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1

1

. 1

Tin ca nh nc thy triu.


(Chng, Vit, 1995: 621)





.. 1975



.. 2012


1

2
..
2015




1.
tin bc



14



3





1.1

18

4













(, ,
2545: 17)

10 (L)
(Trn) 400

5




(inh) .. 968







(
, , 2545: 32)



Colony to the Portuguese Government it

6
would appear that there exist at the present moment six
manufactories of Annamese coins, employing twelve furnaces
and three hundred and twenty workmen, and producing daily
700,000 cash. (Ed Toda, . . . : http://art-hanoi.com/toda/06.html)

9
9

.. 1230

(silver)



1
= 10 , 600 (= 1 - )
15

7
(
, , 2545: 32)


... 44
138 ( = 40 )...
338,000 - 423,000
(, , 2545: 103)
19

(tin) 7
8 8 2 (escudo)
..
1878 500 - 600
= 1 .. 1945


2

10

8

1) 1)



2) 2)

( 1)
1.2

.. 1870 .. 1884
(Annam)
(Tonkin)

.. 1885

()

9


1 = 24.4935 1895
24.3
(piastre)
.. 1885 - 1952 peso

(xu)
.. 1946 - 1953

1 = = 100

.. 1953 - 1959

1 = (100 ) = 100

.. 1959 - 1985

1 = (1,000 ) = 100

.. 1985 1 = (10 ) = 100

.. 1920 1 (silver)
1 = 10
2
0.976 = 1 1 ..
1945 1 = 17 (http://en.
wikipedia.org/wiki/French Indochinese piastre)

11

12

10
(Banque
de l'Indochine) 21 .. 1875


( )

.. 1892 1
5, 20, 100
.. 1920 - 1922 10, 20, 50
.. 1939 500 .. 1945 .. 1947
50 10
()

()
( 2)
2 (..
1941)
(.. 1944)
.. 1951

11
(
2)
13 .. 1945

80

(, ,
2545: 258)
.. 1946


.. 1946 - 1950


.. 1951 - 1954

13

14

12
.. 1954


(, , 2545: 283)


() 100 = 1
1.3

1.3.1


(Vit Nam Dn Ch
Cng Ho) (ng)
31 .. 1946
..
1946

13
(, , 2545: 267)

1 = 10 (ho)
1 = 10 (xu)
.. 1949 500
5, 50 .. 1950 200
100, 500, 1,000 .. 1951 1958

1


1000 ..
1958 10


(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
North_Vietnamese_%C4%91%E1%BB%93ng)( 3)

15

16

14
1.3.2
.. 1953

.. 1953 ..1955

.. 1954
.. 1953
10, 20, 50 .. 1960 1 10
.. 1964, 5 .. 1966, 20 ..
1968, 50 .. 1975

.. 1953 1, 5, 10, 100,


200 .. 1955 2,
500 .. 1956 20, 50 ..
1964 - 1968 50 ..
1971 1,000

..
1973 10 .. 1955

15
35 1 .. 1974 560
.. 1973 100-200 (,
, 2545: 397) 5,000, 10,000
.. 1975
..
1955 - 1966



() ( 3)

17

18

16
1.4

(liberation ng)
.. 1975 - 1978

(new Vietnamese ng)
3 .. 1978 1 = 0.8


1, 2, 5
10, 20,
50 1, 2, 5, 10, 50 .. 1966

.. 1976

.. 2003 200,
500, 1,000, 2,000 5,000

17
200 - 500,000 (http://www.ceted.org/tutorceted/
money.html) ( 4)

(
)






2.

19

20

18
2.1
(Tt)



( mng tui )
(l x)



( 5)
2.2



vng m ( )
giy tin vng bc ( )


19






(Vietnamnet ; Aug 13, 2011






(
5)


21

22

20




2011
3,100 12%




(Vietnam Economic and Business Monitor: http://vebimo.
wordpress.com/2011/08/13/joss-paper - burning environmental and - cultural - issues - in-vietnam/)

21


3. (Chng, Vit,
1995: 620 - 624)

( , 2544: 2)



( , 2544: 1 - 3)


3.1


(1)
(1) Tin bc i trc, mc thc i sau.

23

24

22

(1)


(2)Tin buc di ym

bo bo,

a cho thy bi thm lo vo mnh.

(
)
(2)

()

(
)

23

3.2

(3)Tin bun tin bn th trong nh,

Tin c tin bc th ra ngoi ng.


(3)


25

26

24
3.3



(4) Tin ca

Ngi ta l

cha trn i,


khch vng lai mt th.

(4)



(5) Tin khng chn gn xa i khp.

25

(5)

3.4



(6) Tin dng bc chy.

(6)

(7) Tin ht go khng.


(7)

27

28

26
3.5


(8) Tin ht c vua

c.

(8)

(9) Tin

l gch ngi

l vng.


(9)


27
3.6


(10) Tin

khng mt

ng,

Mun n

hng

mt ht.

(10)



29

30

28
4.

(structural semiology)



( ,

, 2547: 8 - 9 )




29
( , , 2547: 11 )

I. --

II.
-
-

III.
-

-
-

IV.
-
-

31

32

30

5.



4

31


33

34

32

Chng, Vit. T in Thnh ng Tc ng - Ca dao Vit Nam.


ng Nai: Nh Xut Bn ng Nai, 1995.
. . . :
, 2545.
. . . :
, 2547.
. .
: , 2544.

http://art-hanoi.com/toda/06.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Indochinese_piastre
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Vietnamese_%C4%91%E1%B
B%93ng
http://www.ceted.org/tutorceted/money.html
Vietnam Economic and Business Monitor, http://vebimo.
wordpress.com/2011/08/13/joss-paper-burning-environmentaland-cultural-issues-in-vietnam/
Information more of the coins, National Museum of
Vietnamese History cited from http://baotanglichsu.vn/
subportal/en/News/Knowledge-of-history---culture/2008/08
/3A9220D6/
http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html
http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html
http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html

33
http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html
http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html
http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html
http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_cash
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochinchina_Piastre
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banque_de_l%27Indochine
http://art-hanoi.com/collection/icpaper/p34-26.html
http://art-hanoi.com/collection/icpaper/75.html
https://www.google.co.th/search?q=Vietnamese+piastre
http://forum.vietnumis.com/viewtopic.php?p=17849&sid=38159
047911944b5ce96ed3721350eac
http://colnect.com/th/coins/coin/9544-1_DongIssues_of_Indochina_Wars
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:100South_Vietmanese_%C4%9
1%E1%BB%93ng1966b.jpg
http://art-hanoi.com/collection/vnpaper/svp7.html
http://www.google.co.th/imgres
http://www.google.co.th/imgres
http://news.xin.msn.com/en/silverlight-gallery.aspx?cpdocumentid=4265900&page=11
http://www.google.co.th/imgres
Vietnamnet; August 13, 2011

