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June 2003

GCE A AND AS LEVEL

MARK SCHEME MAXIMUM MARK: 40

SYLLABUS/COMPONENT: 9700/01 BIOLOGY Paper 1 (Multiple Choice)

Page 1

Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003

Syllabus 9700

Paper 1

Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Key D A C C A C D A B A B C B C D A D A C C

Question Number 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Key D B B A C C B B C D A C C D B B D B B C

TOTAL 40

© University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003

June 2003

GCE A AND AS LEVEL

MARK SCHEME MAXIMUM MARK: 50

SYLLABUS/COMPONENT: 9700/02 BIOLOGY Paper 2 (Theory 1)

an oblique line / R A AW underlined with a straight line D L Q indicates a separation of marking points indicates alternative wording or acceptable alternative means reject means accept means 'alternative wording' accept this word only. no alternative word is acceptable represents quality mark(s) awarded for diagrams.Page 1 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 2 KEY a semi colon . as indicated on the Mark Scheme represents quality of expression and is used for marks awarded on free-response questions © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . as indicated on the Mark Scheme represents mark(s) awarded for labels on diagrams.

assembly of nucleotides/polynucleotide (chain) formed. No penalisation for complete lack of all crosses (or all ticks) unless mixture of x and ü missing as agreed emphysema x x x x ü tuberculosis x ü x x ü or x obesity x x ü x x rickets x x ü ü x smallpox ü ü or x x x x statement eliminated by vaccination a worldwide infectious disease a form of malnutrition a deficiency disease involves degeneration of lung tissue [Total 5] © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . R. Marks 1 max 2 (c) max 3 (d) 1 [Total 7] 2 (a) Award one mark per column. fibres replication/DNA synthesis. quantity of DNA doubles/two new double helices formed. ref. to the spindle/microtubules/spindle fibres. B. E. by base/complementary pairing/ A-T and G-C.Page 2 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 2 Question 1 (a) (b) Expected Answers C. replicated (sister) chromatids/(daughter) chromosomes pulled/moved/ separate/migrate to (opposite) poles. R. (alongside) old/original/both strands. split R. production of genetically identical cells/genetically uniform cells/ identical DNA/maintains genetic stability/same number and kind of c-somes/no genetic variation. centromeres have divided/duplicated. act as template. D.

movement of water vapour from high to low conc. C . no cell wall.mitochondria. lignin unqualified R. evaporation of water (from damp walls)./no free ribosomes. semi-permeable max 2 transpiration pull/cohesion-tension/cohesion-adhesion/ mass flow in xylem. shading of just one phloem group) (b) ref to bending/provide support/strength. diffusion of water vapour/water as a gas/described.Golgi apparatus. B .nucleus. max 4 (ignore ref. have organelles/named visible organelles. vacuolar pathways) [Total 9] (d) © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . memory cells unless linked to antibody production 1 (c) nucleus/nuclear envelope/nuclear membranes/nucleolus. (complete xylem star must be shaded) 1 1 1 (ii) shade in phloem. into (substomatal/intercellular) air spaces. (e.cell surface membrane. (R.Page 3 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 2 3 (a) Correct letter order on Question Paper: A . D . into spongy mesophyll (cells). max 4 R. symplast. (A. R.) through stomata/cuticle (to air/ atmosphere). down water potential gradient/from high/less negative to low/more negative water potential/AW. process statements instead of letters (b) secrete/release/produce/make antibodies.R. prevents collapsing (c) osmosis/diffusion. E . more organelles larger (cell). osmotic potential/conc.RER. (golgi/mitochondrion/ RER) R. gradients/ less or more) through partially/selectively/differentially permeable membrane. to apoplast.g. many cell walls/surfaces/large surface area. R. immunoglobulins R. max 2 [Total 7] 4 (a) (i) shade in xylem. fixed ribosomes/ribosomes attached to E. A.

