 6oo radio
camc with thc circuit diagram,
aIIowing rcsourccfuI pcopIc to
mcnd it.
:. Victor Papanck: Ðcsign for
rhc RcuI WorId: Humun IcoIogy
und SociuI Chungc, i¤6¤
(. ChiIcan architcct AIcjandro
Aravcgna sawa soIution to thc
cconomic rcaIitics of housing
provision in rcsidcnts’ tcndcncy
to improvisc cxtcnsions. Thc
Quinta Monroy housing dcvcIop·
mcnt consists of ‘haIf·houscs’ to
bc compIctcd through scIf·buiId.
±. Scc Robcrt Iabricant: Ðcsign
Wirh Inrcnr at www.dcsignmind.
frogdcsign.com/articIcs
¸. Scc janc IuIton·Suri/IDLO:
Ðcsign for IcopIc? Ðcsign wirh
IcopIc? Ðcsign by IcopIc? Who is
dcsigning now? in thc Procccdings
for thc IncIudc :oo; confcrcncc
6. Scc Bcvcridgc ¡.c by HiIary
Cottamcr uI at www.participIc.nct:
“Bcvcridgc |thc architcct of thc
British WcIfarc Statc] voiccd his
conccrns that hc had both misscd
and Iimitcd thc potcntiaI powcr
of thc citizcn.”
;. Scc Sophia Parkcr and
joc Hcapy: 1hc journcy ro rhc
Inrcrfucc, Dcmos :oo6
8. Scc IxccIIcncc und Iuirncss:
uchicving worId cIuss pubIic scrv·
iccs, Cabinct Officc, Scptcmbcr
:oo8. Thc pubIishcd approach
incIudcs “citizcn cmpowcrmcnt
with strongcr rcIationships
bctwccn scrvicc uscrs and profcs·
sionaIs.”
¤. Scc www.Iivcwork.co.uk/
articIcs/scrviccthinking/
io. Scc TimBrown/IDLO:
Ðcsign 1hinking Harvard Busincss
Rcvicw, junc :oo8
ii. PascaI Anson’s coIIcction
of YouTubc fiIms 1hc kuboodIc,
1hc kirchcn, ctc. arc vaIiant
attcmpts to raisc thc quaIity
thrcshoId of thc dcsign amatcur.
i:. CharIcs Icadbcatcr:
Iroducrion by rhc Musscs,
Dcmos :oo6, Chaptcr i¸ of
Iroducrion vuIucs: Iururcs for
IrofcssionuIism
i(. Richard Scnnctt:
1hc Crufrsmun, AIIcn Ianc :oo¤,
Chaptcr ¤ OuuIiry·drivcn work
i±. AIthough scc Irofcs·
sionuIism, 4murcurismund rhc
Boundurics of Ðcsign for cxampIcs
coIIcctcd by PauI Atkinson and
Gcrry Bccgan, journaI of Dcsign
History, VoI :i, Issuc ±
i¸. Dcsign is conspicuousIy
abscnt fromCharIcs Icadbcatcr
and PauI MiIIcr’s account, 1hc
Iro·4mRcvoIurion, Dcmos :oo±
i6. Scc Richard ThaIcr and
Cass Sunstcin: Nudgc: Improving
Ðccisions ubour HcuIrh, WcuIrh
und Huppincss, YaIc :oo8
¸ You knowmorc than you think you do: dcsign us rcsourccfuIncss &scIf·rcIiuncc
Thc Þsn’s Opcning Minds curricuIumrcpIaccs
subjcct·bascd tcaching with intcrdiscipIinary, projcct·
bascd moduIcs and pursucs thc dcvcIopmcnt of fivc
arcas of compctcncc. Dcsign compriscs a rangc of
fundamcntaI skiIIs: probIcm·finding and probIcm·
soIving, improvisation and adaptation, visuaIisation,
drawing and making, ordcr, scqucncc and a scnsc of
thc parts and thc whoIc. Thc tooIs and proccsscs of
dcsign havc uniquc potcntiaI to bc intcgratcd across
thc curricuIumand contributc to a scnsc of practicaI
compctcncc and rcsourccfuI optimismin young pco·
pIc. Not onIy this, but thc approach of dcsign·thinking
can hcIp to synthcsisc civic and pcdagogic aims of
thc curricuIum, thc nccds of thc community and thc
nccds of individuaI Icarncrs.
