Present Rice Production Situation and Future Potential in Myanmar

Ye Tint Tun Dy. General Manager Myanma Agriculture Service

Myanmar Economy and Agriculture
•Agriculture is main economic sector in Myanmar. •The agricultural sector contributes 33.8 % of the nation’s GDP (2008-09 constant producers’ prices) •The country’s export value in 2008-09 p.a was 37028 million Kyats of which agriculture commodities shared 15.53%

Land Utilization in Myanmar (2009-2010)
Net sown area Fallow land Culturable waste land Reserved forest Other forests Other Total Area (mil. ha) 11.98 0.24 5.61 16.90 16.25 16.68 67.66 % 17.71 0.35 8.29 24.98 24.02 24.65 100.00

Rice production in Myanmar

Rice sufficiency and surplus
35.0
Production

4.5
Yield

30.0 Production (mil. tons) 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0

4.0 3.5 Yield (t/ha) 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

1987-88

1988-89

2006-07

2007-08 Years

2008-09

2009-2010

Year

Seed

Loss

Consumption

Utilization Total 12.68 12.93 18.70 18.98 19.23 19.45

surplus Rice (mil. ton) 0.46 0.11 5.86 5.98 6.39 6.34

Sufficien cy % 108 102 165 166 169 168

1987-88 1988-89 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-2010

0.48 0.49 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.83

0.72 0.74 1.26 1.25 1.25 1.25

11.48 11.70 16.60 16.89 17.15 17.37

Major Rice Producer in the World (2008)

Harvested Area Country (Mil.ha) China India Indonesia Bangladesh Viet Nam Thailand Myanmar Egypt 29 44 12 12 7 11 8 Rank 2 1 3 4 7 5 6

Yield (Mt/Ha) 6.56 3.37 4.89 3.99 5.22 2.96 3.72 Rank 1 6 3 4 2 7 5

Production (Mil.ton) 193 148 60 47 39 32 30 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

9.84 Mt/Ha, Australia 8.38 Mt/Ha, USA 7.78 Mt/Ha

Source: Selected indicators, FAO RAP Pub., 2010/12

Per Capita Consumption of Milled Rice in Selected Countries
250.00

200.00

150.00

100.00

50.00

0.00

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002
India

WORLD+

ASIA+

Myanmar

China

2004

Basic Concepts for Improving Agricultural Productivity
1. Use of quality seeds 2. Application of modern production technologies 3. Proper utilization of agricultural inputs (irrigation water, organic and inorganic fertilizers) 4. Reduction of losses (seeds, inputs and post-harvest losses) 5. Secure market for generating increased income

Varieties Change
7000 6000 S own area (thousnad ha) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
HYVs Hybrid varieties Local varieties

• High yielding varieties
– Yield level of 4 – 5 t/ ha

• Hybrid varieties
– Yield level of 10-15t/ha

• Local varieties
– Yield level of 2-3 t/ha

This is the right time to change varieties from local varieties to HYVs and Hybrid varieties.

Infrastructural development
• Technical development
• Crop management ( Seed, inputs, IPM, postharvest….) • Water management

• Physical development
• • • • • Access farm road Harvesters Dryer Storage Milling

Seed Industry Development
• Improvement of seed distribution system • Production of seed
• HYVs – Breeder, Foundation, Register and Certified • Hybrid – A, B, R lines and F1 seed production

• Seed Certification

SEED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
[SEED FLOW]

IN MYANMAR

Seed Flow
Seed class Breeder Seed Foundation Seed Responsible Organizations Department of Agricultural Research (DAR)

Registered Seed

Certified Seed

DAR + Myanma Agriculture Service (MAS) [Seed Division] Myanma Agriculture Service (MAS) [Seed Division] Myanma Agriculture Service (MAS) [Extension Division] + Contact farmers

Future Seed Industry Development [Private- Public-Partnership]
Department of Agricultural Research
Breeder Seed