less respiration/respiration rate decreased.respiration less efficient/effective muscle. show 50% plus saturation at pp of 6kpa) 1 [Total 13] 6 (a) Two correct letters required for a mark for each column if list given. (whilst) myoglobin holds on to oxygen/is very stable/does not dissociate easily/has a higher affinity for oxygen. e.Page 4 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 2 5 (a) (i) haem. so delaying anaerobic respiration. cardiac/skeletal/involuntary muscle R. (N. R. Both % need to be correct for one mark) max 3 1 (c) (d) 1 (ii) haemoglobin unloads/releases oxygen/dissociates. 2 (ii) soluble/polar/hydrophilic (on outside)/compact/spherical/curled/ coiled/folded (into a ball)/metabolically active. named muscle. (so will not) release oxygen until the pp/conc. mark first 2 letters./tension of oxygen is low/during strenuous exercise. A. 25%. (so) providing a store/reservoir/reserve of oxygen. start at 0. plateau out at between 90-98% saturation. within range 23-25% R. R. less RBCs less oxygen transported/supplied/delivered (to cells/tissues). less haemoglobin (made). curve should be S-shaped. biceps muscle (i) 90%. easily/readily/at higher ppO2 (in tissues/cells). 2 4 polypeptides. Alcohol U V Y Z Caffeine S T Z Nicotine S T W X Z Heroin U Y W 4 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . max 3 (e) S-shaped curve to the right of H. A.B. incorrect spelling combines/binds with/carries/holds/takes up/transports oxygen.B. (b) iron needed for haem/haem contains iron. R. 22-25% (N.g. 23-26%.

hydrophobic.S. tertiary/3D structure or shape changes/any two bonds mentioned break. disulphide.S. max 3 Either mark scheme as appropriate – do not mix marking points from both mark schemes [Total 9] Total mark for paper = 50 (c) © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . drug is metabolised/becomes part of body's metabolism. covalent) active site changes shape. complex formed. increasing substrate has no effect. decrease in sensitivity of receptors/more receptors are made. substrate no longer fits/binds/active site no longer complementary to substrate/E. more drug necessary to achieve the same effect/sensation/euphoria. hydrogen. (ionic. complex not formed. substrate can no longer bind/substrate blocked/no E. or inhibitor fits permanently/irreversibly into active site. max 2 award marks from any annotated diagrams Either inhibitor fits site other than active site/allosteric site. van der Waals.Page 5 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 2 (b) decrease in response to drug/effect of drug becomes less (intense).

June 2003 GCE A AND AS LEVEL MARK SCHEME MAXIMUM MARK: 25 SYLLABUS/COMPONENT: 9700/03 BIOLOGY Paper 3 (Practical 1) .

cell membrane. T1 results have increased. Keep at constant temperature. red blood cells. Increased kinetic energy of molecules/move faster. 45-50 means correct. to table and denaturisation i. Rate of diffusion of glucose into yeast. Number of bubbles produced by T2 deducted from totals for T1.e. Wall of alveoli not more than 3 diameters of nuclei. alveolus wall. (b) Allow the yeast to get to the correct temperature. 1 1 1 1 1 1 REJECT unqualified rates of reaction. Three from: Not alternate counting. 35-40 means correct. Nuclei drawn. Control pH. i. T1 higher. Max 2 Allow reduce volume of reagents if qualified (e) Max 3 (15) 2 (a) Clear single lines (quality). i. epi/endothelium. to results e. 3 correct labels from: air space/alveolus. Red blood cells smaller than nuclei. max 2 IGNORE for better comparison/control/fair test (c) (d) Two from: Explanation of control. Measure volume of gas. Take more readings. cytoplasm.e. accept correct ref. More collisions. eliminate effects of gas expansion due to temp fluctuations.Page 1 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 3 Question Expected Answers Mark 1 1 1 1 Additional Guidance 1 (a) (i)-(iii) T1 > T2. 1 1 1 1 1 3 Max 6 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . nucleus.e. If T1 lower then ecf. yeast or no yeast/enzyme. Allow the gas to expand and vent/ contract and suck back. Correct ref. 3 arms to drawing.g.

Ratio calculated between 1:4 and 1:20. Random sample.Page 2 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 2 (b) 4 from: Procedure explained. Repeat 3 or more times. Max 4 (10) Paper Total 25 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . Calculate means.

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June 2003 GCE A LEVEL MARK SCHEME MAXIMUM MARK: 50 SYLLABUS/COMPONENT: 9700/04 BIOLOGY Paper 4 (Theory 2 (A2 Core)) .

forms PGA. DNA replication. ref. suitable examples. 3 max (c) contains photosystems/PS1 and PS2/chlorophyll and accessory pigments/ reaction centres. inner membrane of mitochondria/cristae.Page 1 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 4 1 (a) top half of leaf/just below (upper) epidermis. movement of chloroplasts. produce reduced NADP. maintain carriers/receptors in position. packed (densely). short diffusion pathway. and reduced NADP. long axis in line with incident light/AW. carbon dioxide combines with RuBP. 2 max (c) oxidative phosphorylation more than substrate level phosphorylation. (cell) elongated/arranged to intercept (maximum) light. to Rubisco. 4 max ref. 4/6 per glucose. proton pumping/proton gradient. site of photophosphorylation/light reaction. e. large surface area.g. large vacuole. (only give if linked to next point) chloroplasts (in cytoplasm) close to cell wall/cell membrane. 32/34 vs. 2 max (b) contain large numbers of chloroplasts/large amount of chlorophyll. protein synthesis. matrix of mitochondria (in Krebs cycle). driven/powered by ATP. to quantity.g. muscle contraction. e. thin (cell) wall. 2 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . 2 max Total: 11 (d) 2 (a) provides energy. site of ETC. ATP synthase. ref. produce ATP/ref. ref. cell movement. active transport 3 (b) substrate level phosphorylation oxidative phosphorylation cytoplasm (in glycolysis).

