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International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 03

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The Effect of Water Content Change and Variation Suction in Behavior Swelling of Expansive Soil
Agus Tugas Sudjianto1), Kabul Basah Suryolelono2), Ahmad Rifai2) and Indrasurya B Mochtar3) 1) Civil Engineering Departmen, Widyagama University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia 2) Civil Engineering Departmen, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 3) Civil Engineering Departmen, Institute of Technology Sepuluh November, Suarabaya, Indonesia E-mail : ats_2003@yahoo.com

Abstract ~ The changing of climate in Indonesia gives fluctuation of water content in its result rain, evaporation and evapo-transpiration. As a result, the water content change, the expansive soil will volume change and suction. The expansive soil will volumetric swelling upon wetting and shrinngking to drying. This behavior can damage on construction structures, particularly, light building and road. The phenomenom is very interesting to be researched, how far the effect of water content change and variation suction toward the behavior volumetric swelling expansive soil. The material expansive soil of selected from Soko Ngawi region East Java Privince. The research of swelling is done using remolded sample under a thin unconfined lateral condition with diameter 6.35 cm and high 1.50 cm, with initial water content 10% and dry density 1.26 g/cm3 with modification Oedometer tools. The water content change measured with gypsum block and suction with filter paper Whatman No. 42. The results of research indicate, the water change has linear relation wuth swelling deformation, while the suction has contrary to with swelling deformation. Key words ~The expansive of clay, water content change, variation suction, behavior swelling.

1. INTRODUCTION The civil engineering work can not be separated with the most important aspect of the soil. A number of problems with the building of civil engineering that is often found in the field is the result of the properties soil is poor, which is characterized by high of water content, comprebility is large and low bearing capacity. Some of the types of soil that has a bad character is the land which is prone to high of swelling shrinkage. Some types of soil that have the potential swelling shrinkage of high that can undergo significant volume changes due to changes in water content. Soil type is clay

which contains minerals that have high swelling potential. The soil with this condition often referred to as the expansive clay [1]. Expansive clay soil can be found in many places in the world [2], namely Argentina, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, the United States, Australia, Canada, China, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Kenya, Mexico, Morocco , Myanmar, Jordan, Sudan, Ethiopia, Spain, Turkey and Venezuela. The phenomenon of high swelling - shrinkage which can cause damage to the building. [3] reported, in the United States, losses caused by expansive soil problem turned out to exceed other natural disasters, including losses caused by earthquakes and tornadoes. According to data from the Federal Emergency Agency (FEMA) in 1982, losses due to expansive soil in 1970 reached $ 798,100,000 [4]. [5] states, every year building damage, the structure of buildings and roads caused by expansive soils to predict approximately $ 150,000,000 in the UK, approximately $ 100,000,000 in the USA, and even billions of dollars around the world. In Indonesia, in terms of incidence of the soil, expansive clay problems almost found all over Indonesia, from North Sumatra to Papua. Total losses have not been reported, but from research and surveys that have been done by the Highways and Road Development Research Center and Department of General Construction, a lot of damage that occurs in several roads on the island of Java caused by expansive clay soil problems [6]. Swelling testing in the laboratory, its the samples of ring a confined lateral direction, so there is no measure swelling horizontal deformation. Thus swelling is assumed to occur only in the vertical deformation. This condition is somewhat in contrast to many events in the field, which is swell of soil which has been depleted earlier. The soil has been shrunk into cracks due to shrinkage of 3-dimensional. When
.

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International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 03 swelling, the soil is free swell in all directions from its original position. One-dimensional model swell (vertical deformation) would not be suitable if the surface of the expansive clay is sloping, when clay soil behind the retaining wall, or on the side a tunnel. In the cases its, the swelling horizontal deformation is very dominant to result wall motion [7]. Expansive soils in Indonesia it appears logical problems become more complex, because our country is located in the tropics, it always happens wetting and drying cycles due to the rainy and dry seasons. The result in areas that have expansive soils become swelling - shrinkage due to changes in water content change and suction. Based on this phenomenon, this research is conducted separately to determine the severity of such influences as how far water content change and suction to effect behavior swelling of expansive soil.

