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THE ASSURE MODEL 1.0 INTRODUCTION All effective instruction required careful meaning.

Teaching with instructional media is certainly no exception. Therefore, this essay will discuss on how to plan systematically the effective use of instructional media. The Heinich and his friends have constructed a procedural model to which they have given the acronym ASSURE:

Analyze learners

State objectives Select instructional methods,

media, and materials

Utilize media and materials

Require learner participation

Evaluate and revise

Table 1: ASSURE model Some may think that the teaching or learning process as progressing through several stages. However, Gagne refers these stages as events of instruction (Gagne, 1985). In my opinion, Gagnes research shows that well-designed lessons begin with the arousal of students interest and then move on to the presenting new material, involve students in practice, assess their understanding and go on to the follow-up activities. Therefore, ASSURE model incorporates these events of instruction. The ASSURE model focuses on planning surrounding the actual classroom use of media. Hence, some says that most teachers are aware of this and understand that integrating technology into the curriculum is the best way to make a positive difference in education while many specific strategies can be used to add technology to the mix. I agree

with this statement since the world is mostly depending on the technology nowadays. Hence, this model will surely be helpful for teacher who wants to design their lesson plan with the integration of technology. This is because it allows for the possibility of incorporating out-ofclass resources and technology into the course materials or as their teaching aids. As a conclusion, the ASSURE model is one of the examples on how to integrate technology into the teachers future lessons. I.

Analyze Learners

There need to be a match between the characteristics of the learner and the content of the lessons methods media and materials. Hence, first and foremost, the teacher needs to analyze their students. Yet, actually it is not feasible to analyze every trait of the learners. However, there are several factors that could be considered to have good methods and materials later on: a) General Characteristics. General characteristics include broad indentifying descriptors such as: Age Grade Level Job Position Cultural or socioeconomic factors. In my opinion, even a superficial analysis of learner characteristics can provide helpful leads in selecting instructional methods and media. Hence, the teacher needs to be aware of anything happened on their students especially their past experience or their family background. For instance, if the teacher is dealing with a particular ethnic or cultural subgroup, the teacher might want to consider the ethnic and cultural identity and values in selecting particular materials. Furthermore, heterogeneous group which include learners varying widely in their conceptual sophistication or in the amount of firsthand experience of the topic may profit from the audiovisual experience like videotape. Hence, these media presentations provide a common experiential base that could serve as an essential point of reference for subsequent group discussion and individual study.

In addition, some may think that analyzing students may be more difficult. This may be because the students are new to the teacher yet the teacher may have a little time to observe them. Hence, the media may not be suitable for them. Therefore, academic and other records may be helpful as well as taking direct questioning or talking with the students directly. As a result, the teacher may have the clue of their students, their background, their expectations and their moods. b) Specific entry competencies. The students have lack of knowledge and skill when the teacher is planning the lesson. Thus, the teacher needs to teach on improving the students knowledge or skills in order for them to understand the lesson. Furthermore, the students may have high expectation about the knowledge that they may gain during a lesson. Hence, the teacher needs to ensure that they explain clearly and repeatedly during a lesson. Plus, the teacher also needs to encourage the students involvement as a remedial before the lesson starts. The approaches for the students need to be well arranged and suitable for the students. In order to know their students competencies, the teacher may do some questioners in the classroom or interview the students yet formally, the teacher may do some test to the students. The teacher needs to know their students competencies before the lesson started. Therefore, the teacher is able to measure the content that need to be taught later. Hence, the teacher may select the appropriate media or methods. For instance, if the teacher has a group diverging, widely in entry competencies, the teacher may consider self-instructional materials to allow for self-pacing and other aspects of individualization. However, if the teacher is unable to know the students competencies, the lesson will be futile while the objective cannot be achieved. c) Learning Style. Learning style refers to a cluster of psychological traits that determine how an individual perceives, interacts with and responds emotionally to learning environment. It is clear that certain traits dramatically affect our ability to learn effectively from different methods and media. However, it is not clear which traits are most vital. According Gardner (1993), not all people have the same abilities since not all of us learn the same way. He identified seven aspects of intelligence:

Verbal/ linguistic (Language). Logical/ meahematical (scientific/ quantitative).

Intrapersonal (Ability to understand oneself).

Interpesrsonal (Ability to undertand other people).

Visual/ spatial.

Musical/ rhytmic.

Table 2: Aspects of Intelligence Perceptual Preferences and Strengths. Learners vary as to which sensory gateways they prefer using and which they are especially adept at using. The main gateways include auditory, visual, tactile and kinaesthetic. The lower proficiency students may prefer tactile or kinaesthetic while most students are not depending on the auditory but more to lecture. Information Processing Habits This is related to how individuals tend to approach the cognitive processing of information. Yet, not all students pay attention on their cognitive development. According to the Gregorcs model of mind styles, there are four types of mind styles: (Heinich, Molenda, Russell & Smaldino, 1996) Concrete sequential learners prefer direct or hands on experiences presented in logical order- workbook or demonstration. Concrete random learners lean towards a trial and error approach, quickly reaching conclusions from the exploratory experiences. Abstract sequential learners decode verbal and symbolic messages adeptly.

Abstract random learners are able to draw meaning from human mediated presentations- respond to the tone and style of speaker.

Motivational Factor Motivation is important before, during and after the lesson. As a result, the students

may give their full attention and able to elaborate their learning later. Physiological Factor This factor related to the gender differences, health and environmental conditions which may affect the learning environment. This factor may help the students to be better in their academic, attitude and discipline. Most students have the same learning style. Hence, the teacher may use this as a guidance to analyze the students and choose the right materials for the lesson later. II.