of homologous chromosomes. II. synaptic cleft/gap. nuclear membrane reforms. choromatids (pulled) apart. 1 ref. post synaptic membrane. 4 max (c) independent/random assortment. NAD cannot be reformed/NADH cannot be oxidised. vesicle contents/transmitter/exocytosis into synaptic cleft/gap.Page 2 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 4 (d) requires proton gradient produced by ETC. 3 max Total: 10 3 (a) A B C D E vesicles containing transmitter/acetylcholine/synaptic vesicle. (allow one mark for telophase and two marks for telophase 1) 2 (b) ref. to opposite poles. crossing over/chiasmata. 5 (b) (c) arrow pointing down. chromosomes unwind/AW. Ca2+ into synaptic knob. 3 max Total: 9 4 (a) metaphase. between chromatids of homologous chromosomes/non-sister chromatids. receptor/protein/Na+ gate. different combinations of parental chromosomes. ref. spindles/microtubules shorten contract/pull/breakdown. R genes ref. causes vesicles to move towards presynaptic membrane. with no oxygen ETC does not occur/no electron flow. 4 max Total: 10 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . centromeres divide. oxygen combines with electron/proton/oxygen final acceptor in ETC. low Ca2+ in synaptic knob/high Ca2+ outside knob. action potential/depolarization causes opening of Ca2+ channels. causes vesicles to fuse with presynaptic membrane. breaks up linkage groups/mixes alleles from parents. presynaptic membrane. cytokinesis/cleavage. to non-identical/genetically different gametes.

ref. survival (to breed). ref.Page 3 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 4 5 (a) phenotype is the feature/characteristic. genotype unaffected by environment. coding for a characteristic/protein/polypeptide/enzyme. choose organisms with useful characteristics/benefit to humans. 2 (ii) alternative form of a gene. 2 max artificial selection carried out by humans. ref. genetic characteristics inherited/passed on to offspring/ora/represents alleles possessed. sequence of bases. 3 max Total: 10 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . evolution. natural selection carried out by environment. results from interaction of genotype and environment on organism/ environment may alter the appearance of an organism. occupies same locus. determining contrasting characters/controls one form of a character. ref. dominance. 3 max (b) (c) (i) length of DNA/sequence of bases/locus on a chromosome.

June 2003 GCE A LEVEL MARK SCHEME MAXIMUM MARK: 30 SYLLABUS/COMPONENT: 9700/05 BIOLOGY Paper 5 (Practical 2 (A2)) .

F1 urea removed by kidney. chondrocyte. 1 mark for each correct explanation. F1 renal vein (plasma). nuclear membrane. cytoplasm. F2 high concentration of urea. Nucleus proportionately smaller than (a). max 1 Both circular/oval/angular/NOT columnar. cells tapering. F2 changes quickest/F3 2nd to change. cell membrane.Page 1 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 5 Question 1 (a) (i) Expected Answers F1 does not change/∞. nucleus. brush border drawn by single line. 3 correct labels from brush border.e. Clear unbroken lines. cytoplasm. large nuclei almost cell width. means of more precise pH measurement Max 2 (10) 2 (a) 2 cells only drawn. replication. Blue. F2 urine. circular nucleus. nuclear membrane. lacuna. max 1 Max 4 3 correct labels = 1 mark (b) Max 4 3 correct labels = 1 mark . i. columnar. F3 renal artery (plasma). intercellular matrix. F3 low concentration of urea. cell membrane. 3 correct labels from: nucleus. Marks 1 1 1 Additional Guidance (ii) (iii) Max 2 ENSURE ecf from (a) (i) 3=2 2=1 1 1 1 (b) Two from: start all three at same time.