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II. LITERATURE REVIEW The process swelling of expansive clay influenced by environmental factors, including factors differences in climate, rainfall, drainage systems and ground water level fluctuation. [8] mentions that the changes in of water content in clay soil especially in expansive clay, would cause in volume changes. Reduction of water content causes the clay to shrink and when the water content increases the clay swell. [9[ states in the process swelling - shrinkage of expansive clay, the process swelling more complex than the process shrinkage. Some examples of practical problems in geotechnical in expansive soil can be shown in Fig. 1 [10]. For example, the structure of roads, building foundations and slope stability are built on ground water. There will be volume change due to swelling and suction of expansive soil when rain occurred [10].
Evapotranspiration

The phenomenon of swelling on expansive soil occurs in conditions of wetting with the degree saturation (Sr) < 1, meaning the soil is in unsaturated condition. In this unsaturated condition of the expansive clay experienced three element : grain, water and air, resulting namely in negative pore water pressure or suction. As a result of this suction causes the soil properties to be changed especially on the degree of saturation (Sr) and void ratio (e). So that the suction that occurred on expansive soil will affect the behavior swelling - shrinkage expansive clay [10]. Many cases of swelling that occurred on expansive clay, measuring only be done in vertical deformation, horizontal deformation while not much noticed. For the analysis and development with the actual conditions on the field, swelling test in the laboratory should be able to measure the swelling in vertical and horizontal deformation[12]. Mechanism of swelling on expansive soils in the field occurs in three dimensions, known as volumetric swelling. [12] states that this type of swelling expansive soil when soil is dry to wet, during the early stages of expansive soil will experience a three-dimensional volumetric expansion (threedimensional (3-D) volumetric expansions) because dry soil fractured - crack is still open shown in Fig. 2a [12]. At a later stage, after the cracks on expansive clay wetting or closed due to rising levels of water in the expansive clay soil volumetric expansion is only one dimension, clay soil led to increased surface shown in Fig. 2b [12].

Precipitation

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of soil development (a) 3 - D, (b)1 - D [12].


R eductio n of soil hum idity

Spread footing foundation

Natural slope

III. MATERIALS AND METHODS A. Expansive Soils The samples of expansive clay taken from Soko, Ngawi region, East Java Province, its the map as shown in Fig. 3. Samples were taken in undisturbed and disturbed conditions. Samples were taken 20 m from the shoulder of the road. Undisturbed samples were taken using a sample tube has a length dimension of 30 cm and a diameter of 7 cm. Undisturbed samples will be kept to water content change and vibration, its as well as clean from the roots of plants. For disturbed samples taken with a hoe and a shovel put in the bag that had been prepared. The soil samples were taken at depths of 0.50 m to 1.00 m from ground surface as shown in Fig. 4.

U N SA TU R A TE D S O IL
G rou ndw a ter table

B ack fill Roadw ay

Retaining w all

SA TU R A TE D S O IL

Fig. 1. Examples of practical geotechnical problem in expansive clay soil [10]

The behavior swelling on expansive soils is a reversal of capillary events. When the water content increased and the soil becomes saturated, the capillary pressure will decrease and pore water pressure decrease and can be equal to hydrostatic stress. With the decrease of pore pressure tends to inflate the expansive soil back to swelling on the original position [11].

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Fig 3. The map Soko, region Ngawi, East Java.

Fig. 5. (a) Schematic vertical - horizontal swelling test equipment of soil expansive clay, (b) Details of strain gauge installation [15].

Fig 4. The exploration soil expansive at Soko, Ngawi, East Java [13].