35

36

34
1



(i Bnh Hng Bo)

3
(.. 980 - 1010)
Thin Phc Trn Bo
() ()4

3

Information more of the coins, National Museum of

Vietnamese History cited from http://baotanglichsu.vn/


subportal/en/News/Knowledge-of-history---culture/2008/08
/3A9220D6/
4
Barker No. 2.1-2.7, http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html

35

(.. 1010 - 1225) (.. 1010


- 1028)
Thun Thin i Bo
5

(.. 1028 - 1055)


Cn Ph nguyn bo


5

No. 5. Barker: see 3.1-3.2, http://art-hanoi.com/toda/

11.html

37

38

36

6


-Thin Ph nguyn bo
( L Nhn Tng)7
- i-nh-thng-bo
( L Anh Tng)8
- Thin-cm- thng-bo
( )9

6

No. 6. (Barker: 4.1) http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html


No. 7. (Barker: none) http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html
8
No. 8. (Barker: 116.1) http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html
7

No. 12. (Barker:none) http://art-hanoi.com/toda/11.html

37
- Thin-t-thng-bo
( (L Cao Tng)
(1225-1400)


(.. 1341 - 1369)

(.. 1372 - 1398)

10

Nguyn-phong-thng-bo

10

No. 16. (Barker: see 13.1 - 13.2) http://art-hanoi.com/


toda/11.html

39

40

38

11


11

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_cash

39
2

12

(.. 1878)
(.. 1879)


12

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochinchina_Piastre

41

42

40

() 20 .. 1898 ()13
() 1 .. 1903 - 192114
15


13

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banque_de_l%27Indochine,
http://art-hanoi.com/collection/icpaper/p34-26.html
15
http://art-hanoi.com/collection/icpaper/75.html
14

41
3

.. 1946 (Giy Bc
Vit Nam) 20 50 1, 5, 20, 100
.. 1946
16

.. 1948 (Tn Phiu) 100 17


16

https://www.google.co.th/search?q=Vietnamese+piastre
17
http://forum.vietnumis.com/viewtopic.php?p=17849 &sid=38159
047911944b5ce96ed3721350eac

43

44

42

.. 1946 18


18

http://colnect.com/th/coins/coin/9544-1_Dong-Issues_of_
Indochina_Wars

43
100 .. 196619

50 .. 195620


19

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:100South_Vietmanese
_%C4%91%E1%BB%93ng1966b.jpg
20
http://art-hanoi.com/collection/vnpaper/svp7.html

45

46

44
4

45
5

21

22 23


21

http://www.google.co.th/imgres
http://www.google.co.th/imgres
23
http://news.xin.msn.com/en/silverlight-gallery.aspx?cpdocumentid=4265900&page=11
22

47

48

46

24


24

http://www.google.co.th/imgres


25

2

$6)4



25

50

47

25
. 26


25


(CU56-HS07)
26

51

52

48








(Vn Hc Dn Gian ng bng sng cu long)
(Khoa ng vn, i hc Cn
Th)

49
-

S

(mainland South East Asia)




53

54

50



( Woodside,
1988 Wolters, 1982)


200


111

..

51
42 - 222



/

2






55

56

52
(B Triu)27
(Hai Ba Trng)28

.. 543 - 603 (L B)

27

- (u Lc)

(Trng Trc) (Trng Nh) 39


3 ( .. 40
43)


28

.. 248

(Triu u)

53
(Vn Xun) .. 618

.. 722
(Mai Thc Loan) .. 766 - 791
(Phng Hng) .. 907


.. 938 (Ng
Quyn) (Bch ng) ..
939
(C Loa)
10

57

58

54


(Nam Tin)

.. 1069

2




55



(Shackford, 1992: 56 - 125)

(Nguyn)

(Gianh) - -


17


(Nguyn)
18 19
2
(Gianh)
(Qung Bnh)
(Trnh)

59

60

56
.. 1627 - 1772

(Ty Sn)
(L)
(Nguyn nh)

.. 1802
(Gia Long)

(Bnh nh)

(An Kh) (Ply Ku)
(Stung Treng)

(Taylor, 1998: 945 - 978)



57

61

62

58


(Nguyn Phan Quang)
( ) ..
1897

(Nguyn Phan Quang, 1998: 57)
(Nguyn Cng Bng)


(
) (Gia nh Thnh Thng Ch)
.. 1802 (Trnh Hoi c)

59


(Nguyn Cng Bng, 1990: 39)







(Vng Hng Sn, 2004: 20)

63

64

60










4 1 3

24
12

12
1

61
11 11



11 11

65

66

62




()



(kinh)

63








4,200
(Cu Long) - (Hn-Vit)


(con rng chu tin) (Lc


Long Qun) (u C) 100

67

68

64
2 50



(con rng chu tin)
(Lc Long Qun)
(u C)
100
2 50

2



(Phong
Chu) (Ph Th)
90

(Hng Vng) (Vn Lang)

65


-
50
- (patriarchy)

:
Nht nc, nh phn, tam cn, t ging
Khng nc khng phn chuyn cn v ch.

69

70

66

nc ()
t nc
( ) t () nc ()

(Huynh Sanh Thng, 121 - 153)



( Sn Nam, 1984: 7)
(go
trng nc trong)
(Trnh Hoi c) (Gia nh
Thnh Thng Ch)
(Gia nh) (Nam Vit)


( Trn Vn Giu et al, 1998: 48)

67


(vn ha la nc)

71

72

68








69








73

74

70

71







(su ring)

75

76

72


(Hu
Ngc, 1998: 412)
(t mi)
17 - 18

300

29

29

.. 2553 .. 2010


(H Ni)
.. 1998 - 1999 (.. 2541 - 2542)

.. 1009 - 1028
( .. 1552 - 1571) (Thng Long) (
)

)
(Ph Xun) ()
.. 1802 (.. 2345) .. 1831 (.. 2374)

77

73





..
1623 .. 1698 (Nguyn Hu
Cnh) (
)
.. 1722

..
1766 - 1788

(Nguyn nh)




2 .. 1945
(Ba nh)

78

74
.. 1788 .. 1790

(Nguyn Tha Hy et al, 1999: 161 - 162)



Xung sng ht trng su
Ln b xa rng cp

Hm tha, su bt
(Sn Nam, 1984: 33 - 37)

75

79

80

76

77



81

82

78

79

Hu Ngc. Sketches for a Portrait of Vietnamese Culture.


