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Notes: The frequent quotations from E. W. Bullinger in this study come from notes or appendices in The Companion Bible. While I do not find this Bible to be without fault by any means, it offers more scholarship on the texts than any other Bible I’ve come across and is thus invaluable in a study such as this. In the notes in this study, he is referred to as “Bullinger.” All datings in the study come from Bullinger’s reckonings, as well. This has been a complicated, many-faceted study. Readers should keep their eyes open for unintentional errors. It may be assumed that some references to Babylon have been missed, as synonymous phrases involving the word “north,” which sometimes refers to Babylon, do not always show up on searches.
Observations on Babylon
• The Tower of Babel is the first mention of Babel/Babylon in the Bible. It is where the whole world gathered to try to form a single system of uniform speech. We see the very same principle pushed in the unified world order scheme, and the study ends with just such a picture of a one-world system in Revelation. The books of Ezra and Nehemiah concern the rebuilding of the temple and the wall at Jerusalem after the Babylonians had destroyed them. While it appears that the vast majority of names of people who returned were of Hebrew origin, the Israelites quickly corrupted themselves by marrying foreign wives. The names in the section are color-coded (explanation given there) according to their origin. In Isaiah 14, the prophecy to Lucifer is given immediately following “the burden of Babylon” in chapter 13 and further prophecy against the earthly king of Babylon in chapter 14. The equation of the devil with Babylon could not be any clearer. Yahveh gave the bulk of the prophecies concerning Babylon, historically, to Jeremiah. Ezekiel, too, prophesied regarding Babylon. Both prophets addressed the fate of many nations. The prophecies of the two should be compared for a more thorough study. It is tempting to think of Babylon only in terms of Judah, as Judah was the main Israelite tribe that the Babylonians took into captivity, historically speaking. From the Tower of Babel to the very first chapter of Jeremiah to the beast in Revelation, however, it is clear that Babylon pertains to the entirety of the nations. Ezekiel was among the captives in Babylon when he saw the vision of the wheels, and that fact is clearly stated in Ezekiel 1:1–3 so as not to miss it. It is for the reader to ponder whether certain prophecies directed toward Babylon were historical only, historical as well types, or solely yet future. Babylon is only mentioned twice in the Psalms. The major Old Testament book concerned with end-time prophecy, Daniel, was written entirely in Babylon (or, partly, in Persian-conquered former territory of Babylon) by both a captive of Judah (Daniel) and the then-king of Babylon (Nebuchadnezzar). Entries from an 1865 edition of Smith’s Bible Dictionary (John Murray: London) on Babylon-related words are included as an appendix.
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The Tower of Babel
Nimrod—“The Beginning of His Kingdom Was Babel . . .”
Gen 10:8 And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth. Gen 10:9 He was a mighty hunter before the LORD : wherefore it is said, “Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD .” Gen 10:10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Gen 10:11 Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh (and the city Rehoboth) and Calah, Gen 10:12 And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city. Gen 10:13 And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, Gen 10:14 And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim.
Yahveh Destroys Babel
Gen 11:1 And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. Gen 11:2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. Gen 11:3 And they said one to another, “Go to, let us make brick, and burn them throughly.” And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for morter. Gen 11:4 And they said, “Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.” Gen 11:5 And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded. Gen 11:6 And the LORD said, “Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. Gen 11:7 Go to, let Us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.” Gen 11:8 So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city. Gen 11:9 Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.
Early History Involving Babylon
Abram Leaves “Ur of the Chaldees” for Canaan
Gen 11:10 These are the generations of Shem: Shem was an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the flood: Gen 11:11 And Shem lived after he begat Arphaxad five hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. Gen 11:12 And Arphaxad lived five and thirty years, and begat Salah: Gen 11:13 And Arphaxad lived after he begat Salah four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. Gen 11:14 And Salah lived thirty years, and begat Eber: Gen 11:15 And Salah lived after he begat Eber four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. Gen 11:16 And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg: Gen 11:17 And Eber lived after he begat Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters. Gen 11:18 And Peleg lived thirty years, and begat Reu:
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Gen 11:19 And Peleg lived after he begat Reu two hundred and nine years, and begat sons and daughters. Gen 11:20 And Reu lived two and thirty years, and begat Serug: Gen 11:21 And Reu lived after he begat Serug two hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters. Gen 11:22 And Serug lived thirty years, and begat Nahor: Gen 11:23 And Serug lived after he begat Nahor two hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. Gen 11:24 And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begat Terah: Gen 11:25 And Nahor lived after he begat Terah an hundred and nineteen years, and begat sons and daughters. Gen 11:26 And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran. Gen 11:27 Now these are the generations of Terah: Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begat Lot. Gen 11:28 And Haran died before his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees. Gen 11:29 And Abram and Nahor took them wives: the name of Abram’s wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor’s wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah. Gen 11:30 But Sarai was barren; she had no child. Gen 11:31 And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son’s son, and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there. Gen 11:32 And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years: and Terah died in Haran.
Amraphel, King of Shinar Among Kings Who Waged War on Sodom
Bullinger identifies Amraphel with the “Khammurabi of the Tablets.” See Appendix 15, “Laws Before Sinai.” The entire war against Sodom (verse 1), he says, is “[d]ated in the reign of a king of Babylon: the united force led by a king of Elam. The Assyrian tablets show that Elam had conquered and overrun Babylonia. Amraphel reigned in N. (Shinar); Eri-Aku (Arioch), an Elamite prince, in the S. at Larsa (Ellasar). All the names here are found on one tablet.”
Gen 14:1 And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations; Gen 14:2 That these made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar. Gen 14:3 All these were joined together in the vale of Siddim, which is the salt sea. Gen 14:4 Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled. Gen 14:5 And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer, and the kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaims in Ashteroth Karnaim, and the Zuzims in Ham, and the Emims in Shaveh Kiriathaim, Gen 14:6 And the Horites in their mount Seir, unto El-paran, which is by the wilderness. Gen 14:7 And they returned, and came to En-mishpat, which is Kadesh, and smote all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that dwelt in Hazezon-tamar. Gen 14:8 And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (the same is Zoar;) and they joined battle with them in the vale of Siddim; Gen 14:9 With Chedorlaomer the king of Elam, and with Tidal king of nations, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings with five. Gen 14:10 And the vale of Siddim was full of slimepits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and fell there; and they that remained fled to the mountain. Gen 14:11 And they took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their victuals, and went their way. Gen 14:12 And they took Lot, Abram’s brother’s son, who dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and departed. Gen 14:13 And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew; for he dwelt in the plain of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner: and these were confederate with Abram. Gen 14:14 And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he armed his trained servants, born in his own house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued them unto Dan. Gen 14:15 And he divided himself against them, he and his servants, by night, and smote them, and pursued
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them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus. Gen 14:16 And he brought back all the goods, and also brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and the women also, and the people. Gen 14:17 And the king of Sodom went out to meet him after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer, and of the kings that were with him, at the valley of Shaveh, which is the king’s dale.
“I am the L ORD That Brought Thee Out of Ur of the Chaldees, to Give Thee This Land To Inherit It.”
Gen 15:1 After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying, “Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward.” Gen 15:2 And Abram said, “Lord GOD , what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus?” Gen 15:3 And Abram said, “Behold, to me Thou hast given no seed: and, lo, one born in my house is mine heir.” Gen 15:4 And, behold, the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, “This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir.” Gen 15:5 And He brought him forth abroad, and said, “Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, “So shall thy seed be.” Gen 15:6 And he believed in the LORD ; and He counted it to him for righteousness. Gen 15:7 And He said unto him, “I am the LORD That brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to inherit it.” Gen 15:8 And he said, “Lord GOD , whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?” Gen 15:9 And he said unto him, “Take me an heifer of three years old, and a she goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon.” Gen 15:10 And he took unto him all these, and divided them in the midst, and laid each piece one against another: but the birds divided he not. Gen 15:11 And when the fowls came down upon the carcases, Abram drove them away. Gen 15:12 And when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and, lo, an horror of great darkness fell upon him. Gen 15:13 And He said unto Abram, “Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, (and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them) four hundred years; Gen 15:14 And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance. Gen 15:15 And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age. Gen 15:16 But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full.” Gen 15:17 And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp that passed between those pieces.
Events Leading Up to the Babylonian Captivity
Assyrian King Replaces Israelites with Babylonians & Others in Samaria
Bullinger dates the replacement of peoples at 611 to 603 B .C . Another in many attempts to bring foreigners into the land of Israel.
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2Ki 17:22 For the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did; they departed not from them; 2Ki 17:23 Until the LORD removed Israel out of His sight, as He had said by all His servants the prophets. So was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria unto this day. 2Ki 17:24 And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel: and they possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities thereof. 2Ki 17:25 And so it was at the beginning of their dwelling there, that they feared not the LORD : therefore the LORD sent lions among them, which slew some of them. 2Ki 17:26 Wherefore they spake to the king of Assyria, saying, “The nations which thou hast removed, and placed in the cities of Samaria, know not the manner of the God of the land: therefore He hath sent lions among them, and, behold, they slay them, because they know not the manner of the God of the land.” 2Ki 17:27 Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying, “Carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from thence; and let them go and dwell there, and let him teach them the manner of the God of the land.” 2Ki 17:28 Then one of the priests whom they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Beth-el, and taught them how they should fear the LORD . 2Ki 17:29 Howbeit every nation made gods of their own, and put them in the houses of the high places which the Samaritans had made, every nation in their cities wherein they dwelt. 2Ki 17:30 And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal, and the men of Hamath made Ashima, 2Ki 17:31 And the Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak, and the Sepharvites burnt their children in fire to Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim. 2Ki 17:32 So they feared the LORD , and made unto themselves of the lowest of them priests of the high places, which sacrificed for them in the houses of the high places. 2Ki 17:33 They feared the LORD , and served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence. 2Ki 17:34 Unto this day they do after the former manners: they fear not the LORD , neither do they after their statutes, or after their ordinances, or after the law and commandment which the LORD commanded the children of Jacob, whom He named Israel;
Hezekiah Shows Berodach-baladan Judah’s Treasures
II Kings Account
2Ki 20:1 In those days was Hezekiah sick unto death. And the prophet Isaiah the son of Amoz came to him, and said unto him, “Thus saith the LORD , ‘Set thine house in order; for thou shalt die, and not live.’” 2Ki 20:2 Then he turned his face to the wall, and prayed unto the LORD , saying, 2Ki 20:3 “I beseech Thee, O LORD , remember now how I have walked before Thee in truth and with a perfect heart, and have done that which is good in Thy sight.” And Hezekiah wept sore. 2Ki 20:4 And it came to pass, afore Isaiah was gone out into the middle court, that the word of the LORD came to him, saying, 2Ki 20:5 “Turn again, and tell Hezekiah the captain of My people, ‘Thus saith the LORD , the God of David thy father, ‘I have heard thy prayer, I have seen thy tears: behold, I will heal thee: on the third day thou shalt go up unto the house of the LORD . 2Ki 20:6 And I will add unto thy days fifteen years; and I will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria; and I will defend this city for Mine own sake, and for My servant David’s sake.’ ’” 2Ki 20:7 And Isaiah said, “Take a lump of figs.” And they took and laid it on the boil, and he recovered. 2Ki 20:8 And Hezekiah said unto Isaiah, “What shall be the sign that the LORD will heal me, and that I shall go
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up into the house of the LORD the third day?” 2Ki 20:9 And Isaiah said, “This sign shalt thou have of the LORD , that the LORD will do the thing that He hath spoken: shall the shadow go forward ten degrees, or go back ten degrees?” 2Ki 20:10 And Hezekiah answered, “It is a light thing for the shadow to go down ten degrees: nay, but let the shadow return backward ten degrees.” 2Ki 20:11 And Isaiah the prophet cried unto the LORD : and he brought the shadow ten degrees backward, by which it had gone down in the dial of Ahaz. 2Ki 20:12 At that time Berodach-baladan, the son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent letters and a present unto Hezekiah: for he had heard that Hezekiah had been sick. 2Ki 20:13 And Hezekiah hearkened unto them, and shewed them all the house of his precious things, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, and the precious ointment, and all the house of his armour, and all that was found in his treasures: there was nothing in his house, nor in all his dominion, that Hezekiah shewed them not. 2Ki 20:14 Then came Isaiah the prophet unto king Hezekiah, and said unto him, “What said these men? and from whence came they unto thee?” And Hezekiah said, “They are come from a far country, even from Babylon.” 2Ki 20:15 And he said, “What have they seen in thine house?” And Hezekiah answered, “All the things that are in mine house have they seen: there is nothing among my treasures that I have not shewed them.” 2Ki 20:16 And Isaiah said unto Hezekiah, “Hear the word of the LORD . 2Ki 20:17 ‘Behold, the days come, that all that is in thine house, and that which thy fathers have laid up in store unto this day, shall be carried into Babylon: nothing shall be left,’ saith the LORD . 2Ki 20:18 ‘And of thy sons that shall issue from thee, which thou shalt beget, shall they take away; and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon.’” 2Ki 20:19 Then said Hezekiah unto Isaiah, “Good is the word of the LORD which thou hast spoken.” And he said, “Is it not good, if peace and truth be in my days?” 2Ki 20:20 And the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, and all his might, and how he made a pool, and a conduit, and brought water into the city, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? 2Ki 20:21 And Hezekiah slept with his fathers: and Manasseh his son reigned in his stead.
II Chronicles Account
2Ch 32:30 This same Hezekiah also stopped the upper watercourse of Gihon, and brought it straight down to the west side of the city of David. And Hezekiah prospered in all his works. 2Ch 32:31 Howbeit in the business of the ambassadors of the princes of Babylon, who sent unto him to enquire of the wonder that was done in the land, God left him, to try him, that he might know all that was in his heart. 2Ch 32:32 Now the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, and his goodness, behold, they are written in the vision of Isaiah the prophet, the son of Amoz, and in the book of the kings of Judah and Israel.
Isaiah’s Rebuke to Hezekiah From Yahveh
Isa 39:1 At that time Merodach-baladan, the son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent letters and a present to Hezekiah: for he had heard that he had been sick, and was recovered. Isa 39:2 And Hezekiah was glad of them, and shewed them the house of his precious things, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, and the precious ointment, and all the house of his armour, and all that was found in his treasures: there was nothing in his house, nor in all his dominion, that Hezekiah shewed them not. Isa 39:3 Then came Isaiah the prophet unto king Hezekiah, and said unto him, “What said these men? and from whence came they unto thee?” And Hezekiah said, “They are come from a far country unto me, even from Babylon.” Isa 39:4 Then said he, “What have they seen in thine house?” And Hezekiah answered, “All that is in mine house have they seen: there is nothing among my treasures that I have not shewed them.”
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Isa 39:5 Then said Isaiah to Hezekiah, “Hear the word of the LORD of Hosts: Isa 39:6 ‘Behold, the days come, that all that is in thine house, and that which thy fathers have laid up in store until this day, shall be carried to Babylon: nothing shall be left,’ saith the LORD . Isa 39:7 ‘And of thy sons that shall issue from thee, which thou shalt beget, shall they take away; and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon.’” Isa 39:8 Then said Hezekiah to Isaiah, “Good is the word of the LORD which thou hast spoken.” He said moreover, “For there shall be peace and truth in my days.”
Manasseh Carried Off to Babylon
2Ch 33:9 So Manasseh made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to err, and to do worse than the heathen, whom the LORD had destroyed before the children of Israel. 2Ch 33:10 And the LORD spake to Manasseh, and to His people: but they would not hearken. 2Ch 33:11 Wherefore the LORD brought upon them the captains of the host of the king of Assyria, which took Manasseh among the thorns, and bound him with fetters, and carried him to Babylon. 2Ch 33:12 And when he was in affliction, he besought the LORD his God, and humbled himself greatly before the God of his fathers, 2Ch 33:13 And prayed unto Him: and He was intreated of him, and heard his supplication, and brought him again to Jerusalem into his kingdom. Then Manasseh knew that the LORD he was God.
The Babylonian Captivity
See also historical accounts and prophecies in Jeremiah (especially) and Ezekiel related to the same events.
First Siege Against Judah—Jehoakim Becomes Nebuchadnezzar’s Servant
Bullinger dates the first siege against Jerusalem at 496 B .C . The first siege seems to have amounted to a damaging military assault on, but not the complete destruction of, Jerusalem.
II Kings Account
2Ki 24:1 In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years: then he turned and rebelled against him. 2Ki 24:2 And the LORD sent against him bands of the Chaldees, and bands of the Syrians, and bands of the Moabites, and bands of the children of Ammon, and sent them against Judah to destroy it, according to the word of the LORD , which He spake by His servants the prophets. 2Ki 24:3 Surely at the commandment of the LORD came this upon Judah, to remove them out of His sight, for the sins of Manasseh, according to all that he did; 2Ki 24:4 And also for the innocent blood that he shed: for he filled Jerusalem with innocent blood; which the LORD would not pardon. 2Ki 24:5 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? 2Ki 24:6 So Jehoiakim slept with his fathers: and Jehoiachin his son reigned in his stead. 2Ki 24:7 And the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land: for the king of Babylon had taken from the river of Egypt unto the river Euphrates all that pertained to the king of Egypt.
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II Chronicles Account
2Ch 36:5 Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem: and he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD his God. 2Ch 36:6 Against him came up Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and bound him in fetters, to carry him to Babylon. 2Ch 36:7 Nebuchadnezzar also carried of the vessels of the house of the LORD to Babylon, and put them in his temple at Babylon. 2Ch 36:8 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and his abominations which he did, and that which was found in him, behold, they are written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah: and Jehoiachin his son reigned in his stead.
Second Siege Against Judah—Jehoiachin Taken Captive
Bullinger dates the second siege against Jerusalem at 489 B .C . During the second siege, the Babylonians not only inflicted further damage on Jerusalem but carried away the treasures of Yahveh’s house.
II Kings Account
2Ki 24:8 Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months. And his mother’s name was Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. 2Ki 24:9 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD , according to all that his father had done. 2Ki 24:10 At that time the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up against Jerusalem, and the city was besieged. 2Ki 24:11 And Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came against the city, and his servants did besiege it. 2Ki 24:12 And Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon, he, and his mother, and his servants, and his princes, and his officers: and the king of Babylon took him in the eighth year of his reign. 2Ki 24:13 And he carried out thence all the treasures of the house of the LORD , and the treasures of the king’s house, and cut in pieces all the vessels of gold which Solomon king of Israel had made in the temple of the LORD , as the LORD had said. 2Ki 24:14 And he carried away all Jerusalem, and all the princes, and all the mighty men of valour, even ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths: none remained, save the poorest sort of the people of the land. 2Ki 24:15 And he carried away Jehoiachin to Babylon, and the king’s mother, and the king’s wives, and his officers, and the mighty of the land, those carried he into captivity from Jerusalem to Babylon. 2Ki 24:16 And all the men of might, even seven thousand, and craftsmen and smiths a thousand, all that were strong and apt for war, even them the king of Babylon brought captive to Babylon. 2Ki 24:17 And the king of Babylon made Mattaniah his father’s brother king in his stead, and changed his name to Zedekiah. 2Ki 24:18 Zedekiah was twenty and one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. 2Ki 24:19 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD , according to all that Jehoiakim had done. 2Ki 24:20 For through the anger of the LORD it came to pass in Jerusalem and Judah, until He had cast them out from His presence, that Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.
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II Chronicles Account
2Ch 36:9 Jehoiachin was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months and ten days in Jerusalem: and he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD . 2Ch 36:10 And when the year was expired, king Nebuchadnezzar sent, and brought him to Babylon, with the goodly vessels of the house of the LORD , and made Zedekiah his brother king over Judah and Jerusalem. 2Ch 36:11 Zedekiah was one and twenty years old when he began to reign, and reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. 2Ch 36:12 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD his God, and humbled not himself before Jeremiah the prophet speaking from the mouth of the LORD . 2Ch 36:13 And he also rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God: but he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart from turning unto the LORD God of Israel. 2Ch 36:14 Moreover all the chief of the priests, and the people, transgressed very much after all the abominations of the heathen; and polluted the house of the LORD which He had hallowed in Jerusalem. 2Ch 36:15 And the LORD God of their fathers sent to them by His messengers, rising up betimes, and sending; because He had compassion on His people, and on His dwelling place: 2Ch 36:16 But they mocked the messengers of God, and despised His words, and misused His prophets, until the wrath of the LORD arose against His people, till there was no remedy. 2Ch 36:17 Therefore He brought upon them the king of the Chaldees, who slew their young men with the sword in the house of their sanctuary, and had no compassion upon young man or maiden, old man, or him that stooped for age: He gave them all into his hand. 2Ch 36:18 And all the vessels of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of the house of the LORD , and the treasures of the king, and of his princes; all these he brought to Babylon. 2Ch 36:19 And they burnt the house of God, and brake down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the palaces thereof with fire, and destroyed all the goodly vessels thereof. 2Ch 36:20 And them that had escaped from the sword carried he away to Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia: 2Ch 36:21 To fulfil the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths: for as long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath, to fulfil threescore and ten years. 2Ch 36:22 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD spoken by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying, 2Ch 36:23 “Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, ‘All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD God of heaven given me; and He hath charged me to build Him an house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Who is there among you of all His people? The LORD his God be with him, and let him go up.’”
Third Siege Against Judah—Zedekiah Taken Captive
Bullinger dates the third siege against Jerusalem at 479-477 B .C . That siege lasted “unto the eleventh year of Zedekiah,” Judah’s last king. The remainder of the captives were carried away to Babylon at this third and final siege, and the Babylonians burned the temple. It would be up to the returning captives to build it 70 years later.
2Ki 25:1 And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he, and all his host, against Jerusalem, and pitched against it; and they built forts against it round about. 2Ki 25:2 And the city was besieged unto the eleventh year of king Zedekiah. 2Ki 25:3 And on the ninth day of the fourth month the famine prevailed in the city, and there was no bread for the people of the land. 2Ki 25:4 And the city was broken up, and all the men of war fled by night by the way of the gate between two
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walls, which is by the king’s garden: (now the Chaldees were against the city round about:) and the king went the way toward the plain. 2Ki 25:5 And the army of the Chaldees pursued after the king, and overtook him in the plains of Jericho: and all his army were scattered from him. 2Ki 25:6 So they took the king, and brought him up to the king of Babylon to Riblah; and they gave judgment upon him. 2Ki 25:7 And they slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, and put out the eyes of Zedekiah, and bound him with fetters of brass, and carried him to Babylon. 2Ki 25:8 And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, which is the nineteenth year of king Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, came Nebuzar-adan, captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, unto Jerusalem: 2Ki 25:9 And he burnt the house of the LORD , and the king’s house, and all the houses of Jerusalem, and every great man’s house burnt he with fire. 2Ki 25:10 And all the army of the Chaldees, that were with the captain of the guard, brake down the walls of Jerusalem round about. 2Ki 25:11 Now the rest of the people that were left in the city, and the fugitives that fell away to the king of Babylon, with the remnant of the multitude, did Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard carry away. 2Ki 25:12 But the captain of the guard left of the poor of the land to be vinedressers and husbandmen. 2Ki 25:13 And the pillars of brass that were in the house of the LORD , and the bases, and the brasen sea that was in the house of the LORD , did the Chaldees break in pieces, and carried the brass of them to Babylon. 2Ki 25:14 And the pots, and the shovels, and the snuffers, and the spoons, and all the vessels of brass wherewith they ministered, took they away. 2Ki 25:15 And the firepans, and the bowls, and such things as were of gold, in gold, and of silver, in silver, the captain of the guard took away. 2Ki 25:16 The two pillars, one sea, and the bases which Solomon had made for the house of the LORD ; the brass of all these vessels was without weight. 2Ki 25:17 The height of the one pillar was eighteen cubits, and the chapiter upon it was brass: and the height of the chapiter three cubits; and the wreathen work, and pomegranates upon the chapiter round about, all of brass: and like unto these had the second pillar with wreathen work. 2Ki 25:18 And the captain of the guard took Seraiah the chief priest, and Zephaniah the second priest, and the three keepers of the door: 2Ki 25:19 And out of the city he took an officer that was set over the men of war, and five men of them that were in the king’s presence, which were found in the city, and the principal scribe of the host, which mustered the people of the land, and threescore men of the people of the land that were found in the city: 2Ki 25:20 And Nebuzar-adan captain of the guard took these, and brought them to the king of Babylon to Riblah: 2Ki 25:21 And the king of Babylon smote them, and slew them at Riblah in the land of Hamath. So Judah was carried away out of their land.
The Remainder of the People in Judah
Jeremiah describes the plight of the remainder of the people in more detail and was even sent to prophesy against those who sought refuge in Egypt. See chapters 40-44 in Jeremiah.
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Ishmael Slays Gedaliah
2Ki 25:22 And as for the people that remained in the land of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had left, even over them he made Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, ruler. 2Ki 25:23 And when all the captains of the armies, they and their men, heard that the king of Babylon had made Gedaliah governor, there came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, even Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan the son of Careah, and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men. 2Ki 25:24 And Gedaliah sware to them, and to their men, and said unto them, “Fear not to be the servants of the Chaldees: dwell in the land, and serve the king of Babylon; and it shall be well with you.” 2Ki 25:25 But it came to pass in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, came, and ten men with him, and smote Gedaliah, that he died, and the Jews and the Chaldees that were with him at Mizpah. 2Ki 25:26 And all the people, both small and great, and the captains of the armies, arose, and came to Egypt: for they were afraid of the Chaldees. 2Ki 25:27 And it came to pass in the seven and thirtieth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, that Evil-merodach king of Babylon in the year that he began to reign did lift up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah out of prison; 2Ki 25:28 And he spake kindly to him, and set his throne above the throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon; 2Ki 25:29 And changed his prison garments: and he did eat bread continually before him all the days of his life. 2Ki 25:30 And his allowance was a continual allowance given him of the king, a daily rate for every day, all the days of his life.
Jehozadak (Levite) Goes into Captivity With Judah
Jeshua, the son of Jozadak, was a prominent Levite leader among the captives that returned from the captivity in Ezra/Nehemiah. Bullinger on Jozadak in Ezra 3:2: “The son of Seraiah (I Chron. 6:14, 15). But Ezra was the son of Seraiah (Ezra 7:1). Therefore, Ezra was brother to Jozadak and uncle to Joshua, the high priest.”
1Ch 6:1 The sons of Levi; Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. 1Ch 6:2 And the sons of Kohath; Amram, Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel. 1Ch 6:3 And the children of Amram; Aaron, and Moses, and Miriam. The sons also of Aaron; Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. 1Ch 6:4 Eleazar begat Phinehas, Phinehas begat Abishua, 1Ch 6:5 And Abishua begat Bukki, and Bukki begat Uzzi, 1Ch 6:6 And Uzzi begat Zerahiah, and Zerahiah begat Meraioth, 1Ch 6:7 Meraioth begat Amariah, and Amariah begat Ahitub, 1Ch 6:8 And Ahitub begat Zadok, and Zadok begat Ahimaaz, 1Ch 6:9 And Ahimaaz begat Azariah, and Azariah begat Johanan, 1Ch 6:10 And Johanan begat Azariah, (he it is that executed the priest’s office in the temple that Solomon built in Jerusalem:) 1Ch 6:11 And Azariah begat Amariah, and Amariah begat Ahitub, 1Ch 6:12 And Ahitub begat Zadok, and Zadok begat Shallum, 1Ch 6:13 And Shallum begat Hilkiah, and Hilkiah begat Azariah, 1Ch 6:14 And Azariah begat Seraiah, and Seraiah begat Jehozadak, 1Ch 6:15 And Jehozadak went into captivity, when the LORD carried away Judah and Jerusalem by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.
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1Ch 9:1 So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies; and, behold, they were written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah, who were carried away to Babylon for their transgression.
Ezra and Nehemiah
Aside from the narrative itself, the names of the people mentioned in these two books are of utmost importance to pay attention to, but perhaps for some for surprising reasons. Foreign influence on the returning captives caused no small trouble for them. But if you were taught (like this writer was) that men like Nehemiah, Zerubbabel, and Ezra were party to bringing a host of foreigners back to Jerusalem, it’s time to take a look at the evidence to the contrary from Strong’s. Names in orange are of clear Hebrew origin. Names in green are of uncertain and likely Hebrew derivation . Names in blue are foreign names. Sometimes Strong identifies the specific foreign origin, notably Persian, Egyptian, and Chaldee. At other times, he generically identifies a word as simply foreign. No distinction between specific foreign origin and generic foreign origin is made in this study except in the list of names and places at the end. Source: Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible . Dates and notes are taken from E. W. Bullinger’s The Companion Bible . This writer does not agree with all of Bullinger’s work but finds this Bible invaluable for scholarly detail. It should be noted that Bullinger’s datings of the events in these two books are not universally accepted. Notes in red are this writer’s opinion.
Return to Jerusalem at Cyrus’ Decree
Ezr 1:1 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying, Ezr 1:2 “Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, ‘The LORD God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and He hath charged me to build Him an house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Ezr 1:3 Who is there among you of all His people? his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and build the house of the LORD God of Israel, (He is the God,) which is in Jerusalem. Ezr 1:4 And whosoever remaineth in any place where he sojourneth, let the men of his place help him with silver, and with gold, and with goods, and with beasts, beside the freewill offering for the house of God that is in Jerusalem.’” Ezr 1:5 Then rose up the chief of the fathers of Judah and Benjamin, and the priests, and the Levites, with all them whose spirit God had raised, to go up to build the house of the LORD which is in Jerusalem. Ezr 1:6 And all they that were about them strengthened their hands with vessels of silver, with gold, with goods, and with beasts, and with precious things, beside all that was willingly offered. Ezr 1:7 Also Cyrus the king brought forth the vessels of the house of the LORD , which Nebuchadnezzar had brought forth out of Jerusalem, and had put them in the house of his gods; Ezr 1:8 Even those did Cyrus king of Persia bring forth by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, and numbered them unto Sheshbazzar, the prince of Judah. Ezr 1:9 And this is the number of them: thirty chargers of gold, a thousand chargers of silver, nine and twenty knives, Ezr 1:10 Thirty basons of gold, silver basons of a second sort four hundred and ten, and other vessels a thousand. Ezr 1:11 All the vessels of gold and of silver were five thousand and four hundred. All these did Sheshbazzar
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bring up with them of the captivity that were brought up from Babylon unto Jerusalem.
Second Group of Captives Who Returned
The “province” in verse 1 refers to the Persian-ruled province of Judah. The lists in Ezra 2 and Nehemiah 7 were the second group of captives to return, the first being those who returned with Nehemiah. Bullinger dates this second group returning at 426 B .C . Nehemiah 7:7 indicates that this first group came with Zerubbabel, not Ezra. A third group of captives came with Ezra himself in Ezra 8, and Bullinger dates that group at 404 B .C . Bullinger on the numberings, from the note on “forty and two thousand three hundred and threescore” on verse 64 of this chapter in The Companion Bible: This number agrees with Neh. 7.66. The two lists of names are not alike: but there is no “discrepancy.” The two lists, while they agree in numbers, and vary in names, yet have the totals identical. This shows the independence of the two accounts. Numbered in Ezra 2— 42,360 Named in Ezra— 29,818 Named in Nehemiah, not in Ezra— 1765 29,818 + 1,765 = 31,583 Differences between names and numbers— 10,777 Numbered in Neh. 7— 42,360 Named in Nehemiah— 31,089 Named in Nehemiah, not in Ezra— 494 31,089 + 494 = 31,583 Differences between names and numbers— 10,777
Ezr 2:1 Now these are the children of the province that went up out of the captivity, of those which had been carried away, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away unto Babylon, and came again unto Jerusalem and Judah, every one unto his city; Ezr 2:2 Which came with Zerubbabel: Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan, Mispar, Bigvai, Rehum, Baanah. The number of the men of the people of Israel: Ezr 2:3 The children of Parosh, two thousand an hundred seventy and two. Ezr 2:4 The children of Shephatiah, three hundred seventy and two. Ezr 2:5 The children of Arah, seven hundred seventy and five. Ezr 2:6 The children of Pahath-moab, of the children of Jeshua and Joab, two thousand eight hundred and twelve. Ezr 2:7 The children of Elam, a thousand two hundred fifty and four. Ezr 2:8 The children of Zattu, nine hundred forty and five. Ezr 2:9 The children of Zaccai, seven hundred and threescore. Ezr 2:10 The children of Bani, six hundred forty and two. Ezr 2:11 The children of Bebai, six hundred twenty and three. Ezr 2:12 The children of Azgad, a thousand two hundred twenty and two. Ezr 2:13 The children of Adonikam, six hundred sixty and six. Ezr 2:14 The children of Bigvai, two thousand fifty and six. Ezr 2:15 The children of Adin, four hundred fifty and four. Ezr 2:16 The children of Ater of Hezekiah, ninety and eight. Ezr 2:17 The children of Bezai, three hundred twenty and three. Ezr 2:18 The children of Jorah, an hundred and twelve.
