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Vocabulary Understand and be able to apply each of these terms. 1.

Biome: an environment inhabit by communities of flora and fauna 2. Climate: the temperature and/or precipitation of an area. Usually affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude 3. Rainshadow: an area that is dry located on the back side of mountainous areas 4. Windward: the front side of a mountainous area or the side that is facing the wind 5. Leeward: the back side of a mountainous area or the side that is away from the wind 6. Latitude: a geographic coordinate that goes north to south 7. Altitude: the height. Usually used to mean the height above sea level of a location 8. Primary Succession: when primary producers grows in a location that lacks soil 9. Secondary Succession: occurs after the primary succession has been disrupted causing the initial population to reduce 10. Tropical: warm to hot and moist year-round climates. 11. Temperate: the degree or amount of heat in a substance 12. Desert: an area that usually experiences less than 250 mm of precipitation per year, some years may have no precipitation. 13. Polar: a region that receives less solar radiation because the suns energy hits it at an oblique angle causing it to spread over a larger area and travels a longer distance through the Earths atmosphere.

Critical Thinking Read, analyze, and give complete answers to these questions. 1. Describe the rainshadow effect and explain how it can alter the climate of the windward and leeward sides of a mountain range. Rainshadow effect is caused when air expands as it goes up on the windward side of the mountain range causing air molecules to be farther apart compare to the beginning; therefore the temperature decreases due to pressure. As it begin to sink on the leeward side, the surrounding air begins to compress causing air mass to heat up.

2. What effect does living near a large ocean or lake have on average air temperatures? Why?- Explain. By living near a large ocean or lake, the temperature will be higher in the winter than inlands because water has a high capacity of holding heat. 3. Complete this summary chart of the land-based ecosystems. Equatorial, Polar, or MidLatitude? Tropical Desert Equatorial Precipitation (High, Low, Seasonal) Low Average Temperature (High, Low Seasonal) High Example Animal and Plant Adaptations Coyote, Kangaroo Rat, Creosote Bush, Bur Sage Armadillo Lizard, barrel cactus Whales, penguins, wildflowers Kangaroos, grass Perennial grasses, perennial forbs, turf, rodent herbivores Caribou, low shrub Blue oak, black-tailed rabbit Amphibians, anaconda, capybara, bougainvillea, kapok tree Oaks, foxes Evergreen trees, beavers Elk, evergreens Mountain lions

Temperate Desert

Mid-Latitude

Low

Seasonal

Polar Desert

Polar

Low

Low

Tropical Grasslands Temperate Grasslands

Equatorial Mid-Latitude

Seasonal Low

High Seasonal

Polar Grasslands Chaparral

Polar Mid-Latitude

Low Low

High Seasonal

Tropical Rainforest

Equatorial

High

High

Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest (taiga) Temperate Rainforest Mountains

Mid-Latitude Polar Mid-Latitude Mid-Latitude

High Seasonal High Seasonal

Seasonal Seasonal Seasonal Low

4. For each category of biomes, give a major human impact and list 2 endangered species: a. Deserts People mine in deserts. Desert tortoise and kangaroo rats are endangered species that inhabits deserts. b. Grasslands People keep live stocks on grasslands and some of the cows and cattle graze the grasslands. The Asian Elephant and the Black Rhinoceros are endangered species in grasslands. c. Forest People cause deforestations. Gorillas and Jaguars are endangered in the forests. d. Mountains People would mine in mountains. Canada Lynx and Gray Wolves are endangered in mountains areas.