Hanoi: Th Gii, 1998.
Huynh Sanh Thng, Live by water, Die for water: Metaphor of
Vietnamese Culture and History in The Vietnam
Review, no. 1, 1998, Pp. 121 - 153.
_________________, The Vietnamese Worldview: Water, water
everywhere in The Vietnamese Review, no. 2, 1998,
Pp. 16 - 97.
Khoa ng vn i hc Cn Th. Vn hc dn gian ng bng
sng cu long (). Ho Chi
Minh City: NXB gio dc, 1997.
Nguyn Cng Bng (ed.). Vn ha v c dn ng bng sng
cu long ( ). Ho Chi Minh
City: NXB Khoa hc x hi, 1990.

83

84

80
Nguyn Phan Quang. Gp thn t liu Si Gn-Gia nh t
1859 - 1945 ( - 1859 - 1945).
TP H Ch Minh: NXB Tr, 1998.
Nguyn Tha Hy et al. th Vit Nam di thi Nguyn
(). NXB Thun
Ha, 1999.
Sn Nam. t Gia nh xa (). TP H Ch
Minh: NXB TP H Ch Minh, 1984.
Trn Vn Giu et al. 300 Nm Si Gn-Thnh Ph H Chi
Minh ( - ). TP H Ch Minh: NXB
Chnh tr quc gia, 1998.
Vng Hng Sn. Si Gn Nm Xa (). ng Nai:
NXB Tng hp ng Nai, 2004.

81

Shackford, Julie. Vietnam: A Historical Perspective. Center for


Southeast Asian Stuidies, School of Hawaiian, Asian and
Pacific Studies, University of Hawaii, 1992.
Taylor, K. W., Surface Orientation in Vietnam: Beyond Histories
of Nation and Region The Journal of Asian Studies,
57, no. 4 (November 1998), Pp. 949 - 978.
Wolters, Oliver. History, Culture and Region in Southeast
Asian Perspectives. Singapore: Institute of Southeast
Asian Studies, 1982.
Woodside, Alexander. Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A
Comparative Study of the First Half of the
Nineteenth Century. Cambridge and London: Harvard
University Press, 1988.

85

86

30

31

31



88

82
:
30
. 31

Surface Orientations in Vietnam: beyond histories of



30

( )

31

89

90

83
nation and region (Keith Taylor 1998)
4

(
)




(ways of doing Vietnamese) (ways of

being

Vietnamese)

84


(nam tin)

91

92

85


A
Smaller Dragon: A Political History of Viet Nam (:
) Vietnam: A Political History

86
(: ) (Buttinger,
1958, 1968)

(Taylor, 1998)



-
(Taylor, 1998: 951)

93

94

87







(Taylor 1993) (Li
Tana, 1998a, 1998b) (Cooke, 1998)
17, 18
19

17 (Trnh)
(Nguyn)

88
(Nguyn Hong)
17
18


ng ngoi

ng

trong

95

96

89
17 - 18


ng ngoi
ng trong (1993)
(1998a,

1998b)

(Taylor 1998)

90

17 - 18


15
- (Thanh-Ngh
)
( ng Kinh
) (L Li
15)
-

(Taylor, 1998: 955)

97

98

91

11
(L) -

(Taylor 1976, 1988)


(Taylor 1988: 39 - 45)

11




(Taylor 1988: 31)

92

18 - 19 Surface Orientation
(Nguyn nh)
(Ty Sn)
19
(Taylor 1998: 965 - 969)



17 (ng ngoi)
(ng trong)

99

100

93
-




(doing

Vietnamese)

101

94








- 15
- [Mng]
(Thanh Ha) (Ngh An)
(H Tnh)

102

(Taylor 1998: 955)32

95

15


ng ngoi ng trong 2

(Taylor 1988)

(Vn Hnh) (L
Cng Un) (Cham)

32

103

96

(Taylor 1988: 29)


11



(Li Tana 1998a: 105)

(Ty Sn)


(Li Tana 1998a: 148 -

104

97
154)

200



-
(Taylor, 1998: 951)

105

98
[]



(Taylor 1998: 972)




Surface Orientation

106

99




(Taylor, 1983)


(Buttinger, 1958)

107

100
( Cooke 1995; Smith 1973;
Taylor 1987; Whitmore 1997; Woodside 1988)


15
-

17


(Gia Long) 19

(Minh Mng)

108

101




(Whitmore, 1997: 685)






(Woodside 1998)

109

102






(Whitmore, 1976)

10
11

110

103
(inh B
Lnh) (L Hoan) 5




(L Vn Hu)
14


5

(Whitmore 1976: 194)

(Insun Yu)

111

104



[]
(Insun Yu, 1999: 228)


[] (Woodside
1988: 44 - 45)

[ ]





112

105
(Woodside, 1988: 45)

. . .

(Woodside 1988: 59)

113

106



(Taylor, 1998: 973)



[]

114

107

. . .
(Taylor, 1998: 975)




(we - ness
Anderson, 1991)




108

33

115


34




33

1970


Thongchai Winuchakul (1995)

34

Patricia Pelley (2002)

116

109




(Vit Nam Cng Ho
Republic of Vietnam) .. 1975

117

110
35

-

-

35

.. 1998 - 2001

.. 2006 - 2007 .. 2000


SEASSI



118

111





(Hoa
Ho) (Cao i)
20 (Hue - Tam Ho Tai, 1983; Werner, 1981)

20


(

119

112
)


(Victor
Hugo)

.. 1975 .. 2001

(Nguyen Van Huy,
2011)

120

113

(Salemink, 2003; McElwee, 2001)








121

114



20 ng
ngoi-ng trong -

(Taylor, 1998)


(Kinh)

122

115








(Indianized states)

(Coeds, 1968) (Scott,


2009)

123

116

. . .


(Taylor, 1998: 974)

124

117

Anderson, Benedict R. O'G. Imagined Communities: Reflections


on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London:
Verso, 1991.
Buttinger, Joseph. A Smaller Dragon: A Political History of
Viet Nam. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1958.
_______________. Vietnam: A Political History. New York:
Praeger, 1968.
Coeds, George. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia.
Honolulu: East - West Center, 1968.
Cooke, Nola. The Composition of the Nineteenth - Century
Political Elite of Precolonial Nguyen Vietnam (1802 1883) Modern Asian Studies 29, 4 (1995): 741 764.