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Ezr 2:19 The children of Hashum, two hundred twenty and three. Ezr 2:20 The children of Gibbar, ninety and five. Ezr 2:21 The children of Beth-lehem, an hundred twenty and three. Ezr 2:22 The men of Netophah, fifty and six. Ezr 2:23 The men of Anathoth, an hundred twenty and eight. Ezr 2:24 The children of Azmaveth, forty and two. Ezr 2:25 The children of Kirjath-arim, Chephirah, and Beeroth, seven hundred and forty and three. Ezr 2:26 The children of Ramah and Gaba, six hundred twenty and one. Ezr 2:27 The men of Michmas, an hundred twenty and two. Ezr 2:28 The men of Beth-el and Ai, two hundred twenty and three. Ezr 2:29 The children of Nebo, fifty and two. Ezr 2:30 The children of Magbish, an hundred fifty and six. Ezr 2:31 The children of the other Elam, a thousand two hundred fifty and four. Ezr 2:32 The children of Harim, three hundred and twenty. Ezr 2:33 The children of Lod, Hadid, and Ono, seven hundred twenty and five. Ezr 2:34 The children of Jericho, three hundred forty and five. Ezr 2:35 The children of Senaah, three thousand and six hundred and thirty. Ezr 2:36 The priests: the children of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua, nine hundred seventy and three. Ezr 2:37 The children of Immer, a thousand fifty and two. Ezr 2:38 The children of Pashur, a thousand two hundred forty and seven. Ezr 2:39 The children of Harim, a thousand and seventeen. Ezr 2:40 The Levites: the children of Jeshua and Kadmiel, of the children of Hodaviah, seventy and four. Ezr 2:41 The singers: the children of Asaph, an hundred twenty and eight. Ezr 2:42 The children of the porters: the children of Shallum, the children of Ater, the children of Talmon, the children of Akkub, the children of Hatita, the children of Shobai, in all an hundred thirty and nine. Ezr 2:43 The Nethinims: the children of Ziha, the children of Hasupha, the children of Tabbaoth, Ezr 2:44 The children of Keros, the children of Siaha, the children of Padon, Ezr 2:45 The children of Lebanah, the children of Hagabah, the children of Akkub, Ezr 2:46 The children of Hagab, the children of Shalmai, the children of Hanan, Ezr 2:47 The children of Giddel, the children of Gahar, the children of Reaiah, Ezr 2:48 The children of Rezin, the children of Nekoda, the children of Gazzam, Ezr 2:49 The children of Uzza, the children of Paseah, the children of Besai, Ezr 2:50 The children of Asnah, the children of Mehunim, the children of Nephusim, Ezr 2:51 The children of Bakbuk, the children of Hakupha, the children of Harhur, Ezr 2:52 The children of Bazluth, the children of Mehida, the children of Harsha, Ezr 2:53 The children of Barkos, the children of Sisera, the children of Thamah, Ezr 2:54 The children of Neziah, the children of Hatipha. Ezr 2:55 The children of Solomon’s servants: the children of Sotai, the children of Sophereth, the children of Peruda, Ezr 2:56 The children of Jaalah, the children of Darkon, the children of Giddel, Ezr 2:57 The children of Shephatiah, the children of Hattil, the children of Pochereth of Zebaim, the children of Ami. Ezr 2:58 All the Nethinims, and the children of Solomon’s servants, were three hundred ninety and two. Ezr 2:59 And these were they which went up from Tel-melah, Tel-harsa, Cherub, Addan, and Immer: but they could not shew their father’s house, and their seed, whether they were of Israel: Ezr 2:60 The children of Delaiah, the children of Tobiah, the children of Nekoda, six hundred fifty and two. Ezr 2:61 And of the children of the priests: the children of Habaiah, the children of Koz, the children of Barzillai; which took a wife of the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite, and was called after their name: Ezr 2:62 These sought their register among those that were reckoned by genealogy, but they were not found:
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therefore were they, as polluted, put from the priesthood. Ezr 2:63 And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and with Thummim. [Note: Though “Tirshatha” is a foreign term, it is generally assumed to refer to Nehemiah, who was seed royal of Judah. It is a title, not a name. Bebai and Nebo are documented to be Israelites in Ezra 10 and were among those who took foreign wives. Bebai and Bigvai also have progeny with Hebrew names in Ezra 8. Those who could not show their Israelite lineage begin in verse 59, after the Nethinims and the children of Solomon’s servants.] Ezr 2:64 The whole congregation together was forty and two thousand three hundred and threescore, Ezr 2:65 Beside their servants and their maids, of whom there were seven thousand three hundred thirty and seven: and there were among them two hundred singing men and singing women. Ezr 2:66 Their horses were seven hundred thirty and six; their mules, two hundred forty and five; Ezr 2:67 Their camels, four hundred thirty and five; their asses, six thousand seven hundred and twenty. Ezr 2:68 And some of the chief of the fathers, when they came to the house of the LORD which is at Jerusalem, offered freely for the house of God to set it up in his place: Ezr 2:69 They gave after their ability unto the treasure of the work threescore and one thousand drams of gold, and five thousand pound of silver, and one hundred priests’ garments. Ezr 2:70 So the priests, and the Levites, and some of the people, and the singers, and the porters, and the Nethinims, dwelt in their cities, and all Israel in their cities.
Returned Captives Begin Work on Rebuilding the Temple
Ezr 3:1 And when the seventh month was come, and the children of Israel were in the cities, the people gathered themselves together as one man to Jerusalem. Ezr 3:2 Then stood up Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and his brethren the priests, and Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and his brethren, and builded the altar of the God of Israel, to offer burnt offerings thereon, as it is written in the law of Moses the man of God. Ezr 3:3 And they set the altar upon his bases; for fear was upon them because of the people of those countries: and they offered burnt offerings thereon unto the LORD , even burnt offerings morning and evening. Ezr 3:4 They kept also the feast of tabernacles, as it is written, and offered the daily burnt offerings by number, according to the custom, as the duty of every day required; Ezr 3:5 And afterward offered the continual burnt offering, both of the new moons, and of all the set feasts of the LORD that were consecrated, and of every one that willingly offered a freewill offering unto the LORD . Ezr 3:6 From the first day of the seventh month began they to offer burnt offerings unto the LORD . But the foundation of the temple of the LORD was not yet laid. Ezr 3:7 They gave money also unto the masons, and to the carpenters; and meat, and drink, and oil, unto them of Zidon, and to them of Tyre, to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea of Joppa, according to the grant that they had of Cyrus king of Persia. Ezr 3:8 Now in the second year of their coming unto the house of God at Jerusalem, in the second month, began Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and the remnant of their brethren the priests and the Levites, and all they that were come out of the captivity unto Jerusalem; and appointed the Levites, from twenty years old and upward, to set forward the work of the house of the LORD . Ezr 3:9 Then stood Jeshua with his sons and his brethren, Kadmiel and his sons, the sons of Judah, together, to set forward the workmen in the house of God: the sons of Henadad, with their sons and their brethren the Levites. Ezr 3:10 And when the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the LORD , they set the priests in their apparel with trumpets, and the Levites the sons of Asaph with cymbals, to praise the LORD , after the ordinance
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of David king of Israel. Ezr 3:11 And they sang together by course in praising and giving thanks unto the LORD ; because He is good, for His mercy endureth for ever toward Israel. And all the people shouted with a great shout, when they praised the LORD , because the foundation of the house of the LORD was laid. Ezr 3:12 But many of the priests and Levites and chief of the fathers, who were ancient men, that had seen the first house, when the foundation of this house was laid before their eyes, wept with a loud voice; and many shouted aloud for joy: Ezr 3:13 So that the people could not discern the noise of the shout of joy from the noise of the weeping of the people: for the people shouted with a loud shout, and the noise was heard afar off.
Foreigners Hinder Work on Rebuilding Yahveh’s Temple
Ezr 4:1 Now when the adversaries of Judah and Benjamin heard that the children of the captivity builded the temple unto the LORD God of Israel; Ezr 4:2 Then they came to Zerubbabel, and to the chief of the fathers, and said unto them, “Let us build with you: for we seek your God, as ye do; and we do sacrifice unto Him since the days of Esar-haddon king of Assur, which brought us up hither.” Ezr 4:3 But Zerubbabel, and Jeshua, and the rest of the chief of the fathers of Israel, said unto them, “Ye have nothing to do with us to build an house unto our God; but we ourselves together will build unto the LORD God of Israel, as king Cyrus the king of Persia hath commanded us.” Ezr 4:4 Then the people of the land weakened the hands of the people of Judah, and troubled them in building, Ezr 4:5 And hired counsellors against them, to frustrate their purpose, all the days of Cyrus king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius king of Persia. (Ezr 4:6 And in the reign of Ahasuerus, in the beginning of his reign, wrote they unto him an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem.) [Note: “inhabitants” does not necessarily mean blood descendants. Bullinger dates this period at 425-410 B .C . The Israelites would have had plenty of time to mix with foreign wives by then, as Nehemiah brought the first group around 454 B .C . This perhaps accounted for some of Ezra’s despair in chapter 9.] (Ezr 4:7 And in the days of Artaxerxes wrote Bishlam, Mithredath, Tabeel, and the rest of their companions, unto Artaxerxes king of Persia; and the writing of the letter was written in the Syrian tongue, and interpreted in the Syrian tongue. Ezr 4:8 Rehum the chancellor and Shimshai the scribe wrote a letter against Jerusalem to Artaxerxes the king in this sort: Ezr 4:9 Then wrote Rehum the chancellor, and Shimshai the scribe, and the rest of their companions; the Dinaites, the Apharsathchites, the Tarpelites, the Apharsites, the Archevites, the Babylonians, the Susanchites, the Dehavites, and the Elamites, [Note: There is a Hebrew equivalent for “Elam.” “Elamites” is used only once, here, in the Old Testament, and is a Chaldee word.] Ezr 4:10 And the rest of the nations whom the great and noble Asnappar brought over, and set in the cities of Samaria, and the rest that are on this side the river, and at such a time. [Note: Approximately 200 years earlier, the king of Assyria replaced the Israelite peoples of Samaria with foreigners. See II Kings 17:24.] Ezr 4:11 This is the copy of the letter that they sent unto him, even unto Artaxerxes the king; “Thy servants the men on this side the river, and at such a time. Ezr 4:12 Be it known unto the king, that the Jews which came up from thee to us are come unto Jerusalem,
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building the rebellious and the bad city, and have set up the walls thereof, and joined the foundations. Ezr 4:13 Be it known now unto the king, that, if this city be builded, and the walls set up again, then will they not pay toll, tribute, and custom, and so thou shalt endamage the revenue of the kings. Ezr 4:14 Now because we have maintenance from the king’s palace, and it was not meet for us to see the king’s dishonour, therefore have we sent and certified the king; Ezr 4:15 That search may be made in the book of the records of thy fathers: so shalt thou find in the book of the records, and know that this city is a rebellious city, and hurtful unto kings and provinces, and that they have moved sedition within the same of old time: for which cause was this city destroyed. Ezr 4:16 We certify the king that, if this city be builded again, and the walls thereof set up, by this means thou shalt have no portion on this side the river.” Ezr 4:17 Then sent the king an answer unto Rehum the chancellor, and to Shimshai the scribe, and to the rest of their companions that dwell in Samaria, and unto the rest beyond the river, “Peace, and at such a time. Ezr 4:18 The letter which ye sent unto us hath been plainly read before me. Ezr 4:19 And I commanded, and search hath been made, and it is found that this city of old time hath made insurrection against kings, and that rebellion and sedition have been made therein. Ezr 4:20 There have been mighty kings also over Jerusalem, which have ruled over all countries beyond the river; and toll, tribute, and custom, was paid unto them. Ezr 4:21 Give ye now commandment to cause these men to cease, and that this city be not builded, until another commandment shall be given from me. Ezr 4:22 Take heed now that ye fail not to do this: why should damage grow to the hurt of the kings?”) Ezr 4:23 Now when the copy of king Artaxerxes’ letter was read before Rehum, and Shimshai the scribe, and their companions, they went up in haste to Jerusalem unto the Jews, and made them to cease by force and power. Ezr 4:24 Then ceased the work of the house of GOD which is at Jerusalem. So it ceased unto the second year of the reign of Darius king of Persia.
Prophecies From Haggai and Zechariah & Cessation of Work on the Temple
The entire book of Haggai is directed at the returned captives. Bullinger dates Haggai’s prophecies at 410 B .C ., or sixteen years after Cyrus’ decree. The people had succumbed to outside influences that stifled the work on rebuilding the temple, and Yahveh was not pleased. A direct nature of Zechariah’s prophecies is less obvious, but the book is dated “In the eighth month, in the second year of Darius . . .” (Zechariah 1:1). Bullinger puts his prophecy at 410-407 B .C . It might be surmised, given that the book of Zechariah was specifically dated at the first verse during this very period of rebuilding the temple after the captivity, that the prophecies are tied to the events of this era. It might also be assumed that Zechariah’s prophecies to the rebuilders went unrecorded. Both prophets are mentioned again in Ezra 6:14 as strengthening forces.
Ezr 5:1 Then the prophets, Haggai the prophet, and Zechariah the son of Iddo, prophesied unto the Jews that were in Judah and Jerusalem in the name of the GOD of Israel, even unto them. Ezr 5:2 Then rose up Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and began to build the house of God which is at Jerusalem: and with them were the prophets of GOD helping them. Ezr 5:3 At the same time came to them Tatnai, governor on this side the river, and Shethar-boznai, and their companions, and said thus unto them, “Who hath commanded you to build this house, and to make up this wall?” Ezr 5:4 Then said we unto them after this manner, “What are the names of the men that make this building?” Ezr 5:5 But the eye of their GOD was upon the elders of the Jews, that they could not cause them to cease, till the matter came to Darius: and then they returned answer by letter concerning this matter. Ezr 5:6 The copy of the letter that Tatnai, governor on this side the river, and Shethar-boznai, and his
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companions the Apharsachites, which were on this side the river, sent unto Darius the king: Ezr 5:7 They sent a letter unto him, wherein was written thus; “Unto Darius the king, all peace. Ezr 5:8 Be it known unto the king, that we went into the province of Judea, to the house of the great GOD, which is builded with great stones, and timber is laid in the walls, and this work goeth fast on, and prospereth in their hands. Ezr 5:9 Then asked we those elders, and said unto them thus, ‘Who commanded you to build this house, and to make up these walls?’ Ezr 5:10 We asked their names also, to certify thee, that we might write the names of the men that were the chief of them. Ezr 5:11 And thus they returned us answer, saying, ‘We are the servants of the GOD of heaven and earth, and build the house that was builded these many years ago, which a great king of Israel builded and set up. Ezr 5:12 But after that our fathers had provoked the GOD of heaven unto wrath, He gave them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean, who destroyed this house, and carried the people away into Babylon. Ezr 5:13 But in the first year of Cyrus the king of Babylon the same king Cyrus made a decree to build this house of GOD. Ezr 5:14 And the vessels also of gold and silver of the house of GOD, which Nebuchadnezzar took out of the temple that was in Jerusalem, and brought them into the temple of Babylon, those did Cyrus the king take out of the temple of Babylon, and they were delivered unto one, whose name was Sheshbazzar, whom he had made governor; Ezr 5:15 And said unto him, ‘Take these vessels, go, carry them into the temple that is in Jerusalem, and let the house of GOD be builded in his place.’ Ezr 5:16 Then came the same Sheshbazzar, and laid the foundation of the house of GOD which is in Jerusalem: and since that time even until now hath it been in building, and yet it is not finished.’ Ezr 5:17 Now therefore, if it seem good to the king, let there be search made in the king’s treasure house, which is there at Babylon, whether it be so, that a decree was made of Cyrus the king to build this house of GOD at Jerusalem, and let the king send his pleasure to us concerning this matter.’”
Decree from Darius
Ezr 6:1 Then Darius the king made a decree, and search was made in the house of the rolls, where the treasures were laid up in Babylon. Ezr 6:2 And there was found at Achmetha, in the palace that is in the province of the Medes, a roll, and therein was a record thus written: Ezr 6:3 “In the first year of Cyrus the king the same Cyrus the king made a decree concerning the house of GOD at Jerusalem, ‘Let the house be builded, the place where they offered sacrifices, and let the foundations thereof be strongly laid; the height thereof threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof threescore cubits; Ezr 6:4 With three rows of great stones, and a row of new timber: and let the expenses be given out of the king’s house: Ezr 6:5 And also let the golden and silver vessels of the house of GOD, which Nebuchadnezzar took forth out of the temple which is at Jerusalem, and brought unto Babylon, be restored, and brought again unto the temple which is at Jerusalem, every one to his place, and place them in the house of GOD.’ Ezr 6:6 Now therefore, Tatnai, governor beyond the river, Shethar-boznai, and your companions the Apharsachites, which are beyond the river, be ye far from thence: Ezr 6:7 Let the work of this house of GOD alone; let the governor of the Jews and the elders of the Jews build this house of GOD in his place. Ezr 6:8 Moreover I make a decree what ye shall do to the elders of these Jews for the building of this house of God: that of the king’s goods, even of the tribute beyond the river, forthwith expenses be given unto these men,
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that they be not hindered. Ezr 6:9 And that which they have need of, both young bullocks, and rams, and lambs, for the burnt offerings of the GOD of heaven, wheat, salt, wine, and oil, according to the appointment of the priests which are at Jerusalem, let it be given them day by day without fail: Ezr 6:10 That they may offer sacrifices of sweet savours unto the GOD of heaven, and pray for the life of the king, and of his sons. Ezr 6:11 Also I have made a decree, that whosoever shall alter this word, let timber be pulled down from his house, and being set up, let him be hanged thereon; and let his house be made a dunghill for this. Ezr 6:12 And the God that hath caused his name to dwell there destroy all kings and people, that shall put to their hand to alter and to destroy this house of GOD which is at Jerusalem. I Darius have made a decree; let it be done with speed.” Ezr 6:13 Then Tatnai, governor on this side the river, Shethar-boznai, and their companions, according to that which Darius the king had sent, so they did speedily. Ezr 6:14 And the elders of the Jews builded, and they prospered through the prophesying of Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo. And they builded, and finished it, according to the commandment of the GOD of Israel, and according to the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia. Ezr 6:15 And this house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king. Ezr 6:16 And the children of Israel, the priests, and the Levites, and the rest of the children of the captivity, kept the dedication of this house of GOD with joy, Ezr 6:17 And offered at the dedication of this house of GOD an hundred bullocks, two hundred rams, four hundred lambs; and for a sin offering for all Israel, twelve he goats, according to the number of the tribes of Israel. Ezr 6:18 And they set the priests in their divisions, and the Levites in their courses, for the service of GOD, which is at Jerusalem; as it is written in the book of Moses. Ezr 6:19 And the children of the captivity kept the passover upon the fourteenth day of the first month. Ezr 6:20 For the priests and the Levites were purified together, all of them were pure, and killed the passover for all the children of the captivity, and for their brethren the priests, and for themselves. Ezr 6:21 And the children of Israel, which were come again out of captivity, and all such as had separated themselves unto them from the filthiness of the heathen of the land, to seek the LORD God of Israel, did eat, Ezr 6:22 And kept the feast of unleavened bread seven days with joy: for the LORD had made them joyful, and turned the heart of the king of Assyria unto them, to strengthen their hands in the work of the house of God, the God of Israel.
The Book of Haggai
The book of Haggai is here included, as its prophecies were directed specifically toward the returned captives who were rebuilding Yahveh’s house and it is referenced both in Ezra 5:1 and 6:14. Zechariah is not included due to the more vague nature of its prophecies.
Given on the First Day of the Sixth Month (Elul) Hag 1:1 In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, in the first day of the month, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet unto Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, saying, Hag 1:2 “Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying, ‘This people say, ‘The time is not come, the time that the LORD ’s house should be built.’ ’” Hag 1:3 Then came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying, Hag 1:4 “Is it time for you, O ye, to dwell in your cieled houses, and this house lie waste?
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Hag 1:5 Now therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts; ‘Consider your ways. Hag 1:6 Ye have sown much, and bring in little; ye eat, but ye have not enough; ye drink, but ye are not filled with drink; ye clothe you, but there is none warm; and he that earneth wages earneth wages to put it into a bag with holes.” Hag 1:7 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; ‘Consider your ways. Hag 1:8 Go up to the mountain, and bring wood, and build the house; and I will take pleasure in it, and I will be glorified, saith the LORD . Hag 1:9 Ye looked for much, and, lo, it came to little; and when ye brought it home, I did blow upon it. Why? saith the LORD of hosts. Because of Mine house that is waste, and ye run every man unto his own house. Hag 1:10 Therefore the heaven over you is stayed from dew, and the earth is stayed from her fruit. Hag 1:11 And I called for a drought upon the land, and upon the mountains, and upon the corn, and upon the new wine, and upon the oil, and upon that which the ground bringeth forth, and upon men, and upon cattle, and upon all the labour of the hands.’” Hag 1:12 Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, with all the remnant of the people, obeyed the voice of the LORD their God, and the words of Haggai the prophet, as the LORD their God had sent him, and the people did fear before the LORD . Hag 1:13 Then spake Haggai the LORD ’s messenger in the LORD ’s message unto the people, saying, “I am with you, saith the LORD .” Hag 1:14 And the LORD stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, and the spirit of all the remnant of the people; and they came and did work in the house of the LORD of hosts, their God, Hag 1:15 In the four and twentieth day of the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king. Given on the Twenty-First Day of the Seventh Month (Tisri/Ethanim) Hag 2:1 In the seventh month, in the one and twentieth day of the month, came the word of the LORD by the prophet Haggai, saying, Hag 2:2 “Speak now to Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, and to the residue of the people, saying, Hag 2:3 ‘Who is left among you that saw this house in her first glory? and how do ye see it now? is it not in your eyes in comparison of it as nothing? Hag 2:4 Yet now be strong, O Zerubbabel, saith the LORD ; and be strong, O Joshua, son of Josedech, the high priest; and be strong, all ye people of the land, saith the LORD , and work: for I am with you, saith the LORD of hosts: Hag 2:5 According to the word that I covenanted with you when ye came out of Egypt, so My spirit remaineth among you: fear ye not.’ Hag 2:6 For thus saith the LORD of hosts; ‘Yet once, it is a little while, and I will shake the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land; Hag 2:7 And I will shake all nations, and the desire of all nations shall come: and I will fill this house with glory, saith the LORD of hosts. Hag 2:8 The silver is Mine, and the gold is Mine, saith the LORD of hosts. Hag 2:9 The glory of this latter house shall be greater than of the former, saith the LORD of hosts: and in this place will I give peace, saith the LORD of hosts.” Given on the Twenty-Fourth Day of the Ninth Month (Chisleu) Hag 2:10 In the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying, Hag 2:11 “Thus saith the LORD of hosts; ‘Ask now the priests concerning the law, saying,
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Hag 2:12 ‘If one bear holy flesh in the skirt of his garment, and with his skirt do touch bread, or pottage, or wine, or oil, or any meat, shall it be holy?” And the priests answered and said, “No.” Hag 2:13 Then said Haggai, “If one that is unclean by a dead body touch any of these, shall it be unclean?” And the priests answered and said, “It shall be unclean.” Hag 2:14 Then answered Haggai, and said, “So is this people, and so is this nation before Me, saith the LORD ; and so is every work of their hands; and that which they offer there is unclean. Hag 2:15 And now, I pray you, consider from this day and upward, from before a stone was laid upon a stone in the temple of the LORD : Hag 2:16 Since those days were, when one came to an heap of twenty measures, there were but ten: when one came to the pressfat for to draw out fifty vessels out of the press, there were but twenty. Hag 2:17 I smote you with blasting and with mildew and with hail in all the labours of your hands; yet ye turned not to Me, saith the LORD . Hag 2:18 Consider now from this day and upward, from the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, even from the day that the foundation of the LORD ’s temple was laid, consider it. Hag 2:19 Is the seed yet in the barn? yea, as yet the vine, and the fig tree, and the pomegranate, and the olive tree, hath not brought forth: from this day will I bless you.” Given (Also) on the Twenty-Fourth Day of the Ninth Month (Chisleu) Hag 2:20 And again the word of the LORD came unto Haggai in the four and twentieth day of the month, saying, Hag 2:21 “Speak to Zerubbabel, governor of Judah, saying, ‘I will shake the heavens and the earth; Hag 2:22 And I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the heathen; and I will overthrow the chariots, and those that ride in them; and the horses and their riders shall come down, every one by the sword of his brother. Hag 2:23 In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, will I take thee, O Zerubbabel, My servant, the son of Shealtiel, saith the LORD , and will make thee as a signet: for I have chosen thee, saith the LORD of hosts.’”
Third Group of Captives Return With Ezra Himself
Ezra’s genealogy as a direct descendant of Aaron is given in the first verses. Per this heritage, it would only be natural for him to be distraught over foreign pollution of the priesthood. It would also be most natural for him to ensure that he was bringing Israelites and not foreigners back with him.
Ezr 7:1 Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, Ezra the son of Seraiah, the son of Azariah, the son of Hilkiah, Ezr 7:2 The son of Shallum, the son of Zadok, the son of Ahitub, Ezr 7:3 The son of Amariah, the son of Azariah, the son of Meraioth, Ezr 7:4 The son of Zerahiah, the son of Uzzi, the son of Bukki, Ezr 7:5 The son of Abishua, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the chief priest: Ezr 7:6 This Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the law of Moses, which the LORD God of Israel had given: and the king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the LORD his God upon him. Ezr 7:7 And there went up some of the children of Israel, and of the priests, and the Levites, and the singers, and the porters, and the Nethinims, unto Jerusalem, in the seventh year of Artaxerxes the king. Ezr 7:8 And he came to Jerusalem in the fifth month, which was in the seventh year of the king. Ezr 7:9 For upon the first day of the first month began he to go up from Babylon, and on the first day of the fifth month came he to Jerusalem, according to the good hand of his God upon him. Ezr 7:10 For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the law of the LORD , and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments.
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Ezr 7:11 Now this is the copy of the letter that the king Artaxerxes gave unto Ezra the priest, the scribe, even a scribe of the words of the commandments of the LORD , and of his statutes to Israel. Ezr 7:12 “Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the GOD of heaven, perfect peace, and at such a time. Ezr 7:13 I make a decree, that all they of the people of Israel, and of his priests and Levites, in my realm, which are minded of their own freewill to go up to Jerusalem, go with thee. Ezr 7:14 Forasmuch as thou art sent of the king, and of his seven counsellors, to enquire concerning Judah and Jerusalem, according to the law of thy GOD which is in thine hand; Ezr 7:15 And to carry the silver and gold, which the king and his counsellors have freely offered unto the GOD of Israel, whose habitation is in Jerusalem, Ezr 7:16 And all the silver and gold that thou canst find in all the province of Babylon, with the freewill offering of the people, and of the priests, offering willingly for the house of their God which is in Jerusalem: Ezr 7:17 That thou mayest buy speedily with this money bullocks, rams, lambs, with their meat offerings and their drink offerings, and offer them upon the altar of the house of your God which is in Jerusalem. Ezr 7:18 And whatsoever shall seem good to thee, and to thy brethren, to do with the rest of the silver and the gold, that do after the will of your GOD. Ezr 7:19 The vessels also that are given thee for the service of the house of thy GOD, those deliver thou before the GOD of Jerusalem. Ezr 7:20 And whatsoever more shall be needful for the house of thy GOD, which thou shalt have occasion to bestow, bestow it out of the king’s treasure house. Ezr 7:21 And I, even I Artaxerxes the king, do make a decree to all the treasurers which are beyond the river, that whatsoever Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the GOD of heaven, shall require of you, it be done speedily, Ezr 7:22 Unto an hundred talents of silver, and to an hundred measures of wheat, and to an hundred baths of wine, and to an hundred baths of oil, and salt without prescribing how much. Ezr 7:23 Whatsoever is commanded by the GOD of heaven, let it be diligently done for the house of the GOD of heaven: for why should there be wrath against the realm of the king and his sons? Ezr 7:24 Also we certify you, that touching any of the priests and Levites, singers, porters, Nethinims, or ministers of this house of GOD, it shall not be lawful to impose toll, tribute, or custom, upon them. Ezr 7:25 And thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy GOD, that is in thine hand, set magistrates and judges, which may judge all the people that are beyond the river, all such as know the laws of thy GOD; and teach ye them that know them not. Ezr 7:26 And whosoever will not do the law of thy GOD, and the law of the king, let judgment be executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto death, or to banishment, or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment.” Ezr 7:27 Blessed be the LORD God of our fathers, Which hath put such a thing as this in the king’s heart, to beautify the house of the LORD which is in Jerusalem: Ezr 7:28 And hath extended mercy unto me before the king, and his counsellors, and before all the king’s mighty princes. And I was strengthened as the hand of the LORD my God was upon me, and I gathered together out of Israel chief men to go up with me.
List of the Third Group of Returnees
Bullinger dates the return of the third group, who came with Ezra himself, at 404 B .C .
Ezr 8:1 These are now the chief of their fathers, and this is the genealogy of them that went up with me from Babylon, in the reign of Artaxerxes the king. Ezr 8:2 Of the sons of Phinehas; Gershom: of the sons of Ithamar; Daniel: of the sons of David; Hattush. Ezr 8:3 Of the sons of Shechaniah, of the sons of Pharosh; Zechariah: and with him were reckoned by genealogy
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of the males an hundred and fifty. Ezr 8:4 Of the sons of Pahath-moab; Elihoenai the son of Zerahiah, and with him two hundred males. Ezr 8:5 Of the sons of Shechaniah; the son of Jahaziel, and with him three hundred males. Ezr 8:6 Of the sons also of Adin; Ebed the son of Jonathan, and with him fifty males. Ezr 8:7 And of the sons of Elam; Jeshaiah the son of Athaliah, and with him seventy males. Ezr 8:8 And of the sons of Shephatiah; Zebadiah the son of Michael, and with him fourscore males. Ezr 8:9 Of the sons of Joab; Obadiah the son of Jehiel, and with him two hundred and eighteen males. Ezr 8:10 And of the sons of Shelomith; the son of Josiphiah, and with him an hundred and threescore males. Ezr 8:11 And of the sons of Bebai; Zechariah the son of Bebai, and with him twenty and eight males. Ezr 8:12 And of the sons of Azgad; Johanan the son of Hakkatan, and with him an hundred and ten males. Ezr 8:13 And of the last sons of Adonikam, whose names are these, Eliphelet, Jeiel, and Shemaiah, and with them threescore males. Ezr 8:14 Of the sons also of Bigvai; Uthai, and Zabbud, and with them seventy males. Ezr 8:15 And I gathered them together to the river that runneth to Ahava; and there abode we in tents three days: and I viewed the people, and the priests, and found there none of the sons of Levi. [From this list, it appears that the majority of captives who returned with this group had Hebrew names. Bebai and Bigvai are foreign names, but their progeny bore Hebrew names. Furthermore, in chapter 10, the sons of Bebai and Nebo (a foreign patriarchal name from the first group of returnees) are listed as Israelites who took strange wives. It is probable that they were Israelites who took foreign names in Babylon (as Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah did against their will) and named their children Hebrew names. Nowhere does it say that Ezra was upset over the lack of Israelite returnees or the profusion of foreigners. Ezra, himself a priest, was dismayed very specifically over the absence of “the sons of Levi” in the group that returned with him. Nowhere does it say that he was dismayed over the presence of foreign impostors. Ezra 2:40 identifies only 74 who were specifically called “Levites” who returned with Zerubbabel. Since Ezra lacked any “sons of Levi,” he simply sent for some.] Ezr 8:16 Then sent I for Eliezer, for Ariel, for Shemaiah, and for Elnathan, and for Jarib, and for Elnathan, and for Nathan, and for Zechariah, and for Meshullam, chief men; also for Joiarib, and for Elnathan, men of understanding. Ezr 8:17 And I sent them with commandment unto Iddo the chief at the place Casiphia, and I told them what they should say unto Iddo, and to his brethren the Nethinims, at the place Casiphia, that they should bring unto us ministers for the house of our God. Ezr 8:18 And by the good hand of our God upon us they brought us a man of understanding, of the sons of Mahli, the son of Levi, the son of Israel; and Sherebiah, with his sons and his brethren, eighteen; Ezr 8:19 And Hashabiah, and with him Jeshaiah of the sons of Merari, his brethren and their sons, twenty; Ezr 8:20 Also of the Nethinims, whom David and the princes had appointed for the service of the Levites, two hundred and twenty Nethinims: all of them were expressed by name. [In a note on the first occurrence in scripture of the word “Nethinim” in I Chronicles 9:2, Bullinger identifies them as: “Taken from the people in proportion of one in fifty to assist the Levites (Num. 31.47, Ezra 8.20).” This note seems the reasonable description of the Nethinims in the context of the Ezra/Nehemiah period. Bullinger again points out in a note on Ezra 2:43 that the Nethinims were “men given to God or His service. Temple servants.” In a note on Ezra 8:17, however, he contradicts his first assessment, and this seems the less reasonable description of the Nethinims. Here, he asserts that they were originally Gibeonites, a reference that points back to Joshua 9:21: And the princes said unto them, “Let them live; but let them be hewers of wood and drawers of
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water unto all the congregation;” as the princes had promised them. Is it reasonable to assume that, during all subsequent temple cleansings under the handful of righteous kings of Judah, these Gibeonites who predated the temple remained in service? Is it reasonable to assume that Ezra, a man who was carefully concerned with genealogies, would send for foreigners to serve in the temple? Is it reasonable to assume that David would have unlawfully appointed them for the service of the Levites? And, most importantly, is it reasonable to assume that Yahveh would be pleased with the appointment of foreigners? The answer to those questions in this writer’s opinion is a resounding no. It is more reasonable to assume that both David and Ezra would have kept the spirit of the commandment of Numbers 31:47: “Even of the children of Israel's half, Moses took one portion of fifty, both of man and of beast, and gave them unto the Levites, which kept the charge of the tabernacle of the LORD ; as the LORD commanded Moses.” This writer can therefore only conclude that there was absolutely nothing wrong with the office of the Nethinims or the Nethinims that Ezra seemed pleased to bring back with him and to specifically call for.] Ezr 8:21 Then I proclaimed a fast there, at the river of Ahava, that we might afflict ourselves before our God, to seek of Him a right way for us, and for our little ones, and for all our substance. Ezr 8:22 For I was ashamed to require of the king a band of soldiers and horsemen to help us against the enemy in the way: because we had spoken unto the king, saying, “The hand of our God is upon all them for good that seek Him; but His power and His wrath is against all them that forsake Him.” Ezr 8:23 So we fasted and besought our God for this: and he was intreated of us. Ezr 8:24 Then I separated twelve of the chief of the priests, Sherebiah, Hashabiah, and ten of their brethren with them, Ezr 8:25 And weighed unto them the silver, and the gold, and the vessels, even the offering of the house of our God, which the king, and his counsellors, and his lords, and all Israel there present, had offered: Ezr 8:26 I even weighed unto their hand six hundred and fifty talents of silver, and silver vessels an hundred talents, and of gold an hundred talents; Ezr 8:27 Also twenty basons of gold, of a thousand drams; and two vessels of fine copper, precious as gold. Ezr 8:28 And I said unto them, “Ye are holy unto the LORD ; the vessels are holy also; and the silver and the gold are a freewill offering unto the LORD God of your fathers. Ezr 8:29 Watch ye, and keep them, until ye weigh them before the chief of the priests and the Levites, and chief of the fathers of Israel, at Jerusalem, in the chambers of the house of the LORD .” Ezr 8:30 So took the priests and the Levites the weight of the silver, and the gold, and the vessels, to bring them to Jerusalem unto the house of our God. Ezr 8:31 Then we departed from the river of Ahava on the twelfth day of the first month, to go unto Jerusalem: and the hand of our God was upon us, and He delivered us from the hand of the enemy, and of such as lay in wait by the way. Ezr 8:32 And we came to Jerusalem, and abode there three days. Ezr 8:33 Now on the fourth day was the silver and the gold and the vessels weighed in the house of our God by the hand of Meremoth the son of Uriah the priest; and with him was Eleazar the son of Phinehas; and with them was Jozabad the son of Jeshua, and Noadiah the son of Binnui, Levites; Ezr 8:34 By number and by weight of every one: and all the weight was written at that time. Ezr 8:35 Also the children of those that had been carried away, which were come out of the captivity, offered burnt offerings unto the God of Israel, twelve bullocks for all Israel, ninety and six rams, seventy and seven lambs, twelve he goats for a sin offering: all this was a burnt offering unto the LORD . Ezr 8:36 And they delivered the king’s commissions unto the king’s lieutenants, and to the governors on this side the river: and they furthered the people, and the house of God. [So far, we’re dealing with an overwhelmingly, if not entirely, Israelite crowd who journeyed from Ahava and
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arrived in Jerusalem.]