State objectives
The teacher needs to state the objective when planning a lesson. An objective is a

statement not on what the teacher plans to put into lesson but on what the learner ought to get out of the lesson. So, why the teacher should state objectives? In order to make appropriate selection of methods and media. As a result, the teacher is committed to create a learning environment in which the objectives can be achieved. To help the teacher assures proper evaluation. Thus, the teacher should give explicit objective so that the students know what they should achieve later.

The ABCDs of well stated objectives Audience A well-stated objective starts by naming the Audience of learners for whom the

objective is intended. Thus, this objective is focused on what the students doing. Learning is most likely to take place when the learner is active, either mentally processing idea or physically practicing a skills. Objective begins by stating whose capability is going to be changed. For instance, the year 1 students need to master reading skill on their age.

Behaviour The heart of the objective is the verb describing the new capability that the learners will have after the instruction. Usually, the students earn or capable to master the objective after the learning session. These are known as know, understand and appreciate. The behaviour or performance stated in the objective should reflect the real world capability needed by the students not some artificial ability needed for successful performance on a test or exam only. Condition A statement of objectives should include the conditions under which the performance is to be observed. For example, are students allowed to use notes in describing the consequences of the disadvantages of internet or not? Degree The final requirement of well-stated objective is that it indicates the standard, or criterion by which acceptable performance will be judged. For instance, did the students success in solving 5 questions of mathematic in 10 minutes or not? Classification of Objectives It has practical value because the selection of instructional methods and media, and evaluation method depends on the type of objectives being pursued. An objective may be classified according to the primary type of learning outcome which it is aimed:

Involves an array of intelectual capabilities.

Cognitive Domain

Affective Domain

Involves feelings and values.

Involves interaction amoing people.

Interpersona l Domain

Motor Skill Domain

Involves letic, manual and other physical skills

Table 3 : Types of Learning


Select Methods, Media and Materials

A systematic plan for using media certainly demands that the methods, media, and

materials need to be selected systematically in the first place. The selection process has three steps:

Choosing a method

Choosing a media format

Selecting, modyfying, or designing specific materials within a media format.

Table 4: The steps to select methods, media and materials Choosing a method Any given lesson may incorporate two or more methods to serve different purposes at different points in the progression of the lesson such as the teacher may conduct stimulation activity to gain attention at the set induction and use demonstration to present new information later on. Thus, different students may use different method or prefer different learning styles in order to pursue their individual practice. Hence, this is the teachers job to ensure that they use varieties of methods in a lesson. Choosing a media format A media format is the physical form in which a message is incorporated and displayed. For instance, audio (voice and music) or slides. Yet, each has their own advantages and disadvantages regarding on the students and the objectives that need to be achieved in a lesson.

Selecting, modifying and or designing specific materials within that media format Selecting the specific materials may be quite challenging task. Usually, the teacher

use readymade media. However there are many ways to make appropriate choice from available materials. For example, the teacher may collaborate with the media specialists who desire the similar materials. Hence, the teacher may have an easier time in acquiring materials from national museums or organizations. Besides, the teacher might survey some of the published media reference guides to get a general idea of what is available right now. Furthermore, the decision about whether to use a particular piece of instructional material depends on factors like suitability with these days or not? Modifying available materials also needed if the teacher cannot find suitable materials or media. This can be challenging and creative. Yet, in terms of time and cost, it is more efficient procedure than designing your own materials, although the type and extent of necessary modification will be varied. Designing new materials may be a lot of easier and less costly since the teacher use available materials. As in the case with the selecting from available materials, certain basic elements must be considered such as objectives, the students, the cost and the time taken to do it all. IV. Utilize media and materials Preview of materials No instructional materials should be done without prior screening. During the selection process, the teacher should determine that the materials are appropriate for the students and the objectives. Furthermore, the teacher should ensure the content of the materials are appropriate. For instance, the teacher wants to show students a video yet the teacher needs to preview it first so that the teacher may change it if it is not appropriate. Preparation of: o o Materials: Determine in what sequence the method or materials will be used or the students have access to all materials and media. Learner: Give the students a proper warm-up or inform the students the objectives or unfamiliar vocabulary.

Environment: The facilities will have to be arranged for proper students use of media and materials.

Provide learner experience If the experience is learner-centred, the teacher plays role as a facilitator which help

the students to explore the topic of their lesson. V. Require learner participation The students need to participate in the teaching and learning process. This may enable them to learn effectively. Based on the cognitive theory, the learning focuses on internal mental processes. Feedback also essential since the teaching and learning session will only happen if the students response on it For instance, the students need to be praised when they answered the question so they feel motivated to learn more. VI. Evaluate and Revise Evaluation is ongoing process. Usually, the teacher has made evaluations before, during and after each of their lesson. Therefore, the teacher is able to detect and correct learning or teaching process that may interfere with attainment objectives. Evaluation is the starting point of the next and continuing cycle in the systematic ASSURE model for effective use of instructional media. Revise is to sit back and look at the results of the students evaluation data gathering. Where are the discrepancies between what you intended to happen and what did happen? If your evaluation data indicate shortcomings in any of these areas, now is the time to go back to the faulty part of the plan and revise it. The model works but if only you constantly use it to upgrade the quality of your instruction. Conclusion In conclusion, ASSURE model is interesting model as it exposes the teacher and the students with the technology. Thus, it may be a lot of easier for the teacher to plan their lesson. As a result, the lesson would be interesting and fun yet meaningful for the students.

REFERENCE Gagne,R. (1985). The conditions of learning (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Heinch, R., Molenda, M., Russel, J.D., & Smaldino, S.E. (1996). Instructional media and technologies for learning (5th ed.). United States of America: Prentice Hall.