125

118
Cooke, Nola. Regionalism and the Nature of Nguyen Rule in
Seventeenth - Century Dang Trong (Cochinchina) Journal
of Southeast Asian Studies 29, 1 (1998): 122 - 161.
Hue - Tam Ho Tai. Millenarianism and Peasant Politics in Vietnam.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983.
Insun Yu. Bilateral Social Pattern and the Status of Women in
Traditional Vietnam South Asia Research 7, 2
(1999): 215 - 231.
Li Tana. Nguyen Cochinchina: Southern Vietnam in the
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, 1998a.
_________. An alternative Vietnam? The Nguyen Kingdom in
the seventeenth and eighteen Centuries Journal of
Southeast Asian Studies 29, 1 (1998b): 111 - 121.

126

119
McAlister, Jr., John T. Mountain Minorities and the Viet Minh:
A Key to the Indochina War In Perter Kunstadter,
ed. Southeast Asian Tribes Minorities and Nations.
Pp. 771 - 884. Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1967.
McElwee, Pamela. Coffee, Christianity and Conflict: An Update
on the Central Highlands of Vietnam Mekong
Update and Dialogue 4, 3 (2001): 2 - 4.
Nguyen Van Huy. The Uprising of the Central Highlanders in
February 2001 Cham Today. (April 25, 2011)
(Access on August 2, 2012).
Pelley, Patricia. Postcolonial Vietnam: New Histories of the
National Past. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.

127

120
Salemink, Oscar. The Ethnography of Vietnams Central
Highlanders: A Historical Contextualization, 1850 1990. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2003.
Scott, James. The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist
history of Upland Southeast Asia. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2009.
Smith, R.B. The Cycle of Confucianism in Vietnam In Walter
F. Vella, ed. Aspects of Vietnamese History. Pp. 1 29. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1973.
Taylor, Keith W. The Rise of Dai Viet and the Establishment of
Thang - long In Kenneth Hall and John Whitmore,
eds. Explorations in Early Southeast Asian History:
The Origin of Southeast Asian Statecraft. Pp. 149 191. Ann Arbor: Center for South and Southeast
Asian Studies, 1976.

128

121
Taylor, Keith W. The Birth of Vietnam. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1983.
Taylor, Keith W. The Literati Revival in Seventeenth-Century
Vietnam Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 18, 1
(1987): 1 - 23.
Taylor, Keith W. Authority and Legitimacy in Eleventh-Century
Vietnam The Vietnam Forum (1988): 20 - 59.
Taylor, Keith W. Nguyen Hoang and the Beginning of
Vietnams Southward Expansion, In Anthony Reid,
ed. Southeast Asia in the Early Modern Era. Pp. 42
- 65. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.
Taylor, Keith W. Surface Orientations in Vietnam: Beyond
Histories of Nation and Region Journal of Asian
Studies 57, 4 (1998): 949 - 978.

129

122
Thongchai Winichakul. The Changing Landscape of the Past:
New Histories in Thailand Sicne 1973 Journal of
Southeast Asian Studies 26 (1995): 99 - 120.
Werner, Jayne Susan. Peasant Politics and Religious
Sectarianism: Peasant and Priest in the Cao Dai in
Viet Nam. New Haven: Yale University, Southeast
Asia Studies, 1981.
Whitmore, John K. Note: The Vietnamese Confucian Scholars
View of His Countrys Early History In Kenneth Hall
and John Whitmore, eds. Explorations in Early
Southeast Asian History: The Origin of Southeast
Asian Statecraft. Pp. 193 - 203. Ann Arbor: Center
for South and Southeast Asian Studies, 1976.
Whitmore, John K. Elephants Can Actually Swim:
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http://www.chamtoday.com/index.php?option=com_content&
view=article&id=190:theuprisingofthecentral&catid=47.

131

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146

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170

160
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171

161

.
.
, 2542.
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, 2549.
. .
: ,
2544.

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1JFSSF#SPDIFVY

46



176

177

164
:
(.. 1927 - 1937)
(Pierre Brocheux)
46


Le Proltariat des plantations dhvas au Vietnam
mridional: aspects sociaux et politiques (1927 - 1937)
Le Mouvement Social ..1975

(Phu Rieng)
(Dau Tieng) .. 1927 - 1937



46

178

165




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179

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19

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Aso 2009)

181

168
(Lgionnaires) 300 500

(Tu Binh 1985: 23; Brocheux 1977: 76)

(Poulo Condore)




.. 1945

182

169

(

)


(Pierre Brocheux) Le Proltariat des
plantations dhvas au Vietnam mridional: aspects sociaux
et politiques (1927 - 1937) Le Mouvement
Social .. 1975


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183

170
of Rubber John Tully (2011)



184

171
:

(.. 1927 - 1937)


(Pierre Brocheux)



185

172

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193

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194

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196

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198

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199

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.. 1932
.. 1932

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201

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202

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)

203

190


1930






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204

191

205

192










.. 1930


206

193










207

194

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..
1930

208

195









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209

196

210

197




(
)







.. 1937


211

198

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Fabre, Ren. Les plantations de caoutchouc du Vietnam.
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51

51

214

215

200

. 51


1990


51

216

201



86.9

1.

1970

217

202







..1979 - 1988

.. 1986 774.7



218

203





.. 1989
1.8

219

204


.. 2001 - 2010
7 .. 2010
6.78 .. 2011 6 6.5
160
1990 1,328.57 ..
2011







220

205

5
.. 2006 - 2010
7 .. 2010
GDP 101.6
3.26
.. 2000
1,168
.. 2010 72.8 67 ( ..2001)
5
.2011 - 2015
.. 2011 - 2015
7 - 7.5 .. 2015
2,000
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41 - 42
41 - 42
55

221

206
12
8


.. 2020
10 (..
2011 - 2020) 10

222

207
1.





2.


Perestroika

Glasnost

223

208
3.



.. 1979 .. 1988

224

209

-




25

2.
.. 1986
6

225

210



1980
(a Multi - Directional Foreign
Policy)

(Foreign policy of

Multilateralism and Diversification)



1990

226

211


..
1991
.. 1992

6 .. 1976


52



.. 1995
.. 1995


52



227

212
(APEC)
..1998 (World
Trade Organization) 11 ..2007

.. 2008 - 2009
.. 2010
.. 2010

.. 2010

43
7 ..2010


17 (28 - 30 .. 2010) 1 (12
.. 2010)


228

213

New Thinking of Vietnamese


Foreign Policy after 1986
Asian Scholarship Foundation/Ford
Foundation


1.