Mingled Seed in the Priesthood
Again, per Ezra’s heritage as a direct descendant of Aaron, it would only be natural for him to be distraught over foreign pollution of the priesthood.
Ezr 9:1 Now when these things were done, the princes came to me, saying, “The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the people of the lands, doing according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites. [All of these peoples named are known non-Israelites. They all had a long history with Israel, and it seems perfectly acceptable to assume that the Israelites had their own names for them in the Hebrew language.] Ezr 9:2 For they have taken of their daughters for themselves, and for their sons: so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the people of those lands: yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been chief in this trespass.” [Unclear if the trespasses took place before the journey or after it, but evidence suggests afterward to this writer. Also unclear if the trespasses applied to the group that came with Ezra, to the earlier groups that had already established themselves in the land, or to both. Bullinger dates both chapters 8 and 9 at 404 B .C . It would seem probable that the events of the last verse of chapter 8 would take a considerable amount of time: “And they delivered the king’s commissions unto the king’s lieutenants, and to the governors on this side the river: and they furthered the people, and the house of God.” It is highly unlikely that Ezra would fail to notice a plethora of foreign wives in the much smaller second group that returned with him. Therefore, in this writer’s opinion, he did not bring foreigners with him, wives or otherwise.] Ezr 9:3 And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down astonied. Ezr 9:4 Then were assembled unto me every one that trembled at the words of the God of Israel, because of the transgression of those that had been carried away; and I sat astonied until the evening sacrifice. Ezr 9:5 And at the evening sacrifice I arose up from my heaviness; and having rent my garment and my mantle, I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto the LORD my God, Ezr 9:6 And said, “O my God, I am ashamed and blush to lift up my face to Thee, my God: for our iniquities are increased over our head, and our trespass is grown up unto the heavens. Ezr 9:7 Since the days of our fathers have we been in a great trespass unto this day; and for our iniquities have we, our kings, and our priests, been delivered into the hand of the kings of the lands, to the sword, to captivity, and to a spoil, and to confusion of face, as it is this day. Ezr 9:8 And now for a little space grace hath been shewed from the LORD our God, to leave us a remnant to escape, and to give us a nail in His holy place, that our God may lighten our eyes, and give us a little reviving in our bondage. [Ezra here acknowledges that Yahveh left “us” (His people) a remnant to escape . . . no foreigners indicated.] Ezr 9:9 For we were bondmen; yet our God hath not forsaken us in our bondage, but hath extended mercy unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia, to give us a reviving, to set up the house of our God, and to repair the desolations thereof, and to give us a wall in Judah and in Jerusalem.
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Ezr 9:10 And now, O our God, what shall we say after this? for we have forsaken Thy commandments, Ezr 9:11 Which Thou hast commanded by Thy servants the prophets, saying, ‘The land, unto which ye go to possess it, is an unclean land with the filthiness of the people of the lands, with their abominations, which have filled it from one end to another with their uncleanness. Ezr 9:12 Now therefore give not your daughters unto their sons, neither take their daughters unto your sons, nor seek their peace or their wealth for ever: that ye may be strong, and eat the good of the land, and leave it for an inheritance to your children for ever.’ [Again, this seems to refer to the land to which the Israelites went/returned after bondage. It does not indicate that foreigners returned with them.] Ezr 9:13 And after all that is come upon us for our evil deeds, and for our great trespass, seeing that Thou our God hast punished us less than our iniquities deserve, and hast given us such deliverance as this; Ezr 9:14 Should we again break Thy commandments, and join in affinity with the people of these abominations? wouldest not Thou be angry with us till Thou hadst consumed us, so that there should be no remnant nor escaping? Ezr 9:15 O LORD God of Israel, Thou art righteous: for we remain yet escaped, as it is this day: behold, we are before Thee in our trespasses: for we cannot stand before Thee because of this.”
Israelites Take and Put Away Strange Wives
The issue of the returning Israelites mixing with foreigners was of such importance that a list of the Israelite offenders is given in detail at the end of the chapter. Shechaniah led an effort to rid the captives of foreign wives, and Ezra helped.
Ezr 10:1 Now when Ezra had prayed, and when he had confessed, weeping and casting himself down before the house of God, there assembled unto him out of Israel a very great congregation of men and women and children: for the people wept very sore. Ezr 10:2 And Shechaniah the son of Jehiel, one of the sons of Elam, answered and said unto Ezra, “We have trespassed against our God, and have taken strange wives of the people of the land: yet now there is hope in Israel concerning this thing. Ezr 10:3 Now therefore let us make a covenant with our God to put away all the wives, and such as are born of them, according to the counsel of my lord, and of those that tremble at the commandment of our God; and let it be done according to the law. Ezr 10:4 Arise; for this matter belongeth unto thee: we also will be with thee: be of good courage, and do it.” Ezr 10:5 Then arose Ezra, and made the chief priests, the Levites, and all Israel, to swear that they should do according to this word. And they sware. Ezr 10:6 Then Ezra rose up from before the house of God, and went into the chamber of Johanan the son of Eliashib: and when he came thither, he did eat no bread, nor drink water: for he mourned because of the transgression of them that had been carried away. Ezr 10:7 And they made proclamation throughout Judah and Jerusalem unto all the children of the captivity, that they should gather themselves together unto Jerusalem; Ezr 10:8 And that whosoever would not come within three days, according to the counsel of the princes and the elders, all his substance should be forfeited, and himself separated from the congregation of those that had been carried away. Ezr 10:9 Then all the men of Judah and Benjamin gathered themselves together unto Jerusalem within three days. It was the ninth month, on the twentieth day of the month; and all the people sat in the street of the house of God, trembling because of this matter, and for the great rain. Ezr 10:10 And Ezra the priest stood up, and said unto them, “Ye have transgressed, and have taken strange wives,
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to increase the trespass of Israel. Ezr 10:11 Now therefore make confession unto the LORD God of your fathers, and do His pleasure: and separate yourselves from the people of the land, and from the strange wives.” [Ezra told the people to separate themselves from the people of the land. The land they had returned to was Jerusalem. Again, no indication that they brought foreigners with them.] Ezr 10:12 Then all the congregation answered and said with a loud voice, “As thou hast said, so must we do. Ezr 10:13 But the people are many, and it is a time of much rain, and we are not able to stand without, neither is this a work of one day or two: for we are many that have transgressed in this thing. Ezr 10:14 Let now our rulers of all the congregation stand, and let all them which have taken strange wives in our cities come at appointed times, and with them the elders of every city, and the judges thereof, until the fierce wrath of our God for this matter be turned from us.” Ezr 10:15 Only Jonathan the son of Asahel and Jahaziah the son of Tikvah were employed about this matter: and Meshullam and Shabbethai the Levite helped them. Ezr 10:16 And the children of the captivity did so. And Ezra the priest, with certain chief of the fathers, after the house of their fathers, and all of them by their names, were separated, and sat down in the first day of the tenth month to examine the matter. Ezr 10:17 And they made an end with all the men that had taken strange wives by the first day of the first month. Ezr 10:18 And among the sons of the priests there were found that had taken strange wives: namely, of the sons of Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and his brethren; Maaseiah, and Eliezer, and Jarib, and Gedaliah. Ezr 10:19 And they gave their hands that they would put away their wives; and being guilty, they offered a ram of the flock for their trespass. Ezr 10:20 And of the sons of Immer; Hanani, and Zebadiah. Ezr 10:21 And of the sons of Harim; Maaseiah, and Elijah, and Shemaiah, and Jehiel, and Uzziah. Ezr 10:22 And of the sons of Pashur; Elioenai, Maaseiah, Ishmael, Nethaneel, Jozabad, and Elasah. Ezr 10:23 Also of the Levites; Jozabad, and Shimei, and Kelaiah, (the same is Kelita,) Pethahiah, Judah, and Eliezer. Ezr 10:24 Of the singers also; Eliashib: and of the porters; Shallum, and Telem, and Uri. Ezr 10:25 Moreover of Israel: of the sons of Parosh; Ramiah, and Jeziah, and Malchiah, and Miamin, and Eleazar, and Malchijah, and Benaiah. Ezr 10:26 And of the sons of Elam; Mattaniah, Zechariah, and Jehiel, and Abdi, and Jeremoth, and Eliah. Ezr 10:27 And of the sons of Zattu; Elioenai, Eliashib, Mattaniah, and Jeremoth, and Zabad, and Aziza. Ezr 10:28 Of the sons also of Bebai; Jehohanan, Hananiah, Zabbai, and Athlai. Ezr 10:29 And of the sons of Bani; Meshullam, Malluch, and Adaiah, Jashub, and Sheal, and Ramoth. Ezr 10:30 And of the sons of Pahath-moab; Adna, and Chelal, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattaniah, Bezaleel, and Binnui, and Manasseh. Ezr 10:31 And of the sons of Harim; Eliezer, Ishijah, Malchiah, Shemaiah, Shimeon, Ezr 10:32 Benjamin, Malluch, and Shemariah. Ezr 10:33 Of the sons of Hashum; Mattenai, Mattathah, Zabad, Eliphelet, Jeremai, Manasseh, and Shimei. Ezr 10:34 Of the sons of Bani; Maadai, Amram, and Uel, Ezr 10:35 Benaiah, Bedeiah, Chelluh, Ezr 10:36 Vaniah, Meremoth, Eliashib, Ezr 10:37 Mattaniah, Mattenai, and Jaasau, Ezr 10:38 And Bani, and Binnui, Shimei, Ezr 10:39 And Shelemiah, and Nathan, and Adaiah, Ezr 10:40 Machnadebai, Shashai, Sharai, Ezr 10:41 Azareel, and Shelemiah, Shemariah,
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Ezr 10:42 Shallum, Amariah, and Joseph. Ezr 10:43 Of the sons of Nebo; Jeiel, Mattithiah, Zabad, Zebina, Jadau, and Joel, Benaiah. Ezr 10:44 All these had taken strange wives: and some of them had wives by whom they had children.
Nehemiah’s Heavy Heart Over Judah’s Sins
Neh 1:1 The words of Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah. And it came to pass in the month Chisleu, in the twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the palace, Neh 1:2 That Hanani, one of my brethren, came, he and certain men of Judah; and I asked them concerning the Jews that had escaped, which were left of the captivity, and concerning Jerusalem. Neh 1:3 And they said unto me, “The remnant that are left of the captivity there in the province are in great affliction and reproach: the wall of Jerusalem also is broken down, and the gates thereof are burned with fire.” Neh 1:4 And it came to pass, when I heard these words, that I sat down and wept, and mourned certain days, and fasted, and prayed before the God of heaven, Neh 1:5 And said, “I beseech Thee, O LORD God of heaven, the great and terrible GOD, That keepeth covenant and mercy for them that love Him and observe His commandments: Neh 1:6 Let Thine ear now be attentive, and Thine eyes open, that Thou mayest hear the prayer of Thy servant, which I pray before Thee now, day and night, for the children of Israel Thy servants, and confess the sins of the children of Israel, which we have sinned against Thee: both I and my father’s house have sinned. Neh 1:7 We have dealt very corruptly against Thee, and have not kept the commandments, nor the statutes, nor the judgments, which Thou commandedst Thy servant Moses. Neh 1:8 Remember, I beseech Thee, the word that Thou commandedst Thy servant Moses, saying, ‘If ye transgress, I will scatter you abroad among the nations: Neh 1:9 But if ye turn unto Me, and keep My commandments, and do them; though there were of you cast out unto the uttermost part of the heaven, yet will I gather them from thence, and will bring them unto the place that I have chosen to set My name there.’ Neh 1:10 Now these are Thy servants and Thy people, whom Thou hast redeemed by Thy great power, and by Thy strong hand. Neh 1:11 O Lord, I beseech Thee, let now Thine ear be attentive to the prayer of Thy servant, and to the prayer of Thy servants, who desire to fear Thy name: and prosper, I pray Thee, Thy servant this day, and grant him mercy in the sight of this man.” For I was the king’s cupbearer.
Nehemiah Asks Artaxerxes to Return to Jerusalem
Bullinger dates Nehemiah’s request at 454 B .C . “Artaxerxes” was a title for Persian kings. The building of the wall, then, would have predated the returns of the first group of captives listed as coming with Zerubbabel and the second with Ezra. Little is written of who Nehemiah brought with him, other than “some few men” who helped him scope out the situation (2:12), but he must have convinced some eventually to help build the wall. He too, as a prince of Judah, would have been very conscious of who he brought with him. There is one foreign name only, Bavai, listed among those who repaired the wall.
Neh 2:1 And it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him: and I took up the wine, and gave it unto the king. Now I had not been beforetime sad in his presence. Neh 2:2 Wherefore the king said unto me, “Why is thy countenance sad, seeing thou art not sick? this is nothing else but sorrow of heart.” Then I was very sore afraid, Neh 2:3 And said unto the king, “Let the king live for ever: why should not my countenance be sad, when the city, the place of my fathers’ sepulchres, lieth waste, and the gates thereof are consumed with fire?” Neh 2:4 Then the king said unto me, “For what dost thou make request?” So I prayed to the God of heaven.
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Neh 2:5 And I said unto the king, “If it please the king, and if thy servant have found favour in thy sight, that thou wouldest send me unto Judah, unto the city of my fathers’ sepulchres, that I may build it.” Neh 2:6 And the king said unto me, (the queen also sitting by him,) “For how long shall thy journey be? and when wilt thou return?” So it pleased the king to send me; and I set him a time. Neh 2:7 Moreover I said unto the king, “If it please the king, let letters be given me to the governors beyond the river, that they may convey me over till I come into Judah; Neh 2:8 And a letter unto Asaph the keeper of the king’s forest, that he may give me timber to make beams for the gates of the palace which appertained to the house, and for the wall of the city, and for the house that I shall enter into.” And the king granted me, according to the good hand of my God upon me. Neh 2:9 Then I came to the governors beyond the river, and gave them the king’s letters. Now the king had sent captains of the army and horsemen with me. Neh 2:10 When Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, heard of it, it grieved them exceedingly that there was come a man to seek the welfare of the children of Israel. Neh 2:11 So I came to Jerusalem, and was there three days. Neh 2:12 And I arose in the night, I and some few men with me; neither told I any man what my God had put in my heart to do at Jerusalem: neither was there any beast with me, save the beast that I rode upon. Neh 2:13 And I went out by night by the gate of the valley, even before the dragon well, and to the dung port, and viewed the walls of Jerusalem, which were broken down, and the gates thereof were consumed with fire. Neh 2:14 Then I went on to the gate of the fountain, and to the king’s pool: but there was no place for the beast that was under me to pass. Neh 2:15 Then went I up in the night by the brook, and viewed the wall, and turned back, and entered by the gate of the valley, and so returned. Neh 2:16 And the rulers knew not whither I went, or what I did; neither had I as yet told it to the Jews, nor to the priests, nor to the nobles, nor to the rulers, nor to the rest that did the work. Neh 2:17 Then said I unto them, “Ye see the distress that we are in, how Jerusalem lieth waste, and the gates thereof are burned with fire: come, and let us build up the wall of Jerusalem, that we be no more a reproach.” Neh 2:18 Then I told them of the hand of my God which was good upon me; as also the king’s words that he had spoken unto me. And they said, “Let us rise up and build.” So they strengthened their hands for this good work. Neh 2:19 But when Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, and Geshem the Arabian, heard it, they laughed us to scorn, and despised us, and said, “What is this thing that ye do? will ye rebel against the king?” Neh 2:20 Then answered I them, and said unto them, “The God of heaven, He will prosper us; therefore we His servants will arise and build: but ye have no portion, nor right, nor memorial, in Jerusalem.” [Nehemiah is very clear in verse 19 in forbidding foreigners to help build the wall. There is no reason to suppose he suddenly changed his mind in the next chapter. Phrases like, “men of Jericho” and “men of Gibeon,” perhaps referred to those who settled in provinces outside of Jerusalem. Gibeon, for example, Bullinger places at 4 miles north-northwest of Jerusalem.]
Building the Wall
Neh 3:1 Then Eliashib the high priest rose up with his brethren the priests, and they builded the sheep gate; they sanctified it, and set up the doors of it; even unto the tower of Meah they sanctified it, unto the tower of Hananeel. Neh 3:2 And next unto him builded the men of Jericho. And next to them builded Zaccur the son of Imri. Neh 3:3 But the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build, who also laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
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Neh 3:4 And next unto them repaired Meremoth the son of Urijah, the son of Koz. And next unto them repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah, the son of Meshezabeel. And next unto them repaired Zadok the son of Baana. Neh 3:5 And next unto them the Tekoites repaired; but their nobles put not their necks to the work of their LORD. Neh 3:6 Moreover the old gate repaired Jehoiada the son of Paseah, and Meshullam the son of Besodeiah; they laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, and the locks thereof, and the bars thereof. Neh 3:7 And next unto them repaired Melatiah the Gibeonite, and Jadon the Meronothite, the men of Gibeon, and of Mizpah, unto the throne of the governor on this side the river. Neh 3:8 Next unto him repaired Uzziel the son of Harhaiah, of the goldsmiths. Next unto him also repaired Hananiah the son of one of the apothecaries, and they fortified Jerusalem unto the broad wall. Neh 3:9 And next unto them repaired Rephaiah the son of Hur, the ruler of the half part of Jerusalem. Neh 3:10 And next unto them repaired Jedaiah the son of Harumaph, even over against his house. And next unto him repaired Hattush the son of Hashabniah. Neh 3:11 Malchijah the son of Harim, and Hashub the son of Pahath-moab, repaired the other piece, and the tower of the furnaces. Neh 3:12 And next unto him repaired Shallum the son of Halohesh, the ruler of the half part of Jerusalem, he and his daughters. Neh 3:13 The valley gate repaired Hanun, and the inhabitants of Zanoah; they built it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and a thousand cubits on the wall unto the dung gate. Neh 3:14 But the dung gate repaired Malchiah the son of Rechab, the ruler of part of Beth-haccerem; he built it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof. Neh 3:15 But the gate of the fountain repaired Shallun the son of Col-hozeh, the ruler of part of Mizpah; he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and the wall of the pool of Siloah by the king’s garden, and unto the stairs that go down from the city of David. Neh 3:16 After him repaired Nehemiah the son of Azbuk, the ruler of the half part of Beth-zur, unto the place over against the sepulchres of David, and to the pool that was made, and unto the house of the mighty. Neh 3:17 After him repaired the Levites, Rehum the son of Bani. Next unto him repaired Hashabiah, the ruler of the half part of Keilah, in his part. Neh 3:18 After him repaired their brethren, Bavai the son of Henadad, the ruler of the half part of Keilah. Neh 3:19 And next to him repaired Ezer the son of Jeshua, the ruler of Mizpah, another piece over against the going up to the armoury at the turning of the wall. Neh 3:20 After him Baruch the son of Zabbai earnestly repaired the other piece, from the turning of the wall unto the door of the house of Eliashib the high priest. Neh 3:21 After him repaired Meremoth the son of Urijah the son of Koz another piece, from the door of the house of Eliashib even to the end of the house of Eliashib. Neh 3:22 And after him repaired the priests, the men of the plain. Neh 3:23 After him repaired Benjamin and Hashub over against their house. After him repaired Azariah the son of Maaseiah the son of Ananiah by his house. Neh 3:24 After him repaired Binnui the son of Henadad another piece, from the house of Azariah unto the turning of the wall, even unto the corner. Neh 3:25 Palal the son of Uzai, over against the turning of the wall, and the tower which lieth out from the king’s high house, that was by the court of the prison. After him Pedaiah the son of Parosh. Neh 3:26 (Moreover the Nethinims dwelt in Ophel, unto the place over against the water gate toward the east, and the tower that lieth out.) Neh 3:27 After them the Tekoites repaired another piece, over against the great tower that lieth out, even unto the wall of Ophel. Neh 3:28 From above the horse gate repaired the priests, every one over against his house. Neh 3:29 After them repaired Zadok the son of Immer over against his house. After him repaired also Shemaiah
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the son of Shechaniah, the keeper of the east gate. Neh 3:30 After him repaired Hananiah the son of Shelemiah, and Hanun the sixth son of Zalaph, another piece. After him repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah over against his chamber. Neh 3:31 After him repaired Malchiah the goldsmith’s son unto the place of the Nethinims, and of the merchants, over against the gate Miphkad, and to the going up of the corner. Neh 3:32 And between the going up of the corner unto the sheep gate repaired the goldsmiths and the merchants.
Opposition from Sanballat, Tobiah, and Other Foreigners
Neh 4:1 But it came to pass, that when Sanballat heard that we builded the wall, he was wroth, and took great indignation, and mocked the Jews. Neh 4:2 And he spake before his brethren and the army of Samaria, and said, “What do these feeble Jews? will they fortify themselves? will they sacrifice? will they make an end in a day? will they revive the stones out of the heaps of the rubbish which are burned?” Neh 4:3 Now Tobiah the Ammonite was by him, and he said, “Even that which they build, if a fox go up, he shall even break down their stone wall.” Neh 4:4 Hear, O our God; for we are despised: and turn their reproach upon their own head, and give them for a prey in the land of captivity: Neh 4:5 And cover not their iniquity, and let not their sin be blotted out from before Thee: for they have provoked Thee to anger before the builders. Neh 4:6 So built we the wall; and all the wall was joined together unto the half thereof: for the people had a mind to work. Neh 4:7 But it came to pass, that when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and the Arabians, and the Ammonites, and the Ashdodites, heard that the walls of Jerusalem were made up, and that the breaches began to be stopped, then they were very wroth, [Though these foreigners, with the exception of Sanballat, have Hebrew names, that comes as no surprise given the Israelites’ long history of interacting with them. They would likely have given the peoples names from their own tongue.] Neh 4:8 And conspired all of them together to come and to fight against Jerusalem, and to hinder it. Neh 4:9 Nevertheless we made our prayer unto our God, and set a watch against them day and night, because of them. Neh 4:10 And Judah said, “The strength of the bearers of burdens is decayed, and there is much rubbish; so that we are not able to build the wall.” Neh 4:11 And our adversaries said, “They shall not know, neither see, till we come in the midst among them, and slay them, and cause the work to cease.” Neh 4:12 And it came to pass, that when the Jews which dwelt by them came, they said unto us ten times, “From all places whence ye shall return unto us they will be upon you.” Neh 4:13 Therefore set I in the lower places behind the wall, and on the higher places, I even set the people after their families with their swords, their spears, and their bows. Neh 4:14 And I looked, and rose up, and said unto the nobles, and to the rulers, and to the rest of the people, “Be not ye afraid of them: remember the Lord, Which is great and terrible, and fight for your brethren, your sons, and your daughters, your wives, and your houses.” Neh 4:15 And it came to pass, when our enemies heard that it was known unto us, and God had brought their counsel to nought, that we returned all of us to the wall, every one unto his work. Neh 4:16 And it came to pass from that time forth, that the half of my servants wrought in the work, and the
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other half of them held both the spears, the shields, and the bows, and the habergeons; and the rulers were behind all the house of Judah. Neh 4:17 They which builded on the wall, and they that bare burdens, with those that laded, every one with one of his hands wrought in the work, and with the other hand held a weapon. Neh 4:18 For the builders, every one had his sword girded by his side, and so builded. And he that sounded the trumpet was by me. Neh 4:19 And I said unto the nobles, and to the rulers, and to the rest of the people, “The work is great and large, and we are separated upon the wall, one far from another. Neh 4:20 In what place therefore ye hear the sound of the trumpet, resort ye thither unto us: our God shall fight for us.” Neh 4:21 So we laboured in the work: and half of them held the spears from the rising of the morning till the stars appeared. Neh 4:22 Likewise at the same time said I unto the people, “Let every one with his servant lodge within Jerusalem, that in the night they may be a guard to us, and labour on the day.” Neh 4:23 So neither I, nor my brethren, nor my servants, nor the men of the guard which followed me, none of us put off our clothes, saving that every one put them off for washing.
Judah Oppresses Its Own
Neh 5:1 And there was a great cry of the people and of their wives against their brethren the Jews. Neh 5:2 For there were that said, “We, our sons, and our daughters, are many: therefore we take up corn for them, that we may eat, and live.” Neh 5:3 Some also there were that said, “We have mortgaged our lands, vineyards, and houses, that we might buy corn, because of the dearth.” Neh 5:4 There were also that said, “We have borrowed money for the king’s tribute, and that upon our lands and vineyards. Neh 5:5 Yet now our flesh is as the flesh of our brethren, our children as their children: and, lo, we bring into bondage our sons and our daughters to be servants, and some of our daughters are brought unto bondage already: neither is it in our power to redeem them; for other men have our lands and vineyards.” Neh 5:6 And I was very angry when I heard their cry and these words. Neh 5:7 Then I consulted with myself, and I rebuked the nobles, and the rulers, and said unto them, “Ye exact usury, every one of his brother.” And I set a great assembly against them. Neh 5:8 And I said unto them, “We after our ability have redeemed our brethren the Jews, which were sold unto the heathen; and will ye even sell your brethren? or shall they be sold unto us?” Then held they their peace, and found nothing to answer. Neh 5:9 Also I said, “It is not good that ye do: ought ye not to walk in the fear of our God because of the reproach of the heathen our enemies? Neh 5:10 I likewise, and my brethren, and my servants, might exact of them money and corn: I pray you, let us leave off this usury. Neh 5:11 Restore, I pray you, to them, even this day, their lands, their vineyards, their oliveyards, and their houses, also the hundredth part of the money, and of the corn, the wine, and the oil, that ye exact of them.” Neh 5:12 Then said they, “We will restore them, and will require nothing of them; so will we do as thou sayest.” Then I called the priests, and took an oath of them, that they should do according to this promise. Neh 5:13 Also I shook my lap, and said, “So God shake out every man from his house, and from his labour, that performeth not this promise, even thus be he shaken out, and emptied.” And all the congregation said, “Amen,” and praised the LORD . And the people did according to this promise. (Neh 5:14 Moreover from the time that I was appointed to be their governor in the land of Judah, from the twentieth year even unto the two and thirtieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that is, twelve years, I and my
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brethren have not eaten the bread of the governor. Neh 5:15 But the former governors that had been before me were chargeable unto the people, and had taken of them bread and wine, beside forty shekels of silver; yea, even their servants bare rule over the people: but so did not I, because of the fear of God. Neh 5:16 Yea, also I continued in the work of this wall, neither bought we any land: and all my servants were gathered thither unto the work. Neh 5:17 Moreover there were at my table an hundred and fifty of the Jews and rulers, beside those that came unto us from among the heathen that are about us. Neh 5:18 Now that which was prepared for me daily was one ox and six choice sheep; also fowls were prepared for me, and once in ten days store of all sorts of wine: yet for all this required not I the bread of the governor, because the bondage was heavy upon this people. Neh 5:19 Think upon me, my God, for good, according to all that I have done for this people.
Sanballat, Tobiah, Geshem, and Others Attempt More Mischief
Neh 6:1 Now it came to pass, when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and Geshem the Arabian, and the rest of our enemies, heard that I had builded the wall, and that there was no breach left therein; (though at that time I had not set up the doors upon the gates;) Neh 6:2 That Sanballat and Geshem sent unto me, saying, “Come, let us meet together in some one of the villages in the plain of Ono.” But they thought to do me mischief. Neh 6:3 And I sent messengers unto them, saying, “I am doing a great work, so that I cannot come down: why should the work cease, whilst I leave it, and come down to you?” Neh 6:4 Yet they sent unto me four times after this sort; and I answered them after the same manner. Neh 6:5 Then sent Sanballat his servant unto me in like manner the fifth time with an open letter in his hand; Neh 6:6 Wherein was written, “It is reported among the heathen, and Gashmu saith it, that thou and the Jews think to rebel: for which cause thou buildest the wall, that thou mayest be their king, according to these words. Neh 6:7 And thou hast also appointed prophets to preach of thee at Jerusalem, saying, ‘There is a king in Judah:’ and now shall it be reported to the king according to these words. Come now therefore, and let us take counsel together.” Neh 6:8 Then I sent unto him, saying, “There are no such things done as thou sayest, but thou feignest them out of thine own heart.” Neh 6:9 For they all made us afraid, saying, “Their hands shall be weakened from the work, that it be not done.” Now therefore, O God, strengthen my hands. Neh 6:10 Afterward I came unto the house of Shemaiah the son of Delaiah the son of Mehetabeel, who was shut up; and he said, “Let us meet together in the house of God, within the temple, and let us shut the doors of the temple: for they will come to slay thee; yea, in the night will they come to slay thee.” Neh 6:11 And I said, “Should such a man as I flee? and who is there, that, being as I am, would go into the temple to save his life? I will not go in.” Neh 6:12 And, lo, I perceived that God had not sent him; but that he pronounced this prophecy against me: for Tobiah and Sanballat had hired him. Neh 6:13 Therefore was he hired, that I should be afraid, and do so, and sin, and that they might have matter for an evil report, that they might reproach me. Neh 6:14 My God, think Thou upon Tobiah and Sanballat according to these their works, and on the prophetess Noadiah, and the rest of the prophets, that would have put me in fear. Neh 6:15 So the wall was finished in the twenty and fifth day of the month Elul, in fifty and two days. Neh 6:16 And it came to pass, that when all our enemies heard thereof, and all the heathen that were about us saw these things, they were much cast down in their own eyes: for they perceived that this work was wrought of our God.
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Neh 6:17 Moreover in those days the nobles of Judah sent many letters unto Tobiah, and the letters of Tobiah came unto them. Neh 6:18 For there were many in Judah sworn unto him, because he was the son in law of Shechaniah the son of Arah; and his son Johanan had taken the daughter of Meshullam the son of Berechiah. Neh 6:19 Also they reported his good deeds before me, and uttered my words to him. And Tobiah sent letters to put me in fear.
Porters, Singers, and Levites Appointed
Neh 7:1 Now it came to pass, when the wall was built, and I had set up the doors, and the porters and the singers and the Levites were appointed, Neh 7:2 That I gave my brother Hanani, and Hananiah the ruler of the palace, charge over Jerusalem: for he was a faithful man, and feared God above many. Neh 7:3 And I said unto them, “Let not the gates of Jerusalem be opened until the sun be hot; and while they stand by, let them shut the doors, and bar them: and appoint watches of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, every one in his watch, and every one to be over against his house.” Neh 7:4 Now the city was large and great: but the people were few therein, and the houses were not builded.
Nehemiah Reviews the Group of Captives Who Returned With Zerubbabel
See the important notes on this chapter in the section on Ezra 2. This is the same group that returned at that time, which Bullinger dates at 426 B .C . These did not come with Ezra, but with Zerubbabel (verse 7). The genealogy is a parenthetical section that reviews a later time in history. Neh 7:5 And my God put into mine heart to gather together the nobles, and the rulers, and the people, that they might be reckoned by genealogy. (And I found a register of the genealogy of them which came up at the first, and found written therein, Neh 7:6 These are the children of the province, that went up out of the captivity, of those that had been carried away, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away, and came again to Jerusalem and to Judah, every one unto his city; Neh 7:7 Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Azariah, Raamiah, Nahamani, Mordecai, Bilshan, Mispereth, Bigvai, Nehum, Baanah. The number, I say, of the men of the people of Israel was this; Neh 7:8 The children of Parosh, two thousand an hundred seventy and two. Neh 7:9 The children of Shephatiah, three hundred seventy and two. Neh 7:10 The children of Arah, six hundred fifty and two. Neh 7:11 The children of Pahath-moab, of the children of Jeshua and Joab, two thousand and eight hundred and eighteen. Neh 7:12 The children of Elam, a thousand two hundred fifty and four. Neh 7:13 The children of Zattu, eight hundred forty and five. Neh 7:14 The children of Zaccai, seven hundred and threescore. Neh 7:15 The children of Binnui, six hundred forty and eight. Neh 7:16 The children of Bebai, six hundred twenty and eight. Neh 7:17 The children of Azgad, two thousand three hundred twenty and two. Neh 7:18 The children of Adonikam, six hundred threescore and seven. Neh 7:19 The children of Bigvai, two thousand threescore and seven.
