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ME2142E Feedback Control Systems Formula sheet

A0066078X Lin Shaodun


()

()
System Response First-order systems
Unit impulse ()


()
()


Unit step () (

)
Unit Ramp () (

)
Laplace Transform
Time domain S domain
() ()


Time domain S domain

() ()

() () . ()


()

() () ()

() ( ) ( )( )

()
( )

() () ( )
Measures of transient performance
Damped Nat freq.

Peak Time


Rise Time


Settling Time

()

()


Max overshoot

( )

( )

( )


Steady-State Errors
Step input r=1 Ramp input r=t Accel input r=


Type 0 system ( )
Type 1 system 0
Type 2 system 0 0
ess

()

()

()

Block Diagram Algebra
Original Diagram Equivalent Diagram Original Diagram Equivalent Diagram


Rouths Stability Criterion

()()


Root Locus plot
1. Locate poles and zeros. Each branch starts from a pole and ends in a zero. If there are no zeros in the finite region, then the zeros are at infinity.
2. No. of branches= No. of poles = order of characteristic equation. Loci exist on the real axis only to the left of an odd number of poles and/or zeros.
Asymptotes angle:


Asymptotes start from a point on real axis at



3. At the break-in or breakaway points, ()

()

()() characteristic equation: ()()


()
()

4. Imaginary Axis Crossing, Two approaches:
a. Use Routh Criteria to determine the value of K at which the system is critically stable. This is indicated by a value of zero in the first column but with no
sign change in the first column of the Routh Array.
b. Since the roots are on the imaginary axis, by letting in the characteristic equation and solve for and K. This is done by equating both the real
and imaginary parts of the characteristic equation to zero.
5. The angle of departure from a complex pole,

is 180+ (sum of angles between

and all zeros) - (sum of angles between

and all other poles).


6. The angle of arrival at a complex pole,

, is 180+ (sum of angles between

and all other zeros) - (sum of angles between

and all poles)



If all the coefficients, or the only one coefficient, in a derived row are zero, it
means that there are roots of equal magnitude located symmetrically about the
origin.
For such cases, form an auxiliary polynomial with the coefficients of the row
above the all-zero row and using the coefficients of the derivative of this
polynomial to replace the all-zero row.
()

()
()

()

()


ME2142E Feedback Control Systems Formula sheet
A0066078X Lin Shaodun
Bode plot Error=


()

|()| ( ()) |()| (())

(())

()

[
(())
(())
]
Gain
Zero at
Origin
Pole at Origin Zero Pole Complex Pole Pure time delay
function () () () ()


()


()


()


Gain

Straight line
0dB at
Slope = 20 dB
0dB at
Slope = - 20 dB
0dB at


Slope = 20 dB
0dB at


Slope = - 20 dB
0dB at
Slope = - 40 dB
O dB line
Phase

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()
()


Polar plot
Differentiator Integrator First order lag First order Lead 2rd Order Lag
function () () ()


() ()



Plot ()
()




Nyquist
Gain Margin:

|()()|
|()()| ( ()() )
( ()() )
The gain crossover freq., wgc, is the freq. where the amplitude ratio is 1.The phase crossover freq., wpc , is the freq. where phase shift = -180
o
.
()
( )( )
( )( )
()

( )( )
()

( )( )
()

( )
()









D
G K
N
G K
G K
R
G K
G K
Y
p p
p
p
p
+
+
+

+
=
1
1
1 1
D
G K
N
G K
G K
R
G K
Y R E
p p
p
p
+

+
+
+
= =
1
1
1 1
1
) ( ) ( s E s K
s
K
K s U
d
i
p
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
dt
t de
K dt t e K t e K t u
d
t
i p
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
0
+ + =
}