2.





229

214
3.

4.


230

215

25



3.




1.

(
)

231

216




2. 86.9

3.





1,000



232

217


(Van Mieu)
.. 1070



15


233

218
4.

1.


(111
.. 939)
( 19

20)

234

219



..1954
(Cu Chi Tunnel)

(Tet Offensive)
.. 1968
(Vinh Moc Tunnel)
17 (Quang Tri)


2.

235

220

236

221

237

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53
54

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53

240

241

224


53
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245

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vn, i hc Quc gia H Ni / Faculty of Linguistics, University
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246

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259

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260

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271

254
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272

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255

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256



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274

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290

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Trn Tr Di. o to sau i hc ti Khoa Ngn ng hc


(Trng i hc Khoa hc X hi v Nhn vn - i
hc Quc gia H Ni), H Ni: Khoa Ngn ng hc,
Trng i hc Khoa hc X hi v Nhn vn, 2012.

(Melia). , 12
2556.

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Images of French Colonial Vietnamese Societies through
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Historical Sources to the Status of Memory and History
72

71

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23 2553 6
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294

275











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.

Southeast Asian Studies

.
.

295

276
















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296

277


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297

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298

279

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299

280

20
4
20
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(Marguerite
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LAmant (1984)
.. 1958 .. 1992
.. 2008


74

300

281


.. 1885 - 1945


1.1

301

282









.. 1945 - 1954 .. 1970 1975 Boat People

.. 1986


19

302

283

303

284

(The
Annales School) 20

75
76 (visual evidence)
(material

culture)


75

Jacques Le Goff, Roger Chartier, and

Jacques Revel, ed. La Nouvelle Histoire (Paris: Retz, 1978).


76

, :
,
1 (:
, 2555).

304

1.2

285



77
(autobiographical literature)



LAmant


77

(autobiographical literature)

305

286
20

LAmant

[]

(The Lover  , ,
2536: 9)

306

287


[]



(The Lover  , ,
2536: 26)




Un
barrage contre le Pacifique LAmant

307

288





(  ,

, 2540: 181)

(Ch Ln)
LAmant

308

289



[]

(The Lover  , , 2536: 47)




LAmant


(The Lover  , , 2536:
40)

309

290
(Ch Ln)
18

20
(landscape)
.. 1881
(Socit gnrale des tramways vapeur de
Cochinchine) 2
1920



[]

(The Lover  , , 2536:


50)

310

291


1

1: .. 1919 - 1926
: http://anom.archivesnationales.culture.gouv.fr/
25 2555

311

292

1.3

(historical drama films)


312

293
2
LAmant

(The Lover  , ,
2536: 26)

313

294

2: LAmant .. 1992
Jean-Jacques Annaud

http://lesfutilitesdemellec.hautetfort.com/

archive/2009/05/25/l-amant.html 4 2556

314

295






, , , , ,
, , ,

(The Lover  , ,
2536: 32)



LAmant

315

296









LAmant

316

297



(The Lover  , ,
2536: 58)

3: LAmant Jane March


( Tony Leung Ka-fai)
: http://olpost.com/v/4164604 4 2556

Jane
March ( .. 1973) -

298
LAmant

317

LAmant 19

318

1.3

299




(creative economy)

1000 78



79


78

79

http://gallica.bnf.fr/

http://www.archivesnationales.culture.gouv.fr/ anom/fr/

319

300
80


(photographic corpus)

81

80

(LIndochine franaise) LIndochine coloniale


() belleindochine.free.fr

81

Annie Duprat, Images et histoire. Outils et mthodes danalyse des


documents iconographiques. (Paris: Belin, Coll. Belin Sup Histoire, 2007,)
224 p.; Ludmilla Jordanova, The Look of the Past: Visual and Material
Evidence in Historical Practice. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2012,) 264 p.; Haskell, Francis. History and Its Images: art and
interpretation. New York: Yale University Press, 1995, 568 p.
, :
, , 2555.

320

301





(Ch Ln)
LAmant

LAmant
1920 1930
4
(Landscape Change)


321

302

4: 1920
: http://belleindochine.free.fr 25 2555




20

322

303

(  ,
, 2540: 14)
5


(exoticism)

323

304

5:
.. 1910
:
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soci%C3%A9t%C3%A9_g%C3%A9n%C3%A9ra
le_des_tramways_%C3%A0_vapeur_de_Cochinchine 25
2555

324

305

6: 1920
: http://belleindochine.free.fr 25 2555

325

306

7: Rue de Canton
.. 1926
: http://belleindochine.free.fr 25
2555

8

20

326

307

8: 1920
:

http://belleindochine.free.fr 25

327

308



[]

(  ,
, 2540: 185)


(partial) (selected) (personally
perceived)

()


328

309




2. :

(traditional

historical

approaches)


19


20

329

310
(The Annales School)



(historical information)
82



82

Peter Burke, The French Historical Revolution: The Annales


School 1929-89 (California: Stanford University Press, 1990) Andr
Burguire, LEcole des Annales: Une histoire intellectuelle. Paris: Odile
Jacob, 2006,) 366 p.

330

311
2.1

(photographs)
(films) (visual

sources)

(literature) (written sources)



(truth)



(social history)
(cultural history)
. :

331

312



(historical drama film)






(past reconstruction)




(truth)


(worldview reformation)

332

313


20

.


(narration)



(truth)
(realities) (fact)

333

314

3


(scale)

2.2

(memory)
20 Maurice
Halbwachs

Les cadres sociaux de la

mmoire .. 1925
(collective memory)
(biography)
(social group representation)


334

315

83
.




83


Jacques Le Goff, Histoire et mmoire.
(Paris: Gallimard, Coll. Folio Histoire, 1988,) 409 p.; Geoffrey Cubitt, History
and Memory. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007,) 263 p.;
Astrid Erll, Memory in Culture. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011,) 209
p.

( Kollectives

Gedchtnis und Errinnerungskulturen)

335

316





(
) (story telling)
(narrative)


84
(commemoration)



84

336

317



.





(oral history)



LAmant

337

318

(The Lover  , , 2536:


40)


338

319




(contemporary aspect)

(
)



(perception of the past) 85

85

Le film, une contre-analyse

de la socit Marc Ferro, Cinma et Histoire, (Paris: Gallimard,

339

320



(historical resources)

(individual memory)






(fact)




1993) 31 - 62. William Guynn, Writing History in Film.


(London: Routledge, 2006).