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Neh 7:20 The children of Adin, six hundred fifty and five. Neh 7:21 The children of Ater of Hezekiah, ninety and eight. Neh 7:22 The children of Hashum, three hundred twenty and eight. Neh 7:23 The children of Bezai, three hundred twenty and four. Neh 7:24 The children of Hariph, an hundred and twelve. Neh 7:25 The children of Gibeon, ninety and five. Neh 7:26 The men of Beth-lehem and Netophah, an hundred fourscore and eight. Neh 7:27 The men of Anathoth, an hundred twenty and eight. Neh 7:28 The men of Beth-azmaveth, forty and two. Neh 7:29 The men of Kirjath-jearim, Chephirah, and Beeroth, seven hundred forty and three. Neh 7:30 The men of Ramah and Geba, six hundred twenty and one. Neh 7:31 The men of Michmas, an hundred and twenty and two. Neh 7:32 The men of Beth-el and Ai, an hundred twenty and three. Neh 7:33 The men of the other Nebo, fifty and two. Neh 7:34 The children of the other Elam, a thousand two hundred fifty and four. Neh 7:35 The children of Harim, three hundred and twenty. Neh 7:36 The children of Jericho, three hundred forty and five. Neh 7:37 The children of Lod, Hadid, and Ono, seven hundred twenty and one. Neh 7:38 The children of Senaah, three thousand nine hundred and thirty. Neh 7:39 The priests: the children of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua, nine hundred seventy and three. Neh 7:40 The children of Immer, a thousand fifty and two. Neh 7:41 The children of Pashur, a thousand two hundred forty and seven. Neh 7:42 The children of Harim, a thousand and seventeen. Neh 7:43 The Levites: the children of Jeshua, of Kadmiel, and of the children of Hodevah, seventy and four. Neh 7:44 The singers: the children of Asaph, an hundred forty and eight. Neh 7:45 The porters: the children of Shallum, the children of Ater, the children of Talmon, the children of Akkub, the children of Hatita, the children of Shobai, an hundred thirty and eight. Neh 7:46 The Nethinims: the children of Ziha, the children of Hashupha, the children of Tabbaoth, Neh 7:47 The children of Keros, the children of Sia, the children of Padon, Neh 7:48 The children of Lebana, the children of Hagaba, the children of Shalmai, Neh 7:49 The children of Hanan, the children of Giddel, the children of Gahar, Neh 7:50 The children of Reaiah, the children of Rezin, the children of Nekoda, Neh 7:51 The children of Gazzam, the children of Uzza, the children of Phaseah, Neh 7:52 The children of Besai, the children of Meunim, the children of Nephishesim, Neh 7:53 The children of Bakbuk, the children of Hakupha, the children of Harhur, Neh 7:54 The children of Bazlith, the children of Mehida, the children of Harsha, Neh 7:55 The children of Barkos, the children of Sisera, the children of Tamah, Neh 7:56 The children of Neziah, the children of Hatipha. Neh 7:57 The children of Solomon’s servants: the children of Sotai, the children of Sophereth, the children of Perida, Neh 7:58 The children of Jaala, the children of Darkon, the children of Giddel, Neh 7:59 The children of Shephatiah, the children of Hattil, the children of Pochereth of Zebaim, the children of Amon. Neh 7:60 All the Nethinims, and the children of Solomon’s servants, were three hundred ninety and two. [There are four foreign names in the list that was specifically reckoned by genealogy, as stated in verse 7. See earlier notes for explanation of these foreign names that most likely were Israelites. Aside from a handful of names of uncertain derivation, the genealogy is largely filled with Hebrew names. There is not a single name among the Nethinims that can be positively identified as foreign, and, again, the vast majority of the entire list
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had names of Hebrews origin. No fault is indicated with this group as it is with the next group who could not show genealogy.] Neh 7:61 And these were they which went up also from Tel-melah, Tel-haresha, Cherub, Addon, and Immer: but they could not shew their father’s house, nor their seed, whether they were of Israel. Neh 7:62 The children of Delaiah, the children of Tobiah, the children of Nekoda, six hundred forty and two. Neh 7:63 And of the priests: the children of Habaiah, the children of Koz, the children of Barzillai, which took one of the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite to wife, and was called after their name. Neh 7:64 These sought their register among those that were reckoned by genealogy, but it was not found: therefore were they, as polluted, put from the priesthood. [This is the only group of returnees that is called out as being unable to show that they were of Israel. It stands to reason, then, that the rest of the group was able to show Israelite heritage, even the few who may have taken on foreign names in captivity.] Neh 7:65 And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and Thummim. Neh 7:66 The whole congregation together was forty and two thousand three hundred and threescore, Neh 7:67 Beside their manservants and their maidservants, of whom there were seven thousand three hundred thirty and seven: and they had two hundred forty and five singing men and singing women. Neh 7:68 Their horses, seven hundred thirty and six: their mules, two hundred forty and five: Neh 7:69 Their camels, four hundred thirty and five: six thousand seven hundred and twenty asses. Neh 7:70 And some of the chief of the fathers gave unto the work. The Tirshatha gave to the treasure a thousand drams of gold, fifty basons, five hundred and thirty priests’ garments. Neh 7:71 And some of the chief of the fathers gave to the treasure of the work twenty thousand drams of gold, and two thousand and two hundred pound of silver. Neh 7:72 And that which the rest of the people gave was twenty thousand drams of gold, and two thousand pound of silver, and threescore and seven priests’ garments. Neh 7:73 So the priests, and the Levites, and the porters, and the singers, and some of the people, and the Nethinims, and all Israel, dwelt in their cities; and when the seventh month came, the children of Israel were in their cities.
Ezra Reads the Law
Neh 8:1 And all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the street that was before the water gate; and they spake unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel. Neh 8:2 And Ezra the priest brought the law before the congregation both of men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month. Neh 8:3 And he read therein before the street that was before the water gate from the morning until midday, before the men and the women, and those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the law. Neh 8:4 And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Urijah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchiah, and Hashum, and Hashbadana, Zechariah, and Meshullam. Neh 8:5 And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people; (for he was above all the people;) and when he opened it, all the people stood up: Neh 8:6 And Ezra blessed the LORD , the great God. And all the people answered, “Amen, Amen,” with lifting up
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their hands: and they bowed their heads, and worshipped the LORD with their faces to the ground. Neh 8:7 Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodijah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Hanan, Pelaiah, and the Levites, caused the people to understand the law: and the people stood in their place. Neh 8:8 So they read in the book in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading. Neh 8:9 And Nehemiah, which is the Tirshatha, and Ezra the priest the scribe, and the Levites that taught the people, said unto all the people, “This day is holy unto the LORD your God; mourn not, nor weep.” For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the law. Neh 8:10 Then he said unto them, “Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send portions unto them for whom nothing is prepared: for this day is holy unto our Lord: neither be ye sorry; for the joy of the LORD is your strength.” Neh 8:11 So the Levites stilled all the people, saying, “Hold your peace, for the day is holy; neither be ye grieved.” Neh 8:12 And all the people went their way to eat, and to drink, and to send portions, and to make great mirth, because they had understood the words that were declared unto them. Neh 8:13 And on the second day were gathered together the chief of the fathers of all the people, the priests, and the Levites, unto Ezra the scribe, even to understand the words of the law. Neh 8:14 And they found written in the law which the LORD had commanded by Moses, that the children of Israel should dwell in booths in the feast of the seventh month: Neh 8:15 And that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying, “Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and pine branches, and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as it is written.” Neh 8:16 So the people went forth, and brought them, and made themselves booths, every one upon the roof of his house, and in their courts, and in the courts of the house of God, and in the street of the water gate, and in the street of the gate of Ephraim. Neh 8:17 And all the congregation of them that were come again out of the captivity made booths, and sat under the booths: for since the days of Jeshua the son of Nun unto that day had not the children of Israel done so. And there was very great gladness. Neh 8:18 Also day by day, from the first day unto the last day, he read in the book of the law of God. And they kept the feast seven days; and on the eighth day was a solemn assembly, according unto the manner.
Prayer to Yahveh
Neh 9:1 Now in the twenty and fourth day of this month the children of Israel were assembled with fasting, and with sackclothes, and earth upon them. Neh 9:2 And the seed of Israel separated themselves from all strangers, and stood and confessed their sins, and the iniquities of their fathers. Neh 9:3 And they stood up in their place, and read in the book of the law of the LORD their God one fourth part of the day; and another fourth part they confessed, and worshipped the LORD their God. Neh 9:4 Then stood up upon the stairs, of the Levites, Jeshua, and Bani, Kadmiel, Shebaniah, Bunni, Sherebiah, Bani, and Chenani, and cried with a loud voice unto the LORD their God. Neh 9:5 Then the Levites, Jeshua, and Kadmiel, Bani, Hashabniah, Sherebiah, Hodijah, Shebaniah, and Pethahiah, said, “Stand up and bless the LORD your God for ever and ever: and blessed be Thy glorious name, Which is exalted above all blessing and praise. Neh 9:6 Thou, even thou, art LORD alone; Thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth, and all things that are therein, the seas, and all that is therein, and Thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth Thee. Neh 9:7 Thou art the LORD the God, Who didst choose Abram, and broughtest him forth out of Ur of the
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Chaldees, and gavest him the name of Abraham; Neh 9:8 And foundest his heart faithful before Thee, and madest a covenant with him to give the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Jebusites, and the Girgashites, to give it, I say, to his seed, and hast performed Thy words; for Thou art righteous: Neh 9:9 And didst see the affliction of our fathers in Egypt, and heardest their cry by the Red sea; Neh 9:10 And shewedst signs and wonders upon Pharaoh, and on all his servants, and on all the people of his land: for Thou knewest that they dealt proudly against them. So didst Thou get Thee a name, as it is this day. Neh 9:11 And Thou didst divide the sea before them, so that they went through the midst of the sea on the dry land; and their persecutors Thou threwest into the deeps, as a stone into the mighty waters. Neh 9:12 Moreover Thou leddest them in the day by a cloudy pillar; and in the night by a pillar of fire, to give them light in the way wherein they should go. Neh 9:13 Thou camest down also upon mount Sinai, and spakest with them from heaven, and gavest them right judgments, and true laws, good statutes and commandments: Neh 9:14 And madest known unto them Thy holy sabbath, and commandedst them precepts, statutes, and laws, by the hand of Moses Thy servant: Neh 9:15 And gavest them bread from heaven for their hunger, and broughtest forth water for them out of the rock for their thirst, and promisedst them that they should go in to possess the land which Thou hadst sworn to give them. Neh 9:16 But they and our fathers dealt proudly, and hardened their necks, and hearkened not to Thy commandments, Neh 9:17 And refused to obey, neither were mindful of Thy wonders that Thou didst among them; but hardened their necks, and in their rebellion appointed a captain to return to their bondage: but Thou art a God ready to pardon, gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and forsookest them not. Neh 9:18 Yea, when they had made them a molten calf, and said, ‘This is thy God That brought thee up out of Egypt,’ and had wrought great provocations; Neh 9:19 Yet Thou in Thy manifold mercies forsookest them not in the wilderness: the pillar of the cloud departed not from them by day, to lead them in the way; neither the pillar of fire by night, to shew them light, and the way wherein they should go. Neh 9:20 Thou gavest also Thy good spirit to instruct them, and withheldest not Thy manna from their mouth, and gavest them water for their thirst. Neh 9:21 Yea, forty years didst Thou sustain them in the wilderness, so that they lacked nothing; their clothes waxed not old, and their feet swelled not. Neh 9:22 Moreover Thou gavest them kingdoms and nations, and didst divide them into corners: so they possessed the land of Sihon, and the land of the king of Heshbon, and the land of Og king of Bashan. Neh 9:23 Their children also multipliedst Thou as the stars of heaven, and broughtest them into the land, concerning which Thou hadst promised to their fathers, that they should go in to possess it. Neh 9:24 So the children went in and possessed the land, and Thou subduedst before them the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, and gavest them into their hands, with their kings, and the people of the land, that they might do with them as they would. Neh 9:25 And they took strong cities, and a fat land, and possessed houses full of all goods, wells digged, vineyards, and oliveyards, and fruit trees in abundance: so they did eat, and were filled, and became fat, and delighted themselves in Thy great goodness. Neh 9:26 Nevertheless they were disobedient, and rebelled against Thee, and cast Thy law behind their backs, and slew Thy prophets which testified against them to turn them to Thee, and they wrought great provocations. Neh 9:27 Therefore Thou deliveredst them into the hand of their enemies, who vexed them: and in the time of their trouble, when they cried unto Thee, Thou heardest them from heaven; and according to Thy manifold mercies Thou gavest them saviours, who saved them out of the hand of their enemies. Neh 9:28 But after they had rest, they did evil again before Thee: therefore leftest Thou them in the hand of their enemies, so that they had the dominion over them: yet when they returned, and cried unto Thee, Thou
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heardest them from heaven; and many times didst Thou deliver them according to Thy mercies; Neh 9:29 And testifiedst against them, that Thou mightest bring them again unto Thy law: yet they dealt proudly, and hearkened not unto Thy commandments, but sinned against Thy judgments, (which if a man do, he shall live in them;) and withdrew the shoulder, and hardened their neck, and would not hear. Neh 9:30 Yet many years didst Thou forbear them, and testifiedst against them by Thy spirit in Thy prophets: yet would they not give ear: therefore gavest Thou them into the hand of the people of the lands. Neh 9:31 Nevertheless for Thy great mercies’ sake Thou didst not utterly consume them, nor forsake them; for Thou art a gracious and merciful GOD. Neh 9:32 Now therefore, our God, the great, the mighty, and the terrible GOD, Who keepest covenant and mercy, let not all the trouble seem little before Thee, that hath come upon us, on our kings, on our princes, and on our priests, and on our prophets, and on our fathers, and on all Thy people, since the time of the kings of Assyria unto this day. Neh 9:33 Howbeit Thou art just in all that is brought upon us; for Thou hast done right, but we have done wickedly: Neh 9:34 Neither have our kings, our princes, our priests, nor our fathers, kept Thy law, nor hearkened unto Thy commandments and Thy testimonies, wherewith Thou didst testify against them. Neh 9:35 For they have not served Thee in their kingdom, and in Thy great goodness that Thou gavest them, and in the large and fat land which Thou gavest before them, neither turned they from their wicked works. Neh 9:36 Behold, we are servants this day, and for the land that Thou gavest unto our fathers to eat the fruit thereof and the good thereof, behold, we are servants in it: Neh 9:37 And it yieldeth much increase unto the kings whom Thou hast set over us because of our sins: also they have dominion over our bodies, and over our cattle, at their pleasure, and we are in great distress. Neh 9:38 And because of all this we make a sure covenant, and write it; and our princes, Levites, and priests, seal unto it.”
Names of Those Sealed Unto the Covenant Made to Yahveh
Neh 10:1 Now those that sealed were, Nehemiah, the Tirshatha, the son of Hachaliah, and Zidkijah, Neh 10:2 Seraiah, Azariah, Jeremiah, Neh 10:3 Pashur, Amariah, Malchijah, Neh 10:4 Hattush, Shebaniah, Malluch, Neh 10:5 Harim, Meremoth, Obadiah, Neh 10:6 Daniel, Ginnethon, Baruch, Neh 10:7 Meshullam, Abijah, Mijamin, Neh 10:8 Maaziah, Bilgai, Shemaiah: these were the priests. Neh 10:9 And the Levites: both Jeshua the son of Azaniah, Binnui of the sons of Henadad, Kadmiel; Neh 10:10 And their brethren, Shebaniah, Hodijah, Kelita, Pelaiah, Hanan, Neh 10:11 Micha, Rehob, Hashabiah, Neh 10:12 Zaccur, Sherebiah, Shebaniah, Neh 10:13 Hodijah, Bani, Beninu. Neh 10:14 The chief of the people; Parosh, Pahath-moab, Elam, Zatthu, Bani, Neh 10:15 Bunni, Azgad, Bebai, Neh 10:16 Adonijah, Bigvai, Adin, Neh 10:17 Ater, Hizkijah, Azzur, Neh 10:18 Hodijah, Hashum, Bezai, Neh 10:19 Hariph, Anathoth, Nebai, Neh 10:20 Magpiash, Meshullam, Hezir, Neh 10:21 Meshezabeel, Zadok, Jaddua,
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Neh 10:22 Neh 10:23 Neh 10:24 Neh 10:25 Neh 10:26 Neh 10:27
Pelatiah, Hanan, Anaiah, Hoshea, Hananiah, Hashub, Hallohesh, Pileha, Shobek, Rehum, Hashabnah, Maaseiah, And Ahijah, Hanan, Anan, Malluch, Harim, Baanah.
[Non-Israelites would not have been allowed to have sealed themselves to the covenant under the direction of righteous leaders who were very concerned with genealogy. See previous notes for explanations on the foreign origin of Bebai’s and Bigvai’s names.] Neh 10:28 And the rest of the people, the priests, the Levites, the porters, the singers, the Nethinims, and all they that had separated themselves from the people of the lands unto the law of God, their wives, their sons, and their daughters, every one having knowledge, and having understanding; Neh 10:29 They clave to their brethren, their nobles, and entered into a curse, and into an oath, to walk in God’s law, which was given by Moses the servant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the LORD our Lord, and His judgments and His statutes; Neh 10:30 And that we would not give our daughters unto the people of the land, nor take their daughters for our sons: Neh 10:31 And if the people of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath day to sell, that we would not buy it of them on the sabbath, or on the holy day: and that we would leave the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt. Neh 10:32 Also we made ordinances for us, to charge ourselves yearly with the third part of a shekel for the service of the house of our God; Neh 10:33 For the shewbread, and for the continual meat offering, and for the continual burnt offering, of the sabbaths, of the new moons, for the set feasts, and for the holy things, and for the sin offerings to make an atonement for Israel, and for all the work of the house of our God. Neh 10:34 And we cast the lots among the priests, the Levites, and the people, for the wood offering, to bring it into the house of our God, after the houses of our fathers, at times appointed year by year, to burn upon the altar of the LORD our God, as it is written in the law: Neh 10:35 And to bring the firstfruits of our ground, and the firstfruits of all fruit of all trees, year by year, unto the house of the LORD : Neh 10:36 Also the firstborn of our sons, and of our cattle, as it is written in the law, and the firstlings of our herds and of our flocks, to bring to the house of our God, unto the priests that minister in the house of our God: Neh 10:37 And that we should bring the firstfruits of our dough, and our offerings, and the fruit of all manner of trees, of wine and of oil, unto the priests, to the chambers of the house of our God; and the tithes of our ground unto the Levites, that the same Levites might have the tithes in all the cities of our tillage. Neh 10:38 And the priest the son of Aaron shall be with the Levites, when the Levites take tithes: and the Levites shall bring up the tithe of the tithes unto the house of our God, to the chambers, into the treasure house. Neh 10:39 For the children of Israel and the children of Levi shall bring the offering of the corn, of the new wine, and the oil, unto the chambers, where are the vessels of the sanctuary, and the priests that minister, and the porters, and the singers: and we will not forsake the house of our God.
The Chief Rulers Who Dwelt in Jerusalem
Neh 11:1 And the rulers of the people dwelt at Jerusalem: the rest of the people also cast lots, to bring one of ten to dwell in Jerusalem the holy city, and nine parts to dwell in other cities. Neh 11:2 And the people blessed all the men, that willingly offered themselves to dwell at Jerusalem.
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Neh 11:3 Now these are the chief of the province that dwelt in Jerusalem: but in the cities of Judah dwelt every one in his possession in their cities, to wit, Israel, the priests, and the Levites, and the Nethinims, and the children of Solomon’s servants. Neh 11:4 And at Jerusalem dwelt certain of the children of Judah, and of the children of Benjamin. Of the children of Judah; Athaiah the son of Uzziah, the son of Zechariah, the son of Amariah, the son of Shephatiah, the son of Mahalaleel, of the children of Perez; Neh 11:5 And Maaseiah the son of Baruch, the son of Col-hozeh, the son of Hazaiah, the son of Adaiah, the son of Joiarib, the son of Zechariah, the son of Shiloni. Neh 11:6 All the sons of Perez that dwelt at Jerusalem were four hundred threescore and eight valiant men. Neh 11:7 And these are the sons of Benjamin; Sallu the son of Meshullam, the son of Joed, the son of Pedaiah, the son of Kolaiah, the son of Maaseiah, the son of Ithiel, the son of Jesaiah. Neh 11:8 And after him Gabbai, Sallai, nine hundred twenty and eight. Neh 11:9 And Joel the son of Zichri was their overseer: and Judah the son of Senuah was second over the city. Neh 11:10 Of the priests: Jedaiah the son of Joiarib, Jachin. Neh 11:11 Seraiah the son of Hilkiah, the son of Meshullam, the son of Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son of Ahitub, was the ruler of the house of God. Neh 11:12 And their brethren that did the work of the house were eight hundred twenty and two: and Adaiah the son of Jeroham, the son of Pelaliah, the son of Amzi, the son of Zechariah, the son of Pashur, the son of Malchiah, Neh 11:13 And his brethren, chief of the fathers, two hundred forty and two: and Amashai the son of Azareel, the son of Ahasai, the son of Meshillemoth, the son of Immer, Neh 11:14 And their brethren, mighty men of valour, an hundred twenty and eight: and their overseer was Zabdiel, the son of one of the great men. Neh 11:15 Also of the Levites: Shemaiah the son of Hashub, the son of Azrikam, the son of Hashabiah, the son of Bunni; Neh 11:16 And Shabbethai and Jozabad, of the chief of the Levites, had the oversight of the outward business of the house of God. Neh 11:17 And Mattaniah the son of Micha, the son of Zabdi, the son of Asaph, was the principal to begin the thanksgiving in prayer: and Bakbukiah the second among his brethren, and Abda the son of Shammua, the son of Galal, the son of Jeduthun. Neh 11:18 All the Levites in the holy city were two hundred fourscore and four. Neh 11:19 Moreover the porters, Akkub, Talmon, and their brethren that kept the gates, were an hundred seventy and two. Neh 11:20 And the residue of Israel, of the priests, and the Levites, were in all the cities of Judah, every one in his inheritance. Neh 11:21 But the Nethinims dwelt in Ophel: and Ziha and Gispa were over the Nethinims. Neh 11:22 The overseer also of the Levites at Jerusalem was Uzzi the son of Bani, the son of Hashabiah, the son of Mattaniah, the son of Micha. Of the sons of Asaph, the singers were over the business of the house of God. Neh 11:23 For it was the king’s commandment concerning them, that a certain portion should be for the singers, due for every day. Neh 11:24 And Pethahiah the son of Meshezabeel, of the children of Zerah the son of Judah, was at the king’s hand in all matters concerning the people. Neh 11:25 And for the villages, with their fields, some of the children of Judah dwelt at Kirjath-arba, and in the villages thereof, and at Dibon, and in the villages thereof, and at Jekabzeel, and in the villages thereof, Neh 11:26 And at Jeshua, and at Moladah, and at Beth-phelet, Neh 11:27 And at Hazar-shual, and at Beer-sheba, and in the villages thereof, Neh 11:28 And at Ziklag, and at Mekonah, and in the villages thereof, Neh 11:29 And at En-rimmon, and at Zareah, and at Jarmuth, Neh 11:30 Zanoah, Adullam, and in their villages, at Lachish, and the fields thereof, at Azekah, and in the villages
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thereof. And they dwelt from Beer-sheba unto the valley of Hinnom. Neh 11:31 The children also of Benjamin from Geba dwelt at Michmash, and Aija, and Beth-el, and in their villages, Neh 11:32 And at Anathoth, Nob, Ananiah, Neh 11:33 Hazor, Ramah, Gittaim, Neh 11:34 Hadid, Zeboim, Neballat, Neh 11:35 Lod, and Ono, the valley of craftsmen. Neh 11:36 And of the Levites were divisions in Judah, and in Benjamin. [This chapter calls out the Israelites who lived in the area. It does not say that there were no foreigners. Given the mixing that took place, there likely were foreigners in living in the area. The post-return mixing is where the sin of foreign influence began, in this writer’s opinion.]
Priests and Levites Who Returned with Zerubbabel
Bullinger’s note on “these” in verse 1: “Nehemiah had given the heads of the families (7:6–23) and the numbers of the four classes of priests (7:39–42). Cp. Ezra 2:36–39. Here he inserts 22 names, the heads of the priests’ classes, or courses formed out of these four, “in the days of Joshua” (v. 7). See Ezra 6:18.
Neh 12:1 Now these are the priests and the Levites that went up with Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua: Seraiah, Jeremiah, Ezra, Neh 12:2 Amariah, Malluch, Hattush, Neh 12:3 Shechaniah, Rehum, Meremoth, Neh 12:4 Iddo, Ginnetho, Abijah, Neh 12:5 Miamin, Maadiah, Bilgah, Neh 12:6 Shemaiah, and Joiarib, Jedaiah, Neh 12:7 Sallu, Amok, Hilkiah, Jedaiah. These were the chief of the priests and of their brethren in the days of Jeshua. [Amok is a Chaldee name. It is quite possible that he was a foreigner who snuck into the priesthood, but this would not have been the norm and surely would have been a noticeable error to Zerubbabel, a righteous man and an ancestor of Christ. It is also quite possible that he, like Daniel and his companions, was an Israelite who was given or adopted a foreign name in captivity.] Neh 12:8 Moreover the Levites: Jeshua, Binnui, Kadmiel, Sherebiah, Judah, and Mattaniah, which was over the thanksgiving, he and his brethren. Neh 12:9 Also Bakbukiah and Unni, their brethren, were over against them in the watches. Neh 12:10 And Jeshua begat Joiakim, Joiakim also begat Eliashib, and Eliashib begat Joiada, Neh 12:11 And Joiada begat Jonathan, and Jonathan begat Jaddua. Neh 12:12 And in the days of Joiakim were priests, the chief of the fathers: of Seraiah, Meraiah; of Jeremiah, Hananiah; Neh 12:13 Of Ezra, Meshullam; of Amariah, Jehohanan; Neh 12:14 Of Melicu, Jonathan; of Shebaniah, Joseph; Neh 12:15 Of Harim, Adna; of Meraioth, Helkai; Neh 12:16 Of Iddo, Zechariah; of Ginnethon, Meshullam; Neh 12:17 Of Abijah, Zichri; of Miniamin, of Moadiah, Piltai; Neh 12:18 Of Bilgah, Shammua; of Shemaiah, Jehonathan; Neh 12:19 And of Joiarib, Mattenai; of Jedaiah, Uzzi;
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Neh 12:20 Of Sallai, Kallai; of Amok, Eber; Neh 12:21 Of Hilkiah, Hashabiah; of Jedaiah, Nethaneel. Neh 12:22 The Levites in the days of Eliashib, Joiada, and Johanan, and Jaddua, were recorded chief of the fathers: also the priests, to the reign of Darius the Persian. Neh 12:23 The sons of Levi, the chief of the fathers, were written in the book of the chronicles, even until the days of Johanan the son of Eliashib. Neh 12:24 And the chief of the Levites: Hashabiah, Sherebiah, and Jeshua the son of Kadmiel, with their brethren over against them, to praise and to give thanks, according to the commandment of David the man of God, ward over against ward. Neh 12:25 Mattaniah, and Bakbukiah, Obadiah, Meshullam, Talmon, Akkub, were porters keeping the ward at the thresholds of the gates. Neh 12:26 These were in the days of Joiakim the son of Jeshua, the son of Jozadak, and in the days of Nehemiah the governor, and of Ezra the priest, the scribe. Neh 12:27 And at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem they sought the Levites out of all their places, to bring them to Jerusalem, to keep the dedication with gladness, both with thanksgivings, and with singing, with cymbals, psalteries, and with harps. Neh 12:28 And the sons of the singers gathered themselves together, both out of the plain country round about Jerusalem, and from the villages of Netophathi; Neh 12:29 Also from the house of Gilgal, and out of the fields of Geba and Azmaveth: for the singers had builded them villages round about Jerusalem. Neh 12:30 And the priests and the Levites purified themselves, and purified the people, and the gates, and the wall.
The People Give Sacrifice to and Praise Yahveh
Neh 12:31 Then I brought up the princes of Judah upon the wall, and appointed two great companies of them that gave thanks, whereof one went on the right hand upon the wall toward the dung gate: Neh 12:32 And after them went Hoshaiah, and half of the princes of Judah, Neh 12:33 And Azariah, Ezra, and Meshullam, Neh 12:34 Judah, and Benjamin, and Shemaiah, and Jeremiah, Neh 12:35 And certain of the priests’ sons with trumpets; namely, Zechariah the son of Jonathan, the son of Shemaiah, the son of Mattaniah, the son of Michaiah, the son of Zaccur, the son of Asaph: Neh 12:36 And his brethren, Shemaiah, and Azarael, Milalai, Gilalai, Maai, Nethaneel, and Judah, Hanani, with the musical instruments of David the man of God, and Ezra the scribe before them. Neh 12:37 And at the fountain gate, which was over against them, they went up by the stairs of the city of David, at the going up of the wall, above the house of David, even unto the water gate eastward. Neh 12:38 And the other company of them that gave thanks went over against them, and I after them, and the half of the people upon the wall, from beyond the tower of the furnaces even unto the broad wall; Neh 12:39 And from above the gate of Ephraim, and above the old gate, and above the fish gate, and the tower of Hananeel, and the tower of Meah, even unto the sheep gate: and they stood still in the prison gate. Neh 12:40 So stood the two companies of them that gave thanks in the house of God, and I, and the half of the rulers with me: Neh 12:41 And the priests; Eliakim, Maaseiah, Miniamin, Michaiah, Elioenai, Zechariah, and Hananiah, with trumpets; Neh 12:42 And Maaseiah, and Shemaiah, and Eleazar, and Uzzi, and Jehohanan, and Malchijah, and Elam, and Ezer. And the singers sang loud, with Jezrahiah their overseer.
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Neh 12:43 Also that day they offered great sacrifices, and rejoiced: for God had made them rejoice with great joy: the wives also and the children rejoiced: so that the joy of Jerusalem was heard even afar off. Neh 12:44 And at that time were some appointed over the chambers for the treasures, for the offerings, for the firstfruits, and for the tithes, to gather into them out of the fields of the cities the portions of the law for the priests and Levites: for Judah rejoiced for the priests and for the Levites that waited. Neh 12:45 And both the singers and the porters kept the ward of their God, and the ward of the purification, according to the commandment of David, and of Solomon his son. Neh 12:46 For in the days of David and Asaph of old there were chief of the singers, and songs of praise and thanksgiving unto God. Neh 12:47 And all Israel in the days of Zerubbabel, and in the days of Nehemiah, gave the portions of the singers and the porters, every day his portion: and they sanctified holy things unto the Levites; and the Levites sanctified them unto the children of Aaron.
Israelites Put Away the Strange Wives They Married
The book of Nehemiah ends with ominous words about strangers within the ranks of the Israelites and other sins of the people. Per Bullinger’s reckoning, this chapter gives the last piece of Judah’s history before the time of Christ.
Neh 13:1 On that day they read in the book of Moses in the audience of the people; and therein was found written, that the Ammonite and the Moabite should not come into the congregation of God for ever; Neh 13:2 Because they met not the children of Israel with bread and with water, but hired Balaam against them, that he should curse them: howbeit our God turned the curse into a blessing. Neh 13:3 Now it came to pass, when they had heard the law, that they separated from Israel all the mixed multitude. Neh 13:4 And before this, Eliashib the priest, having the oversight of the chamber of the house of our God, was allied unto Tobiah: Neh 13:5 And he had prepared for him a great chamber, where aforetime they laid the meat offerings, the frankincense, and the vessels, and the tithes of the corn, the new wine, and the oil, which was commanded to be given to the Levites, and the singers, and the porters; and the offerings of the priests. Neh 13:6 But in all this time was not I at Jerusalem: for in the two and thirtieth year of Artaxerxes king of Babylon came I unto the king, and after certain days obtained I leave of the king: Neh 13:7 And I came to Jerusalem, and understood of the evil that Eliashib did for Tobiah, in preparing him a chamber in the courts of the house of God. Neh 13:8 And it grieved me sore: therefore I cast forth all the household stuff of Tobiah out of the chamber. Neh 13:9 Then I commanded, and they cleansed the chambers: and thither brought I again the vessels of the house of God, with the meat offering and the frankincense. Neh 13:10 And I perceived that the portions of the Levites had not been given them: for the Levites and the singers, that did the work, were fled every one to his field. Neh 13:11 Then contended I with the rulers, and said, “Why is the house of God forsaken?” And I gathered them together, and set them in their place. Neh 13:12 Then brought all Judah the tithe of the corn and the new wine and the oil unto the treasuries. Neh 13:13 And I made treasurers over the treasuries, Shelemiah the priest, and Zadok the scribe, and of the Levites, Pedaiah: and next to them was Hanan the son of Zaccur, the son of Mattaniah: for they were counted faithful, and their office was to distribute unto their brethren. Neh 13:14 Remember me, O my God, concerning this, and wipe not out my good deeds that I have done for the house of my God, and for the offices thereof. Neh 13:15 In those days saw I in Judah some treading wine presses on the sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and lading asses; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the
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sabbath day: and I testified against them in the day wherein they sold victuals. Neh 13:16 There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, which brought fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the sabbath unto the children of Judah, and in Jerusalem. Neh 13:17 Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them, “What evil thing is this that ye do, and profane the sabbath day? Neh 13:18 Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon this city? yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel by profaning the sabbath.” Neh 13:19 And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the sabbath: and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath day. Neh 13:20 So the merchants and sellers of all kind of ware lodged without Jerusalem once or twice. Neh 13:21 Then I testified against them, and said unto them, “Why lodge ye about the wall? if ye do so again, I will lay hands on you.” From that time forth came they no more on the sabbath. Neh 13:22 And I commanded the Levites that they should cleanse themselves, and that they should come and keep the gates, to sanctify the sabbath day. Remember me, O my God, concerning this also, and spare me according to the greatness of Thy mercy. Neh 13:23 In those days also saw I Jews that had married wives of Ashdod, of Ammon, and of Moab: Neh 13:24 And their children spake half in the speech of Ashdod, and could not speak in the Jews’ language, but according to the language of each people. Neh 13:25 And I contended with them, and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God, saying, “Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters unto your sons, or for yourselves. Neh 13:26 Did not Solomon king of Israel sin by these things? yet among many nations was there no king like him, who was beloved of his God, and God made him king over all Israel: nevertheless even him did outlandish women cause to sin. Neh 13:27 Shall we then hearken unto you to do all this great evil, to transgress against our God in marrying strange wives?” Neh 13:28 And one of the sons of Joiada, the son of Eliashib the high priest, was son in law to Sanballat the Horonite: therefore I chased him from me. Neh 13:29 Remember them, O my God, because they have defiled the priesthood, and the covenant of the priesthood, and of the Levites. Neh 13:30 Thus cleansed I them from all strangers, and appointed the wards of the priests and the Levites, every one in his business; Neh 13:31 And for the wood offering, at times appointed, and for the firstfruits. Remember me, O my God, for good.
Objections. The lineage/family of the Mordecai in Ezra is not given & no connection between the two can be established. His name is foreign, which is highly unlikely for a Benjamite. And a Benjamite is not a Jew.