Temperature. Equilibrate if not given in (b). Tight fit/no leaks. nucleus oval: circular. Two from: Light. Measure leaf area.Page 2 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 5 (c) Two from: brush border: no brush border. Ref to reset apparatus qualified. Scale read. Max 2 (10) 3 (a) Three from: Ref to fan. Alter fan speed/change fan distance. πr2 h = 2 marks. columnar: angular or circular. Ref to acclimatisation. Max 3 (b) Max 2 (c) Max 3 (d) 1 1 (10) Paper Total 30 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . Ref to support. Ref to under water. Area of capillary. Clip closed. Replication. cells side by side: cells scattered. Or length X. Capillary tube contains water. Humidity. Three from: Time measured. no matrix: cells separated by matrix.

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June 2003 GCE A LEVEL MARK SCHEME MAXIMUM MARK: 50 SYLLABUS/COMPONENT: 9700/06 BIOLOGY Paper 6 (Options (A2)) .

increased use of pesticides. each filament has many (gill) lamellae. max 3 (c) © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . C or) D. loss may affect. ref. pay premium for coffee grown. better availability of light. to global warming. to different levels of vegetation in original forest (canopy.Page 1 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 Option 1 – Biodiversity 1 (a) (existence of many) different species. which provides large surface area. habitats/ecosystems. genes/alleles. of oxygen in blood always lower than in water next to it or always a diffusion gradient between water and blood. find uses for the non-coffee trees in system A. max 2 (b) max 3 (c) (i) max 2 (ii) max 2 (iii) max 2 (d) 2 (e) max 2 [Total 15] 2 (a) A B operculum. populations of pests (on coffee trees) can become very high in D. to slow water flow. greater variety of food sources for birds. 2 (b) (each gill arch has) many (gill) filaments. provide nitrate/ammonium. may be a carbon sink/ref. gill bar. loss of habitats for pests. loss may affect rainfall patterns. in system A/in sustainable way. water progressively loses oxygen as it passes through the gills. fewer bird species to predate them/fewer predators. ref. increased use of fertilisers. is being lost rapidly. grants/subsidies. no competition with other trees. has a very high. with (a wide range of) different. consumers to encourage them to buy coffee grown in system A. (many) different. to coffee farmers to use system A. distance between water and blood very small. more variety of plants in system A than (B. counter-current. bacteria/Rhizobium/root nodules. plentiful food source for them. partial pressure/concentration. encourage/educate/inform. filaments interlocked/packed closely. provide. understory). species diversity/biodiversity. pesticides. more coffee trees grown in a (unit) area. nitrogen fixation. therefore greater variety of habitats for birds. soil erosion/flooding.

rate of pumping increases. stops completely at 0. max 3 max 4 (ii) max 3 [Total 15] 3 (a) (i) named virus + appropriate structure for it. surrounded by. for transcription/to form mRNA. increased. 9 viruses burst from cell/cell lysis. mouth closed and. jaw/floor of mouth. (capsid contains) protein. (d) (i) volume of. for example T2 – tail fibres/baseplate/other HIV – reverse transcriptase herpes – envelope/lipoprotein covering 6 (ii) (e. rate of pumping. 3 normal cell activities stopped. as swimming speed increases. buccal cavity/mouth.Page 2 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 if both flowed in the same direction then blood could only become as saturated as outflowing water.4 and 0. this arrangement takes more oxygen from the water.g. 6 viral proteins made.8 ms-1. because (only) ram ventilation used now/water flowing over gills as a result of swimming. (core of) RNA/DNA/nucleic acid. 4 host cell DNA broken down (by viral enzymes). while operculum is closed. decreases/remains constant. raised. operculum open. jaw/floor of mouth. by lowering. increases length/surface area over which exchange occurs. 5 viral DNA used. adenovirus) 1 cell recognition/interaction between viral protein and component of host cell membrane. capsid/capsomeres.6 ms-1. © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . 8 new viruses assembled. between 0. increases pressure in mouth. 2 virus/nucleic acid/DNA. this reduces pressure (below that of surrounding water) so water flows in. bacteriophage. enters cell. size between 10nm to 300nm. 7 viral DNA replicates. so water pushed out through the gills. because more oxygen required.75 ms-1/just before 0. for (aerobic) respiration in (swimming) muscles. detail for named virus.