B. Test Procedure Swelling Vertical and Horizontal In this study to measure the swelling deformation then developed a tool Oedometer modifications to measure vertical - horizontal swelling and volumetric swelling. Modification and development tools such as schematic as shown in Fig 5. Equipment used for research swelling vertical and horizontal are development consolidation of the modified instrument. This device consists of a set of tools Oedometer. In the ring samples were sets strain gauge to measure the horizontal dedormation ]14], for vertical swelling was measured using Linear Vertical Displacement Tanducer (LVDT). Strain gauge and LVDT connected to a strain indicator type P-3500 M, the strain indicator connected to the computer to acquire research of data as shown in Fig. 5.a [15]. Details instalation strain gauge system using rectagular rosets as shown in Fig. 5.b [15]. Measuring the water content change is used gypsum block modifications which are connected to the multymeter digital to determine the water resistance of clay soil (Ohm) that is calibrated to water content (%). The results swelling test tool modification as shown in Fig 6 and ring samples modification from membrane material as shown in Fig 7 [15]. The test method according ASTM D4546-96 [16] with a method based on [17[, which is expandable under surcharge pressure of 6.9 kPa, the soil samples are loaded using the ring membrane (Fig. 7). Dimension of soil samples with a diameter of 6.35 cm and high of 1.70 cm, with initial water content 10% and dry density 1.26 g/cm3.

Fig. 6. Kembangvertikal testing devices and horizontal modification [15].

Fig 7. Ring membrane modification [15].

C. The calculation of swelling deformation Calculation of vertical - horizontally swelling from the data acquisition on the modified Oedomeeter to used formula 1 and 2. For the calculation of volumetric swelling by using formula 3.
Sz final high initial high H 100 % 100 % initial high H

(1) (2) (3)

Sx
Sv

final diameter initial diameter D 100% 100% initial diameter D


final volume initial volume V 100% 100 % initial volume V

IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION A. Soil Properties Test properties of clay Soko (Ngawi) is intended to obtain information about swelling potential from soil properties, especially soil consistency limits, chemical and mineral composition of soil. When observed visually, the clay sample has a grayish black color. The results properties, chemical and mineral composition of clay expansive of Soko, Ngawi (East IJENS

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International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 03 Java) as shown in Table 1-3 and Fig. 8 the results of X-ray difraction.
TABLE I GENERAL SOIL PROPERTIES No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Property Natural water content, wa (%) Unit weight, (t/m ) Specific Gravity, Gs Plastic Limit, PL (%) Liquid Limit, LL (%) Plasticity Index, PI (%) Shrinkage Limit, SL (%) Clay content (%) Classification TABLE 2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION SOIL No Property Value (%)
3

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Value 63.59 1.51 2.62 29.77 101.00 71.23 10.70 95.60 CH

done by previous researchers include, [17],[18], [19], [20] and [21] which states, the clay soil classified as a very high swelling potential if the LL>60% and IP> 35% and the amount of montmorillonite over 35% of the total mineral content. B. The Result of Gypsum Block Calibration Test of vertical and horizontal swelling is based on water content changes. Measurement of water content changes made with gypsum blocks. Gypsum block that has been sold in the market and has been calibrated and has been widely used for measuring water content in agricultural and geotechnical, one of which is made Delmorst (Campbell Scientific Canada Corp.) [22]. The smallest dimension of artificial gypsum block Delmorst diameter 2.25 cm and 2.86 cm high, so it can not be in the sample swelling test with diameter 6.35 cm and high 1.70 cm. To conform with the dimensions sample swelling test are made of gypsum block modification with a diameter 1.50 cm and high 1.00 cm. The result of both gypsum block calibration as in Fig. 9. The relationship between resistance to water content in the gypsum block Delmorst and gypsum block modifications have the same behavior that is the greater soil water content, the smaller the resulting resistence. With eachs calibration value for the gypsum block modification resulting equation w = 21.562 Ln (kOhm) + 174.66 with R2 = 0.9922, while for the gypsum block calibration by Delmorst resulting equation w = - 19.153 Ln (kOhm ) + 154.54 with R2 = 0.996. By knowing the relationship of water content and resistence on gypsum block modification, then the vertical - horizontal swelling test with dry soil samples with initial water content (wi) = 10% can be in measuring water content change that occurs during wetting on the samples vertical horizontal swelling test.
120 100
Water C ontent of C lay Soil (% )