Est 2:5 Now in Shushan the palace there was a certain Jew, whose name was Mordecai, the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjamite; Est 2:6 Who had been carried away from Jerusalem with the captivity which had been carried away with Jeconiah king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away.
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Three Bands of Chaldeans Among Those Who Afflicted Job’s Family
Job 1:12 And the LORD said unto Satan, “Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thine hand.” So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD . Job 1:13 And there was a day when his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house: Job 1:14 And there came a messenger unto Job, and said, “The oxen were plowing, and the asses feeding beside them: Job 1:15 And the Sabeans fell upon them, and took them away; yea, they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.” Job 1:16 While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, “The fire of God is fallen from heaven, and hath burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.” Job 1:17 While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, “The Chaldeans made out three bands, and fell upon the camels, and have carried them away, yea, and slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.” Job 1:18 While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, “Thy sons and thy daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house: Job 1:19 And, behold, there came a great wind from the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.” Job 1:20 Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped, Job 1:21 And said, “Naked came I out of my mother’s womb, and naked shall I return thither: the LORD gave, and the LORD hath taken away; blessed be the name of the LORD .” Job 1:22 In all this Job sinned not, nor charged God foolishly.
Babylon in the Psalms
Interestingly, the word “Babylon” is only mentioned twice in the book of Psalms.
Psalm 87 belongs to the “Levitcus” book in the Psalms and is the ninth of eleven psalms written “for the sons of Korah.”
A Psalm or Song for the sons of Korah. Psa 87:1 His foundation is in the holy mountains. Psa 87:2 The LORD loveth the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob. Psa 87:3 Glorious things are spoken of thee, O city of God. Selah. Psa 87:4 I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon to them that know me: behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Ethiopia; this man was born there. Psa 87:5 And of Zion it shall be said, “This and that man was born in her: and the HIGHEST Himself shall establish her. Psa 87:6 The LORD shall count, when He writeth up the people, that this man was born there. Selah. Psa 87:7 As well the singers as the players on instruments shall be there: all my springs are in thee. A Song or Psalm for the sons of Korah, to the chief Musician upon Mahalath Leannoth.
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Psalm 137 belongs to the “Deuteronomy” book in the Psalms. The entire subject of the Psalm is deliverance from Babylon.
Psa 137:1 By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, we wept, when we remembered Zion. Psa 137:2 We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof. Psa 137:3 For there they that carried us away captive required of us a song; and they that wasted us required of us mirth, saying, “Sing us one of the songs of Zion.” Psa 137:4 How shall we sing the LORD ’s song in a strange land? Psa 137:5 If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. Psa 137:6 If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth; if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy. Psa 137:7 Remember, O LORD , the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem; who said, “Rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof.” Psa 137:8 O daughter of Babylon, who art to be destroyed; happy shall he be, that rewardeth thee as thou hast served us. Psa 137:9 Happy shall he be, that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones.
Babylon in the Prophets
Yahveh Will Recover Israel From Its Enemies
Isa 11:1 And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of His roots: Isa 11:2 And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD ; Isa 11:3 And shall make Him of quick understanding in the fear of the LORD : and He shall not judge after the sight of His eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of His ears: Isa 11:4 But with righteousness shall He judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and He shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the wicked. Isa 11:5 And righteousness shall be the girdle of His loins, and faithfulness the girdle of His reins. Isa 11:6 The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. Isa 11:7 And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. Isa 11:8 And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice’ den. Isa 11:9 They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD , as the waters cover the sea. Isa 11:10 And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to It shall the Gentiles seek: and His rest shall be glorious. Isa 11:11 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the LORD shall set His hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. Isa 11:12 And He shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth.
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Isa 11:13 The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim. Isa 11:14 But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the children of Ammon shall obey them. Isa 11:15 And the LORD shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and with His mighty wind shall He shake His hand over the river, and shall smite it in the seven streams, and make men go over dryshod. Isa 11:16 And there shall be an highway for the remnant of His people, which shall be left, from Assyria; like as it was to Israel in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt.
The Burden of Babylon
Isa 13:1 The burden of Babylon, which Isaiah the son of Amoz did see. Isa 13:2 Lift ye up a banner upon the high mountain, exalt the voice unto them, shake the hand, that they may go into the gates of the nobles. Isa 13:3 I have commanded My sanctified ones, I have also called My mighty ones for Mine anger, even them that rejoice in My highness. Isa 13:4 The noise of a multitude in the mountains, like as of a great people; a tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of nations gathered together: the LORD of hosts mustereth the host of the battle. Isa 13:5 They come from a far country, from the end of heaven, even the LORD , and the weapons of His indignation, to destroy the whole land. Isa 13:6 Howl ye; for the day of the LORD is at hand; it shall come as a destruction from the ALMIGHTY . Isa 13:7 Therefore shall all hands be faint, and every man’s heart shall melt: Isa 13:8 And they shall be afraid: pangs and sorrows shall take hold of them; they shall be in pain as a woman that travaileth: they shall be amazed one at another; their faces shall be as flames. Isa 13:9 Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, cruel both with wrath and fierce anger, to lay the land desolate: and He shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it. Isa 13:10 For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine. Isa 13:11 And I will punish the world for their evil, and the wicked for their iniquity; and I will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, and will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible. Isa 13:12 I will make a man more precious than fine gold; even a man than the golden wedge of Ophir. Isa 13:13 Therefore I will shake the heavens, and the earth shall remove out of her place, in the wrath of the LORD of hosts, and in the day of His fierce anger. Isa 13:14 And it shall be as the chased roe, and as a sheep that no man taketh up: they shall every man turn to his own people, and flee every one into his own land. Isa 13:15 Every one that is found shall be thrust through; and every one that is joined unto them shall fall by the sword. Isa 13:16 Their children also shall be dashed to pieces before their eyes; their houses shall be spoiled, and their wives ravished. Isa 13:17 Behold, I will stir up the Medes against them, which shall not regard silver; and as for gold, they shall not delight in it. Isa 13:18 Their bows also shall dash the young men to pieces; and they shall have no pity on the fruit of the womb; their eye shall not spare children. Isa 13:19 And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees’ excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. Isa 13:20 It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds make their fold there. Isa 13:21 But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there; and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls
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shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there. Isa 13:22 And the wild beasts of the islands shall cry in their desolate houses, and dragons in their pleasant palaces: and her time is near to come, and her days shall not be prolonged.
Against the King of Babylon & Prophecy to Lucifer
Isaiah’s prophecy to Lucifer immediately follows “the burden of Babylon” he gave in chapter 13 and the words to the earthly king of Babylon in 14:1–11. Lucifer is here clearly identified with the king of Babylon and thus strongly connected with Babylon itself.
Isa 14:1 For the LORD will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land: and the strangers shall be joined with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob. Isa 14:2 And the people shall take them, and bring them to their place: and the house of Israel shall possess them in the land of the LORD for servants and handmaids: and they shall take them captives, whose captives they were; and they shall rule over their oppressors. Isa 14:3 And it shall come to pass in the day that the LORD shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy fear, and from the hard bondage wherein thou wast made to serve, Isa 14:4 That thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, “How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased! Isa 14:5 The LORD hath broken the staff of the wicked, and the sceptre of the rulers. Isa 14:6 He who smote the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, and none hindereth. Isa 14:7 The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet: they break forth into singing. Isa 14:8 Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, ‘Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.’ Isa 14:9 Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming: it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations. Isa 14:10 All they shall speak and say unto thee, ‘Art thou also become weak as we? art thou become like unto us?’ Isa 14:11 Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee. Isa 14:12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! Isa 14:13 For thou hast said in thine heart, ‘I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of GOD: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: Isa 14:14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the MOST HIGH .’ Isa 14:15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit. Isa 14:16 They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, ‘Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms; Isa 14:17 That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?’ Isa 14:18 All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, every one in his own house. Isa 14:19 But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet. Isa 14:20 Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people: the seed of evildoers shall never be renowned. Isa 14:21 Prepare slaughter for his children for the iniquity of their fathers; that they do not rise, nor possess the land, nor fill the face of the world with cities.” Isa 14:22 “For I will rise up against them,” saith the LORD of hosts, “and cut off from Babylon the name, and
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remnant, and son, and nephew,” saith the LORD . Isa 14:23 “I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water: and I will sweep it with the besom of destruction,” saith the LORD of hosts. Isa 14:24 The LORD of hosts hath sworn, saying, “Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass; and as I have purposed, so shall it stand: Isa 14:25 That I will break the Assyrian in My land, and upon My mountains tread him under foot: then shall his yoke depart from off them, and his burden depart from off their shoulders. Isa 14:26 This is the purpose that is purposed upon the whole earth: and this is the hand that is stretched out upon all the nations. Isa 14:27 For the LORD of hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul it? and His hand is stretched out, and who shall turn it back?” Isa 14:28 In the year that king Ahaz died was this burden. Isa 14:29 Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the rod of him that smote thee is broken: for out of the serpent’s root shall come forth a cockatrice, and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent. Isa 14:30 And the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down in safety: and I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall slay thy remnant. Isa 14:31 Howl, O gate; cry, O city; thou, whole Palestina, art dissolved: for there shall come from the north a smoke, and none shall be alone in his appointed times. Isa 14:32 What shall one then answer the messengers of the nation? That the LORD hath founded Zion, and the poor of His people shall trust in it.
“Babylon Is Fallen . . .”
“Babylon is fallen . . .” (verse 9) is a phrase that first occurs in Isaiah 21:19 and is repeated in Jeremiah 51:8, Revelation 14:8, and Revelation 18:2. The historical conquering of Babylon by the Persians and Medes is thus connected as a type with the death of the one-world Babylon of Revelation.
Isa 21:1 The burden of the desert of the sea. As whirlwinds in the south pass through; so it cometh from the desert, from a terrible land. Isa 21:2 A grievous vision is declared unto me; the treacherous dealer dealeth treacherously, and the spoiler spoileth. Go up, O Elam: besiege, O Media; all the sighing thereof have I made to cease. Isa 21:3 Therefore are my loins filled with pain: pangs have taken hold upon me, as the pangs of a woman that travaileth: I was bowed down at the hearing of it; I was dismayed at the seeing of it. Isa 21:4 My heart panted, fearfulness affrighted me: the night of my pleasure hath he turned into fear unto me. Isa 21:5 Prepare the table, watch in the watchtower, eat, drink: arise, ye princes, and anoint the shield. Isa 21:6 For thus hath the LORD said unto me, “Go, set a watchman, let him declare what he seeth.” Isa 21:7 And he saw a chariot with a couple of horsemen, a chariot of asses, and a chariot of camels; and he hearkened diligently with much heed: Isa 21:8 And he cried, “A lion: My LORD, I stand continually upon the watchtower in the daytime, and I am set in my ward whole nights: Isa 21:9 And, behold, here cometh a chariot of men, with a couple of horsemen.” And he answered and said, “Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and all the graven images of her gods he hath broken unto the ground.” Isa 21:10 O my threshing, and the corn of my floor: that which I have heard of the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, have I declared unto you.”
Chaldeans Brought to Ruin
Isa 23:12 And He said, “Thou shalt no more rejoice, O thou oppressed virgin, daughter of Zidon: arise, pass over
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to Chittim; there also shalt thou have no rest.” Isa 23:13 Behold the land of the Chaldeans; this people was not, till the Assyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wilderness: they set up the towers thereof, they raised up the palaces thereof; and He brought it to ruin. Isa 23:14 Howl, ye ships of Tarshish: for your strength is laid waste.
Babylon Brought to Ruin
Isa 43:11 I, even I, am the LORD ; and beside Me there is no saviour. Isa 43:12 I have declared, and have saved, and I have shewed, when there was no strange god among you: therefore ye are My witnesses,” saith the LORD , “that I am GOD. Isa 43:13 Yea, before the day was I am He; and there is none that can deliver out of My hand: I will work, and who shall let it?” Isa 43:14 Thus saith the LORD , your redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; “For your sake I have sent to Babylon, and have brought down all their nobles, and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in the ships. Isa 43:15 I am the LORD , your Holy One, the creator of Israel, your King.”
The End of Babylon
Isa 47:1 Come down, and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon, sit on the ground: there is no throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans: for thou shalt no more be called tender and delicate. Isa 47:2 Take the millstones, and grind meal: uncover thy locks, make bare the leg, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers. Isa 47:3 Thy nakedness shall be uncovered, yea, thy shame shall be seen: I will take vengeance, and I will not meet thee as a man. Isa 47:4 As for our Redeemer, the LORD of hosts is His name, the Holy One of Israel. Isa 47:5 Sit thou silent, and get thee into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans: for thou shalt no more be called, The lady of kingdoms. Isa 47:6 I was wroth with My people, I have polluted Mine inheritance, and given them into thine hand: thou didst shew them no mercy; upon the ancient hast thou very heavily laid thy yoke. Isa 47:7 And thou saidst, ‘I shall be a lady for ever:’ so that thou didst not lay these things to thy heart, neither didst remember the latter end of it. Isa 47:8 Therefore hear now this, thou that art given to pleasures, that dwellest carelessly, that sayest in thine heart, ‘I am, and none else beside me; I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children:’ Isa 47:9 But these two things shall come to thee in a moment in one day, the loss of children, and widowhood: they shall come upon thee in their perfection for the multitude of thy sorceries, and for the great abundance of thine enchantments. Isa 47:10 For thou hast trusted in thy wickedness: thou hast said, ‘None seeth me.’ Thy wisdom and thy knowledge, it hath perverted thee; and thou hast said in thine heart, ‘I am, and none else beside me.’ Isa 47:11 Therefore shall evil come upon thee; thou shalt not know from whence it riseth: and mischief shall fall upon thee; thou shalt not be able to put it off: and desolation shall come upon thee suddenly, which thou shalt not know. Isa 47:12 Stand now with thine enchantments, and with the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast laboured from thy youth; if so be thou shalt be able to profit, if so be thou mayest prevail. Isa 47:13 Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsels. Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand up, and save thee from these things that shall come upon thee. Isa 47:14 Behold, they shall be as stubble; the fire shall burn them; they shall not deliver themselves from the power of the flame: there shall not be a coal to warm at, nor fire to sit before it. Isa 47:15 Thus shall they be unto thee with whom thou hast laboured, even thy merchants, from thy youth: they
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shall wander every one to his quarter; none shall save thee.
More on Babylon’s Ruin
Isa 48:1 Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, which swear by the name of the LORD , and make mention of the God of Israel, but not in truth, nor in righteousness. Isa 48:2 For they call themselves of the holy city, and stay themselves upon the God of Israel; The LORD of hosts is His name. Isa 48:3 I have declared the former things from the beginning; and they went forth out of My mouth, and I shewed them; I did them suddenly, and they came to pass. Isa 48:4 Because I knew that thou art obstinate, and thy neck is an iron sinew, and thy brow brass; Isa 48:5 I have even from the beginning declared it to thee; before it came to pass I shewed it thee: lest thou shouldest say, ‘Mine idol hath done them, and my graven image, and my molten image, hath commanded them.’ Isa 48:6 Thou hast heard, see all this; and will not ye declare it? I have shewed thee new things from this time, even hidden things, and thou didst not know them. Isa 48:7 They are created now, and not from the beginning; even before the day when thou heardest them not; lest thou shouldest say, ‘Behold, I knew them.’ Isa 48:8 Yea, thou heardest not; yea, thou knewest not; yea, from that time that thine ear was not opened: for I knew that thou wouldest deal very treacherously, and wast called a transgressor from the womb. Isa 48:9 For My name’s sake will I defer Mine anger, and for My praise will I refrain for thee, that I cut thee not off. Isa 48:10 Behold, I have refined thee, but not with silver; I have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction. Isa 48:11 For Mine own sake, even for Mine own sake, will I do it: for how should My name be polluted? and I will not give My glory unto another. Isa 48:12 Hearken unto Me, O Jacob and Israel, My called; I am he; I am the first, I also am the last. Isa 48:13 Mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth, and My right hand hath spanned the heavens: when I call unto them, they stand up together. Isa 48:14 All ye, assemble yourselves, and hear; which among them hath declared these things? The LORD hath loved him: He will do His pleasure on Babylon, and His arm shall be on the Chaldeans. Isa 48:15 I, even I, have spoken; yea, I have called him: I have brought him, and he shall make his way prosperous. Isa 48:16 Come ye near unto Me, hear ye this; I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; from the time that it was, there am I: and now the Lord GOD , and His Spirit, hath sent Me.” Isa 48:17 Thus saith the LORD , thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; “I am the LORD thy God Which teacheth thee to profit, Which leadeth thee by the way that thou shouldest go. Isa 48:18 O that thou hadst hearkened to My commandments! then had thy peace been as a river, and thy righteousness as the waves of the sea: Isa 48:19 Thy seed also had been as the sand, and the offspring of thy bowels like the gravel thereof; his name should not have been cut off nor destroyed from before Me. Isa 48:20 Go ye forth of Babylon, flee ye from the Chaldeans, with a voice of singing declare ye, tell this, utter it even to the end of the earth; say ye, “The LORD hath redeemed His servant Jacob. Isa 48:21 And they thirsted not when He led them through the deserts: He caused the waters to flow out of the rock for them: He clave the rock also, and the waters gushed out.’ Isa 48:22 There is no peace,” saith the LORD , “unto the wicked.
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The book of Jeremiah starts out in chapter 1 with a prophecy concerning Babylon (an evil “out of the north”). Many prophecies relating to Babylon in the book of Jeremiah involve the people of Judah and Judea scoffing at the notion that Babylon will conquer them, and Jeremiah, following Yahveh’s orders, informing them otherwise. Many prophecies in Jeremiah also heavily correspond to the events at the end of II Kings and should be studied in conjunction with them. Jeremiah also offers up historical information on the fate of captives left behind after the Babylonian sieges that supplements and provides more detail than the accounts given at the end of II Kings.
The Seething Pot Toward the North
Jer 1:13 And the word of the LORD came unto me the second time, saying, “What seest thou?” And I said, “I see a seething pot; and the face thereof is toward the north.” Jer 1:14 Then the LORD said unto me, “Out of the north an evil shall break forth upon all the inhabitants of the land. Jer 1:15 For, lo, I will call all the families of the kingdoms of the north, saith the LORD ; and they shall come, and they shall set every one his throne at the entering of the gates of Jerusalem, and against all the walls thereof round about, and against all the cities of Judah. Jer 1:16 And I will utter My judgments against them touching all their wickedness, who have forsaken Me, and have burned incense unto other gods, and worshipped the works of their own hands. Jer 1:17 Thou therefore gird up thy loins, and arise, and speak unto them all that I command thee: be not dismayed at their faces, lest I confound thee before them. Jer 1:18 For, behold, I have made thee this day a defenced city, and an iron pillar, and brasen walls against the whole land, against the kings of Judah, against the princes thereof, against the priests thereof, and against the people of the land. Jer 1:19 And they shall fight against thee; but they shall not prevail against thee; for I am with thee, saith the LORD , to deliver thee.”
“Evil Appeareth Out of the North”
Jer 6:1 O ye children of Benjamin, gather yourselves to flee out of the midst of Jerusalem, and blow the trumpet in Tekoa, and set up a sign of fire in Beth-haccerem: for evil appeareth out of the north, and great destruction. Jer 6:2 I have likened the daughter of Zion to a comely and delicate woman. Jer 6:3 The shepherds with their flocks shall come unto her; they shall pitch their tents against her round about; they shall feed every one in his place. Jer 6:4 Prepare ye war against her; arise, and let us go up at noon. Woe unto us! for the day goeth away, for the shadows of the evening are stretched out. Jer 6:5 Arise, and let us go by night, and let us destroy her palaces. Jer 6:6 For thus hath the LORD of hosts said, “Hew ye down trees, and cast a mount against Jerusalem: this is the city to be visited; she is wholly oppression in the midst of her. Jer 6:7 As a fountain casteth out her waters, so she casteth out her wickedness: violence and spoil is heard in her; before Me continually is grief and wounds. Jer 6:8 Be thou instructed, O Jerusalem, lest My soul depart from thee; lest I make thee desolate, a land not inhabited.” Jer 6:9 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, “They shall throughly glean the remnant of Israel as a vine: turn back thine hand as a grapegatherer into the baskets. Jer 6:10 To whom shall I speak, and give warning, that they may hear? behold, their ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot hearken: behold, the word of the LORD is unto them a reproach; they have no delight in it. Jer 6:11 Therefore I am full of the fury of the LORD ; I am weary with holding in: I will pour it out upon the children abroad, and upon the assembly of young men together: for even the husband with the wife shall be
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taken, the aged with him that is full of days. Jer 6:12 And their houses shall be turned unto others, with their fields and wives together: for I will stretch out My hand upon the inhabitants of the land, saith the LORD . Jer 6:13 For from the least of them even unto the greatest of them every one is given to covetousness; and from the prophet even unto the priest every one dealeth falsely. Jer 6:14 They have healed also the hurt of the daughter of My people slightly, saying, ‘Peace, peace;’ when there is no peace. Jer 6:15 Were they ashamed when they had committed abomination? nay, they were not at all ashamed, neither could they blush: therefore they shall fall among them that fall: at the time that I visit them they shall be cast down,” saith the LORD . Jer 6:16 Thus saith the LORD , “Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls. But they said, ‘We will not walk therein.’ Jer 6:17 Also I set watchmen over you, saying, ‘Hearken to the sound of the trumpet.’ But they said, ‘We will not hearken.’ Jer 6:18 Therefore hear, ye nations, and know, O congregation, what is among them. Jer 6:19 Hear, O earth: behold, I will bring evil upon this people, even the fruit of their thoughts, because they have not hearkened unto My words, nor to My law, but rejected it. Jer 6:20 To what purpose cometh there to Me incense from Sheba, and the sweet cane from a far country? your burnt offerings are not acceptable, nor your sacrifices sweet unto Me. Jer 6:21 Therefore thus saith the LORD , Behold, I will lay stumblingblocks before this people, and the fathers and the sons together shall fall upon them; the neighbour and his friend shall perish. Jer 6:22 Thus saith the LORD , Behold, a people cometh from the north country, and a great nation shall be raised from the sides of the earth. Jer 6:23 They shall lay hold on bow and spear; they are cruel, and have no mercy; their voice roareth like the sea; and they ride upon horses, set in array as men for war against thee, O daughter of Zion.” Jer 6:24 We have heard the fame thereof: our hands wax feeble: anguish hath taken hold of us, and pain, as of a woman in travail. Jer 6:25 Go not forth into the field, nor walk by the way; for the sword of the enemy and fear is on every side. Jer 6:26 O daughter of My people, gird thee with sackcloth, and wallow thyself in ashes: make thee mourning, as for an only son, most bitter lamentation: for the spoiler shall suddenly come upon us. Jer 6:27 I have set thee for a tower and a fortress among My people, that thou mayest know and try their way. Jer 6:28 They are all grievous revolters, walking with slanders: they are brass and iron; they are all corrupters. Jer 6:29 The bellows are burned, the lead is consumed of the fire; the founder melteth in vain: for the wicked are not plucked away. Jer 6:30 Reprobate silver shall men call them, because the LORD hath rejected them.
“A Great Commotion Out of the North Country”
Jer 10:10 But the LORD is the true God, He is the living God, and an everlasting king: at His wrath the earth shall tremble, and the nations shall not be able to abide His indignation. Jer 10:11 Thus shall ye say unto them, “The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth, even they shall perish from the earth, and from under these heavens. Jer 10:12 He hath made the earth by His power, He hath established the world by His wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by His discretion. Jer 10:13 When He uttereth his voice, there is a multitude of waters in the heavens, and He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth; He maketh lightnings with rain, and bringeth forth the wind out of His treasures. Jer 10:14 Every man is brutish in his knowledge: every founder is confounded by the graven image: for his molten
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image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them. Jer 10:15 They are vanity, and the work of errors: in the time of their visitation they shall perish. Jer 10:16 The portion of Jacob is not like them: for He is the former of all things; and Israel is the rod of His inheritance: The LORD of hosts is His name.” Jer 10:17 Gather up thy wares out of the land, O inhabitant of the fortress. Jer 10:18 For thus saith the LORD , “Behold, I will sling out the inhabitants of the land at this once, and will distress them, that they may find it so.” Jer 10:19 Woe is me for my hurt! my wound is grievous: but I said, “Truly this is a grief, and I must bear it.” Jer 10:20 My tabernacle is spoiled, and all my cords are broken: my children are gone forth of me, and they are not: there is none to stretch forth my tent any more, and to set up my curtains. Jer 10:21 For the pastors are become brutish, and have not sought the LORD : therefore they shall not prosper, and all their flocks shall be scattered. Jer 10:22 Behold, the noise of the bruit is come, and a great commotion out of the north country, to make the cities of Judah desolate, and a den of dragons. Jer 10:23 O LORD , I know that the way of man is not in himself: it is not in man that walketh to direct his steps. Jer 10:24 O LORD , correct me, but with judgment; not in Thine anger, lest Thou bring me to nothing. Jer 10:25 Pour out Thy fury upon the heathen that know Thee not, and upon the families that call not on Thy name: for they have eaten up Jacob, and devoured him, and consumed him, and have made his habitation desolate.
Pashur Puts Jeremiah in the Stocks for Prophesying of Judah’s Captivity & Jeremiah’s Lament
Jer 20:1 Now Pashur the son of Immer the priest, who was also chief governor in the house of the LORD , heard that Jeremiah prophesied these things. Jer 20:2 Then Pashur smote Jeremiah the prophet, and put him in the stocks that were in the high gate of Benjamin, which was by the house of the LORD . Jer 20:3 And it came to pass on the morrow, that Pashur brought forth Jeremiah out of the stocks. Then said Jeremiah unto him, “The LORD hath not called thy name Pashur, but Magor-missabib. Jer 20:4 For thus saith the LORD , ‘Behold, I will make thee a terror to thyself, and to all thy friends: and they shall fall by the sword of their enemies, and thine eyes shall behold it: and I will give all Judah into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall carry them captive into Babylon, and shall slay them with the sword. Jer 20:5 Moreover I will deliver all the strength of this city, and all the labours thereof, and all the precious things thereof, and all the treasures of the kings of Judah will I give into the hand of their enemies, which shall spoil them, and take them, and carry them to Babylon. Jer 20:6 And thou, Pashur, and all that dwell in thine house shall go into captivity: and thou shalt come to Babylon, and there thou shalt die, and shalt be buried there, thou, and all thy friends, to whom thou hast prophesied lies.’” Jer 20:7 O LORD , Thou hast deceived me, and I was deceived: Thou art stronger than I, and hast prevailed: I am in derision daily, every one mocketh me. Jer 20:8 For since I spake, I cried out, I cried violence and spoil; because the word of the LORD was made a reproach unto me, and a derision, daily. Jer 20:9 Then I said, “I will not make mention of Him, nor speak any more in His name.” But His word was in mine heart as a burning fire shut up in my bones, and I was weary with forbearing, and I could not stay. Jer 20:10 For I heard the defaming of many, fear on every side. “Report,” say they, “and we will report it.” All my familiars watched for my halting, saying, “Peradventure he will be enticed, and we shall prevail against him, and we shall take our revenge on him.” Jer 20:11 But the LORD is with me as a mighty terrible One: therefore my persecutors shall stumble, and they shall not prevail: they shall be greatly ashamed; for they shall not prosper: their everlasting confusion shall never
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be forgotten. Jer 20:12 But, O LORD of hosts, That triest the righteous, and seest the reins and the heart, let me see Thy vengeance on them: for unto Thee have I opened my cause. Jer 20:13 Sing unto the LORD , praise ye the LORD : for He hath delivered the soul of the poor from the hand of evildoers. Jer 20:14 Cursed be the day wherein I was born: let not the day wherein my mother bare me be blessed. Jer 20:15 Cursed be the man who brought tidings to my father, saying, “A man child is born unto thee;” making him very glad. Jer 20:16 And let that man be as the cities which the LORD overthrew, and repented not: and let him hear the cry in the morning, and the shouting at noontide; Jer 20:17 Because He slew me not from the womb; or that my mother might have been my grave, and her womb to be always great with me. Jer 20:18 Wherefore came I forth out of the womb to see labour and sorrow, that my days should be consumed with shame?
Zedekiah Asks Jeremiah to Enquire of Yahveh Concerning Nebuchadnezzar
Jer 21:1 The word which came unto Jeremiah from the LORD , when king Zedekiah sent unto him Pashur the son of Melchiah, and Zephaniah the son of Maaseiah the priest, saying, Jer 21:2 “Enquire, I pray thee, of the LORD for us; for Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon maketh war against us; if so be that the LORD will deal with us according to all His wondrous works, that he may go up from us.” Jer 21:3 Then said Jeremiah unto them, “Thus shall ye say to Zedekiah: Jer 21:4 ‘Thus saith the LORD God of Israel; Behold, I will turn back the weapons of war that are in your hands, wherewith ye fight against the king of Babylon, and against the Chaldeans, which besiege you without the walls, and I will assemble them into the midst of this city. Jer 21:5 And I Myself will fight against you with an outstretched hand and with a strong arm, even in anger, and in fury, and in great wrath. Jer 21:6 And I will smite the inhabitants of this city, both man and beast: they shall die of a great pestilence. Jer 21:7 And afterward, saith the LORD , I will deliver Zedekiah king of Judah, and his servants, and the people, and such as are left in this city from the pestilence, from the sword, and from the famine, into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those that seek their life: and he shall smite them with the edge of the sword; he shall not spare them, neither have pity, nor have mercy.” Jer 21:8 And unto this people thou shalt say, Thus saith the LORD ; ‘Behold, I set before you the way of life, and the way of death. Jer 21:9 He that abideth in this city shall die by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence: but he that goeth out, and falleth to the Chaldeans that besiege you, he shall live, and his life shall be unto him for a prey. Jer 21:10 For I have set My face against this city for evil, and not for good, saith the LORD : it shall be given into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall burn it with fire. Jer 21:11 And touching the house of the king of Judah, say, Hear ye the word of the LORD ; Jer 21:12 O house of David, thus saith the LORD ; Execute judgment in the morning, and deliver him that is spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor, lest My fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings. Jer 21:13 Behold, I am against thee, O inhabitant of the valley, and rock of the plain, saith the LORD ; which say, ‘Who shall come down against us? or who shall enter into our habitations?’ Jer 21:14 But I will punish you according to the fruit of your doings, saith the LORD : and I will kindle a fire in the forest thereof, and it shall devour all things round about it.
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Prophecy Against Jeconiah
Jer 22:23 O inhabitant of Lebanon, that makest thy nest in the cedars, how gracious shalt thou be when pangs come upon thee, the pain as of a woman in travail! Jer 22:24 As I live, saith the LORD , though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were the signet upon My right hand, yet would I pluck thee thence; Jer 22:25 And I will give thee into the hand of them that seek thy life, and into the hand of them whose face thou fearest, even into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of the Chaldeans. Jer 22:26 And I will cast thee out, and thy mother that bare thee, into another country, where ye were not born; and there shall ye die. Jer 22:27 But to the land whereunto they desire to return, thither shall they not return. Jer 22:28 Is this man Coniah a despised broken idol? is he a vessel wherein is no pleasure? wherefore are they cast out, he and his seed, and are cast into a land which they know not? Jer 22:29 O earth, earth, earth, hear the word of the LORD . Jer 22:30 Thus saith the LORD , Write ye this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days: for no man of his seed shall prosper, sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling any more in Judah.
“The North Country” to Replace Egypt as a Remembrance of Captivity
Jer 23:6 In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is His name whereby He shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. Jer 23:7 Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD , that they shall no more say, ‘The LORD liveth, Which brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt;’ Jer 23:8 But, ‘The LORD liveth, Which brought up and Which led the seed of the house of Israel out of the north country, and from all countries whither I had driven them; and they shall dwell in their own land.”
The Two Baskets of Figs
Jer 24:1 The LORD shewed me, and, behold, two baskets of figs were set before the temple of the LORD , after that Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon had carried away captive Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah, and the princes of Judah, with the carpenters and smiths, from Jerusalem, and had brought them to Babylon. Jer 24:2 One basket had very good figs, even like the figs that are first ripe: and the other basket had very naughty figs, which could not be eaten, they were so bad. Jer 24:3 Then said the LORD unto me, “What seest thou, Jeremiah?” And I said, “Figs; the good figs, very good; and the evil, very evil, that cannot be eaten, they are so evil.” Jer 24:4 Again the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Jer 24:5 “Thus saith the LORD , the God of Israel;” Like these good figs, so will I acknowledge them that are carried away captive of Judah, whom I have sent out of this place into the land of the Chaldeans for their good. Jer 24:6 For I will set Mine eyes upon them for good, and I will bring them again to this land: and I will build them, and not pull them down; and I will plant them, and not pluck them up. Jer 24:7 And I will give them an heart to know Me, that I am the LORD : and they shall be My people, and I will be their God: for they shall return unto Me with their whole heart. Jer 24:8 And as the evil figs, which cannot be eaten, they are so evil; surely thus saith the LORD , So will I give Zedekiah the king of Judah, and his princes, and the residue of Jerusalem, that remain in this land, and them that dwell in the land of Egypt: Jer 24:9 And I will deliver them to be removed into all the kingdoms of the earth for their hurt, to be a reproach and a proverb, a taunt and a curse, in all places whither I shall drive them. Jer 24:10 And I will send the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, among them, till they be consumed from off
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the land that I gave unto them and to their fathers.’”
Nebuchadnezzar to Be a Tool of Correction for the Nations
It is in verse 11 that Jeremiah first states that Judah will serve the king of Babylon for seventy years. Daniel later specifically stated that he came to understand those seventy years (Daniel 9:2).