Activitics and outputs:
— 4 scminur orguniscd joinrIy by usn Ðcsign und
usn Iducurion invcsriguring rhc porcnriuI of Ðcsign
&1cchnoIogy ro cross rhc curricuIumund cnhuncc
compcrcncy·buscd Icurning
— Commissioncd rcuching rcsourccs ro hcIp und
cncourugc Opcning Minds schooIs ro inrcgrurc
dcsign inro projccr·buscd moduIcs
— 4 compcririon for rhc bcsr usc of dcsign in rhc
Opcning Minds curricuIum
— 4 curricuIumdcsign coIIuborurion bcrwccn schooIs
und scrvicc dcsigncrs undcr rhc usn’s SchooIs
Wirhour Boundurics iniriurivc
¡ Ðcsign &bchuviour chungc
Wc oftcn cnd up bchaving in ways that arc inconsis·
tcnt with thc sort of socicty in which wc wouId prcfcr
to Iivc. Somctimcs thc cffcct of thcsc actions is
immcdiatc |Iikc anti·sociaI bchaviour) and somctimcs
it is dcIaycd |Iikc wasting cncrgy). Mcthods of cncour·
aging bchaviour changc havc cmcrgcd fromrcscarch
in psychoIogy and bchaviouraI cconomics, but arc
powcrIcss to cncouragc sufficicntIy widcsprcad
bchaviour to combat Iargc probIcms untiI thcy rcach
and arc acccptcd by cnough pcopIc. Thc thcory of
‘pcrsuasivc tcchnoIogy’ is a rcccnt dcvcIopmcnt that
shows promisc, but howit can bc widcIy dcpIoycd
is not cIcar.
Dcsigncrs arc in a uniquc position to advisc
on poIicics that cncouragc bchaviour changc. Ior
cxampIc, thcy undcrstand thc importancc of invoIving
pcopIc whcn dcsigning rathcr than imposing
dccisions on thcm, and arc cxpcricnccd in thinking
about howtcchnoIogy shouId bc uscd by socicty.
RSA Dcsign k Socicty: projccrs
Iivc Dcsign k Socicty projccts tcst thc abiIity of dcsign
to incrcasc pcopIc’s rcsourccfuIncss. Drawing on
thc Þsn’s :;,ooo·strong IcIIowship, thc projccts
combinc rcscarch with thc crcativc rcsourccfuIncss
of dcsigncrs in thc contcxt of thc Þsn arcna of dcbatc
and provocation.
1 Ðcsign Ðirccrions
Thc cducation of profcssionaI dcsigncrs traditionaIIy
prcparcd thcmto dcsign functionaI and pIcasing
objccts for commcrciaI, industriaI manufacturc. As
thc markct for dcsign has cxpandcd into branding,
busincss consuItancy and scrvicc innovation, and as
young dcsigncrs havc bccomc incrcasingIy cagcr to
pcrsonify sociaI or cthicaI vaIuc, many dcsign schooIs
havc incorporatcd thc study of busincss and sociaI
scicncc into dcsign cducation. But stiII dcsign schooIs
arc Icft unsurc howto providc a compIctc cducation
to cmcrging profcssionaIs today.
With thc right spcciaIist cducation, profcssionaI
dcsigncrs can combinc high IcvcIs of formaI judgc·
mcnt and tcchnicaI compctcncc with bchaviouraI
undcrstanding, poIiticaI cngagcmcnt and a commit·
mcnt to incrcasc thc rcsourccfuIncss of othcrs.
Activitics and outputs:
— 4n uwurds schcmc chuIIcnging profcssionuI
dcsigncrs·in·rruining ro uppIy rhcir skiIIs ro
difficuIr sociuI issucs
— 4n unnuuI workshop for dcsign rurors
— Work pIuccmcnrs for ncwgruduurcs in churirics,
pubIic scrvicc rcums, scrvicc dcsign consuIruncics
und orhcr ugcncics
— IubIishcd rcporrs on bricfs rhur cxpcrimcnr
wirh ncwrcuching und Icurning mcrhodoIogics
2 Ðcsign &Opcning Minds
Thc purposc of cducation is to givc young pcopIc
thc abiIity and dcsirc to Icarn throughout thcir Iivcs
bccausc thc worId changcs so fast. Lncouraging young
pcopIc to bcIicvc thcmscIvcs capabIc of action in thc
facc of shifting circumstanccs and probIcms is cruciaI
to productivc, co·opcrativc and fuIfiIIcd aduIt Iifc.
Many schooIs struggIc to rcconciIc thc potcntiaI to
gcncratc sociaI capitaI in young pcopIc – thc citizcns
of thc futurc – with thc duty to tcach discrctc skiIIs and
knowIcdgc which cducation has traditionaIIy instiIIcd.