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO Na2O K2O


TABLE 3 MINERAL COMPOSITION OFSOIL

76.10 18.59 2.75 1.80 0.50 0.22 0.04

No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Property Montmorilonite Feldspar Alpha Quartz Halloysite Cristobalite

Value (%) 76.10 16.20 5.30 4.30 0.90

80 60 40 20 0 1 10 100 Gypsum block Delmorst y = -19,153Ln(x) + 154,54 R2 = 0,9996

Gypsum block modification y = -21,562Ln(x) + 174,66 R2 = 0,9922

1000

10000

Resistence (kOhm)

Fig. 8. X-ray difraction of clay Soko, Ngawi.

Fig. 9. Calibration of gypsum blocks modifications and gypsum block by Delmorst.

The result of soil properties especially soil consistency limits at the liquid limit (LL) 101% and plasticity index (IP) 71.32% and the test clay composition inineral Soko, Ngawi the most dominant is the montmorillonite of 49.74%, this soil have a very high swelling potential. This procedure as was

C. The results of Swelling Tes on Water Content Change The results of swelling vertical, horizontal and volumetric of soil Soko (Ngawi) on water content changes as shown in Table 4. The result is a graph the relationship between water content with swelling vertical, horizontal and volumetric as

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International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 03 shown in Fig. 12. For relation between the degree of saturation (Sr) with swelling vertical, horizontal and volumetric as shown in Fig. 13.
TABLE 4. RESULTS OF THE SWELLING VERTICAL, HORIZONTAL AND VOLUMETRIC TEST Swelling Swelling Water Degee of Swelling volumetric horizontal Content Saturation vertical S x (%) Sv (%) w (%) Sr (%) S z (%) 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00
50 45 40 35

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expansive clay so to greater the swelling vertical, horizontal and volumetric happened and expansive clay soil it will stop swelling on the degree of saturation (Sr) 100% or Sr = 1. D. The Results of swellingTest on Varying Suction The vertical horizontal swelling test, the specimens have the condition are unsaturated into saturated. So in swelling test took place suction phenomenon. To measure the value of suction to done matric suction test. Proscdur matric suction test according to ASTM D 5298-2003 [15]. The results matric suction test on the Soil Soko (Ngawi) as shown in Table 5 and the relationship between water content (w) with metrics suction (s) as shown in Fig. 12 and the relationship between the degree of saturation (Sr) with metrics suction (ua uw) as shown in Fig. 13.
TABLE 5. RESULTS OF THE MATRIC SUCTION TEST mactric suction wFilter Paper (wf), Sr Initial % (Sr), % (ua uw) (kN/ m2) 24.27 5.8234 74802.0572 42.49 11.8533 6349.2700 56.61 25.9143 2051.1014 67.54 31.0950 803.0000 75.88 35.6400 355.7589 82.81 40.0432 161.3104 91.10 55.5912 45.8793 100.00 126.0221 5.1420

0.00 24.27 42.49 56.61 67.54 75.88 82.81 91.10


Swelling Horizontal Swelling Vertical Swelling Volumetric

0.00 0.00 3.99 7.54 1.31 1.09 18.86 20.10

0.00 0.00 1.62 3.34 4.99 6.73 8.44 9.83

0.00 0.00 7.38 14.85 22.7 31.10 39.37 44.89

S welling, S (% )

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

W Initial (w), % 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 77.10

Water Content, w (%)

m a tric s u c tio n , (u a - u w ) (K N /m 2 )

Fig. 10. The relationship of water content with swelling vertical, horizontal and volumetric of soil Soko (Ngawi).