Jer 25:1 The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, that was the first year of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon; Jer 25:2 The which Jeremiah the prophet spake unto all the people of Judah, and to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, saying, Jer 25:3 “From the thirteenth year of Josiah the son of Amon king of Judah, even unto this day, that is the three and twentieth year, the word of the LORD hath come unto me, and I have spoken unto you, rising early and speaking; but ye have not hearkened. Jer 25:4 And the LORD hath sent unto you all His servants the prophets, rising early and sending them; but ye have not hearkened, nor inclined your ear to hear. Jer 25:5 They said, ‘Turn ye again now every one from his evil way, and from the evil of your doings, and dwell in the land that the LORD hath given unto you and to your fathers for ever and ever: Jer 25:6 And go not after other gods to serve them, and to worship them, and provoke Me not to anger with the works of your hands; and I will do you no hurt.’ Jer 25:7 Yet ye have not hearkened unto Me, saith the LORD ; that ye might provoke Me to anger with the works of your hands to your own hurt. Jer 25:8 Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts; Because ye have not heard My words, Jer 25:9 Behold, I will send and take all the families of the north, saith the LORD , and Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon, My servant, and will bring them against this land, and against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these nations round about, and will utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment, and an hissing, and perpetual desolations. Jer 25:10 Moreover I will take from them the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the candle. Jer 25:11 And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. Jer 25:12 And it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon, and that nation, saith the LORD , for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans, and will make it perpetual desolations. Jer 25:13 And I will bring upon that land all My words which I have pronounced against it, even all that is written in this book, which Jeremiah hath prophesied against all the nations. Jer 25:14 For many nations and great kings shall serve themselves of them also: and I will recompense them according to their deeds, and according to the works of their own hands.’ Jer 25:15 For thus saith the LORD God of Israel unto me; ‘Take the wine cup of this fury at My hand, and cause all the nations, to whom I send thee, to drink it. Jer 25:16 And they shall drink, and be moved, and be mad, because of the sword that I will send among them.’ Jer 25:17 Then took I the cup at the LORD ’s hand, and made all the nations to drink, unto whom the LORD had sent me: Jer 25:18 To wit, Jerusalem, and the cities of Judah, and the kings thereof, and the princes thereof, to make them a desolation, an astonishment, an hissing, and a curse; as it is this day; Jer 25:19 Pharaoh king of Egypt, and his servants, and his princes, and all his people; Jer 25:20 And all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of Uz, and all the kings of the land of the Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Azzah, and Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod, Jer 25:21 Edom, and Moab, and the children of Ammon,
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Jer 25:22 And all the kings of Tyrus, and all the kings of Zidon, and the kings of the isles which are beyond the sea, Jer 25:23 Dedan, and Tema, and Buz, and all that are in the utmost corners, Jer 25:24 And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the desert, Jer 25:25 And all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of the Medes, Jer 25:26 And all the kings of the north, far and near, one with another, and all the kingdoms of the world, which are upon the face of the earth: and the king of Sheshach shall drink after them. Jer 25:27 Therefore thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; ‘Drink ye, and be drunken, and spue, and fall, and rise no more, because of the sword which I will send among you.’” Jer 25:28 And it shall be, if they refuse to take the cup at thine hand to drink, then shalt thou say unto them, ‘Thus saith the LORD of hosts; ‘Ye shall certainly drink. Jer 25:29 For, lo, I begin to bring evil on the city which is called by My name, and should ye be utterly unpunished? Ye shall not be unpunished: for I will call for a sword upon all the inhabitants of the earth, saith the LORD of hosts.’ ’ Jer 25:30 Therefore prophesy thou against them all these words, and say unto them, ‘The LORD shall roar from on high, and utter His voice from His holy habitation; He shall mightily roar upon His habitation; He shall give a shout, as they that tread the grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth.’ Jer 25:31 A noise shall come even to the ends of the earth; for the LORD hath a controversy with the nations, He will plead with all flesh; He will give them that are wicked to the sword, saith the LORD . Jer 25:32 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, ‘Behold, evil shall go forth from nation to nation, and a great whirlwind shall be raised up from the coasts of the earth. Jer 25:33 And the slain of the LORD shall be at that day from one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth: they shall not be lamented, neither gathered, nor buried; they shall be dung upon the ground. Jer 25:34 Howl, ye shepherds, and cry; and wallow yourselves in the ashes, ye principal of the flock: for the days of your slaughter and of your dispersions are accomplished; and ye shall fall like a pleasant vessel. Jer 25:35 And the shepherds shall have no way to flee, nor the principal of the flock to escape. Jer 25:36 A voice of the cry of the shepherds, and an howling of the principal of the flock, shall be heard: for the LORD hath spoiled their pasture. Jer 25:37 And the peaceable habitations are cut down because of the fierce anger of the LORD . Jer 25:38 He hath forsaken His covert, as the lion: for their land is desolate because of the fierceness of the oppressor, and because of His fierce anger.’”
Nations to Serve the King of Babylon
Jer 27:1 In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah came this word unto Jeremiah from the LORD , saying, Jer 27:2 “Thus saith the LORD to me; ‘Make thee bonds and yokes, and put them upon thy neck, Jer 27:3 And send them to the king of Edom, and to the king of Moab, and to the king of the Ammonites, and to the king of Tyrus, and to the king of Zidon, by the hand of the messengers which come to Jerusalem unto Zedekiah king of Judah; Jer 27:4 And command them to say unto their masters, ‘Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Thus shall ye say unto your masters; Jer 27:5 ‘I have made the earth, the man and the beast that are upon the ground, by My great power and by My outstretched arm, and have given it unto whom it seemed meet unto Me. Jer 27:6 And now have I given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, My servant; and the beasts of the field have I given him also to serve him. Jer 27:7 And all nations shall serve him, and his son, and his son’s son, until the very time of his land come: and then many nations and great kings shall serve themselves of him.
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Jer 27:8 And it shall come to pass, that the nation and kingdom which will not serve the same Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, and that will not put their neck under the yoke of the king of Babylon, that nation will I punish, saith the LORD , with the sword, and with the famine, and with the pestilence, until I have consumed them by his hand. Jer 27:9 Therefore hearken not ye to your prophets, nor to your diviners, nor to your dreamers, nor to your enchanters, nor to your sorcerers, which speak unto you, saying, ‘Ye shall not serve the king of Babylon’: Jer 27:10 For they prophesy a lie unto you, to remove you far from your land; and that I should drive you out, and ye should perish. Jer 27:11 But the nations that bring their neck under the yoke of the king of Babylon, and serve him, those will I let remain still in their own land, saith the LORD ; and they shall till it, and dwell therein.’ ’ ’” Jer 27:12 I spake also to Zedekiah king of Judah according to all these words, saying, “Bring your necks under the yoke of the king of Babylon, and serve him and his people, and live. Jer 27:13 Why will ye die, thou and thy people, by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence, as the LORD hath spoken against the nation that will not serve the king of Babylon? Jer 27:14 Therefore hearken not unto the words of the prophets that speak unto you, saying, ‘Ye shall not serve the king of Babylon:’ for they prophesy a lie unto you.’” Jer 27:15 ‘For I have not sent them,’ saith the LORD , ‘yet they prophesy a lie in My name; that I might drive you out, and that ye might perish, ye, and the prophets that prophesy unto you.” Jer 27:16 Also I spake to the priests and to all this people, saying, “Thus saith the LORD ; ‘Hearken not to the words of your prophets that prophesy unto you, saying, ‘Behold, the vessels of the LORD ’s house shall now shortly be brought again from Babylon:’ for they prophesy a lie unto you. Jer 27:17 Hearken not unto them; serve the king of Babylon, and live: wherefore should this city be laid waste? Jer 27:18 But if they be prophets, and if the word of the LORD be with them, let them now make intercession to the LORD of hosts, that the vessels which are left in the house of the LORD , and in the house of the king of Judah, and at Jerusalem, go not to Babylon.’ Jer 27:19 For thus saith the LORD of hosts concerning the pillars, and concerning the sea, and concerning the bases, and concerning the residue of the vessels that remain in this city, Jer 27:20 Which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon took not, when he carried away captive Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah from Jerusalem to Babylon, and all the nobles of Judah and Jerusalem; Jer 27:21 Yea, thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, concerning the vessels that remain in the house of the LORD , and in the house of the king of Judah and of Jerusalem; Jer 27:22 ‘They shall be carried to Babylon, and there shall they be until the day that I visit them, saith the LORD ; then will I bring them up, and restore them to this place.’”
Jeremiah Refutes the False Prophets Who Speak of Peace
Jer 28:1 And it came to pass the same year, in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the fourth year, and in the fifth month, that Hananiah the son of Azur the prophet, which was of Gibeon, spake unto me in the house of the LORD , in the presence of the priests and of all the people, saying, Jer 28:2 “Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saying, ‘I have broken the yoke of the king of Babylon. Jer 28:3 Within two full years will I bring again into this place all the vessels of the LORD ’s house, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon took away from this place, and carried them to Babylon: Jer 28:4 And I will bring again to this place Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah, with all the captives of Judah, that went into Babylon, saith the LORD : for I will break the yoke of the king of Babylon.’” Jer 28:5 Then the prophet Jeremiah said unto the prophet Hananiah in the presence of the priests, and in the presence of all the people that stood in the house of the LORD , Jer 28:6 Even the prophet Jeremiah said, “Amen: the LORD do so: the LORD perform thy words which thou hast
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prophesied, to bring again the vessels of the LORD ’s house, and all that is carried away captive, from Babylon into this place. Jer 28:7 Nevertheless hear thou now this word that I speak in thine ears, and in the ears of all the people; Jer 28:8 The prophets that have been before me and before thee of old prophesied both against many countries, and against great kingdoms, of war, and of evil, and of pestilence. Jer 28:9 The prophet which prophesieth of peace, when the word of the prophet shall come to pass, then shall the prophet be known, that the LORD hath truly sent him.” Jer 28:10 Then Hananiah the prophet took the yoke from off the prophet Jeremiah’s neck, and brake it. Jer 28:11 And Hananiah spake in the presence of all the people, saying, “Thus saith the LORD ; ‘Even so will I break the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon from the neck of all nations within the space of two full years.’” And the prophet Jeremiah went his way. Jer 28:12 Then the word of the LORD came unto Jeremiah the prophet, after that Hananiah the prophet had broken the yoke from off the neck of the prophet Jeremiah, saying, Jer 28:13 “Go and tell Hananiah, saying, ‘Thus saith the LORD ; Thou hast broken the yokes of wood; but thou shalt make for them yokes of iron. Jer 28:14 For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; ‘I have put a yoke of iron upon the neck of all these nations, that they may serve Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; and they shall serve him: and I have given him the beasts of the field also.’ ’ ’” Jer 28:15 Then said the prophet Jeremiah unto Hananiah the prophet, “Hear now, Hananiah; The LORD hath not sent thee; but thou makest this people to trust in a lie. Jer 28:16 Therefore thus saith the LORD ; ‘Behold, I will cast thee from off the face of the earth: this year thou shalt die, because thou hast taught rebellion against the LORD .’ ’” Jer 28:17 So Hananiah the prophet died the same year in the seventh month.
Jeremiah Sends a Letter to the Elders Who Were Carried Away Captive
Jer 29:1 Now these are the words of the letter that Jeremiah the prophet sent from Jerusalem unto the residue of the elders which were carried away captives, and to the priests, and to the prophets, and to all the people whom Nebuchadnezzar had carried away captive from Jerusalem to Babylon; Jer 29:2 (After that Jeconiah the king, and the queen, and the eunuchs, the princes of Judah and Jerusalem, and the carpenters, and the smiths, were departed from Jerusalem;) Jer 29:3 By the hand of Elasah the son of Shaphan, and Gemariah the son of Hilkiah, (whom Zedekiah king of Judah sent unto Babylon to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon) saying, Jer 29:4 “Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, unto all that are carried away captives, whom I have caused to be carried away from Jerusalem unto Babylon; Jer 29:5 ‘Build ye houses, and dwell in them; and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them; Jer 29:6 Take ye wives, and beget sons and daughters; and take wives for your sons, and give your daughters to husbands, that they may bear sons and daughters; that ye may be increased there, and not diminished. Jer 29:7 And seek the peace of the city whither I have caused you to be carried away captives, and pray unto the LORD for it: for in the peace thereof shall ye have peace.’ Jer 29:8 For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; ‘Let not your prophets and your diviners, that be in the midst of you, deceive you, neither hearken to your dreams which ye cause to be dreamed. Jer 29:9 For they prophesy falsely unto you in My name: I have not sent them, saith the LORD .’ Jer 29:10 For thus saith the LORD , ‘That after seventy years be accomplished at Babylon I will visit you, and perform My good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place. Jer 29:11 For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith the LORD , thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give you an expected end. Jer 29:12 Then shall ye call upon Me, and ye shall go and pray unto Me, and I will hearken unto you.
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Jer 29:13 And ye shall seek Me, and find Me, when ye shall search for Me with all your heart. Jer 29:14 And I will be found of you, saith the LORD : and I will turn away your captivity, and I will gather you from all the nations, and from all the places whither I have driven you, saith the LORD ; and I will bring you again into the place whence I caused you to be carried away captive. Jer 29:15 Because ye have said, ‘The LORD hath raised us up prophets in Babylon;’ Jer 29:16 Know that thus saith the LORD of the king that sitteth upon the throne of David, and of all the people that dwelleth in this city, and of your brethren that are not gone forth with you into captivity; Jer 29:17 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; ‘Behold, I will send upon them the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, and will make them like vile figs, that cannot be eaten, they are so evil. Jer 29:18 And I will persecute them with the sword, with the famine, and with the pestilence, and will deliver them to be removed to all the kingdoms of the earth, to be a curse, and an astonishment, and an hissing, and a reproach, among all the nations whither I have driven them: Jer 29:19 Because they have not hearkened to My words, saith the LORD , which I sent unto them by My servants the prophets, rising up early and sending them; but ye would not hear, saith the LORD .’ Jer 29:20 Hear ye therefore the word of the LORD , all ye of the captivity, whom I have sent from Jerusalem to Babylon: Jer 29:21 “Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, of Ahab the son of Kolaiah, and of Zedekiah the son of Maaseiah, which prophesy a lie unto you in My name; ‘Behold, I will deliver them into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon; and he shall slay them before your eyes; Jer 29:22 And of them shall be taken up a curse by all the captivity of Judah which are in Babylon, saying, ‘The LORD make thee like Zedekiah and like Ahab, whom the king of Babylon roasted in the fire; Jer 29:23 Because they have committed villany in Israel, and have committed adultery with their neighbours’ wives, and have spoken lying words in My name, which I have not commanded them; even I know, and am a witness, saith the LORD .’ Jer 29:24 Thus shalt thou also speak to Shemaiah the Nehelamite, saying, Jer 29:25 ‘Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saying, ‘Because thou hast sent letters in thy name unto all the people that are at Jerusalem, and to Zephaniah the son of Maaseiah the priest, and to all the priests, saying, Jer 29:26 ‘The LORD hath made thee priest in the stead of Jehoiada the priest, that ye should be officers in the house of the LORD , for every man that is mad, and maketh himself a prophet, that thou shouldest put him in prison, and in the stocks. Jer 29:27 Now therefore why hast thou not reproved Jeremiah of Anathoth, which maketh himself a prophet to you? Jer 29:28 For therefore he sent unto us in Babylon, saying, ‘This captivity is long: build ye houses, and dwell in them; and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them.’ ’ ’ ’” Jer 29:29 And Zephaniah the priest read this letter in the ears of Jeremiah the prophet. Jer 29:30 Then came the word of the LORD unto Jeremiah, saying, Jer 29:31 “Send to all them of the captivity, saying, ‘Thus saith the LORD concerning Shemaiah the Nehelamite; ‘Because that Shemaiah hath prophesied unto you, and I sent him not, and he caused you to trust in a lie: Jer 29:32 Therefore thus saith the LORD ; Behold, I will punish Shemaiah the Nehelamite, and his seed: he shall not have a man to dwell among this people; neither shall he behold the good that I will do for My people, saith the LORD ; because he hath taught rebellion against the LORD .’ ’”
Yahveh Instructs Jeremiah to Buy a Field in Anathoth
Anathoth was designated as a Levite city, specifically for the sons of Aaron, in Benjamin. See Joshua 21:17–18.
Jer 32:1 The word that came to Jeremiah from the LORD in the tenth year of Zedekiah king of Judah, which was
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the eighteenth year of Nebuchadrezzar. Jer 32:2 For then the king of Babylon’s army besieged Jerusalem: and Jeremiah the prophet was shut up in the court of the prison, which was in the king of Judah’s house. Jer 32:3 For Zedekiah king of Judah had shut him up, saying, “Wherefore dost thou prophesy, and say, ‘Thus saith the LORD , Behold, I will give this city into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall take it; Jer 32:4 And Zedekiah king of Judah shall not escape out of the hand of the Chaldeans, but shall surely be delivered into the hand of the king of Babylon, and shall speak with him mouth to mouth, and his eyes shall behold his eyes; Jer 32:5 And he shall lead Zedekiah to Babylon, and there shall he be until I visit him, saith the LORD : though ye fight with the Chaldeans, ye shall not prosper.’ ’” Jer 32:6 And Jeremiah said, “The word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Jer 32:7 ‘Behold, Hanameel the son of Shallum thine uncle shall come unto thee, saying, ‘Buy thee my field that is in Anathoth: for the right of redemption is thine to buy it.’ ’” Jer 32:8 So Hanameel mine uncle’s son came to me in the court of the prison according to the word of the LORD , and said unto me, “Buy my field, I pray thee, that is in Anathoth, which is in the country of Benjamin: for the right of inheritance is thine, and the redemption is thine; buy it for thyself.” Then I knew that this was the word of the LORD . Jer 32:9 And I bought the field of Hanameel my uncle’s son, that was in Anathoth, and weighed him the money, even seventeen shekels of silver. Jer 32:10 And I subscribed the evidence, and sealed it, and took witnesses, and weighed him the money in the balances. Jer 32:11 So I took the evidence of the purchase, both that which was sealed according to the law and custom, and that which was open: Jer 32:12 And I gave the evidence of the purchase unto Baruch the son of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah, in the sight of Hanameel mine uncle’s son, and in the presence of the witnesses that subscribed the book of the purchase, before all the Jews that sat in the court of the prison. Jer 32:13 And I charged Baruch before them, saying, Jer 32:14 “Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; ‘Take these evidences, this evidence of the purchase, both which is sealed, and this evidence which is open; and put them in an earthen vessel, that they may continue many days.’ Jer 32:15 For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Houses and fields and vineyards shall be possessed again in this land.’” Jer 32:16 Now when I had delivered the evidence of the purchase unto Baruch the son of Neriah, I prayed unto the LORD , saying, Jer 32:17 “Ah Lord GOD ! behold, Thou hast made the heaven and the earth by Thy great power and stretched out arm, and there is nothing too hard for Thee: Jer 32:18 Thou shewest lovingkindness unto thousands, and recompensest the iniquity of the fathers into the bosom of their children after them: the Great, the Mighty GOD, the LORD of Hosts, is His name, Jer 32:19 Great in counsel, and mighty in work: for Thine eyes are open upon all the ways of the sons of men: to give every one according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings: Jer 32:20 Which hast set signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, even unto this day, and in Israel, and among other men; and hast made Thee a name, as at this day; Jer 32:21 And hast brought forth Thy people Israel out of the land of Egypt with signs, and with wonders, and with a strong hand, and with a stretched out arm, and with great terror; Jer 32:22 And hast given them this land, which Thou didst swear to their fathers to give them, a land flowing with milk and honey; Jer 32:23 And they came in, and possessed it; but they obeyed not Thy voice, neither walked in Thy law; they have done nothing of all that Thou commandedst them to do: therefore Thou hast caused all this evil to come upon them:
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Jer 32:24 Behold the mounts, they are come unto the city to take it; and the city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans, that fight against it, because of the sword, and of the famine, and of the pestilence: and what Thou hast spoken is come to pass; and, behold, thou seest it. Jer 32:25 And Thou hast said unto me, “O Lord GOD , ‘Buy thee the field for money, and take witnesses; for the city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans.’ ’ ’ Jer 32:26 Then came the word of the LORD unto Jeremiah, saying, Jer 32:27 ‘Behold, I am the LORD , the God of all flesh: is there any thing too hard for Me? Jer 32:28 Therefore thus saith the LORD ; ‘Behold, I will give this city into the hand of the Chaldeans, and into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and he shall take it: Jer 32:29 And the Chaldeans, that fight against this city, shall come and set fire on this city, and burn it with the houses, upon whose roofs they have offered incense unto Baal, and poured out drink offerings unto other gods, to provoke Me to anger. Jer 32:30 For the children of Israel and the children of Judah have only done evil before Me from their youth: for the children of Israel have only provoked Me to anger with the work of their hands, saith the LORD . Jer 32:31 For this city hath been to Me as a provocation of Mine anger and of My fury from the day that they built it even unto this day; that I should remove it from before My face, Jer 32:32 Because of all the evil of the children of Israel and of the children of Judah, which they have done to provoke Me to anger, they, their kings, their princes, their priests, and their prophets, and the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem. Jer 32:33 And they have turned unto Me the back, and not the face: though I taught them, rising up early and teaching them, yet they have not hearkened to receive instruction. Jer 32:34 But they set their abominations in the house, which is called by My name, to defile it. Jer 32:35 And they built the high places of Baal, which are in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire unto Molech; which I commanded them not, neither came it into My mind, that they should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin. Jer 32:36 And now therefore thus saith the LORD , the God of Israel, concerning this city, whereof ye say, “It shall be delivered into the hand of the king of Babylon by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence;’ Jer 32:37 ‘Behold, I will gather them out of all countries, whither I have driven them in Mine anger, and in My fury, and in great wrath; and I will bring them again unto this place, and I will cause them to dwell safely: Jer 32:38 And they shall be My people, and I will be their God: Jer 32:39 And I will give them one heart, and one way, that they may fear Me for ever, for the good of them, and of their children after them: Jer 32:40 And I will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not turn away from them, to do them good; but I will put My fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart from Me. Jer 32:41 Yea, I will rejoice over them to do them good, and I will plant them in this land assuredly with My whole heart and with My whole soul.’ Jer 32:42 For thus saith the LORD ; ‘Like as I have brought all this great evil upon this people, so will I bring upon them all the good that I have promised them. Jer 32:43 And fields shall be bought in this land, whereof ye say, ‘It is desolate without man or beast; it is given into the hand of the Chaldeans.’ Jer 32:44 Men shall buy fields for money, and subscribe evidences, and seal them, and take witnesses in the land of Benjamin, and in the places about Jerusalem, and in the cities of Judah, and in the cities of the mountains, and in the cities of the valley, and in the cities of the south: for I will cause their captivity to return, saith the LORD .’”
The Captiviy of Judah to Return
Jer 33:4 For thus saith the LORD , the God of Israel, concerning the houses of this city, and concerning the houses of the kings of Judah, which are thrown down by the mounts, and by the sword;
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Jer 33:5 ‘They come to fight with the Chaldeans, but it is to fill them with the dead bodies of men, whom I have slain in Mine anger and in My fury, and for all whose wickedness I have hid My face from this city. Jer 33:6 Behold, I will bring it health and cure, and I will cure them, and will reveal unto them the abundance of peace and truth. Jer 33:7 And I will cause the captivity of Judah and the captivity of Israel to return, and will build them, as at the first. Jer 33:8 And I will cleanse them from all their iniquity, whereby they have sinned against Me; and I will pardon all their iniquities, whereby they have sinned, and whereby they have transgressed against Me. Jer 33:9 And it shall be to Me a name of joy, a praise and an honour before all the nations of the earth, which shall hear all the good that I do unto them: and they shall fear and tremble for all the goodness and for all the prosperity that I procure unto it.’ Jer 33:10 Thus saith the LORD ; ‘Again there shall be heard in this place, which ye say shall be desolate without man and without beast, even in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem, that are desolate, without man, and without inhabitant, and without beast, Jer 33:11 The voice of joy, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that shall say, ‘Praise the LORD of hosts: for the LORD is good; for His mercy endureth for ever:’ and of them that shall bring the sacrifice of praise into the house of the LORD . For I will cause to return the captivity of the land, as at the first, saith the LORD .’
Further Prophecy to Zedekiah That Judah Will Fall to Babylon
Jer 34:1 The word which came unto Jeremiah from the LORD , when Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and all his army, and all the kingdoms of the earth of his dominion, and all the people, fought against Jerusalem, and against all the cities thereof, saying, Jer 34:2 “Thus saith the LORD , the God of Israel; ‘Go and speak to Zedekiah king of Judah, and tell him, ‘Thus saith the LORD ; ‘Behold, I will give this city into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall burn it with fire: Jer 34:3 And thou shalt not escape out of his hand, but shalt surely be taken, and delivered into his hand; and thine eyes shall behold the eyes of the king of Babylon, and he shall speak with thee mouth to mouth, and thou shalt go to Babylon. Jer 34:4 Yet hear the word of the LORD , O Zedekiah king of Judah; ‘Thus saith the LORD of thee, Thou shalt not die by the sword: Jer 34:5 But thou shalt die in peace: and with the burnings of thy fathers, the former kings which were before thee, so shall they burn odours for thee; and they will lament thee, saying, ‘Ah lord!’ for I have pronounced the word, saith the LORD .’ ’” Jer 34:6 Then Jeremiah the prophet spake all these words unto Zedekiah king of Judah in Jerusalem, Jer 34:7 When the king of Babylon’s army fought against Jerusalem, and against all the cities of Judah that were left, against Lachish, and against Azekah: for these defenced cities remained of the cities of Judah. Jer 34:8 This is the word that came unto Jeremiah from the LORD , after that the king Zedekiah had made a covenant with all the people which were at Jerusalem, to proclaim liberty unto them; Jer 34:9 That every man should let his manservant, and every man his maidservant, being an Hebrew or an Hebrewess, go free; that none should serve himself of them, to wit, of a Jew his brother. Jer 34:10 Now when all the princes, and all the people, which had entered into the covenant, heard that every one should let his manservant, and every one his maidservant, go free, that none should serve themselves of them any more, then they obeyed, and let them go. Jer 34:11 But afterward they turned, and caused the servants and the handmaids, whom they had let go free, to return, and brought them into subjection for servants and for handmaids. Jer 34:12 Therefore the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah from the LORD , saying, Jer 34:13 Thus saith the LORD , the God of Israel; I made a covenant with your fathers in the day that I brought
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them forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondmen, saying, Jer 34:14 ‘At the end of seven years let ye go every man his brother an Hebrew, which hath been sold unto thee; and when he hath served thee six years, thou shalt let him go free from thee:’ but your fathers hearkened not unto me, neither inclined their ear. Jer 34:15 And ye were now turned, and had done right in My sight, in proclaiming liberty every man to his neighbour; and ye had made a covenant before Me in the house which is called by My name: Jer 34:16 But ye turned and polluted My name, and caused every man his servant, and every man his handmaid, whom ye had set at liberty at their pleasure, to return, and brought them into subjection, to be unto you for servants and for handmaids.’ Jer 34:17 Therefore thus saith the LORD ; ‘Ye have not hearkened unto Me, in proclaiming liberty, every one to his brother, and every man to his neighbour: behold, I proclaim a liberty for you, saith the LORD , to the sword, to the pestilence, and to the famine; and I will make you to be removed into all the kingdoms of the earth. Jer 34:18 And I will give the men that have transgressed My covenant, which have not performed the words of the covenant which they had made before Me, when they cut the calf in twain, and passed between the parts thereof, Jer 34:19 The princes of Judah, and the princes of Jerusalem, the eunuchs, and the priests, and all the people of the land, which passed between the parts of the calf; Jer 34:20 I will even give them into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of them that seek their life: and their dead bodies shall be for meat unto the fowls of the heaven, and to the beasts of the earth. Jer 34:21 And Zedekiah king of Judah and his princes will I give into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of them that seek their life, and into the hand of the king of Babylon’s army, which are gone up from you. Jer 34:22 Behold, I will command, saith the LORD , ‘and cause them to return to this city; and they shall fight against it, and take it, and burn it with fire: and I will make the cities of Judah a desolation without an inhabitant.’”
Rechabites Claim to Be in Jerusalem to Try to Escape Nebuchadnezzar
The Rechabites were not Israelites, but were of the family of the Kenites/Cain. See I Chronicles 2:55.
Jer 35:1 The word which came unto Jeremiah from the LORD in the days of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, saying, Jer 35:2 “Go unto the house of the Rechabites, and speak unto them, and bring them into the house of the LORD , into one of the chambers, and give them wine to drink.” Jer 35:3 Then I took Jaazaniah the son of Jeremiah, the son of Habaziniah, and his brethren, and all his sons, and the whole house of the Rechabites; Jer 35:4 And I brought them into the house of the LORD , into the chamber of the sons of Hanan, the son of Igdaliah, a man of God, which was by the chamber of the princes, which was above the chamber of Maaseiah the son of Shallum, the keeper of the door: Jer 35:5 And I set before the sons of the house of the Rechabites pots full of wine, and cups, and I said unto them, “Drink ye wine.” Jer 35:6 But they said, “We will drink no wine: for Jonadab the son of Rechab our father commanded us, saying, ‘Ye shall drink no wine, neither ye, nor your sons for ever: Jer 35:7 Neither shall ye build house, nor sow seed, nor plant vineyard, nor have any: but all your days ye shall dwell in tents; that ye may live many days in the land where ye be strangers.’ Jer 35:8 Thus have we obeyed the voice of Jonadab the son of Rechab our father in all that he hath charged us, to drink no wine all our days, we, our wives, our sons, nor our daughters; Jer 35:9 Nor to build houses for us to dwell in: neither have we vineyard, nor field, nor seed: Jer 35:10 But we have dwelt in tents, and have obeyed, and done according to all that Jonadab our father
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commanded us. Jer 35:11 But it came to pass, when Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon came up into the land, that we said, ‘Come, and let us go to Jerusalem for fear of the army of the Chaldeans, and for fear of the army of the Syrians:’ so we dwell at Jerusalem.” Jer 35:12 Then came the word of the LORD unto Jeremiah, saying, Jer 35:13 “Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; ‘Go and tell the men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, ‘Will ye not receive instruction to hearken to My words? saith the LORD . Jer 35:14 The words of Jonadab the son of Rechab, that he commanded his sons not to drink wine, are performed; for unto this day they drink none, but obey their father’s commandment: notwithstanding I have spoken unto you, rising early and speaking; but ye hearkened not unto Me. Jer 35:15 I have sent also unto you all My servants the prophets, rising up early and sending them, saying, ‘Return ye now every man from his evil way, and amend your doings, and go not after other gods to serve them, and ye shall dwell in the land which I have given to you and to your fathers:’ but ye have not inclined your ear, nor hearkened unto Me. Jer 35:16 Because the sons of Jonadab the son of Rechab have performed the commandment of their father, which he commanded them; but this people hath not hearkened unto Me: Jer 35:17 Therefore thus saith the LORD God of hosts, the God of Israel; ‘Behold, I will bring upon Judah and upon all the inhabitants of Jerusalem all the evil that I have pronounced against them: because I have spoken unto them, but they have not heard; and I have called unto them, but they have not answered.’ ’” Jer 35:18 And Jeremiah said unto the house of the Rechabites, “Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; ‘Because ye have obeyed the commandment of Jonadab your father, and kept all his precepts, and done according unto all that he hath commanded you: Jer 35:19 Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Jonadab the son of Rechab shall not want a man to stand before Me for ever.’”
Prophecy of Jehoiakim’s Demise
Jer 36:28 “Take thee again another roll, and write in it all the former words that were in the first roll, which Jehoiakim the king of Judah hath burned. Jer 36:29 And thou shalt say to Jehoiakim king of Judah, ‘Thus saith the LORD ; ‘Thou hast burned this roll, saying, ‘Why hast thou written therein, saying, ‘The king of Babylon shall certainly come and destroy this land, and shall cause to cease from thence man and beast?’ ’ Jer 36:30 Therefore thus saith the LORD of Jehoiakim king of Judah; He shall have none to sit upon the throne of David: and his dead body shall be cast out in the day to the heat, and in the night to the frost. Jer 36:31 And I will punish him and his seed and his servants for their iniquity; and I will bring upon them, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and upon the men of Judah, all the evil that I have pronounced against them; but they hearkened not.’ ’” Jer 36:32 Then took Jeremiah another roll, and gave it to Baruch the scribe, the son of Neriah; who wrote therein from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the book which Jehoiakim king of Judah had burned in the fire: and there were added besides unto them many like words.
Zedekiah Secretly Asks Imprisoned Jeremiah to Enquire of Yahveh for Him
Jer 37:1 And king Zedekiah the son of Josiah reigned instead of Coniah the son of Jehoiakim, whom Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon made king in the land of Judah. Jer 37:2 But neither he, nor his servants, nor the people of the land, did hearken unto the words of the LORD , which He spake by the prophet Jeremiah. Jer 37:3 And Zedekiah the king sent Jehucal the son of Shelemiah and Zephaniah the son of Maaseiah the priest
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to the prophet Jeremiah, saying, “Pray now unto the LORD our God for us.” Jer 37:4 Now Jeremiah came in and went out among the people: for they had not put him into prison. Jer 37:5 Then Pharaoh’s army was come forth out of Egypt: and when the Chaldeans that besieged Jerusalem heard tidings of them, they departed from Jerusalem. Jer 37:6 Then came the word of the LORD unto the prophet Jeremiah, saying, Jer 37:7 “Thus saith the LORD , the God of Israel; ‘Thus shall ye say to the king of Judah, that sent you unto Me to enquire of Me; ‘Behold, Pharaoh’s army, which is come forth to help you, shall return to Egypt into their own land. Jer 37:8 And the Chaldeans shall come again, and fight against this city, and take it, and burn it with fire.’ ’ Jer 37:9 Thus saith the LORD ; Deceive not yourselves, saying, ‘The Chaldeans shall surely depart from us:’ for they shall not depart. Jer 37:10 For though ye had smitten the whole army of the Chaldeans that fight against you, and there remained but wounded men among them, yet should they rise up every man in his tent, and burn this city with fire.’” Jer 37:11 And it came to pass, that when the army of the Chaldeans was broken up from Jerusalem for fear of Pharaoh’s army, Jer 37:12 Then Jeremiah went forth out of Jerusalem to go into the land of Benjamin, to separate himself thence in the midst of the people. Jer 37:13 And when he was in the gate of Benjamin, a captain of the ward was there, whose name was Irijah, the son of Shelemiah, the son of Hananiah; and he took Jeremiah the prophet, saying, “Thou fallest away to the Chaldeans.” Jer 37:14 Then said Jeremiah, “It is false; I fall not away to the Chaldeans.” But he hearkened not to him: so Irijah took Jeremiah, and brought him to the princes. Jer 37:15 Wherefore the princes were wroth with Jeremiah, and smote him, and put him in prison in the house of Jonathan the scribe: for they had made that the prison. Jer 37:16 When Jeremiah was entered into the dungeon, and into the cabins, and Jeremiah had remained there many days; Jer 37:17 Then Zedekiah the king sent, and took him out: and the king asked him secretly in his house, and said, “Is there any word from the LORD ?” And Jeremiah said, “There is: for,” said He, “thou shalt be delivered into the hand of the king of Babylon.” Jer 37:18 Moreover Jeremiah said unto king Zedekiah, “What have I offended against thee, or against thy servants, or against this people, that ye have put me in prison? Jer 37:19 Where are now your prophets which prophesied unto you, saying, ‘The king of Babylon shall not come against you, nor against this land?’ Jer 37:20 Therefore hear now, I pray thee, O my lord the king: let my supplication, I pray thee, be accepted before thee; that thou cause me not to return to the house of Jonathan the scribe, lest I die there.” Jer 37:21 Then Zedekiah the king commanded that they should commit Jeremiah into the court of the prison, and that they should give him daily a piece of bread out of the bakers’ street, until all the bread in the city were spent. Thus Jeremiah remained in the court of the prison.
