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# Pendahuluan Mekanika Fluida - TF 2204

Dr. Suprijanto ST MT
email : supri@tf.itb.ac.id

AFD

EFD

CFD

U = 0 1 2 DU = p + U + ui u j Re Dt

Analytic

Experiment

Computational
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## THE DOs AND THE DONTs THE DO-s

Kerjakanlah pekerjaan rumah sebaik-baiknya karena sumbangannya terhadap nilai akhir cukup besar. Pekerjaan rumah dapat dikerjakan bersama-sama namun jangan hanya sekedar menyalin pekerjaan kawan; pahamilah solusi setiap pekerjaan rumah karena dengan itu sekurang-kurangnya Anda telah belajar memahami perkuliahan ini. Peraturan umum mengenai kehadiran di kelas wajib dipatuhi.

## THE DOs AND THE DONTs THE DONT-s

menggunakan telepon genggam (HP) di dalam kelas; pelanggaran terhadap hal ini dikenakan denda : Rp 100.000,- dan dana terkumpul akan menjadi milik seluruh peserta kelas. menggunakan sandal selama mengikuti perkuliahan ini. hadir lebih lambat dari dosen.

Penilaian

## Mid Term Test/Quizes Final Term Test Home Work/Take Home

?% ?% ?%

Pustaka
Fox and McDonald, P.J. Pritchard, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley, 2004 S.W. Yuan, Foundation of Fluid Mechanics, Prentice-Hall,

3 SKS BERARTI AKTIVITAS PER MINGGU TERDIRI DARI : PER MINGGU:1 JAM TATAP MUKA 1 JAM KEGIATAN TERSTRUKTUR : HOME WORK, TAKE HOME TEST 1 JAM KEGIATAN MANDIRI : MEMBACA LITERATUR BERARTI : 3 SKS --> BEBAN DILUAR KELAS 6 JAM PER MINGGU !

## Satuan Acara Perkuliahan

Fluid Mechanics
Fluids essential to life
Human body 65% water Earths surface is 2/3 water Atmosphere extends 17km above the earths surface

## Affects every part of our lives

History
Faces of Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes

Newton
(1642-1727)

Leibniz
(1646-1716)

Bernoulli
(1667-1748)

Euler
(1707-1783)

Navier
(1785-1836)

Stokes
(1819-1903)

Reynolds
(1842-1912)

Prandtl
(1875-1953)

Taylor
(1886-1975)
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## Relevansi Mekanika Fluida dalam kehidupan Kehadiran fluida

Cuaca dan musim Sistem Transportasi: mobil, KA, kapal, pesawat terbang Lingkungan Physiology dan kedokteran Olah raga

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## Cuaca dan Musim

Global Climate

Hurricanes

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Kendaraan
Pesawat terbang Kapal laut

KA kecept. tinggi

Kapal selam

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Lingkungan
Polusi udara Sungai

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Medik
Warmed Filtered Moisturized Trachea bercabang dua pada bronchusdibagi sekitar 15 bagian berakhir pada bronchioles yang mengirimkan udara pada jutaan kantung kecil yang disebut Alveoli
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## Jutaan kantung aveoli

Medik

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Olah raga
Water sports Cycling Offshore racing

Auto racing

Surfing

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Fluids Engineering
Reality Fluids Engineering System Components Idealized

EFD

AFD

CFD,

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## Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD)

Teori formulasi masalah fisika matematik Control volume & differential analysis Solusi eksak untuk kondisi dan geometri sederhana Solusi aproksimasi pada aplikasi praktis Linear Hubungan empiris dengan menggunakan data EFD (eng. Fluid dynamics)

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## Analytical Fluid Dynamics

Pokok bahasan
Definisi dan sifat-sifat fluida Statika fluida Gerak fluida Kontinuitas, momentum, dan prinsip energy Analisis dimensional dan keserupaan Tahanan permukaan Aliran dalam conduits Hambatan dan gaya angkat

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## Analytical Fluid Dynamics

Asumsi: Fully developed, Low Re = UD < 2000 Pendekatan: Penyederhanaan pers momentum, integrasi, penerapan syarat batas untuk menentukan konstanta integrasi dan menggunakan pers energi untuk menghitung head loss 0 0 2u 2u Du 0 p + 2 + 2 + gx = Dt x y x

Schematic

Solusi pasti :

## 8 du Faktor gesekan: f = 8 w = dy w = 64 V 2 V 2 Re p1 p2 L V 2 32 LV = hf = f Head loss: + z1 = + z2 + h f D2 D 2g

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u(r) = 1 ( p )(R2 r 2) 4 x

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## Analytical Fluid Dynamics

Contoh: aliran turbulent flow pada pipa smooth (Re > 3000 ) Three layer concept (using dimensional analysis)
u + = u u*
1. 2.

y + = yu *

u* = w

u+ = y+
u+ = 1

0 < y+ < 5
20 < y + < 105

## Overlap layer (viscous and turbulent shear important)

ln y + + B

(R=0.41, B=5.5)
U u r + 5 = f 1 y > 10 u* r0

3.

