()
()
System Response Firstorder systems
Unit impulse ()
()
()
Unit step () (
)
Unit Ramp () (
)
Laplace Transform
Time domain S domain
() ()
Time domain S domain
() ()
() () . ()
()
() () ()
() ( ) ( )( )
()
( )
() () ( )
Measures of transient performance
Damped Nat freq.
Peak Time
Rise Time
Settling Time
()
()
Max overshoot
( )
( )
( )
SteadyState Errors
Step input r=1 Ramp input r=t Accel input r=
Type 0 system ( )
Type 1 system 0
Type 2 system 0 0
ess
()
()
()
Block Diagram Algebra
Original Diagram Equivalent Diagram Original Diagram Equivalent Diagram
Rouths Stability Criterion
()()
Root Locus plot
1. Locate poles and zeros. Each branch starts from a pole and ends in a zero. If there are no zeros in the finite region, then the zeros are at infinity.
2. No. of branches= No. of poles = order of characteristic equation. Loci exist on the real axis only to the left of an odd number of poles and/or zeros.
Asymptotes angle:
Asymptotes start from a point on real axis at
3. At the breakin or breakaway points, ()
()
()
()
()
()
ME2142E Feedback Control Systems Formula sheet
A0066078X Lin Shaodun
Bode plot Error=
()
(())
()
[
(())
(())
]
Gain
Zero at
Origin
Pole at Origin Zero Pole Complex Pole Pure time delay
function () () () ()
()
()
()
Gain
Straight line
0dB at
Slope = 20 dB
0dB at
Slope =  20 dB
0dB at
Slope = 20 dB
0dB at
Slope =  20 dB
0dB at
Slope =  40 dB
O dB line
Phase
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
Polar plot
Differentiator Integrator First order lag First order Lead 2rd Order Lag
function () () ()
() ()
Plot ()
()
Nyquist
Gain Margin:
()()
()() ( ()() )
( ()() )
The gain crossover freq., wgc, is the freq. where the amplitude ratio is 1.The phase crossover freq., wpc , is the freq. where phase shift = 180
o
.
()
( )( )
( )( )
()
( )( )
()
( )( )
()
( )
()
D
G K
N
G K
G K
R
G K
G K
Y
p p
p
p
p
+
+
+
+
=
1
1
1 1
D
G K
N
G K
G K
R
G K
Y R E
p p
p
p
+
+
+
+
= =
1
1
1 1
1
) ( ) ( s E s K
s
K
K s U
d
i
p

.

\

+ + =
dt
t de
K dt t e K t e K t u
d
t
i p
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
0
+ + =
}