340

321
(realities)













86

86

Jacques Le Goff

()

341

322



(invented collective memory)



(trap of created past)



(Thorie du jeu de miroir)





16 - 18

342

323

Burke, Peter. Eyewitnessing: The Uses of Images as Historical


Evidence. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001,
224 p.
Cubitt, Geoffrey. History and Memory. Manchester:
Manchester University Press, 2008, 272 p.
Duprat, Annie. Images et histoire. Outils et mthodes
danalyse des documents iconographiques. Paris:
Belin, Coll. Belin Sup Histoire, 2007, 224 p.
Ferro, Marc. Cinma et histoire, d. refondue. Paris:
Gallimard, 1993.
Guynn, William. Writing History in Film. London: Routledge,
2006.
Hughes-Warrington, Marnie. History Goes to the Movies:
Studying History on Film. London: Routledge,
2007.

343

324
Haskell, Francis. History and Its Images: art and
interpretation. New York: Yale University Press,
1995, 568 p.
Jordanova, Ludmilla. The Look of the Past: Visual and Material
Evidence in Historical Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2012, 264 p.
Le Goff, Jacques. Histoire et mmoire. Paris: Gallimard, Coll.
Folio Histoire, 1988, 409 p.
.
Anonymous. Situation de lIndo-chine franaise au
commencement de 1894. Hanoi: Schneider, 1894.
Beau, Paul. Situation de lIndo-Chine de 1902 - 1907 Vol.I.
Saigon: Imprimerie commerciale Marcellin Rey, 1908.
Beau, Paul. Situation de lIndo-Chine de 1902 - 1907 Vol.II.
Saigon: Imprimerie commerciale Marcellin Rey, 1908.
Doumer, Paul. Rapport sur la situation de lIndo-Chine
franaise (1897 - 1901). Hanoi: Schneider, 1902.
Gouvernement gnral de lIndochine. Rapport au Conseil
suprieur, 1910 - 1939. Hanoi-Haiphong: Imprimerie
de lExtrme-Orient, 1911 - 1940.

344

325
.

Brocheux, Pierre. Une histoire conomique du Viet Nam,


1850 - 2007. Paris: Les Indes savantes, 2009.
Brocheux, Pierre and Daniel Hmery. Indochina: An
Ambiguous Colonization, 1858 - 1954. English Trans.
By Ly LanDill-Klein et al. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 2009. (French version, eds. 1995 and
2001)
Huard, Pierre and Maurice Durand. Connaissance du VitNam. Hanoi: cole franaise dExtrme-Orient, 1954.
Nguyn Th Anh. Parcours dun historien du Vit Nam:
Recueil des articles crits par Nguyn Th Anh,
edited by Philippe Papin. Paris: Les Indes savantes,
2008.
Papin, Philippe. Des villages dans la ville aux villages
urbains : Lespace et les formes du pouvoir
H-Ni de 1805 1940. Ph.D. dissertation,
University of Paris VII, 1997, 737 p.
Papin, Philippe and Laurent Passicousset. Vivre avec les
Vietnamiens. Paris: Archipel, 2010.

345

326
.
Arrault, Alain et al. Arts Asiatiques N 66/2011: Imagerie en
Asie orientale. Paris: Ecole franaise dExtrmeOrient, 2012.
Nguyn Mnh Hng. H Ni Xa. H Ni: Nh Xut Bn Thi
i, 2010.
. H Ni Xa. H Ni: Nh Xut Bn Thi i,
2010.
. Si Gn Xa. H Ni: Nh Xut Bn Thi i,
2010.
H Thm v Phng Th M, bin tp. Nt Xa H Ni. H Ni:
Nh Xut Bn Thng Tn, 2010.

.
DURAS, Marguerite. Un barrage contre le Pacifique. Paris:
Gallimard, 1950.
. LAmant. Paris: Minuit, 1984.
. LAmant de la Chine du Nord. Paris:
Gallimard, 1991.

346

327
Goineaud-Brard, Andr. Indo 46 (Ctait encore lIndochine
franaise). Paris: Publibook, 2003.
LEFEVRE, Kim. Mtisse blanche. Paris: Bernard Barrault, 1989.
Nguyn Bac. Au cur de la ville captive. Souvenirs dun
agent vietminh infiltr Hanoi. Paris: Arla, 2004.
.
Indochine, 1992 Rgis Wargnier
LAmant, 1992 Jean-Jacques Annaud
Un barrage contre le Pacifique, 2008 Rithy
Panh









87
88


 


88



348

349

328

.. 1975 - 200387
88


(Bo
Nhn dn, 1981: 12)




87

.. 1975 - 2003
.. 2549
: 8 ( - 2550)
88

350

329


( .. 2530, 2530:
613) (T
Tng)
89
Benedict Anderson (1983)




(imagined communities)





89

T Tng: Quan im v ngh chung ca con ngi

i vi hin thc khch quan v i vi x hi.

351

330




( , 2524: 21)

352

331
.. 1975 - 1985

.. 1976
(L Dun)
3



(Xy dng vn ha mi
con ngi mi)
(Vn To, 1981: 10)
.. 1979


1980/1981
.. 1981
1981/1982
1992/1993
12 ..

353

332
2000

.. 1975 - 2000

1991
1979

2001

(Nh xut bn Gio dc)



(Ban t tng - Vn ha Trung
ng)

354

333

355

334



[
]

(Truyn c lp 1, 1999: 6)


2 t
nc t nc

356

335



(Ting Vit lp 1, tp
II, 2001: 1)


(trm trng n trm
con)90

90

(Lc Long Qun) (u


c)



(Phong Tru)
(Hng Vng)

357

336

(Hng Vng)













(Kinh v Ba Na l anh em)

358

337




(on kt cc dn tc anh em)

(o c lp 5, 2003: 35)

338



(Qu u vy?)



(qu hng)





359

360

339
Ta Yu Qu Ta

Yu tng b rung,li mn,

ti bng go, bic rn


ngn du.