6 You knowmorc than you think you do: dcsign us rcsourccfuIncss &scIf·rcIiuncc
Activitics and outputs:
— IubIishcd rcscurch inro ‘pcrsuusivc rcchnoIogy’:
bchuviouruI cconomics, cognirivc und sociuI
psychoIogy und sociuI murkcring
— Bchuviour chungc poIicy scminurs rhur Iink
dcsigncrs wirh poIicy mukcrs
— 4 scrics of dcsign mccrings rhur dcvcIop und uppIy
u crcurivc mcrhodoIogy ro cncourugc morc hcuIrhy
bchuviour, morc civic purricipurion, und morc
pro·cnvironmcnruI bchuviour
— 4crion rcscurch rhur prororypcs rhis mcrhodoIogy
— IinuI pubIic poIicy rccommcndurions
¡ Munufucruring, muking &rcpuir
Thc dccIinc in British manufacturcd goods has
rcsuItcd in a scvcrc imbaIancc of tradc. WhiIc consuI·
tancy and financiaI scrviccs compcnsatc to somc
cxtcnt, thc Unitcd Kingdomis vcry far fromscIf·suffi·
cicnt and is consuming morc goods that it is abIc
to pay for without scIIing asscts. WhiIc in thc privatc
sphcrc oiv and homc dccorating, gardcning, crafts
and cooking thrivc, thcsc activitics, aIbcit productivc,
do not havc thc cffcct of significantIy rcducing
consumption or crcating cmpIoymcnt, wcaIth and
sociaI capitaI.
A combination of ncwsmaII·cntcrprisc framc·
works, sharcd IocaI faciIitics for manufacturing
and rcpair, skiIIs dcvcIopmcnt and scrvicc undcr·
standing is nccdcd to fostcr an cnvironmcnt in which
manufacturing can flourish. Dcsign has a criticaI roIc
to pIay in Iinking thcsc cIcmcnts, sincc nothing can
bc manufacturcd which has not first bccn dcsigncd.
Activitics and outputs:
— 4 commissioncd pumphIcr und dcburc on rhc
condirions ncccssury ro fosrcr u rcncwuI of IocuI
munufucruring in Briruin
— 4 pubIic uffuirs scminur und pubIic dcburc on
rhc fururc of munufucruring in Briruin und rhc
cconomic porcnriuI of smuII, disrriburcd
munufucruring fuciIirics
— Rcscurch inro rhc cffccr on consumprion of incrcuscd
communiry ucccss ro fuciIirics und cxpcrrisc for
muking und rcpuir
¸ 1hc dcsigncr in cvcryonc
Thc cvoIution of profcssions and thc march of
burcaucracy and consumcrismhavc Icd us to forgct
howmuch wc can do for ourscIvcs. As citizcns wc
nowcxpcct probIcms to bc soIvcd by a varicty of
profcssionaI probIcm·soIvcrs and goods to bc
suppIicd by industriaI produccrs. But production
and provision by both thc privatc and pubIic scctors
struggIc to mcct thc nccds of socicty at a timc
whcn crcdit is short and thc carth’s rcsourccs
arc dwindIing.
Dcsign can rc·awakcn citizcns’ own
rcsourccfuIncss. Thc profcssion of dcsign is
common rcsourccfuIncss rcfincd by a tcchnicaI
cducation. It is possibIc to sharc aspccts of this
tcchnicaI cducation with non·profcssionaIs to
incrcasc thcir rcsourccfuIncss, and pcrsuadc
thcmthat thcy knowmorc than thcy think about
howprobIcms might bc soIvcd.
Activitics and outputs:
— 4 commissioncd pumphIcr und dcburc on ‘dcsign·
hucking’ by which dcsigncrs’ und produccrs’
uurhorship is corruprcd, ofrcn by umurcurs
— 4 commissioncd pumphIcr und dcburc on rhc
roIc of profcssionuI dcsigncrs in rhc 21sr Ccnrury
— 4 pubIic uffuirs scminur on cmcrging modcIs
of pubIic scrvicc dcsign which uimro incrcusc rhc
dcsign cupuciry of pubIic scrvicc dcIivcry rcums
— 4 pubIic dcburc on ncwmodcIs of consuIruncy,
prucricc und commissioning in which dcsign
und urchirccrurc prucriccs ucr us guidcs ro
rcsourccfuIncss
— 4 summcr schooI crcurcd by rhc usn’s IucuIry of
RoyuI Ðcsigncrs – rcprcscnring rhc highcsr IcvcIs
of profcssionuIismin dcsign – us u rrunsformurivc
cxpcricncc for pcopIc who wouId nor orhcrwisc
bc cxposcd ro rhc bcncfirs of dcsign
; You knowmorc than you think you do: dcsign us rcsourccfuIncss &scIf·rcIiuncc
Þsn Dcsign k Socicty
Ðirccror of Ðcsign
LmiIy CampbcII
Ðcsign &Socicry rcum
McIanic Andrcws, Ann CrawIcy,
janct Hawkcn, jamic Young
8 john AdamStrcct
Iondon wc:r 6rz
+ ±± |o) :o; ¤(o ¸ii¸
www.thcrsa.org
www.thcrsa.org/projccts/dcsign
www.rsadcsigndircctions.org
www.dcsignandsocicty.rsabIogs.org.uk
www.dcsignandbchaviour.rsabIogs.org.uk
Dcsigncd by john Morgan studio

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