Myanma Agricultural Service

Foundation Seed Registered Seed

Contact farmers

Rice Specialized Private Co., Farmers

Certified Seed

CONSTRAINTS ON SEED MULTIPLICATION IN MYANMAR
Certified Seed production
Constraints Farmers’ awareness on seed utilization Accessibility, precedent, Market, seed producer Ways out Training, media, market guarantee, demonstration, producer incentives Village seed bank farmers groups Subsidy, loan or microfinance, education, knowledge sharing Land policy, formation of farmers groups

Storage facility

Small warehouse for own use (round bamboo basket for storing paddy) Fertilizers, pesticides, labour, threshers, harvesters, Rouging cost for purity, water management, farm road, land reforming, dryers, processing

Input Limitation

Infrastructure

Seed certification

Field and lab inspection

Produce trained inspectors

CONSTRAINTS ON SEED MULTIPLICATION IN MYANMAR
BS/FS/RS production in governmental farms
Constraints Infrastructure water management, farm road, land leveling, dryers, processing Skillful staffs, equipment, weakness of field inspection Electricity, skillful labours, spare parts Separate departments, precedent, over supervision, Producing several rice varieties Ways out Budgets,

Seed testing

Trainings (local/foreign), upgrading lab equipments, inspection methods Training, supporting, establish small scale plant Meetings, discussions, seminar, knowledge sharing etc. Variety selection adaptable for different agro-ecological condition

Processing plants Collaboration system Jobs efficiency

Varietal development
Varietal development is the foundation of any seed supply programme. Constraints to varietal development in Myanmar can be summarized as follows. (1) Shortage of varieties that are adaptable to different agroecological conditions (2) Varietal evaluation procedures commonly used in Myanmar limit the release of superior varieties (3) Limited resources for variety development research (4) Fewer personnel trained in plant breeding (5) Weakness to properly maintain varieties after they are released

Future Potential

Rice Ecosystem and Area Distribution % (2009-2010)
Agro-ecosystem • Favorable rice ecosystem
• Irrigated lowland • Rain-fed lowland

% of total sown area 68%
20 48

• Unfavorable rice ecosystem
• • • • • Deepwater Submerge Salt-affected Upland Drought-prone

32%
5 9 3 3 12

• Total rice sown areas

8.06 mha.

Research activities for Climate Change

Drought Tolerant varieties

Research activities for Climate Change

Deepwater/Submerged varieties

Research activities for Climate Change

Saline tolerant varieties

Research activities for Climate Change

Upland rice varieties

Variety change
• Yield promotion of High Yielding Varieties
• • • • Varietal adaptation for different agro-ecological zonings Farmers, dealers and consumers participatory approach Farmers’ awareness of seed Effective utilization of improved crop management

Variety change
• Hybrid variety

Hybrid rice field in the Humum village, Lashio townsip, Northern Shan state

26

Hybrid rice field at Nay Pyi Taw

F1 hybrid

F1 hybrid

27

Hybrid rice field of leading private rice farms in Yangon Region

Yield – 7.5 – 13.0 t/ha

Requirement for Variety change
• Emergence of Seed Production Companies
• Sharing technical Know-how among stakeholders • Strictly follow existing Seed law and Plant variety protection procedures e.g. C.P company for Maize seed production East-west co./ Known-you-seed co. for vegetable seed production

Enhance Private-Public- Partnership

Developing infrastructure as community basis
• Access farm road • Farm level water management • Land preparation (tractor, seeder, etc.,) • Harvesters • Dryers • Storage Enhance • Market

Farmers’ group

More productivity Good quality Good prices

Private-Public- Partnership

Conclusion
• Area expansion for rice fields may need high investment and thus emphasis will be placed more on increasing yield per unit area through using Hybrid and High-Yielding varieties. • It has greater potential for area expansion of Hybrid rice varieties to assure food security and earn better income than local and HYVs. • Myanmar still has potential to boost rice production up to double from existing yield level in terms of quantity. • Quality improvement could further be enhanced through Private Public Partnership in the near future.

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