Yu con sng mt sng xao


Dng sng tui nh r ro
ht ca.

m da tr n,

m c tr bng,

Yu hng t ra hoa,

Yu sao ting m ru nng

Ting thoi lch cch bn

nong du tm

361

340

5
(Ting Vit lp 2, 2002: 67 - 68)



362

341




6 (Thn em i mi)

342
Thn em i mi

363

c my cy

Ri ngy mai y

Em ngi cm li

(Ting Vit lp 1, tp II, 1991: 79)





(Anh Hng dn tc
truyn thng) (Anh Hng hin i)



364

343




(ng Ging)
(Truyn c lp 1, 1999: 16)




91


(Ting trng M
Linh) (Truyn c lp 1,1999:37)

91

(khn)

365

344




(Vn hay nhng ch phi p)


(Cao B Qut)




366

345



[Ch Nht -]

(M thut lp 2, 1999: 20)

(l Cho c)

()



(o

367

346
c lp 1, Ti bn ln th tm, 1998: 26)


(ct c)

368

347

92
:


92

369

348

(Ting Vit lp 5, 2003: 11 - 12)

370

349



(o c lp 2, 2002: 5)



(th gi cc
hc sinh)

371

350

()
.. 1945

,










?

372

351









(Ting Vit lp 5, 2003: 4)

373

352









(Ting Vit lp 2,Tp I, 2002: 4)
(Chu ngoan Bc H)


,
, ,
, ,

(Ting Vit lp 1, tp II, 1994: 89)

374

353







:
,
(o c lp 2, 2002: 5)


(mt que dim) (o c
lp 4, 2004: 19)


375

354







376

355

(o c lp 2, 2002: 16)

(Ting Vit lp 1,Tp II, 2003: 97)

377

356



(ng Yt kiu) (Truyn c lp
1, 1999: 28)
6 - 7


(Thc dn Php)

(Gic
Php) (Anh Hng
nh xa tng)



378

357





.. 1951
6

( C Chn Lan)

(o c lp 4, 2004: 19)

358
(ln

ng nh gic M)
(Ty Nguyn)



(Roc)


, ,
:
, ,
!

379

380

359

(K l) 93
(Ting Vit lp5, 2003: 145 - 146)




(Anh Hng nh tui dit xe tng)
(Lai)




(Truyn c lp 4, 1999:
132)

93

(Roc), (K-L)

(Ty Nguyn)

381

360








(A - Li - L
- Xa)
(Truyn
c lp 4, 2001: 52)

(Truyn clp 4, 1999: 45)


(o c
lp 2, 2002: 25)

382

361








(Ting Vit lp 1,Tp II, 2002: 25)



(chin s)

383

362
(lit s)


(nhng bng hoa tm) (o c lp 5,
2003: 41) (Nghi)




...

(n qu
nh k trng cy)

384

363







(o c lp 5, 2003: 43)

385

364


-




(sn sng)





386

365
94


94

(i thiu nin tin

phong H Ch Minh)

387

366

95




POUIBOIOJO
(on thanh nin
DOHTO)$I.JOI


cng sn H Ch Minh)


95

388

367

(Ting Vit lp 5, 2003: 15-16)

389

368






(Tch cc tham gia cng vic chung)


(o c lp 4,

2004:

5)


(ng gi trong sinh hot chung)

390

369

(o c lp 4, 2004: 8)

391

370




96 (s tch
qu da hu)


96

392

371
(Truyn c lp1, 1999: 11)



!
(Ting Vit lp 1, 2001: 19)

393

372






.. 1975

394

373

. .. 2530.
: , 2530.
.

Patron-client

model . :
, 2524.

Bo Nhn dn. Chnh sch ca ng Lao ng Vit Nam i


vi tr thc. Nghin c lch s, 11 - 12 (1981): 12.
B Gio dc v o To. o c lp 1. Ti bn ln th tm.
H Ni: NXB Gio dc, 1998.
_____________________. o c lp 2. Ti bn ln th mi
ba. H Ni: NXB Gio dc, 2002.

395

374
B Gio dc v o To. o c lp 4. Ti bn ln th mi
bn. H Ni: NXB Gio dc, 2004.
_____________________. o c lp 5. Ti bn ln th mi
ba. H Ni: NXB Gio dc, 2003.
_____________________. M thut lp 2. Ti bn ln th
tm. H Ni: NXB Gio dc, 2001.
_____________________. Truyn c lp 1. Ti bn ln th
nm. H Ni: NXB Gio dc, 1999.
_____________________. Truyn c lp 4. Ti bn ln th
by. H Ni: NXB Gio dc, 2001.
_____________________. Ting Vit lp 1. Ti bn ln th
mi hai. H Ni: NXB Gio dc, 2001.
_____________________. Ting Vit lp 1, tp II. Ti bn ln
th mi hai. Chnh l nm 1994. H Ni: NXB Gio
dc, 1991.
_____________________. Ting Vit lp 1, tp II. Ti bn ln
th mi hai. H Ni: NXB Gio dc,1994.

396

375
B Gio dc v o To. Ting Vit lp 1., tp II. Ti bn ln
th mi hai. Chnh l nm 1994. H Ni: NXB Gio
dc, 2001.
_____________________. Ting Vit lp 2,Tp I. Ti bn ln
th hai mi. H Ni: NXB Gio dc,2002.
_____________________. Ting Vit lp 2. Ti bn ln th hai
mi. H Ni: NXB Gio dc, 2002.
_____________________. Ting Vit lp 5. Ti bn ln th
mi by. H Ni: NXB Gio dc, 2003.
Trung tm t in hc. T in Ting Vit 2004. H Ni-
Nng: NXB Nng, 2004.
Vn To. V Tr thc Vit Nam trong cch mng x hi ch
ngha. Nghin c lch s, 11 - 12 (1981): 10.

397

376

Benedict Anderson. Imagined communities: reflections on


the origin and spread of nationalism. London:
Verso, 1983.

398

377



 

 

 



  















378

399








400

379








402

403

380

97

21
.. 2522
1
18 .. 2553
31 2 27

2550 - 2553

2548 - 2549


97

404

381

2553

2549

( )

.. 1975 - 2003

2548

2544

2539

2553





2554

2550

405

382

2549

2549

The SEASREP Council, Southeast Asian Language


training Grants of the SEASREP Council (2002 2003) Vietnam National
University, Hanoi University of Social Sciences and
Humanities Center for Applied Linguistics and
Vietnamese.

2547

ASEAN Research Scholar Asia Research


Institute, National university of Singapore.
The
Luisa
malaria Fellowship for M.A. and Phd. Research in
Southeast Asian Studies (2003 - 2004)

2545

(.)