False Prophets Call for Jeremiah’s Death & Ebed-Melech Intervenes on His Behalf
Jer 38:1 Then Shephatiah the son of Mattan, and Gedaliah the son of Pashur, and Jucal the son of Shelemiah, and Pashur the son of Malchiah, heard the words that Jeremiah had spoken unto all the people, saying, Jer 38:2 “Thus saith the LORD , ‘He that remaineth in this city shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence: but he that goeth forth to the Chaldeans shall live; for he shall have his life for a prey, and shall live.’ Jer 38:3 Thus saith the LORD , ‘This city shall surely be given into the hand of the king of Babylon’s army, which shall take it.’” Jer 38:4 Therefore the princes said unto the king, “We beseech thee, let this man be put to death: for thus he
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weakeneth the hands of the men of war that remain in this city, and the hands of all the people, in speaking such words unto them: for this man seeketh not the welfare of this people, but the hurt.” Jer 38:5 Then Zedekiah the king said, “Behold, he is in your hand: for the king is not he that can do any thing against you.” Jer 38:6 Then took they Jeremiah, and cast him into the dungeon of Malchiah the son of Hammelech, that was in the court of the prison: and they let down Jeremiah with cords. And in the dungeon there was no water, but mire: so Jeremiah sunk in the mire. Jer 38:7 Now when Ebed-melech the Ethiopian, one of the eunuchs which was in the king’s house, heard that they had put Jeremiah in the dungeon; the king then sitting in the gate of Benjamin; Jer 38:8 Ebed-melech went forth out of the king’s house, and spake to the king, saying, Jer 38:9 “My lord the king, these men have done evil in all that they have done to Jeremiah the prophet, whom they have cast into the dungeon; and he is like to die for hunger in the place where he is: for there is no more bread in the city.” Jer 38:10 Then the king commanded Ebed-melech the Ethiopian, saying, “Take from hence thirty men with thee, and take up Jeremiah the prophet out of the dungeon, before he die.” Jer 38:11 So Ebed-melech took the men with him, and went into the house of the king under the treasury, and took thence old cast clouts and old rotten rags, and let them down by cords into the dungeon to Jeremiah. Jer 38:12 And Ebed-melech the Ethiopian said unto Jeremiah, “Put now these old cast clouts and rotten rags under thine armholes under the cords.” And Jeremiah did so. Jer 38:13 So they drew up Jeremiah with cords, and took him up out of the dungeon: and Jeremiah remained in the court of the prison. Jer 38:14 Then Zedekiah the king sent, and took Jeremiah the prophet unto him into the third entry that is in the house of the LORD : and the king said unto Jeremiah, “I will ask thee a thing; hide nothing from me.” Jer 38:15 Then Jeremiah said unto Zedekiah, “If I declare it unto thee, wilt thou not surely put me to death? and if I give thee counsel, wilt thou not hearken unto me?” Jer 38:16 So Zedekiah the king sware secretly unto Jeremiah, saying, “As the LORD liveth, That made us this soul, I will not put thee to death, neither will I give thee into the hand of these men that seek thy life.” Jer 38:17 Then said Jeremiah unto Zedekiah, “Thus saith the LORD , the God of hosts, the God of Israel; ‘If thou wilt assuredly go forth unto the king of Babylon’s princes, then thy soul shall live, and this city shall not be burned with fire; and thou shalt live, and thine house: Jer 38:18 But if thou wilt not go forth to the king of Babylon’s princes, then shall this city be given into the hand of the Chaldeans, and they shall burn it with fire, and thou shalt not escape out of their hand.’” Jer 38:19 And Zedekiah the king said unto Jeremiah, “I am afraid of the Jews that are fallen to the Chaldeans, lest they deliver me into their hand, and they mock me.” Jer 38:20 But Jeremiah said, “They shall not deliver thee. Obey, I beseech thee, the voice of the LORD , which I speak unto thee: so it shall be well unto thee, and thy soul shall live. Jer 38:21 But if thou refuse to go forth, this is the word that the LORD hath shewed me: Jer 38:22 And, behold, all the women that are left in the king of Judah’s house shall be brought forth to the king of Babylon’s princes, and those women shall say, ‘Thy friends have set thee on, and have prevailed against thee: thy feet are sunk in the mire, and they are turned away back.’ Jer 38:23 So they shall bring out all thy wives and thy children to the Chaldeans: and thou shalt not escape out of their hand, but shalt be taken by the hand of the king of Babylon: and thou shalt cause this city to be burned with fire.” Jer 38:24 Then said Zedekiah unto Jeremiah, “Let no man know of these words, and thou shalt not die. Jer 38:25 But if the princes hear that I have talked with thee, and they come unto thee, and say unto thee, ‘Declare unto us now what thou hast said unto the king, hide it not from us, and we will not put thee to death; also what the king said unto thee:’ Jer 38:26 Then thou shalt say unto them, ‘I presented my supplication before the king, that he would not cause me to return to Jonathan’s house, to die there.’”
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Jer 38:27 Then came all the princes unto Jeremiah, and asked him: and he told them according to all these words that the king had commanded. So they left off speaking with him; for the matter was not perceived. Jer 38:28 So Jeremiah abode in the court of the prison until the day that Jerusalem was taken: and he was there when Jerusalem was taken.
Nebuchadnezzar’s Final Siege Against Jerusalem
See II Kings 25 for the historical account of the final seige. Jer 39:1 In the ninth year of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the tenth month, came Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon and all his army against Jerusalem, and they besieged it. Jer 39:2 And in the eleventh year of Zedekiah, in the fourth month, the ninth day of the month, the city was broken up.’ Jer 39:3 And all the princes of the king of Babylon came in, and sat in the middle gate, even Nergal-sharezer, Samgar-nebo, Sarsechim, Rabsaris, Nergal-sharezer, Rab-mag, with all the residue of the princes of the king of Babylon. Jer 39:4 And it came to pass, that when Zedekiah the king of Judah saw them, and all the men of war, then they fled, and went forth out of the city by night, by the way of the king’s garden, by the gate betwixt the two walls: and he went out the way of the plain. Jer 39:5 But the Chaldeans’ army pursued after them, and overtook Zedekiah in the plains of Jericho: and when they had taken him, they brought him up to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon to Riblah in the land of Hamath, where he gave judgment upon him. Jer 39:6 Then the king of Babylon slew the sons of Zedekiah in Riblah before his eyes: also the king of Babylon slew all the nobles of Judah. Jer 39:7 Moreover he put out Zedekiah’s eyes, and bound him with chains, to carry him to Babylon. Jer 39:8 And the Chaldeans burned the king’s house, and the houses of the people, with fire, and brake down the walls of Jerusalem. Jer 39:9 Then Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard carried away captive into Babylon the remnant of the people that remained in the city, and those that fell away, that fell to him, with the rest of the people that remained. Jer 39:10 But Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard left of the poor of the people, which had nothing, in the land of Judah, and gave them vineyards and fields at the same time. Jer 39:11 Now Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon gave charge concerning Jeremiah to Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard, saying, Jer 39:12 “Take him, and look well to him, and do him no harm; but do unto him even as he shall say unto thee.” Jer 39:13 So Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard sent, and Nebushasban, Rab-saris, and Nergal-sharezer, Rabmag, and all the king of Babylon’s princes; Jer 39:14 Even they sent, and took Jeremiah out of the court of the prison, and committed him unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan, that he should carry him home: so he dwelt among the people. Jer 39:15 Now the word of the LORD came unto Jeremiah, while he was shut up in the court of the prison, saying, Jer 39:16 “Go and speak to Ebed-melech the Ethiopian, saying, ‘Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; ‘Behold, I will bring My words upon this city for evil, and not for good; and they shall be accomplished in that day before thee. Jer 39:17 But I will deliver thee in that day, saith the LORD : and thou shalt not be given into the hand of the men of whom thou art afraid. Jer 39:18 For I will surely deliver thee, and thou shalt not fall by the sword, but thy life shall be for a prey unto thee: because thou hast put thy trust in Me, saith the LORD .’ ’”
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Nebuzar-adan Gives Jeremiah His Freedom
Jer 40:1 The word that came to Jeremiah from the LORD , after that Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard had let him go from Ramah, when he had taken him being bound in chains among all that were carried away captive of Jerusalem and Judah, which were carried away captive unto Babylon. Jer 40:2 And the captain of the guard took Jeremiah, and said unto him, “The LORD thy God hath pronounced this evil upon this place. Jer 40:3 Now the LORD hath brought it, and done according as He hath said: because ye have sinned against the LORD , and have not obeyed His voice, therefore this thing is come upon you. Jer 40:4 And now, behold, I loose thee this day from the chains which were upon thine hand. If it seem good unto thee to come with me into Babylon, come; and I will look well unto thee: but if it seem ill unto thee to come with me into Babylon, forbear: behold, all the land is before thee: whither it seemeth good and convenient for thee to go, thither go.”
The King of Babylon Makes Gedaliah Governor Over Cities of Judah
Jer 40:5 Now while he was not yet gone back, he said, “Go back also to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan, whom the king of Babylon hath made governor over the cities of Judah, and dwell with him among the people: or go wheresoever it seemeth convenient unto thee to go.” So the captain of the guard gave him victuals and a reward, and let him go. Jer 40:6 Then went Jeremiah unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and dwelt with him among the people that were left in the land. Jer 40:7 Now when all the captains of the forces which were in the fields, even they and their men, heard that the king of Babylon had made Gedaliah the son of Ahikam governor in the land, and had committed unto him men, and women, and children, and of the poor of the land, of them that were not carried away captive to Babylon; Jer 40:8 Then they came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, even Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan and Jonathan the sons of Kareah, and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth, and the sons of Ephai the Netophathite, and Jezaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men. Jer 40:9 And Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan sware unto them and to their men, saying, “Fear not to serve the Chaldeans: dwell in the land, and serve the king of Babylon, and it shall be well with you. Jer 40:10 As for me, behold, I will dwell at Mizpah to serve the Chaldeans, which will come unto us: but ye, gather ye wine, and summer fruits, and oil, and put them in your vessels, and dwell in your cities that ye have taken.” Jer 40:11 Likewise when all the Jews that were in Moab, and among the Ammonites, and in Edom, and that were in all the countries, heard that the king of Babylon had left a remnant of Judah, and that he had set over them Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan; Jer 40:12 Even all the Jews returned out of all places whither they were driven, and came to the land of Judah, to Gedaliah, unto Mizpah, and gathered wine and summer fruits very much. Jer 40:13 Moreover Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that were in the fields, came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, Jer 40:14 And said unto him, “Dost thou certainly know that Baalis the king of the Ammonites hath sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to slay thee?” But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam believed them not. Jer 40:15 Then Johanan the son of Kareah spake to Gedaliah in Mizpah secretly, saying, “Let me go, I pray thee, and I will slay Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and no man shall know it: wherefore should he slay thee, that all the Jews which are gathered unto thee should be scattered, and the remnant in Judah perish?” Jer 40:16 But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam said unto Johanan the son of Kareah, “Thou shalt not do this thing: for
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thou speakest falsely of Ishmael.”
Ishmael Slays Gedaliah
See the end of II Kings 25 for the historical account.
Jer 41:1 Now it came to pass in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and the princes of the king, even ten men with him, came unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and there they did eat bread together in Mizpah. Jer 41:2 Then arose Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and the ten men that were with him, and smote Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan with the sword, and slew him, whom the king of Babylon had made governor over the land. Jer 41:3 Ishmael also slew all the Jews that were with him, even with Gedaliah, at Mizpah, and the Chaldeans that were found there, and the men of war. Jer 41:4 And it came to pass the second day after he had slain Gedaliah, and no man knew it, Jer 41:5 That there came certain from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria, even fourscore men, having their beards shaven, and their clothes rent, and having cut themselves, with offerings and incense in their hand, to bring them to the house of the LORD . Jer 41:6 And Ishmael the son of Nethaniah went forth from Mizpah to meet them, weeping all along as he went: and it came to pass, as he met them, he said unto them, “Come to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam.” Jer 41:7 And it was so, when they came into the midst of the city, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah slew them, and cast them into the midst of the pit, he, and the men that were with him. Jer 41:8 But ten men were found among them that said unto Ishmael, “Slay us not: for we have treasures in the field, of wheat, and of barley, and of oil, and of honey.” So he forbare, and slew them not among their brethren. Jer 41:9 Now the pit wherein Ishmael had cast all the dead bodies of the men, whom he had slain because of Gedaliah, was it which Asa the king had made for fear of Baasha king of Israel: and Ishmael the son of Nethaniah filled it with them that were slain. Jer 41:10 Then Ishmael carried away captive all the residue of the people that were in Mizpah, even the king’s daughters, and all the people that remained in Mizpah, whom Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard had committed to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam: and Ishmael the son of Nethaniah carried them away captive, and departed to go over to the Ammonites. Jer 41:11 But when Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that were with him, heard of all the evil that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah had done, Jer 41:12 Then they took all the men, and went to fight with Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and found him by the great waters that are in Gibeon. Jer 41:13 Now it came to pass, that when all the people which were with Ishmael saw Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that were with him, then they were glad. Jer 41:14 So all the people that Ishmael had carried away captive from Mizpah cast about and returned, and went unto Johanan the son of Kareah. Jer 41:15 But Ishmael the son of Nethaniah escaped from Johanan with eight men, and went to the Ammonites. Jer 41:16 Then took Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that were with him, all the remnant of the people whom he had recovered from Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, from Mizpah, after that he had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, even mighty men of war, and the women, and the children, and the eunuchs, whom he had brought again from Gibeon: Jer 41:17 And they departed, and dwelt in the habitation of Chimham, which is by Beth-lehem, to go to enter into Egypt, Jer 41:18 Because of the Chaldeans: for they were afraid of them, because Ishmael the son of Nethaniah had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, whom the king of Babylon made governor in the land.
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Jeremiah Warns Johanan and the People Not to Go to Egypt
Jer 42:7 And it came to pass after ten days, that the word of the LORD came unto Jeremiah. Jer 42:8 Then called he Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces which were with him, and all the people from the least even to the greatest, Jer 42:9 And said unto them, “Thus saith the LORD , the God of Israel, unto Whom ye sent me to present your supplication before Him; Jer 42:10 If ye will still abide in this land, then will I build you, and not pull you down, and I will plant you, and not pluck you up: for I repent Me of the evil that I have done unto you. Jer 42:11 Be not afraid of the king of Babylon, of whom ye are afraid; be not afraid of him, saith the LORD : for I am with you to save you, and to deliver you from his hand. Jer 42:12 And I will shew mercies unto you, that he may have mercy upon you, and cause you to return to your own land. Jer 42:13 But if ye say, ‘We will not dwell in this land, neither obey the voice of the LORD your God,’ Jer 42:14 Saying, ‘No; but we will go into the land of Egypt, where we shall see no war, nor hear the sound of the trumpet, nor have hunger of bread; and there will we dwell:’ Jer 42:15 And now therefore hear the word of the LORD , ye remnant of Judah; Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; If ye wholly set your faces to enter into Egypt, and go to sojourn there; Jer 42:16 Then it shall come to pass, that the sword, which ye feared, shall overtake you there in the land of Egypt, and the famine, whereof ye were afraid, shall follow close after you there in Egypt; and there ye shall die. Jer 42:17 So shall it be with all the men that set their faces to go into Egypt to sojourn there; they shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence: and none of them shall remain or escape from the evil that I will bring upon them.’ Jer 42:18 For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; ‘As Mine anger and My fury hath been poured forth upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem; so shall My fury be poured forth upon you, when ye shall enter into Egypt: and ye shall be an execration, and an astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach; and ye shall see this place no more.” Jer 42:19 The LORD hath said concerning you, “O ye remnant of Judah; Go ye not into Egypt:” know certainly that I have admonished you this day. Jer 42:20 For ye dissembled in your hearts, when ye sent me unto the LORD your God, saying, “Pray for us unto the LORD our God; and according unto all that the LORD our God shall say, so declare unto us, and we will do it.” Jer 42:21 And now I have this day declared it to you; but ye have not obeyed the voice of the LORD your God, nor any thing for the which He hath sent me unto you. Jer 42:22 Now therefore know certainly that ye shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence, in the place whither ye desire to go and to sojourn.
Azariah and Johanan Reject Jeremiah’s Prophecy from Yahveh and Go to Egypt
Jer 43:1 And it came to pass, that when Jeremiah had made an end of speaking unto all the people all the words of the LORD their God, for which the LORD their God had sent him to them, even all these words, Jer 43:2 Then spake Azariah the son of Hoshaiah, and Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the proud men, saying unto Jeremiah, “Thou speakest falsely: the LORD our God hath not sent thee to say, ‘Go not into Egypt to sojourn there:’ Jer 43:3 But Baruch the son of Neriah setteth thee on against us, for to deliver us into the hand of the Chaldeans, that they might put us to death, and carry us away captives into Babylon.” Jer 43:4 So Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces, and all the people, obeyed not the voice of the LORD , to dwell in the land of Judah.
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Jer 43:5 But Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces, took all the remnant of Judah, that were returned from all nations, whither they had been driven, to dwell in the land of Judah; Jer 43:6 Even men, and women, and children, and the king’s daughters, and every person that Nebu-zaradan the captain of the guard had left with Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan, and Jeremiah the prophet, and Baruch the son of Neriah. Jer 43:7 So they came into the land of Egypt: for they obeyed not the voice of the LORD : thus came they even to Tahpanhes. Jer 43:8 Then came the word of the LORD unto Jeremiah in Tahpanhes, saying, Jer 43:9 “Take great stones in thine hand, and hide them in the clay in the brickkiln, which is at the entry of Pharaoh’s house in Tahpanhes, in the sight of the men of Judah; Jer 43:10 And say unto them, ‘Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; ‘Behold, I will send and take Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon, My servant, and will set his throne upon these stones that I have hid; and he shall spread his royal pavilion over them. Jer 43:11 And when he cometh, he shall smite the land of Egypt, and deliver such as are for death to death; and such as are for captivity to captivity; and such as are for the sword to the sword. Jer 43:12 And I will kindle a fire in the houses of the gods of Egypt; and he shall burn them, and carry them away captives: and he shall array himself with the land of Egypt, as a shepherd putteth on his garment; and he shall go forth from thence in peace. Jer 43:13 He shall break also the images of Beth-shemesh, that is in the land of Egypt; and the houses of the gods of the Egyptians shall he burn with fire.
Jeremiah Prophesies Against Judahites Who Fled to Egypt
Jer 44:26 Therefore hear ye the word of the LORD , all Judah that dwell in the land of Egypt; “Behold, I have sworn by My great name, saith the LORD , that My name shall no more be named in the mouth of any man of Judah in all the land of Egypt, saying, ‘The Lord GOD liveth.’ Jer 44:27 Behold, I will watch over them for evil, and not for good: and all the men of Judah that are in the land of Egypt shall be consumed by the sword and by the famine, until there be an end of them. Jer 44:28 Yet a small number that escape the sword shall return out of the land of Egypt into the land of Judah, and all the remnant of Judah, that are gone into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, shall know whose words shall stand, Mine, or theirs. Jer 44:29 And this shall be a sign unto you, saith the LORD , that I will punish you in this place, that ye may know that My words shall surely stand against you for evil: Jer 44:30 Thus saith the LORD ; ‘Behold, I will give Pharaoh-hophra king of Egypt into the hand of his enemies, and into the hand of them that seek his life; as I gave Zedekiah king of Judah into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, his enemy, and that sought his life.’”
Jeremiah Prophesies Egypt’s Destruction at the Hands of Babylon
Jer 46:1 The word of the LORD which came to Jeremiah the prophet against the Gentiles; Jer 46:2 Against Egypt, against the army of Pharaoh-necho king of Egypt, which was by the river Euphrates in Carchemish, which Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon smote in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah. Jer 46:3 “Order ye the buckler and shield, and draw near to battle. Jer 46:4 Harness the horses; and get up, ye horsemen, and stand forth with your helmets; furbish the spears, and put on the brigandines. Jer 46:5 Wherefore have I seen them dismayed and turned away back? and their mighty ones are beaten down, and are fled apace, and look not back: for fear was round about, saith the LORD .
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Jer 46:6 Let not the swift flee away, nor the mighty man escape; they shall stumble, and fall toward the north by the river Euphrates. Jer 46:7 Who is this that cometh up as a flood, whose waters are moved as the rivers? Jer 46:8 Egypt riseth up like a flood, and his waters are moved like the rivers; and he saith, ‘I will go up, and will cover the earth; I will destroy the city and the inhabitants thereof.’ Jer 46:9 Come up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; and let the mighty men come forth; the Ethiopians and the Libyans, that handle the shield; and the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow. Jer 46:10 For this is the day of the Lord GOD of hosts, a day of vengeance, that He may avenge Him of His adversaries: and the sword shall devour, and it shall be satiate and made drunk with their blood: for the Lord GOD of hosts hath a sacrifice in the north country by the river Euphrates. Jer 46:11 Go up into Gilead, and take balm, O virgin, the daughter of Egypt: in vain shalt thou use many medicines; for thou shalt not be cured. Jer 46:12 The nations have heard of thy shame, and thy cry hath filled the land: for the mighty man hath stumbled against the mighty, and they are fallen both together.” Jer 46:13 The word that the LORD spake to Jeremiah the prophet, how Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon should come and smite the land of Egypt. Jer 46:14 “Declare ye in Egypt, and publish in Migdol, and publish in Noph and in Tahpanhes: say ye, ‘Stand fast, and prepare thee; for the sword shall devour round about thee. Jer 46:15 Why are thy valiant men swept away? they stood not, because the LORD did drive them. Jer 46:16 He made many to fall, yea, one fell upon another: and they said, ‘Arise, and let us go again to our own people, and to the land of our nativity, from the oppressing sword.’ Jer 46:17 They did cry there, Pharaoh king of Egypt is but a noise; he hath passed the time appointed. Jer 46:18 As I live, saith the King, Whose name is the LORD of hosts, Surely as Tabor is among the mountains, and as Carmel by the sea, so shall he come. Jer 46:19 O thou daughter dwelling in Egypt, furnish thyself to go into captivity: for Noph shall be waste and desolate without an inhabitant. Jer 46:20 Egypt is like a very fair heifer, but destruction cometh; it cometh out of the north. Jer 46:21 Also her hired men are in the midst of her like fatted bullocks; for they also are turned back, and are fled away together: they did not stand, because the day of their calamity was come upon them, and the time of their visitation. Jer 46:22 The voice thereof shall go like a serpent; for they shall march with an army, and come against her with axes, as hewers of wood. Jer 46:23 They shall cut down her forest, saith the LORD , though it cannot be searched; because they are more than the grasshoppers, and are innumerable. Jer 46:24 The daughter of Egypt shall be confounded; she shall be delivered into the hand of the people of the north.” Jer 46:25 The LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saith; “Behold, I will punish the multitude of No, and Pharaoh, and Egypt, with their gods, and their kings; even Pharaoh, and all them that trust in him: Jer 46:26 And I will deliver them into the hand of those that seek their lives, and into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of his servants: and afterward it shall be inhabited, as in the days of old,’ saith the LORD . Jer 46:27 But fear not thou, O My servant Jacob, and be not dismayed, O Israel: for, behold, I will save thee from afar off, and thy seed from the land of their captivity; and Jacob shall return, and be in rest and at ease, and none shall make him afraid. Jer 46:28 Fear thou not, O Jacob My servant, saith the LORD : for I am with thee; for I will make a full end of all the nations whither I have driven thee: but I will not make a full end of thee, but correct thee in measure; yet will I not leave thee wholly unpunished.”
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Jeremiah Prophesies the Destruction of Kedar and the Kingdoms of Hazor at Nebuchadnezzar’s Hand
Jer 49:28 Concerning Kedar, and concerning the kingdoms of Hazor, which Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon shall smite, thus saith the LORD ; “Arise ye, go up to Kedar, and spoil the men of the east. Jer 49:29 Their tents and their flocks shall they take away: they shall take to themselves their curtains, and all their vessels, and their camels; and they shall cry unto them, ‘Fear is on every side.’ Jer 49:30 Flee, get you far off, dwell deep, O ye inhabitants of Hazor, saith the LORD ; for Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath taken counsel against you, and hath conceived a purpose against you. Jer 49:31 Arise, get you up unto the wealthy nation, that dwelleth without care, saith the LORD , “which have neither gates nor bars, which dwell alone. Jer 49:32 And their camels shall be a booty, and the multitude of their cattle a spoil: and I will scatter into all winds them that are in the utmost corners; and I will bring their calamity from all sides thereof, saith the LORD . Jer 49:33 And Hazor shall be a dwelling for dragons, and a desolation for ever: there shall no man abide there, nor any son of man dwell in it.”
Babylon’s Turn for Destruction
Jer 50:1 The word that the LORD spake against Babylon and against the land of the Chaldeans by Jeremiah the prophet. Jer 50:2 “Declare ye among the nations, and publish, and set up a standard; publish, and conceal not: say, ‘Babylon is taken, Bel is confounded, Merodach is broken in pieces; her idols are confounded, her images are broken in pieces. Jer 50:3 For out of the north there cometh up a nation against her, which shall make her land desolate, and none shall dwell therein: they shall remove, they shall depart, both man and beast.’ Jer 50:4 In those days, and in that time, saith the LORD , the children of Israel shall come, they and the children of Judah together, going and weeping: they shall go, and seek the LORD their God. Jer 50:5 They shall ask the way to Zion with their faces thitherward, saying, ‘Come, and let us join ourselves to the LORD in a perpetual covenant that shall not be forgotten.’ Jer 50:6 My people hath been lost sheep: their shepherds have caused them to go astray, they have turned them away on the mountains: they have gone from mountain to hill, they have forgotten their restingplace. Jer 50:7 All that found them have devoured them: and their adversaries said, ‘We offend not, because they have sinned against the LORD , the habitation of justice, even the LORD , the Hope of their fathers.’ Jer 50:8 Remove out of the midst of Babylon, and go forth out of the land of the Chaldeans, and be as the he goats before the flocks. Jer 50:9 For, lo, I will raise and cause to come up against Babylon an assembly of great nations from the north country: and they shall set themselves in array against her; from thence she shall be taken: their arrows shall be as of a mighty expert man; none shall return in vain. Jer 50:10 And Chaldea shall be a spoil: all that spoil her shall be satisfied, saith the LORD . Jer 50:11 Because ye were glad, because ye rejoiced, O ye destroyers of Mine heritage, because ye are grown fat as the heifer at grass, and bellow as bulls; Jer 50:12 Your mother shall be sore confounded; she that bare you shall be ashamed: behold, the hindermost of the nations shall be a wilderness, a dry land, and a desert. Jer 50:13 Because of the wrath of the LORD it shall not be inhabited, but it shall be wholly desolate: every one that goeth by Babylon shall be astonished, and hiss at all her plagues. Jer 50:14 Put yourselves in array against Babylon round about: all ye that bend the bow, shoot at her, spare no arrows: for she hath sinned against the LORD . Jer 50:15 Shout against her round about: she hath given her hand: her foundations are fallen, her walls are
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thrown down: for it is the vengeance of the LORD : take vengeance upon her; as she hath done, do unto her. Jer 50:16 Cut off the sower from Babylon, and him that handleth the sickle in the time of harvest: for fear of the oppressing sword they shall turn every one to his people, and they shall flee every one to his own land. Jer 50:17 Israel is a scattered sheep; the lions have driven him away: first the king of Assyria hath devoured him; and last this Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath broken his bones.” Jer 50:18 Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; “Behold, I will punish the king of Babylon and his land, as I have punished the king of Assyria. Jer 50:19 And I will bring Israel again to his habitation, and he shall feed on Carmel and Bashan, and his soul shall be satisfied upon mount Ephraim and Gilead.’ Jer 50:20 In those days, and in that time, saith the LORD , the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be none; and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found: for I will pardon them whom I reserve. Jer 50:21 Go up against the land of Merathaim, even against it, and against the inhabitants of Pekod: waste and utterly destroy after them, saith the LORD , and do according to all that I have commanded thee. Jer 50:22 A sound of battle is in the land, and of great destruction. Jer 50:23 How is the hammer of the whole earth cut asunder and broken! how is Babylon become a desolation among the nations! Jer 50:24 I have laid a snare for thee, and thou art also taken, O Babylon, and thou wast not aware: thou art found, and also caught, because thou hast striven against the LORD . Jer 50:25 The LORD hath opened His armoury, and hath brought forth the weapons of His indignation: for this is the work of the Lord GOD of hosts in the land of the Chaldeans. Jer 50:26 Come against her from the utmost border, open her storehouses: cast her up as heaps, and destroy her utterly: let nothing of her be left. Jer 50:27 Slay all her bullocks; let them go down to the slaughter: woe unto them! for their day is come, the time of their visitation. Jer 50:28 The voice of them that flee and escape out of the land of Babylon, to declare in Zion the vengeance of the LORD our God, the vengeance of His temple. Jer 50:29 Call together the archers against Babylon: all ye that bend the bow, camp against it round about; let none thereof escape: recompense her according to her work; according to all that she hath done, do unto her: for she hath been proud against the LORD , against the Holy One of Israel. Jer 50:30 Therefore shall her young men fall in the streets, and all her men of war shall be cut off in that day, saith the LORD . Jer 50:31 Behold, I am against thee, O thou most proud, saith the Lord GOD of hosts: for thy day is come, the time that I will visit thee. Jer 50:32 And the most proud shall stumble and fall, and none shall raise him up: and I will kindle a fire in his cities, and it shall devour all round about him.” Jer 50:33 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; “The children of Israel and the children of Judah were oppressed together: and all that took them captives held them fast; they refused to let them go. Jer 50:34 Their Redeemer is strong; the LORD of hosts is His name: He shall throughly plead their cause, that He may give rest to the land, and disquiet the inhabitants of Babylon. Jer 50:35 A sword is upon the Chaldeans, saith the LORD , and upon the inhabitants of Babylon, and upon her princes, and upon her wise men. Jer 50:36 A sword is upon the liars; and they shall dote: a sword is upon her mighty men; and they shall be dismayed. Jer 50:37 A sword is upon their horses, and upon their chariots, and upon all the mingled people that are in the midst of her; and they shall become as women: a sword is upon her treasures; and they shall be robbed. Jer 50:38 A drought is upon her waters; and they shall be dried up: for it is the land of graven images, and they are mad upon their idols. Jer 50:39 Therefore the wild beasts of the desert with the wild beasts of the islands shall dwell there, and the owls shall dwell therein: and it shall be no more inhabited for ever; neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to
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generation. Jer 50:40 As God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighbour cities thereof, saith the LORD ; so shall no man abide there, neither shall any son of man dwell therein. Jer 50:41 Behold, a people shall come from the north, and a great nation, and many kings shall be raised up from the coasts of the earth. Jer 50:42 They shall hold the bow and the lance: they are cruel, and will not shew mercy: their voice shall roar like the sea, and they shall ride upon horses, every one put in array, like a man to the battle, against thee, O daughter of Babylon. Jer 50:43 The king of Babylon hath heard the report of them, and his hands waxed feeble: anguish took hold of him, and pangs as of a woman in travail. Jer 50:44 Behold, he shall come up like a lion from the swelling of Jordan unto the habitation of the strong: but I will make them suddenly run away from her: and who is a chosen man, that I may appoint over her? for who is like Me? and who will appoint Me the time? and who is that shepherd that will stand before Me? Jer 50:45 Therefore hear ye the counsel of the LORD , that He hath taken against Babylon; and His purposes, that He hath purposed against the land of the Chaldeans: Surely the least of the flock shall draw them out: surely He shall make their habitation desolate with them. Jer 50:46 At the noise of the taking of Babylon the earth is moved, and the cry is heard among the nations.”
More on Babylon’s Destruction
“Babylon is fallen . . .” (verse 9) is a phrase that first occurs in Isaiah 21:19 and is repeated in Jeremiah 51:8, Revelation 14:8, and Revelation 18:2. The historical conquering of Babylon by the Persians and Medes is thus connected as a type with the death of the one-world Babylon of Revelation.
Jer 51:1 Thus saith the LORD ; “Behold, I will raise up against Babylon, and against them that dwell in the midst of them that rise up against Me, a destroying wind; Jer 51:2 And will send unto Babylon fanners, that shall fan her, and shall empty her land: for in the day of trouble they shall be against her round about. Jer 51:3 Against him that bendeth let the archer bend his bow, and against him that lifteth himself up in his brigandine: and spare ye not her young men; destroy ye utterly all her host. Jer 51:4 Thus the slain shall fall in the land of the Chaldeans, and they that are thrust through in her streets. Jer 51:5 For Israel hath not been forsaken, nor Judah of his God, of the LORD of hosts; though their land was filled with sin against the Holy One of Israel. Jer 51:6 Flee out of the midst of Babylon, and deliver every man his soul: be not cut off in her iniquity; for this is the time of the LORD ’s vengeance; He will render unto her a recompence. Jer 51:7 Babylon hath been a golden cup in the LORD ’s hand, that made all the earth drunken: the nations have drunken of her wine; therefore the nations are mad. Jer 51:8 Babylon is suddenly fallen and destroyed: howl for her; take balm for her pain, if so be she may be healed. Jer 51:9 We would have healed Babylon, but she is not healed: forsake her, and let us go every one into his own country: for her judgment reacheth unto heaven, and is lifted up even to the skies. Jer 51:10 The LORD hath brought forth our righteousness: come, and let us declare in Zion the work of the LORD our God. Jer 51:11 Make bright the arrows; gather the shields: the LORD hath raised up the spirit of the kings of the Medes: for His device is against Babylon, to destroy it; because it is the vengeance of the LORD , the vengeance of His temple. Jer 51:12 Set up the standard upon the walls of Babylon, make the watch strong, set up the watchmen, prepare the ambushes: for the LORD hath both devised and done that which He spake against the inhabitants of Babylon.
