Linguistics 001: Practice Problems for Phonology

Language Files 3.6 Exercises 1. Exercise 9 (Ukrainian), p. 136 2. Exercise 14 (one question) 3. Exercise 15 a, c, e, g NOTE: Exercise 25 (Mokilese) — This practice exercise has a detailed answer in the back of your book. So it will not be discussed in recitation (unless you have specific questions about it). However, you should now try doing it, and then read the explanation to see what you do or do not understand. 4. Exercise 26 (Sindhi) 5. First do practice exercise 36 (Canadian French) on p. 143 of Language Files. Then look at the additional data below (also from Canadian French), and answer the questions that follow the data. These data show various related words which share a basic part called a stem. For example, the first set of words are all built from the stem [demɔkrat-] (in the same way that the English translations given at right are all based on the stem democrat-. This stem has various suffixes attached to it (just like English -ic, -ize) in the first set of words. Adding the suffixes can have the effect of changing the environment in which a phoneme appears, with the result that a rule applies in some cases but not in others. The resulting changes are known as alternations. Note that in some cases there is no explicit suffix, e.g. in [demɔkrat] the stem appears with no suffix; in some other cases all the words have a stem with an affix. To help you, the boundary between the stem and the affix that follows is shown by a hyphen. The standard French spellings of the words are provided in the leftmost column, but they are not needed to solve the problem (and may in fact be more confusing than helpful, unless you have studied French). Bear in mind that this is Canadian French, so even if you studied French in school the pronunciation may be different from what you learned.

like a combination of [t] and [s] voiced dental a(ricate. below are the phonetic values of the symbols used which are not in English. airdrop’ ‘to scratch’ ‘scratch!’ ‘(a) scratch’ ‘scrapings’ ‘female elephant’ ‘like an elephant’ ‘having to do with elephants’ ‘baby elephant’ ‘direct’ ‘directly’ ‘director (male)’ ‘directive’ (adjective) . usually a *ap [ ɾ ] but sometimes a trill [r] Data Set 1 démocrate démocratique démocratiser parachute parachutiste parachuter parachutisme parachutage gratter gratte grattement gratture éléphante éléphantesque éléphantine éléphanteau direct directement directeur directif [demɔkrat] [demɔkraʦ-ɪk] [demɔkraʦ-iz-e] [paraʃʏt] [paraʃyʦ-ɪst] [paraʃyt-e] [paraʃyʦ-izm] [paraʃyt-aʒ ] [grat-e] [grat] [grat-mã] [graʦ-yr] [elefãt] [elefãt-ɛsk] [elefãʦ-ɪn] [elefãt-o] [ ʣirɛkt] [ ʣirɛkt-mã] [ ʣirɛkt-œr] [ ʣirɛkʦ-ɪf] ‘democrat’ ‘democratic’ ‘democratize’ ‘parachute’ ‘parachutist’ ‘to parachute’ ‘parachuting (as an activity)’ ‘(an instance of) parachuting. like a combination of [d] and [z] nasalized low central vowel: like [a] except with both nasal and oral air*ow nasalized mid lax back round vowel: like [ ɔ ] except with both nasal and oral air*ow In Montréal among older speakers.2 For reference. [y] [ʏ] [ø] high front tense rounded vowel (rounded equivalent of [i]) high front lax rounded vowel (rounded equivalent of [ ɪ ]) mid front lax rounded vowel (rounded equivalent of [ ɛ ]) labial-palatal glide (rounded equivalent of [j]) mid front tense rounded vowel (rounded equivalent of [e]) [œ] [ɥ] [ʦ] [ã] [ ɔ̃ ] [r] [ʣ] voiceless dental a(ricate.

druid practices’ ‘empty’ ‘to empty’ ‘receptacle for emptied water’ ‘waste products (from slaughter)’ .directroire directrice consente consentant consenti consentir consentement [dirɛkt-war] [dirɛkt-rɪs] [kɔ̃sãt] [kɔ̃sãt-ã] [kɔ̃sãʦ-i] [kɔ̃sãʦ-ir] [kɔ̃sãt-mã] 3 ‘group of board members’ ‘director (female)’ ‘permits. Are the data in Data Set 1 consistent with your hypothesis from exercise 36? Why or why not? Now examine data set 2 below: Data Set 2 méthode méthodisme méthodique méthodologie marchander marchandage marchandeuse marchandait marchandise perdre perdu perdait perdant druide druidesse druidisme vide vider vidoir vidures [metɔd] [metɔʣ-izm] [metɔʣ-ɪk] [metɔd-ɔlɔʒi] [marʃãd-e] [marʃãd-aʒ ] [marʃãd-øz] [marʃãd-ɛ ] [marʃãʣ-iz] [pɛrd] [pɛrʣ-y] [pɛrd-ɛ ] [pɛrd-ã] [drɥɪd] [drɥid-ɛs] [drɥiʣ-izm] [vɪd] [vid-e] [vid-war] [viʣ-yr] ‘method’ ‘methodism’ ‘methodical’ ‘methodology’ ‘to haggle over a price’ ‘haggling’ ‘female merchant’ ‘was haggling’ ‘merchandise’ ‘to lose’ ‘lost’ ‘was losing’ ‘losing’ ‘(male) druid’ ‘female druid’ ‘druidism. to agree’ ‘consent’ Question a. agreeing to’ ‘agreed to’ ‘to permit. agrees to’ ‘consenting.

Reformulate your answer to Exercise 36. You do not have to analyze them. . are not relevant to this problem. although they are correct from Canadian French. How does the notion ‘natural class’ of sounds help to explain the range of alternations in stem-final consonants in the data? Note: There are certain additional alternations in vowel quality (between tense and lax vowels) which. generalizing the rule so that it will correctly produce the alternations in stem-final consonants shown in this problem.4 Questions b-d: b. What new alternation is illustrated in the data in data set 2? c. d.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.