arthropods have solid nerve cord. DNA/RNA. virus can only reproduce inside host cell. peritoneum/the two layers of mesoderm. max 7 max 7 [Total 20] (b) (i) Absence of features can be implied chordates have notochord (at some stage). virus is (much) smaller than bacterium. virus has no ribosomes/bacterium does. coelom is lined by peritoneum (in vertebrates). chordates have postanal tail. other retrovirus) 1 cell recognition/interaction between viral protein and component of host cell membrane. 3 viral DNA made using viral RNA as template. (iii) virus acellular/bacterium is a cell. max 6 (ii) max 7 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . HIV. chordates have closed blood system. 7 viral DNA used to produce RNA component of virus. virus does not. chordates have hollow nerve cord. has no cell surface membrane or may have envelope/bacterium (always) has cell surface membrane. mesentery connects. mesoderm. chordates have. arthropods have exoskeleton. endoderm on inside. chordates have endoskeleton. coelom is filled with fluid. may be single stranded or is linear/bacterial DNA is double-stranded or circular. within mesoderm. 9 viruses burst from cell/cell lysis. slits (at some stage). (while outside host cell). ectoderm on outside. 8 new viruses assembled. 2 RNA and reverse transcriptase enter cell. 4 viral DNA incorporated into host DNA. virus has no cell wall/bacterium does. 5 viral DNA used. for transcription/to form mRNA.Page 3 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 (e. gill/pharyngeal. arthropods do not. somatic mesoderm on outside and splanchnic mesoderm inside. 6 viral proteins made. viral. virus has either DNA or RNA/bacterium has both. arthropods have. respire/feed/grow/excrete/have metabolic reactions. three body layers. open system/haemocoel. chordates have dorsal nerve cord. arthropods do not. virus. arthropods have ventral nerve cord. coelom is cavity. arthropods do not.g.

within which fluid composition can be regulated. which provides advantages in. provides space for development of organs. by providing incompressible material against which muscles can act.Page 4 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 (iii) isolates muscles of gut from muscles of body wall. (not heart or lungs) can provide specialised cavities (such as pleural/pericardial/abdominal).g. (fluid within coelom) can act as a hydrostatic skeleton. provides fluid for excretion (of metabolic waste). example. and for embryo development. locomotion/digestion. detail of role of coelom in annelid locomotion. (in e. max 7 [Total 20] © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . fluid moved by cilia. annelids) provides a site for gamete maturation. (fluid within it) can be used as a transport system.

actual/potential benefits importance. AVP. misinformation/AW. availability of information. max 2 (iv) max 2 [15] © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . normal stays same level from (approx. complexity of issues. do not ripen too quickly. max 2 (b) ref. produce useful products/produce foods/produce medicines/ produce chemicals/process other materials/treat waste. political/commercial pressures. AVP. ref. to actual/potantial/perceived risks/hazards/named risk/hazard. max 4 (c) (i) max 3 (ii) idea of – start later. to actual/potential/perceived advantages/named advantage. normal drops again after 7/8 days/GM continues to rise after 7/8 days. normal reaches much higher level at 4/8 days/ora.) 4-8 days/while GM rises slightly. long shelf life/AW. normal has a more rapid rise from 0-4 days/ora. ref. actual/potential risks. ref. perceptions of benefit/risk. ref. ref. idea of – happen slower. initial levels. moral principles/personal choice/values of society/AW. do not become squashy/firmer. ref. ref. normal higher than GM/ora.Page 5 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 Option 2 – Biotechnology 1 (a) use of living organisms/biological agents/animals/plants/cells/ microorganisms. ref. ref. ref. will not over-ripen. 2 (iii) not ripe/green when picked. in fermenter/culture vessel/AW. public knowledge/understanding/awareness (of information). to.

subcultured many times/AW. allergy to vaccine/hypersensitivity. side effects. killed organisms/fragments of organisms.g. e. weakened/attenuated organism. ref. but chance of dying of disease much greater. named side effect linked to appropriate vaccine. for (almost) all children. better public awareness. made from. max 2 [15] © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . max 2 (ii) better vaccine/AW. very rare/AW. without causing (severe) infection.g. treatment with chemicals/high temperatures/alien conditions for growth/AW. purification. harvest. cheaper antibiotics/treatment. AVP. chance of serious injury or death. type of vaccine/introduced before 1980). more people vaccinated/AW. ref. better antibiotics/treatment. ref.Page 6 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 2 (a) (i) stimulates immune system. attenuated/weakened.g. animal/named animal/hen embryo. or regain pathogenicity/regain ability to cause disease. max 4 (b) (i) vaccination/immunisation. OR better treatment. with antigens. by. detail (e. isolation/antibiotics). max 3 (ii) max 4 (iii) virus grown in living cells. details (e. ref. made from. attentuated/weakened organism can survive attentuation/still have ability to cause disease.