406

383
/


(.),
2552
..
1975 - 2003
, 22 2551

.. 1975 - 2000
:
, 9 - 10
2550

:

1/2546

7 3/2545

407

384


(Y BAN)

Mekong Cross-border marriage

408

385
Article Summaries
^<

98

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sophana Srichampa, Reseach Institute


for Languages and Cultures of Asia (RILCA), Mahidol University,
presents an article entitled Vietnamese Money in the
Dimensions of Language and Culture. The article gives
knowledge and understanding of the development of
Vietnamese money in four periods: the Dynastic Period, the
French Colonial Period, the Democratic Republic Period, and
the Reunification and Open Trade Period. In addition, the
article explains both positive and negative worldviews of
money, which appear in Vietnamese proverbs and idioms, and
also analyzes the moneys symbolic meanings.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Monthira Rato, Faculty of Arts,
Chulalongkorn University, presents an article entitled Social
and Cultural Reflections from South Vietnamese Folktales.

98

 Assistant Professor, Department of Western Languages and

Literature,FacultyofLiberalArts,UbonRatchathaniUniversity

409

386
The article reveals the folktales in South Vietnam and their
reflections of the peoples lifestyle in relation to the
agricultural culture, the new frontier settlements, and the
cultural and ethnic diversity of the region. The article also
gives a new dimension of historical perspectives and tells a
story of Vietnam in the perspectives that are quite different
from those found in North Vietnam, where the countrys
center of knowledge and power exhibits.
Asst. Prof. Dr. Yukti Mukdawijitra, Faculty of Sociology
and Anthropology, Thammasart University, presents an article
entitled Vietnam, Not a Little Dragon: Reading Vietnamese
History through the Past. The article is written in response to
Keith Taylors Surface Orientations in Vietnam: Beyond
Histories of Nation and Region written in 1998. Mukdawijitra
views that 1) Taylors article opens the border to the study of
Vietnams history by telling the stories that go beyond the
nations history and the local history, 2) the identity of
Vietnam is based on the differences of the Vietnamese people
from other ethnic groups such as Cham, Chinese, Khmer, and

410

387
other highlanders, 3) Vietnam is not merely a little dragon
but also an important part of Eastern Asia and South East Asia,
and 4) there are political implications in Taylors article,
particularly in the part when Taylor emphasizes the way of
doing Vietnamese rather than the way of being Vietnamese.
The article concludes that Taylor questions the development
of political historiography as well as identity politics of
Vietnam.
Asst. Prof. Dr. Pichet Saiphan, Faculty of Sociology and
Anthropology, Thammasat University, presents an article on
Nom-Tai Alphabet: Influence of Chinese Alphabetic System
on the Letters of the Tai language in Vietnam. The article
views that the Nom-Tai alphabetic system of the Tai language
in Vietnam is based on the alphabetic system of the Han Nom
language in China. The historical evidence that supports this
claim is found in the Nom-Tai records in the 16th to 17th
century. Moreover, the article mentions that the Nom-Tai
alphabetic system is closely related to the Nom-Viet
alphabetic system. This is because the Tai and Vietnamese

411

388
people have lived together for a long period of time. The
Vietnamese aristocrats had settled in the area where the Tai
people lived, since the 13th century. As the two groups of
people were in contact, there were exchanges of knowledge
and culture between them causing their languages to influence
each other.
Asst. Prof. Ananthana Methanon presents a translation
of Pierre Brocheuxs article entitled Le Proltariat des
plantations dhvas au Vietnam mridional: aspects sociaux
et politiques (1927 - 1937), which was published in Le
Mouvement Social in 1975. The article reveals the strikes of
the rubber tree farm workers who worked for Michelin Vietnam
Co. Ltd., focusing on the strikes in Phu Rieng and Dau Tieng in
South Vietnam during 1927 to 1937. In those strikes, the
workers stopped working and seized the farms, so the French
Colonial authority sent troops to suppress them. The article
studies the history and model of the strikes by looking at
different social dimensions of the workers including their
hometowns, origins, living conditions, psychological factors,

412

389
and statistical evidence. Although the strikers were finally
suppressed, these incidents were the beginning of the
movement against the French Colonization and the formation
of a communist or Mark-Lenin nationalist organization, which
fought against the great powers during the Vietnam War under
the name of the National Liberation Front or Viet Cong.
Dr. Thanyathip Sripana, Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn
University, presents an article entitled Strengths of Vietnam for
Successful National Development. The article shows various factors
that support the development of Vietnam to become one of the
important countries in Southeast Asia. These factors include the
ability to adapt and combine economic strategies and policies,
the ability to adapt foreign policies, wealth in natural
resources, and qualified human resources. More importantly,
patriotism, awareness for the nations benefits, determination
for national development, and political security are also the
main factors for the fast growing development of Vietnam.
Dr. Siriwong Hongsuwan, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Ubon
Ratchathani University, presents an article entitled Studying

413

390
for a Ph.D. in Linguistics at the Faculty of Linguistics, University
of Social Sciences and Humanities, Member of Vietnam
National University - Hanoi. The article is written form the
writers own experience during her Ph.D. education at the
Faculty of Linguistics, University of Social Sciences and
Humanities, a member of Vietnam National University - Hanoi,
Vietnam from 2004 to 2009. The article mentions that the
methods and processes used for studying a Ph.D. in the
Socialist Republic of Vietnam are quite different from those in
the democratic countries. Vietnamese people have different
sets of viewpoints, ideas, and studying culture, which have
been fostered in the Vietnamese people since the past until
now.
Mr. Mit Sapphud, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Ubon
Ratchathani University, presents an article entitled Images of
French Colonial Vietnamese Society Through Photographs,
Films, and Literature: Debates on Values of Historical Sources
to the Status of Memory and History. The article reveals
how photographs, films, and literature reflect the Vietnamese

414

391
society during the French colonial period in different ways.
Films and literature reflect the society through the directors
and authors point of views, so it is seen as a presenation of
the past experience through memories. Photographs, on the
other hand, reflect a more realistic picture of the society. They
are classified as primary sources of visual evidence - a kind of
historical evidence and autonomous evidence.
Miss Hathairat Munart, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Ubon
Ratchathani University, presents an article on Thoughts on
Vietnam as a Nation in Primary School Textbooks from 1975 to
2003. The article reveals the governments use of compulsory
education to transfer the nations ideologies to its citizen. The
thoughts include 1) Vietnamese as antecedents of a dragon
king and an angel, 2) Vietnam as an industrialized country with
beautiful natural resources, 3) farmers as the nations heroes,
4) the Flag and President Hojimin as the nations spiritual
centers, 5) China and French as the nations enemies, 6) Russia
and Eastern European countries as allies, 7) patriotism, 8)
socialism, 9) public mindedness, and 10) respects to the labors

415

392
and skilled craftsmen. The article concludes that to build the
nation since 1975, the Vietnamese government use not only
imagination, but also the cultural and historical foundations of
the country.

416