## Assume log-law is valid across entire pipe:

u (r ) u*

ln

( r0 r ) u* + B

Integration for average velocity and using EFD data to adjust constants:
1 = 2log ( Re f 1 2 ) .8 f
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## Analytical Fluid Dynamics

Example: turbulent flow in rough pipe
Both laminar sublayer and overlap layer are affected by roughness
Inner layer:

u+ = u+ ( y k )
u+ = 1 ln

## Outer layer: unaffected Overlap layer:

y + constant k

Three regimes of flow depending on k+ 1. K+<5, hydraulically smooth (no effect of roughness) 2. 5 < K+< 70, transitional roughness (Re dependent) 3. K+> 70, fully rough (independent Re)

## For 3, using EFD data to adjust constants:

u+ = 1

ln

y + 8.5 f ( Re ) k

Friction factor:

k D 1 = 2log 3.7 f

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## Analytical Fluid Dynamics

Example: Moody diagram for turbulent pipe flow
Composite Log-Law for smooth and rough pipes is given by the Moody diagram:

1 f
1 2

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## Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD)

Definition: Use of experimental methodology and procedures for solving fluids engineering systems, including full and model scales, large and table top facilities, measurement systems (instrumentation, data acquisition and data reduction), uncertainty analysis, and dimensional analysis and similarity. EFD philosophy:

## Decisions on conducting experiments are governed by the ability of the

expected test outcome, to achieve the test objectives within allowable uncertainties. Integration of UA into all test phases should be a key part of entire experimental program test design determination of error sources estimation of uncertainty documentation of the results

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Purpose
Science & Technology: understand and investigate a

## phenomenon/process, substantiate and validate a theory (hypothesis)

Research & Development: document a process/system, provide benchmark data (standard procedures, validations), calibrate instruments, equipment, and facilities Industry: design optimization and analysis, provide data for direct use, product liability, and acceptance Teaching: instruction/demonstration

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Applications of EFD

## Application in science & technology Picture of Karman vortex shedding

Application in research & development Tropic Wind Tunnel has the ability to create temperatures ranging from 0 to 165 degrees Fahrenheit and simulate rain

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## Applications of EFD (contd)

Example of industrial application NASA's cryogenic wind tunnel simulates flight conditions for scale models--a critical tool in designing airplanes. Application in teaching Fluid dynamics laboratory
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## Full and model scale

Scales: model, and full-scale Selection of the model scale: governed by dimensional analysis and similarity

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Measurement systems
Instrumentation
Load cell to measure forces and moments Pressure transducers Pitot tubes Hotwire anemometry PIV, LDV Serial port devices Desktop PCs Plug-in data acquisition boards Data Acquisition software - Labview

Data acquisition

## Data analysis and data reduction

Data reduction equations Spectral analysis

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Instrumentation

Pitot tube

Hotwire

3D - PIV
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## Data acquisition system

Hardware

Software - Labview

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Dimensional analysis
Definition : Dimensional analysis is a process of formulating fluid mechanics problems in
in terms of non-dimensional variables and parameters.

Why is it used :
Reduction in variables ( If F(A1, A2, , An) = 0, then f(1, 2, r < n) = 0,
where, F = functional form, Ai = dimensional variables, j = non-dimensional parameters, m = number of important dimensions, n = number of dimensional variables, r = n m ). Thereby the number of experiments required to determine f vs. F is reduced. Helps in understanding physics Useful in data analysis and modeling Enables scaling of different physical dimensions and fluid properties

Example

## Vortex shedding behind cylinder

Examples of dimensionless quantities : Reynolds number, Froude Number, Strouhal number, Euler number, etc. 33

## To Load Cell Scanivalve

Lab2: Measurement of flow rate, friction factor and velocity profiles in smooth and rough pipes.

Lab3: Measurement of surface pressure Distribution, lift and drag coefficient for an airfoil
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## Computational Fluid Dynamics

CFD is use of computational methods for solving fluid engineering systems, including modeling (mathematical & Physics) and numerical methods (solvers, finite differences, and grid generations, etc.). Rapid growth in CFD technology since advent of computer

ENIAC 1, 1946

IBM WorkStation

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Purpose
The objective of CFD is to model the continuous fluids with Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) and discretize PDEs into an algebra problem, solve it, validate it and achieve simulation based design instead of build & test Simulation of physical fluid phenomena that are difficult to be measured by experiments: scale simulations (full-scale ships, airplanes), hazards (explosions,radiations,pollution), physics (weather prediction, planetary boundary layer, stellar evolution).

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Modeling
Mathematical physics problem formulation of fluid engineering system Governing equations: Navier-Stokes equations (momentum), continuity equation, pressure Poisson equation, energy equation, ideal gas law, combustions (chemical reaction equation), multi-phase flows(e.g. Rayleigh equation), and turbulent models (RANS, LES, DES). Coordinates: Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates result in different form of governing equations Initial conditions(initial guess of the solution) and Boundary Conditions (no-slip wall, free-surface, zero-gradient, symmetry, velocity/pressure inlet/outlet) Flow conditions: Geometry approximation, domain, Reynolds Number, and Mach Number, etc.

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Modeling (examples)
Developing flame surface (Bell et al., 2001) Free surface animation for ship in regular waves

Evolution of a 2D mixing layer laden with particles of Stokes Number 0.3 with respect to the vortex time scale (C.Narayanan)

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## 3D vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder (Re=100,DNS,J.Dijkstra)

DES,
Re=105, Isosurface of Q criterion (0.4) for turbulent flow around NACA12 with angle of attack 60 degrees

LES of a turbulent jet. Back wall shows a slice of the dissipation rate and the bottom wall shows a carpet plot of the mixture fraction in a slice through the jet centerline, Re=21,000 (D. Glaze).

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Numerical methods
y Finite difference methods: using numerical scheme to jmax approximate the exact derivatives j+1 in the PDEsP 2 P + P 2P i +1 i i 1 = j x 2 x2 j-1 2
P 2 P j + P j 1 P = j +1 y 2 y2

o
Finite volume methods Grid generation: conformal mapping, algebraic methods and differential equation methods Grid types: structured, unstructured Solvers: direct methods (Cramers rule, Gauss elimination, LU decomposition) and iterative methods (Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, SOR)

i-1 i i+1

imax x