will tolerate almost freezing. no weeds/no herbicides needed. can easily supply more carbon dioxide/maximise photosynthesis/optimise conditions). AVP (e.g. low humidity/need for ventilation. pH around 6/below 7. ref. effects of low temperatures (e. cycles/continuous. effect of higher temperatures (e. no bad weather/AW. denaturation of enzymes). CaNO4 requirements decrease during flowering/wider spacing between cuttings reduces disease). ref. nitrate/not ammonium salts. poor drainage of soils/over watering/AW. ref. run off collected/reused. N supplied as. max 8 (ii) (indoor culture so) not ruined by pests/easier pest control. max 6 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . ref.g. grown indoors/AW. no pesticides. potential for lower labour costs. AVP (e. avoids poor soil/variability of soil. optimum temperature (15º-18º C). ref. not usually submerged. can be grown in adverse climates/AW. higher oxygen levels around roots/AW.Page 7 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 3 (a) (i) hydroponics. misting plant roots/AW. aeroponics.g. nutrient solution. can be grown out of season/any time of year/when profit is biggest/AW. flowers liable to split/weaker flower stems/slower growth). plant roots grown in/in contact with water. requires Na+/Ca2+ levels to be high to establish plants. soil based media must be washed off/clean plants. artificial light. ref. grown where land is in short supply/maximises land use/AW. ref.g. avoids. ref. use virus tested cuttings AW. ref.

© University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . detail (e. (culture of) single cells/small clumps of cells. with named plant growth regulator. the source material/each other. from suitable part of plant.g. ref. sterile medium/conditions. separation/dispersal of cells. cell walls removed. cell division/mitosis. of metabolites/GM proteins/AW. ref.g. solid medium. ref. use (e. sterile medium/conditions. AVP. detail (e. cell division/mitosis. of cheap/virus free/GM/ cloned plants. the source material/each other. detail (e. with named plant growth regulator.Page 8 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 (iii) Callus culture: named specific example of source. detail (e. detail (e. including cells that may not normally divide. propagation). ref. medium is entirely synthetic/complex). genetically identical to/clone of. each (callus/sample/cell) capable of forming a new plant. Protoplast culture: named specific example of source.g. (callus is) mass of undifferentiated cells/aggregate of cells. ref. production). including cells that may not normally divide.g. cell division/mitosis. aseptic transfer. sterile medium/conditions. ref. use (e. each (callus/sample/cell) capable of forming a new plant. AVP. aseptic transfer. genetically identical to/clone of. agar).g. genetically identical to/clone of. with named plant growth regulator. AVP. gentle shaking/cellulase). section cut. Suspension culture: named specific example of source. the source material/each other.g. e. liquid medium. detail (e.g. each (callus/sample/cell) capable of forming a new plant. AVP.g. hypocotyl/surface sterilised).g. including cells that may not normally divide. aseptic transfer.

liquid medium detail (e. specific investigation heterokaryon). and sterilise wort. marking points for wine. produce CO2 and alcohol. AVP. (culture of) single/naked cells. malting barley. causes germination of grain. unmalted barley and amylases/glucanases/proteases replace malt. crushed. reduces time to convert starch to sugars. add hops. mashing/mix crush grain with water. add amylases/gibberellins. fermentation. crush dried grain/milling/grist. etc. improved yield/tolerate higher alcohol content. max 6 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . AVP.g. ref. with same water potential as cells).g. cerevisiae/carlsbergensis.Page 9 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 detail (e.g. max 6 [20] (b) (i) uses Saccharomyces. by enzyme action/cellulases/pectinases).g. for flavour. top and bottom fermenters. enzymes/amylases hydrolyse starch. dry in kiln. physiology/genetic investigation/making hybrids detail (e. produce low carbohydrate beers. allow further breakdown of starch. to extract sugars. grapes. by genetic engineering/named process. use (e. add yeast. max 8 (ii) new strains of yeast. for wine. under moist conditions/soaked.

pressed/processed. by ribonucleases/heating to 60-70oC. mycelium harvested. high protein content. water content reduced. colour added. continuous aseptic culture. air lift fermenter. flavour added.g. centrifuged. grown on flour waste/named medium.Page 10 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 (iii) use Fusarium. RNA reduced. no cholesterol. other nutrient sources. glucose/minerals/ammonia. max 6 [20] © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . e. heat exchanger.