100000 10000 1000 100 10 1 0 20 40 60 80 100

The results swelling vertical - horizontal shows that the greater water content the greater swelling vertical, horizontal and volumetric occurring as shown in Fig. 9. The figure shows the relationship between water content (w) with swelling vertical (Sz), swelling horizontal (Sx) and swelling volumetric (Sv) soil Soko (Ngawi). In vertical horizontal swelling test. swelling vertical (Sz), swelling horizontal (Sx) and swelling volumetric (Sv) are greater with increasing water content and stop swelling on the water content of 77.10%.
50 45 40 35

Swelling Horizontal Swelling Vertical Swelling Volumetric

Water Content, w (%)


Fig. 12. Curve soil water content with metrics suction of soil Soko (Ngawi).

S welling, S (% )

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Degree of Saturation, Sr (%)

Fig. 11. Relationships degree of saturation with sweling. vertical, horizontal and volumetric of soil Soko (Ngawi).

The Relations swelling vertical - horizontal and volumetric with degree of saturation (Sr) shows that the greater the degree of saturation (Sr) expansive clay so to greater swelling vertical, horizontal and volumetric that occur as shown in Fig. 10. Th results swelling vertical - horizontal and volumetric showed that the greater the degree of saturation (Sr) of
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m atrik suction, (u a - u w ) (KN/m 2 )

1000000 100000 10000 1000 100 10 1 0 20 40 60 80 100

opposite of the effect of water content (w) and degree of saturation (Sr). V. CONCLUSION Based on research results that have been implemented can be drawn some conclusions as follows. 1. The properties, chemical composition and mineral content in the clay can be used for classified as swelling potential of expansive soil. 2. Behavior swelling vertical, swelling horizontal and swelling volumetric with initial water content and density similar to the expansive soil is strongly influenced by water content changes, the swelling vertical, swelling horizontal and swelling volumetric linearly increase with increasing water content. 3. Degree of saturation (Sr) had a great influence on behaviour swelling vertical, swelling horizontal and swelling volumetric of expansive soil, the swelling vertical, swelling horizontal and swelling volumetric linearly increase with increasing degree of saturation (Sr) and to stop swelling at Sr = 1. 4. The suction have significant influence on behavior swelling vertical, swelling horizontal and swelling volumetric, the greater the value of suction is less swelling vertical, swelling horizontal and swelling volumetric on the expansive soil. 5. The effect suction (s) on the behavior swelling of expansive clay have contrary to the effect of water content (w) and degree of saturation (Sr). ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research was carried out by the financial support of Directorate of Research and Community Service (DP2M) Directorate general of Higher Education, Ministry of National Education, Republic of Indonesia through Research Grant Hibah Penelitian Hibah Bersaing in the fiscal year 2008 with Number of Contract: 233/SP2H/PP/DP2M/III/2008, in 12th March 2008, Allt he contribution are acknowledged. REFERENCES
[1] Hardiyatmo, H.C., Mekanika Tanah 1, edisi 4, Gadjah Mada University,Yogyakarta, 2006. [2] Chen, F.H., Foundation on Expansive Soils, Developments in Geotechnical Enginering, Elseveier Scientific Publication Company, New York, 1975. [3] Jones, D, E., and Holtz, W, G., Expansive Soils The Hidden Disaster, Civil Engineering, Vol 4, 1973. [4] Nelson, J.D., and Miller, D.J., Expansive Soils Problem and practice in Foundation and Pavement Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1992. [5] Gourly, C.S., Newill, D., and Schreiner, H.D., Expansive Soil, TRLs Research Strategy, Proc. Ist Inc. Symp. Engineering Characteristics of Arid Soils, London, 1993. [6] Mochtar, I. B., Control Engineering Problems of Development in Difficult Soils, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning, Institute of Technology Sepuluh November (ITS), Surabaya, 1994. [7] Coduto, D.P., Foundation Design Principles and Practices, Prentice Hall International, Inc, 1994.

Degree of Saturation, Sr (%)

Fig. 13. Curve degree of saturation with metrics suction of soil Soko (Ngawi).