results in increase in nitric oxide concentration in oocyte. B enzyme digests path between follicle cells. after 48h fresh still penetrate 40% of oocytes v. ref. leads to increase in calcium ion concentration in oocyte. no credit for structures that are not present such as ‘no nectary’ max 3 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . fuses with oocyte membrane. increase in. on contact with zona pellucida. during. stamens. to capacitation having already occurred. much/small/light/smooth (non-sticky). frozen only 10%. accounts for increase in ability to penetrate oocytes between 0 and 24 hours. removal of. frozen highest/c. (iii) max 2 (c) max 4 Total: 15 2 (a) Any three of the following: petals. activity in sperm. enzyme active after sperm penetrates oocyte. at 24h 80% v. flexible filament/hang outside flower/anthers versatile.Page 11 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 Option 3 – Growth. enzyme digests zona pellucida. pollen. alters membrane/speeds up capacitation. 2 max 1 max 1 (ii) A allows attachment to receptors in zona pellucida. absent/small/inconspicuous/green/dull-coloured. glycoprotein/plasma protein. 26%. decrease in ability 24-48 hours from lack of. freezing/thawing. feathery/hangs outside flower. (b) (i) fresh/not frozen maximum/peak/80% at 24 hours. during time delay between ejaculation and freezing. nutrients/energy. damage. enzyme/nitric oxide synthase. 58% at 0 hours and falls with time. Development and Reproduction 1 (a) (i) A B C D plasma membrane/cell surface membrane acrosome nucleus mitochondrion half marks rounded up. A any valid figures of comparison max 2 (ii) need time for capacitation. stigma. max 3 non-lethal/slight.

in prophase 1. max 3 (c) max 3 (d) max 3 (e) max 3 Total: 15 3 (a) (i) absolute growth rate: also called actual growth rate. problem. auxin/cytokinin. meiosis fails.g.Page 12 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 (b) (pericarp) becomes. crossing over between. needs knowledge of: undifferentiated/meristematic. useful for showing. tissue culture.g. cells in. only change via mutation. form adventitious roots. e. repeat to constant mass. e. cooled in desiccator. in identical conditions. stimulated by plant growth substances/plant growth regulators. average dry mass. of condition.. relative growth rate: also called specific growth rate. plot of increase in parameter in unit time against time. dried in oven/other suitable conditions. genetically identical/clone. samples taken at regular intervals. 1/m). three chromosomes/six chromatids. second e. in pollen mother cell/embryo sac mother cell. e. growth/swells. cutting/other propagule.g. colour change.g. measure of how rate of growth varies with time. randomly. ref. organism separated from medium. takes into account existing growth. more fleshy/other possible change. max 6 (ii) suitable example. results in tangle. absolute growth rate divided by parameter. (that will allow for samples over time) large number of organisms. max 8 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . attractants/sugars/scent.g. shows growth rate relative to size of organism.g. original susceptible so all susceptible to same pathogen. temperature/water supply/humidity/nutrients). asexual reproduction. kg per year plotted against year/(dm/dt) against (t)/other e. in synapsis/when homologous chromosomes pair. change in mass in one year divided by mass at beginning of year (dm/dt. of condition (e. increase in. when growth is most rapid/how rate changes with time.

such gains/losses not true growth. blood/portal vessels. via releasing factors. FSH from anterior pituitary. e. important for growth of. stimulates growth. ref. stimulates secretion of oestrogen. (plants) by water supply/transpiration/environmental conditions. stimulates development of ovarian follicle.g. FSH and LH control menstrual cycle. LH (ICSH) from anterior pituitary. target = respiring cells/increase in respiration rate. problem instars. ref. stimulates secretion of progesterone.g. GnRF for pituitary to release. basal metabolic rate/BMR. involved in negative feedback. stimulates protein synthesis. travel in. stimulates secretion of testosterone. secretes.. secondary sexual characteristics in male. stimulates protein synthesis. temperature regulation. growth hormone (GH)/somatotrophin. from anterior lobe. max 6 (ii) max 8 (iii) max 6 Total: 20 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . single dimension may not reflect growth in different dimension. thyroxine/T4. stimulates ovulation. (oestrogen/progesterone/thyroxine) anterior lobe. stimulates pituitary gland. negative feedback. to release specific hormones. e. small peptides. ingestion/egestion/excretion.g. fresh mass/wet mass easily altered. stimulates spermatogenesis. somatomedin from liver. ref. stimulates brain development. stimulates thyroxine secretion. controls. secretes. especially of skeleton. e. FSH/LH. ref.g.g. stimulates formation of corpus luteum. (animals) by. max 6 Total: 20 (b) (i) link between nervous system and endocrine system. TSH from anterior lobe. secondary sexual charcteristics in female. long bones/arms and legs.Page 13 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 (iii) problem of allometry. may be long but thin/other e. switches on transcription. e. TRH for pituitary to release TSH. triiodothyronine/T3.