This research, the calibration of matric suction limited on the needs analysis for water content in the vertical and horizontal swelling test with Oedometer modification. The results water content of the vertical and horizontal swelling test ranging from 10% to 77.10%, so for water content (wi) <10.00% and water content (wi) > 80.00% can not be used. The relationship between matric suction (ua uw) with swelling vertical (Sz), swelling horizontal (Sx) and swelling volumetric (Sv) as shown in Table 6 and Fig. 14.
TABLE 6 RESULTS OF THE SWELLING VERTICAL, HORIZONTAL AND VOLUMETRIK WITH VARIATION OF MATRIC SUCTION Swelling Swelling Swelling Water Matric suction, Volumetric Vertical Horizontal Content, ua uw S x (%) w (%) S z (%) Sv (%) ((kN/ m2)) 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00
50

0.0000 74802.0572 6349.2700 2051.1014 803.0000 355.7589 161.3104 45.8793

0.00 0.00 3.99 7.54 11.31 15.09 18.86 20.10

0.00 0.00 1.62 3.34 4.99 6.73 8.44 9.83

0.00 0.00 7.38 14.85 22.7 31.10 39,37 44,89

Swelling Volumetric
45 40 35

Swelling Vertical Swelling Horizontal

Swelling, S (%)

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000

Matric suction, ua-uw (kN/m 2)

Fig. 14. Relationship between swelling with metrics suction clay soil at Soko (Ngawi)

Fig. 14. shows the relationship between variation metrics suction (ua uw) with swelling vertical (Sz), swelling horizontal (Sx) and swelling volumetric (Sv) expansive clay Soko (Ngawi). The swelling vertical, horizontal and volumetric smaller with increasing suction. This shows that effect the suction (s) to behavior swelling expansive soil is the

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[8] Myers, D., 2005, Expansive Clays and Road Subgrade an Analysis, 2005, avalaible : www.godismyjudgeok. [9] Yong, R, N., and Warketin, B, P., Introduction to Soil Behavior, The Mac Milan Co, New York, 1975. [10] Rifai A., Mechanical testing and Modelling of an Unsaturated Silt ith engineering Application, Ph.D Desertation , EPFL, Switzerland, 2002, unpblushed. [11] Mochtar, I. B., Soil Improvement and Alternative Technology Planning at the Problematic Soil, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning, Institute of Technology Sepuluh November (ITS), Surabaya, 2000. [12] Taboada, M. A., 2003, Soil Shrinkage Characteristics in Swelling Soil, 2003, avalaible : www.ictp.it/~pub_off/lectures/ins018/39taboada1. [13] Sudjianto, A.T., Pengembangan Pemodelan Pemodelan Swelling Laboratorium Pada Tanah Lempung Ekspansif Dengan Pola Dua Dimensi, Laporan Akhir Hibah Penelitian Hibah Bersaing, Directorate of Research and Community Service (DP2M) Directorate general of Higher Education, Ministry of National Education, Republic of Indonesia, November 2008, unpublished. [14] Shendro, B., Teori Model Struktur dan Teknik Eksperimental, Beta Offset, Jogyakarta, 2000. [15] Sudjianto, A.T., Suryolelono, K.B., Rifai, A. and Mochtar, I.B., Behaviour Expansive Clay of Ngawi Region (East Java) Under Water Content Variation, Journal Civil Enggineering Dimension, Petra Christian University, Surabaya, vol 11 no. 2, September 2009. [16] ASTM, Annual Books of ASTM Standards Section 4 Volume 04.08 Soil and Rock (I): D420-D4914, 2003. [17] Seed, H.B., Woodward R.J., Lundgren R., Prediction of Swelling Potential for Cpmpacted Clays, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, Vol.88. No. SM3. Proc. Paper 3169, 1962. [18] Holtz, R.D., and Gibbs, H.J., Prediction on Swelling Potential for Compacted Clay, Journal of the Soil mechanics and Foundation devision , ASCE, Discussion, Vol 88, No.SM4, 1956. [19] Van Der Merwe, D.H., The Prediction of heave from the Plasticity Index and percentage Clay Fraction of Soils, Civil Engineers in south Africa, 6(6):pp 103-107, 1964. [20] Dakhshanamurthy, V. and Raman, V., Review of Expansive Soils, Discusion, Journal of Geotechnical Enggineering Division, ASCE, Volume 101, , No. GT 6, 1975. [11] Chen, F.H., Foundation on Expansive Soils, 2nd ed Amsterdam, pp 463, Elseveier Scientific Publication Company, New York, USA, 1988. ]22] Dela, Measurement of Soil Moisture using Gypsum Block, Measuretmen Engineering Australia (MEA), Adelaide, Australia, 2001.

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also involved in profesional association such as member of Inter-Universities Forum on Geotechnical Studies. Kabul Basah Suryolelono, Prof. Dr.; His current adress is in Civil Engineering and Enviroment Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2, Kampus UGM yogyakarta, Indonesia, 55281.Telp: +62 274 902245, Fax: +62 274 524713. E-mail: kabulbasah@tsipil.ugm.ac.id His academic experience is : Doctor, Soil mechanics and Enviromental, Uniersity of Joseph Fourier grenoble 1, grenovle, France. 1991. Master of Engineering, Soil mechanics and Enviromental, Uniersity of Joseph Fourier grenoble 1, grenovle, France. 1988. Bachelor of Science, Civil Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 1978. Ahmad Rifai, Dr.; His current adress is in Civil Engineering and Enviroment Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2, Kampus UGM yogyakarta, Indonesia, 55281. Telp: +62 274 902245, Fax: +62 274 524713. E-mail: ahmad.rifai@tsipil.ugm.ac.id His academic experience is : Doctor, Geotechnic, The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland, 2002. Master of Engineering, Geotechnic, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung, Indonesia, 1996. Bachelor of Science, Civil Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 1993. Indrasurya B Mochtar ,Prof., Dr.; His current adress is in Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning, Institute of Technology Sepuluh November (ITS) Surabya, Indonesia, Kampus ITS Sukolilo Surabya, Indonesia, 60111. Telp: +62 31 5997152, Fax: +62 31 5947284. E-mail: indramochtar@telkom.net. His academic experience is : Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D), Civil and Enviromental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Medison, USA, 1985. Master of Science (M.Sc), Civil and Enviromental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Medison, USA, 1979. Bachelor of Science, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning, Institute of Technology Sepuluh November (ITS) Surabya, Indonesia, 1977.

Agus Tugas Sudjianto; He is an Associate Professor an Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Widyagama University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia, Post Code : 65123. Telp: +62 341 492282, Fax: +62 341 496919. E-mail: ats_2003@yahoo.com. Now, He is a Ph.D Candidate in Geotechnical Engineering, faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2, Kampus UGM yogyakarta, Indonesia, 55281. Telp: +62 274 902245, Fax: +62 274 524713. He was born in Malang, East Java, Indonesia on 31th Auguts 1969. His education level at elementary school, junior/middle high school, and senior high school were experienced in Merauke, Papua. He got graduate program in Civil Engineering (S.T) from Widyagama University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia from September 1988 until May 1993. He received his Master of Engineering (M.T) in Geotechnics from Institute Technology Sepuluh November (ITS) Surabaya, Indonesia from August 1999 until June 2003. He is lecture in Widyagama University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia since January 1994 until now. His field of study and research interest is in problematic soil, soil reinforcment, stabilization soil and modelling soil. He has published in the Civil Engineering Dimension (CED) Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Journal of Inter-Universities Forum on Geotechnical Studies, Symposium of Inter-Universities Forum on Geotechnical Studies Proceeding Dinamaika Journal (Civil Engineering University of Muhamadiyah Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia). He presented papers at the Research Seminar at Directorat General og Higher Education, Indonesia. He
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