because > than 0. mucus builds up in lungs. homozygote recessive = sufferer. scar/damage. observed difference due to chance. max 3 (ii) max 3 (iii) max 2 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 .1. DNA has different. h = 1. recessive allele.Page 14 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 Option 4 – Applications of Genetics 1 (a) reduces genetic diversity. increases homozygosity/decreases heterozygosity. code/base sequence. stigma not receptive when own pollen released. 1 in 4 chance from 2 carrier parents] large number of different mutations. each test specific. Aa. neither A nor B can self-pollinate.05/1 in 20. and gut. A pollinates B in morning and B pollinates A in afternoon. probe binds to specific/complementary sequence. lungs. mucus blocks secretion of digestive enzymes (from pancreas)/ impaired digestion. neither can be pollinated by another plant of the same phenotype. max 3 1 (b) (i) (ii) max 4 1 1 (c) (i) (ii) (iii) difference from expectation is not significant. probability = > 0. alleles lost. bacterial infections in lungs. [e. ratio of phenotypes is 1 : 1. autosomal/chromosome 7. because behaviour synchronous. correct statement re inheritance. 1430-1500. aa. [A correct answer based on co – dominant situation] max 2 (iv) max 3 Total: 15 2 (a) (i) thick/dehydrated. stigma not in appropriate position when own pollen released. accumulation of deleterious recessive alleles. heterozygote = carrier.g. unambiguous symbols identified. infertility.

storage life doubled by 5oC (A approx. Allow following examples of use: quantitative agricultural plant improvement. ornamental example in plants.Page 15 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 (b) (i) (ii) study of ion transport through cell membrane. offspring 1 plants challenged by disease/AW. max 8 (iii) max 6 Total: 20 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 .) reduction in humidity. sporting.e. resistant offspring 1 interbred. lipid. qualitative agricultural improvement (plant or animal). ref. 2 max 3 (iii) max 2 Total: 15 3 (a) (i) to alter phenotype of domesticated animals or plants. recommended threshold value = 85% germination. if no CFTR/protein (produced and put into cell membrane) then no transport.) reduction in temperature. offspring 1 seeds sown.) max 6 (ii) plant without resistance crossed with resistant plant. recalcitrant seeds cannot be dried and frozen. use/value. trait of. resistant offspring 1 backcrossed to parent. poor digestion of protein. practical detail 2. orthodox seeds. effect on mucus. then seeds grown and fresh seed collected. starch. change in transport ratio. inability to transport HCO3-. stored at -20oC. storage life doubled by 2% (A approx. malnutrition. ornamental example in animals. same species/primary (or secondary) gene pool. selection and backcrossing continued for many generations. different species/tertiary gene pool. seeds dehydrated.1 : 1. for traits other than resistance. to man. quantitative agricultural animal improvement. practical detail 1. for background genes. etc. increase in acidity/decrease in pH. resistant parent. selection and interbreeding continued for many generations. resistant parent. to effect on production of. transport ratio < 0. (i. germination tests every 5 years. other example.0. ref. insulin/glucagon. [male sterility/removal of anthers/bagging/pollination] gene bank/landrace/wild species.

at cell surface/in plasma membrane. diagram. very large number of alleles. number of linkage groups = number of pairs of homologous chromosomes/haploid number of chromosomes. during synapsis. detail of immune system. chiasma. HLA loci code for (glyco)proteins. immunosuppression. [antibodies/T cells] some HLA antigens induce a greater reaction than others. probability of two siblings with identical haplotypes = 0. detail ABO mismatch. max 6 (iii) max 6 Total: 20 © University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 2003 . chromatids of a bivalent break. inherited as a unit. ref. exchange between paternal and maternal chromatids. immune system/immune reaction. DP. recognition markers/self or not-self markers. red cell antigens and plasma antibodies. of alleles.Page 16 Mark Scheme A/AS LEVEL EXAMINATIONS – JUNE 2003 Syllabus 9700 Paper 6 (b) (i) linkage 2 or more genes on same chromosome. child receives one haplotype from mother and one from father. do not assort independently in meiosis. crossing-over prophase meiosis I. [max 5 on c-o] genes closer together less likely to be separated by crossing over. haplotype. D] tightly linked/rarely separated by crossing over. chromosome 6. DR. C. ref. genes closer together less likely to be separated by crossing-over. act as antigens. ABO groups. inherited together. ref.5. rejoin with non-sister chromatid. ref. B. ‘universal donor’/‘universal recipient’. probability of two siblings sharing one haplotype = 0. [A 4 loci] A. DQ. C. cross over value. ref.25. ref. [A A. transplant from unmatched donor rejected. max 8 (ii) six loci. B. hence very many different combinations in the population.

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