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Jer 51:13 O thou that dwellest upon many waters, abundant in treasures, thine end is come, and the measure of thy covetousness. Jer 51:14 The LORD of hosts hath sworn by Himself, saying, “Surely I will fill thee with men, as with caterpillers; and they shall lift up a shout against thee.” Jer 51:15 He hath made the earth by His power, He hath established the world by His wisdom, and hath stretched out the heaven by His understanding. Jer 51:16 When He uttereth His voice, there is a multitude of waters in the heavens; and He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth: He maketh lightnings with rain, and bringeth forth the wind out of His treasures. Jer 51:17 Every man is brutish by his knowledge; every founder is confounded by the graven image: for his molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them. Jer 51:18 They are vanity, the work of errors: in the time of their visitation they shall perish. Jer 51:19 The portion of Jacob is not like them; for He is the Former of all things: and Israel is the rod of His inheritance: the LORD of hosts is His name. Jer 51:20 “Thou art my battle axe and weapons of war: for with thee will I break in pieces the nations, and with thee will I destroy kingdoms; Jer 51:21 And with thee will I break in pieces the horse and his rider; and with thee will I break in pieces the chariot and his rider; Jer 51:22 With thee also will I break in pieces man and woman; and with thee will I break in pieces old and young; and with thee will I break in pieces the young man and the maid; Jer 51:23 I will also break in pieces with thee the shepherd and his flock; and with thee will I break in pieces the husbandman and his yoke of oxen; and with thee will I break in pieces captains and rulers. Jer 51:24 And I will render unto Babylon and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea all their evil that they have done in Zion in your sight, saith the LORD . Jer 51:25 Behold, I am against thee, O destroying mountain, saith the LORD , which destroyest all the earth: and I will stretch out Mine hand upon thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt mountain. Jer 51:26 And they shall not take of thee a stone for a corner, nor a stone for foundations; but thou shalt be desolate for ever, saith the LORD .” Jer 51:27 Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers. Jer 51:28 Prepare against her the nations with the kings of the Medes, the captains thereof, and all the rulers thereof, and all the land of his dominion. Jer 51:29 And the land shall tremble and sorrow: for every purpose of the LORD shall be performed against Babylon, to make the land of Babylon a desolation without an inhabitant. Jer 51:30 The mighty men of Babylon have forborn to fight, they have remained in their holds: their might hath failed; they became as women: they have burned her dwellingplaces; her bars are broken. Jer 51:31 One post shall run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another, to shew the king of Babylon that his city is taken at one end, Jer 51:32 And that the passages are stopped, and the reeds they have burned with fire, and the men of war are affrighted. Jer 51:33 For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; “The daughter of Babylon is like a threshingfloor, it is time to thresh her: yet a little while, and the time of her harvest shall come.” Jer 51:34 Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon hath devoured me, he hath crushed me, he hath made me an empty vessel, he hath swallowed me up like a dragon, he hath filled his belly with my delicates, he hath cast me out. Jer 51:35 ‘The violence done to me and to my flesh be upon Babylon,’ shall the inhabitant of Zion say; ‘and my blood upon the inhabitants of Chaldea,’ shall Jerusalem say. Jer 51:36 Therefore thus saith the LORD ; Behold, I will plead thy cause, and take vengeance for thee; and I will
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dry up her sea, and make her springs dry. Jer 51:37 And Babylon shall become heaps, a dwellingplace for dragons, an astonishment, and an hissing, without an inhabitant. Jer 51:38 They shall roar together like lions: they shall yell as lions’ whelps. Jer 51:39 In their heat I will make their feasts, and I will make them drunken, that they may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake, saith the LORD . Jer 51:40 I will bring them down like lambs to the slaughter, like rams with he goats. Jer 51:41 How is Sheshach taken! and how is the praise of the whole earth surprised! how is Babylon become an astonishment among the nations! Jer 51:42 The sea is come up upon Babylon: she is covered with the multitude of the waves thereof. Jer 51:43 Her cities are a desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness, a land wherein no man dwelleth, neither doth any son of man pass thereby. Jer 51:44 And I will punish Bel in Babylon, and I will bring forth out of his mouth that which he hath swallowed up: and the nations shall not flow together any more unto him: yea, the wall of Babylon shall fall. Jer 51:45 My people, go ye out of the midst of her, and deliver ye every man his soul from the fierce anger of the LORD . Jer 51:46 And lest your heart faint, and ye fear for the rumour that shall be heard in the land; a rumour shall both come one year, and after that in another year shall come a rumour, and violence in the land, ruler against ruler. Jer 51:47 Therefore, behold, the days come, that I will do judgment upon the graven images of Babylon: and her whole land shall be confounded, and all her slain shall fall in the midst of her. Jer 51:48 Then the heaven and the earth, and all that is therein, shall sing for Babylon: for the spoilers shall come unto her from the north,” saith the LORD . Jer 51:49 As Babylon hath caused the slain of Israel to fall, so at Babylon shall fall the slain of all the earth. Jer 51:50 Ye that have escaped the sword, go away, stand not still: remember the LORD afar off, and let Jerusalem come into your mind.” Jer 51:51 We are confounded, because we have heard reproach: shame hath covered our faces: for strangers are come into the sanctuaries of the LORD ’s house. Jer 51:52 “Wherefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD , that I will do judgment upon her graven images: and through all her land the wounded shall groan. Jer 51:53 Though Babylon should mount up to heaven, and though she should fortify the height of her strength, yet from Me shall spoilers come unto her, saith the LORD .” Jer 51:54 A sound of a cry cometh from Babylon, and great destruction from the land of the Chaldeans: Jer 51:55 Because the LORD hath spoiled Babylon, and destroyed out of her the great voice; when her waves do roar like great waters, a noise of their voice is uttered: Jer 51:56 Because the spoiler is come upon her, even upon Babylon, and her mighty men are taken, every one of their bows is broken: for the LORD GOD of recompences shall surely requite. Jer 51:57 And I will make drunk her princes, and her wise men, her captains, and her rulers, and her mighty men: and they shall sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake, saith the King, Whose name is the LORD of hosts. Jer 51:58 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; “The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken, and her high gates shall be burned with fire; and the people shall labour in vain, and the folk in the fire, and they shall be weary.” Jer 51:59 The word which Jeremiah the prophet commanded Seraiah the son of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah, when he went with Zedekiah the king of Judah into Babylon in the fourth year of his reign. And this Seraiah was a quiet prince. Jer 51:60 So Jeremiah wrote in a book all the evil that should come upon Babylon, even all these words that are written against Babylon. Jer 51:61 And Jeremiah said to Seraiah, “When thou comest to Babylon, and shalt see, and shalt read all these words; Jer 51:62 Then shalt thou say, ‘O LORD , Thou hast spoken against this place, to cut it off, that none shall remain
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in it, neither man nor beast, but that it shall be desolate for ever.’ Jer 51:63 And it shall be, when thou hast made an end of reading this book, that thou shalt bind a stone to it, and cast it into the midst of Euphrates:’ Jer 51:64 And thou shalt say, ‘Thus shall Babylon sink, and shall not rise from the evil that I will bring upon her: and they shall be weary.’” Thus far are the words of Jeremiah.
Recap of the Destruction of Jerusalem at Babylon’s Hand
Jer 52:1 Zedekiah was one and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. Jer 52:2 And he did that which was evil in the eyes of the LORD , according to all that Jehoiakim had done. Jer 52:3 For through the anger of the LORD it came to pass in Jerusalem and Judah, till He had cast them out from His presence, that Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon. Jer 52:4 And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, and pitched against it, and built forts against it round about. Jer 52:5 So the city was besieged unto the eleventh year of king Zedekiah. Jer 52:6 And in the fourth month, in the ninth day of the month, the famine was sore in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the land. Jer 52:7 Then the city was broken up, and all the men of war fled, and went forth out of the city by night by the way of the gate between the two walls, which was by the king’s garden; (now the Chaldeans were by the city round about:) and they went by the way of the plain. Jer 52:8 But the army of the Chaldeans pursued after the king, and overtook Zedekiah in the plains of Jericho; and all his army was scattered from him. Jer 52:9 Then they took the king, and carried him up unto the king of Babylon to Riblah in the land of Hamath; where he gave judgment upon him. Jer 52:10 And the king of Babylon slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes: he slew also all the princes of Judah in Riblah. Jer 52:11 Then he put out the eyes of Zedekiah; and the king of Babylon bound him in chains, and carried him to Babylon, and put him in prison till the day of his death. Jer 52:12 Now in the fifth month, in the tenth day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, came Nebuzar-adan, captain of the guard, which served the king of Babylon, into Jerusalem, Jer 52:13 And burned the house of the LORD , and the king’s house; and all the houses of Jerusalem, and all the houses of the great men, burned he with fire: Jer 52:14 And all the army of the Chaldeans, that were with the captain of the guard, brake down all the walls of Jerusalem round about. Jer 52:15 Then Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard carried away captive certain of the poor of the people, and the residue of the people that remained in the city, and those that fell away, that fell to the king of Babylon, and the rest of the multitude. Jer 52:16 But Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard left certain of the poor of the land for vinedressers and for husbandmen. Jer 52:17 Also the pillars of brass that were in the house of the LORD , and the bases, and the brasen sea that was in the house of the LORD , the Chaldeans brake, and carried all the brass of them to Babylon. Jer 52:18 The caldrons also, and the shovels, and the snuffers, and the bowls, and the spoons, and all the vessels of brass wherewith they ministered, took they away. Jer 52:19 And the basons, and the firepans, and the bowls, and the caldrons, and the candlesticks, and the spoons, and the cups; that which was of gold in gold, and that which was of silver in silver, took the captain of
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the guard away. Jer 52:20 The two pillars, one sea, and twelve brasen bulls that were under the bases, which king Solomon had made in the house of the LORD : the brass of all these vessels was without weight. Jer 52:21 And concerning the pillars, the height of one pillar was eighteen cubits; and a fillet of twelve cubits did compass it; and the thickness thereof was four fingers: it was hollow. Jer 52:22 And a chapiter of brass was upon it; and the height of one chapiter was five cubits, with network and pomegranates upon the chapiters round about, all of brass. The second pillar also and the pomegranates were like unto these. Jer 52:23 And there were ninety and six pomegranates on a side; and all the pomegranates upon the network were an hundred round about. Jer 52:24 And the captain of the guard took Seraiah the chief priest, and Zephaniah the second priest, and the three keepers of the door: Jer 52:25 He took also out of the city an eunuch, which had the charge of the men of war; and seven men of them that were near the king’s person, which were found in the city; and the principal scribe of the host, who mustered the people of the land; and threescore men of the people of the land, that were found in the midst of the city. Jer 52:26 So Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard took them, and brought them to the king of Babylon to Riblah. Jer 52:27 And the king of Babylon smote them, and put them to death in Riblah in the land of Hamath. Thus Judah was carried away captive out of his own land. Jer 52:28 This is the people whom Nebuchadrezzar carried away captive: in the seventh year three thousand Jews and three and twenty: Jer 52:29 In the eighteenth year of Nebuchadrezzar he carried away captive from Jerusalem eight hundred thirty and two persons: Jer 52:30 In the three and twentieth year of Nebuchadrezzar Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard carried away captive of the Jews seven hundred forty and five persons: all the persons were four thousand and six hundred. Jer 52:31 And it came to pass in the seven and thirtieth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, in the five and twentieth day of the month, that Evil-merodach king of Babylon in the first year of his reign lifted up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah, and brought him forth out of prison, Jer 52:32 And spake kindly unto him, and set his throne above the throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon, Jer 52:33 And changed his prison garments: and he did continually eat bread before him all the days of his life. Jer 52:34 And for his diet, there was a continual diet given him of the king of Babylon, every day a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life.
The book of Lamentations, written by Jeremiah, indirectly concerns Babylon in that it mourns the destruction of Jerusalem at the enemy’s hand. It is not included in this study.
Ezekiel’s primary purpose was not prophecy to Judah regarding Babylon, but Yahveh saw fit to deliver through him a number of warnings to Judah and to the nations. His prophecies should be compared to those in Jeremiah for a more enriching study. It should not be missed, either, that Ezekiel was sitting among the captives in Babylon when he saw the vision of the wheels.
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Ezekiel Among the Captives in Babylon When He Saw the Vision of the Wheels
Eze 1:1 Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I was among the captives by the river of Chebar, that the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God. Eze 1:2 In the fifth day of the month, which was the fifth year of king Jehoiachin’s captivity, Eze 1:3 The word of the LORD came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and the hand of the LORD was there upon him. Eze 1:4 And I looked, and, behold, a whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire infolding itself, and a brightness was about it, and out of the midst thereof as the colour of amber, out of the midst of the fire.
Eze 12:13 My net also will I spread upon him, and he shall be taken in My snare: and I will bring him to Babylon to the land of the Chaldeans; yet shall he not see it, though he shall die there. Eze 12:14 And I will scatter toward every wind all that are about him to help him, and all his bands; and I will draw out the sword after them. Eze 12:15 And they shall know that I am the LORD , when I shall scatter them among the nations, and disperse them in the countries. Eze 12:16 But I will leave a few men of them from the sword, from the famine, and from the pestilence; that they may declare all their abominations among the heathen whither they come; and they shall know that I am the LORD .’” Eze 12:17 Moreover the word of the LORD came to me, saying, Eze 12:18 “Son of man, eat thy bread with quaking, and drink thy water with trembling and with carefulness; Eze 12:19 And say unto the people of the land, ‘Thus saith the Lord GOD of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and of the land of Israel; ‘They shall eat their bread with carefulness, and drink their water with astonishment, that her land may be desolate from all that is therein, because of the violence of all them that dwell therein. Eze 12:20 And the cities that are inhabited shall be laid waste, and the land shall be desolate; and ye shall know that I am the LORD .
Parable Concerning Babylon
Eze 17:1 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Eze 17:2 “Son of man, put forth a riddle, and speak a parable unto the house of Israel; Eze 17:3 And say, ‘Thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘A great eagle with great wings, longwinged, full of feathers, which had divers colours, came unto Lebanon, and took the highest branch of the cedar: Eze 17:4 He cropped off the top of his young twigs, and carried it into a land of traffick; he set it in a city of merchants. Eze 17:5 He took also of the seed of the land, and planted it in a fruitful field; he placed it by great waters, and set it as a willow tree. Eze 17:6 And it grew, and became a spreading vine of low stature, whose branches turned toward him, and the roots thereof were under him: so it became a vine, and brought forth branches, and shot forth sprigs. Eze 17:7 There was also another great eagle with great wings and many feathers: and, behold, this vine did bend her roots toward him, and shot forth her branches toward him, that he might water it by the furrows of her plantation. Eze 17:8 It was planted in a good soil by great waters, that it might bring forth branches, and that it might bear fruit, that it might be a goodly vine.’ ’ Eze 17:9 Say thou, Thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘Shall it prosper?’ shall He not pull up the roots thereof, and cut off the fruit thereof, that it wither? it shall wither in all the leaves of her spring, even without great power or many
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people to pluck it up by the roots thereof. Eze 17:10 Yea, behold, being planted, shall it prosper? shall it not utterly wither, when the east wind toucheth it? it shall wither in the furrows where it grew.’ ’ ’ Eze 17:11 Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Eze 17:12 “Say now to the rebellious house, ‘Know ye not what these things mean?’’ tell them, Behold, the king of Babylon is come to Jerusalem, and hath taken the king thereof, and the princes thereof, and led them with him to Babylon; Eze 17:13 And hath taken of the king’s seed, and made a covenant with him, and hath taken an oath of him: he hath also taken the mighty of the land: Eze 17:14 That the kingdom might be base, that it might not lift itself up, but that by keeping of his covenant it might stand. Eze 17:15 But he rebelled against him in sending his ambassadors into Egypt, that they might give him horses and much people. Shall he prosper? shall he escape that doeth such things? or shall he break the covenant, and be delivered? Eze 17:16 As I live, saith the Lord GOD , surely in the place where the king dwelleth that made him king, whose oath he despised, and whose covenant he brake, even with him in the midst of Babylon he shall die. Eze 17:17 Neither shall Pharaoh with his mighty army and great company make for him in the war, by casting up mounts, and building forts, to cut off many persons: Eze 17:18 Seeing he despised the oath by breaking the covenant, when, lo, he had given his hand, and hath done all these things, he shall not escape. Eze 17:19 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD ; As I live, surely Mine oath that He hath despised, and My covenant that he hath broken, even it will I recompense upon his own head. Eze 17:20 And I will spread My net upon him, and he shall be taken in My snare, and I will bring him to Babylon, and will plead with him there for his trespass that he hath trespassed against Me. Eze 17:21 And all his fugitives with all his bands shall fall by the sword, and they that remain shall be scattered toward all winds: and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken it.’ Eze 17:22 Thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘I will also take of the highest branch of the high cedar, and will set it; I will crop off from the top of his young twigs a tender one, and will plant it upon an high mountain and eminent: Eze 17:23 In the mountain of the height of Israel will I plant it: and it shall bring forth boughs, and bear fruit, and be a goodly cedar: and under it shall dwell all fowl of every wing; in the shadow of the branches thereof shall they dwell. Eze 17:24 And all the trees of the field shall know that I the LORD have brought down the high tree, have exalted the low tree, have dried up the green tree, and have made the dry tree to flourish: I the LORD have spoken and have done it.’”
Lamentation for the Princes of Israel
Eze 19:1 Moreover take thou up a lamentation for the princes of Israel, Eze 19:2 And say, ‘What is thy mother? A lioness: she lay down among lions, she nourished her whelps among young lions. Eze 19:3 And she brought up one of her whelps: it became a young lion, and it learned to catch the prey; it devoured men. Eze 19:4 The nations also heard of him; he was taken in their pit, and they brought him with chains unto the land of Egypt. Eze 19:5 Now when she saw that she had waited, and her hope was lost, then she took another of her whelps, and made him a young lion. Eze 19:6 And he went up and down among the lions, he became a young lion, and learned to catch the prey, and devoured men.
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Eze 19:7 And he knew their desolate palaces, and he laid waste their cities; and the land was desolate, and the fulness thereof, by the noise of his roaring. Eze 19:8 Then the nations set against him on every side from the provinces, and spread their net over him: he was taken in their pit. Eze 19:9 And they put him in ward in chains, and brought him to the king of Babylon: they brought him into holds, that his voice should no more be heard upon the mountains of Israel. Eze 19:10 Thy mother is like a vine in thy blood, planted by the waters: she was fruitful and full of branches by reason of many waters. Eze 19:11 And she had strong rods for the sceptres of them that bare rule, and her stature was exalted among the thick branches, and she appeared in her height with the multitude of her branches. Eze 19:12 But she was plucked up in fury, she was cast down to the ground, and the east wind dried up her fruit: her strong rods were broken and withered; the fire consumed them. Eze 19:13 And now she is planted in the wilderness, in a dry and thirsty ground. Eze 19:14 And fire is gone out of a rod of her branches, which hath devoured her fruit, so that she hath no strong rod to be a sceptre to rule. This is a lamentation, and shall be for a lamentation.’”
Prophecy Against Zedekiah
Eze 21:18 The word of the LORD came unto me again, saying, Eze 21:19 “Also, thou son of man, appoint thee two ways, that the sword of the king of Babylon may come: both twain shall come forth out of one land: and choose thou a place, choose it at the head of the way to the city. Eze 21:20 Appoint a way, that the sword may come to Rabbath of the Ammonites, and to Judah in Jerusalem the defenced. Eze 21:21 For the king of Babylon stood at the parting of the way, at the head of the two ways, to use divination: he made his arrows bright, he consulted with images, he looked in the liver. Eze 21:22 At his right hand was the divination for Jerusalem, to appoint captains, to open the mouth in the slaughter, to lift up the voice with shouting, to appoint battering rams against the gates, to cast a mount, and to build a fort. Eze 21:23 And it shall be unto them as a false divination in their sight, to them that have sworn oaths: but He will call to remembrance the iniquity, that they may be taken. Eze 21:24 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD ; “Because ye have made your iniquity to be remembered, in that your transgressions are discovered, so that in all your doings your sins do appear; because, I say, that ye are come to remembrance, ye shall be taken with the hand. Eze 21:25 And thou, profane wicked prince of Israel, whose day is come, when iniquity shall have an end,” Eze 21:26 Thus saith the Lord GOD ; “Remove the diadem, and take off the crown: this shall not be the same: exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high.
Aholah and Aholibah (Or, Israel and Judah)
Eze 23:1 The word of the LORD came again unto me, saying, Eze 23:2 “Son of man, there were two women, the daughters of one mother: Eze 23:3 And they committed whoredoms in Egypt; they committed whoredoms in their youth: there were their breasts pressed, and there they bruised the teats of their virginity. Eze 23:4 And the names of them were Aholah the elder, and Aholibah her sister: and they were mine, and they bare sons and daughters. Thus were their names; Samaria is Aholah, and Jerusalem Aholibah. Eze 23:5 And Aholah played the harlot when she was mine; and she doted on her lovers, on the Assyrians her neighbours, Eze 23:6 Which were clothed with blue, captains and rulers, all of them desirable young men, horsemen riding
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upon horses. Eze 23:7 Thus she committed her whoredoms with them, with all them that were the chosen men of Assyria, and with all on whom she doted: with all their idols she defiled herself. Eze 23:8 Neither left she her whoredoms brought from Egypt: for in her youth they lay with her, and they bruised the breasts of her virginity, and poured their whoredom upon her. Eze 23:9 Wherefore I have delivered her into the hand of her lovers, into the hand of the Assyrians, upon whom she doted. Eze 23:10 These discovered her nakedness: they took her sons and her daughters, and slew her with the sword: and she became famous among women; for they had executed judgment upon her. Eze 23:11 And when her sister Aholibah saw this, she was more corrupt in her inordinate love than she, and in her whoredoms more than her sister in her whoredoms. Eze 23:12 She doted upon the Assyrians her neighbours, captains and rulers clothed most gorgeously, horsemen riding upon horses, all of them desirable young men. Eze 23:13 Then I saw that she was defiled, that they took both one way, Eze 23:14 And that she increased her whoredoms: for when she saw men pourtrayed upon the wall, the images of the Chaldeans pourtrayed with vermilion, Eze 23:15 Girded with girdles upon their loins, exceeding in dyed attire upon their heads, all of them princes to look to, after the manner of the Babylonians of Chaldea, the land of their nativity: Eze 23:16 And as soon as she saw them with her eyes, she doted upon them, and sent messengers unto them into Chaldea. Eze 23:17 And the Babylonians came to her into the bed of love, and they defiled her with their whoredom, and she was polluted with them, and her mind was alienated from them. Eze 23:18 So she discovered her whoredoms, and discovered her nakedness: then My mind was alienated from her, like as My mind was alienated from her sister. Eze 23:19 Yet she multiplied her whoredoms, in calling to remembrance the days of her youth, wherein she had played the harlot in the land of Egypt. Eze 23:20 For she doted upon their paramours, whose flesh is as the flesh of asses, and whose issue is like the issue of horses. Eze 23:21 Thus thou calledst to remembrance the lewdness of thy youth, in bruising thy teats by the Egyptians for the paps of thy youth. Eze 23:22 Therefore, O Aholibah, thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘Behold, I will raise up thy lovers against thee, from whom thy mind is alienated, and I will bring them against thee on every side; Eze 23:23 The Babylonians, and all the Chaldeans, Pekod, and Shoa, and Koa, and all the Assyrians with them: all of them desirable young men, captains and rulers, great lords and renowned, all of them riding upon horses. Eze 23:24 And they shall come against thee with chariots, wagons, and wheels, and with an assembly of people, which shall set against thee buckler and shield and helmet round about: and I will set judgment before them, and they shall judge thee according to their judgments. Eze 23:25 And I will set My jealousy against thee, and they shall deal furiously with thee: they shall take away thy nose and thine ears; and thy remnant shall fall by the sword: they shall take thy sons and thy daughters; and thy residue shall be devoured by the fire. Eze 23:26 They shall also strip thee out of thy clothes, and take away thy fair jewels. Eze 23:27 Thus will I make thy lewdness to cease from thee, and thy whoredom brought from the land of Egypt: so that thou shalt not lift up thine eyes unto them, nor remember Egypt any more. Eze 23:28 For thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘Behold, I will deliver thee into the hand of them whom thou hatest, into the hand of them from whom thy mind is alienated: Eze 23:29 And they shall deal with thee hatefully, and shall take away all thy labour, and shall leave thee naked and bare: and the nakedness of thy whoredoms shall be discovered, both thy lewdness and thy whoredoms. Eze 23:30 I will do these things unto thee, because thou hast gone a whoring after the heathen, and because thou art polluted with their idols.
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Eze 23:31 Thou hast walked in the way of thy sister; therefore will I give her cup into thine hand.’ Eze 23:32 Thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘Thou shalt drink of thy sister’s cup deep and large: thou shalt be laughed to scorn and had in derision; it containeth much. Eze 23:33 Thou shalt be filled with drunkenness and sorrow, with the cup of astonishment and desolation, with the cup of thy sister Samaria. Eze 23:34 Thou shalt even drink it and suck it out, and thou shalt break the sherds thereof, and pluck off thine own breasts: for I have spoken it, saith the Lord GOD . Eze 23:35 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘Because thou hast forgotten Me, and cast Me behind thy back, therefore bear thou also thy lewdness and thy whoredoms.’” Eze 23:36 The LORD said moreover unto me; “Son of man, wilt thou judge Aholah and Aholibah? yea, declare unto them their abominations; Eze 23:37 That they have committed adultery, and blood is in their hands, and with their idols have they committed adultery, and have also caused their sons, whom they bare unto Me, to pass for them through the fire, to devour them. Eze 23:38 Moreover this they have done unto Me: they have defiled my sanctuary in the same day, and have profaned my sabbaths. Eze 23:39 For when they had slain their children to their idols, then they came the same day into My sanctuary to profane it; and, lo, thus have they done in the midst of Mine house. Eze 23:40 And furthermore, that ye have sent for men to come from far, unto whom a messenger was sent; and, lo, they came: for whom thou didst wash thyself, paintedst thy eyes, and deckedst thyself with ornaments, Eze 23:41 And satest upon a stately bed, and a table prepared before it, whereupon thou hast set Mine incense and Mine oil. Eze 23:42 And a voice of a multitude being at ease was with her: and with the men of the common sort were brought Sabeans from the wilderness, which put bracelets upon their hands, and beautiful crowns upon their heads. Eze 23:43 Then said I unto her that was old in adulteries, ‘Will they now commit whoredoms with her, and she with them?’ Eze 23:44 Yet they went in unto her, as they go in unto a woman that playeth the harlot: so went they in unto Aholah and unto Aholibah, the lewd women. Eze 23:45 And the righteous men, they shall judge them after the manner of adulteresses, and after the manner of women that shed blood; because they are adulteresses, and blood is in their hands. Eze 23:46 For thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘I will bring up a company upon them, and will give them to be removed and spoiled. Eze 23:47 And the company shall stone them with stones, and dispatch them with their swords; they shall slay their sons and their daughters, and burn up their houses with fire. Eze 23:48 Thus will I cause lewdness to cease out of the land, that all women may be taught not to do after your lewdness. Eze 23:49 And they shall recompense your lewdness upon you, and ye shall bear the sins of your idols: and ye shall know that I am the Lord GOD .’”
The Day the King of Babylon Set Himself Against Jerusalem
Eze 24:1 Again in the ninth year, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Eze 24:2 “Son of man, write thee the name of the day, even of this same day: the king of Babylon set himself against Jerusalem this same day. Eze 24:3 And utter a parable unto the rebellious house, and say unto them, ‘Thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘Set on a pot, set it on, and also pour water into it:
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Eze 24:4 Gather the pieces thereof into it, even every good piece, the thigh, and the shoulder; fill it with the choice bones. Eze 24:5 Take the choice of the flock, and burn also the bones under it, and make it boil well, and let them seethe the bones of it therein.’ Eze 24:6 Wherefore thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘Woe to the bloody city, to the pot whose scum is therein, and whose scum is not gone out of it! bring it out piece by piece; let no lot fall upon it. Eze 24:7 For her blood is in the midst of her; she set it upon the top of a rock; she poured it not upon the ground, to cover it with dust; Eze 24:8 That it might cause fury to come up to take vengeance; I have set her blood upon the top of a rock, that it should not be covered.’ Eze 24:9 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘Woe to the bloody city! I will even make the pile for fire great. Eze 24:10 Heap on wood, kindle the fire, consume the flesh, and spice it well, and let the bones be burned. Eze 24:11 Then set it empty upon the coals thereof, that the brass of it may be hot, and may burn, and that the filthiness of it may be molten in it, that the scum of it may be consumed. Eze 24:12 She hath wearied herself with lies, and her great scum went not forth out of her: her scum shall be in the fire. Eze 24:13 In thy filthiness is lewdness: because I have purged thee, and thou wast not purged, thou shalt not be purged from thy filthiness any more, till I have caused My fury to rest upon thee. Eze 24:14 I the LORD have spoken it: it shall come to pass, and I will do it; I will not go back, neither will I spare, neither will I repent; according to thy ways, and according to thy doings, shall they judge thee,” saith the Lord GOD .’” Eze 24:15 Also the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Eze 24:16 “Son of man, behold, I take away from thee the desire of thine eyes with a stroke: yet neither shalt thou mourn nor weep, neither shall thy tears run down. Eze 24:17 Forbear to cry, make no mourning for the dead, bind the tire of thine head upon thee, and put on thy shoes upon thy feet, and cover not thy lips, and eat not the bread of men.” Eze 24:18 So I spake unto the people in the morning: and at even my wife died; and I did in the morning as I was commanded. Eze 24:19 And the people said unto me, “Wilt thou not tell us what these things are to us, that thou doest so?” Eze 24:20 Then I answered them, “The word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Eze 24:21 ‘Speak unto the house of Israel, ‘Thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘Behold, I will profane My sanctuary, the excellency of your strength, the desire of your eyes, and that which your soul pitieth; and your sons and your daughters whom ye have left shall fall by the sword. Eze 24:22 And ye shall do as I have done: ye shall not cover your lips, nor eat the bread of men. Eze 24:23 And your tires shall be upon your heads, and your shoes upon your feet: ye shall not mourn nor weep; but ye shall pine away for your iniquities, and mourn one toward another. Eze 24:24 Thus Ezekiel is unto you a sign: according to all that he hath done shall ye do: and when this cometh, ye shall know that I am the Lord GOD .’ ’ ’” Eze 24:25 Also, thou son of man, shall it not be in the day when I take from them their strength, the joy of their glory, the desire of their eyes, and that whereupon they set their minds, their sons and their daughters, Eze 24:26 That he that escapeth in that day shall come unto thee, to cause thee to hear it with thine ears? Eze 24:27 In that day shall thy mouth be opened to him which is escaped, and thou shalt speak, and be no more dumb: and thou shalt be a sign unto them; and they shall know that I am the LORD .”
Tyrus’ Destruction at Nebuchadnezzar’s Hand
Eze 26:7 For thus saith the Lord GOD ; “Behold, I will bring upon Tyrus Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, a king of kings, from the north, with horses, and with chariots, and with horsemen, and companies, and much people.
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Eze 26:8 He shall slay with the sword thy daughters in the field: and he shall make a fort against thee, and cast a mount against thee, and lift up the buckler against thee. Eze 26:9 And he shall set engines of war against thy walls, and with his axes he shall break down thy towers. Eze 26:10 By reason of the abundance of his horses their dust shall cover thee: thy walls shall shake at the noise of the horsemen, and of the wheels, and of the chariots, when he shall enter into thy gates, as men enter into a city wherein is made a breach. Eze 26:11 With the hoofs of his horses shall he tread down all thy streets: he shall slay thy people by the sword, and thy strong garrisons shall go down to the ground. Eze 26:12 And they shall make a spoil of thy riches, and make a prey of thy merchandise: and they shall break down thy walls, and destroy thy pleasant houses: and they shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy dust in the midst of the water. Eze 26:13 And I will cause the noise of thy songs to cease; and the sound of thy harps shall be no more heard. Eze 26:14 And I will make thee like the top of a rock: thou shalt be a place to spread nets upon; thou shalt be built no more: for I the LORD have spoken it, saith the Lord GOD .’
Egypt’s Destruction at Nebuchadnezzar’s Hand
Eze 29:17 And it came to pass in the seven and twentieth year, in the first month, in the first day of the month, the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Eze 29:18 “Son of man, Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon caused his army to serve a great service against Tyrus: every head was made bald, and every shoulder was peeled: yet had he no wages, nor his army, for Tyrus, for the service that he had served against it: Eze 29:19 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘Behold, I will give the land of Egypt unto Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon; and he shall take her multitude, and take her spoil, and take her prey; and it shall be the wages for his army. Eze 29:20 I have given him the land of Egypt for his labour wherewith he served against it, because they wrought for Me, saith the Lord GOD . Eze 29:21 In that day will I cause the horn of the house of Israel to bud forth, and I will give thee the opening of the mouth in the midst of them; and they shall know that I am the LORD .”
More on Egypt’s Destruction
Eze 30:10 Thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘I will also make the multitude of Egypt to cease by the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon. Eze 30:11 He and his people with him, the terrible of the nations, shall be brought to destroy the land: and they shall draw their swords against Egypt, and fill the land with the slain. Eze 30:12 And I will make the rivers dry, and sell the land into the hand of the wicked: and I will make the land waste, and all that is therein, by the hand of strangers: I the LORD have spoken it. Eze 30:13 Thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘I will also destroy the idols, and I will cause their images to cease out of Noph; and there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt: and I will put a fear in the land of Egypt. Eze 30:14 And I will make Pathros desolate, and will set fire in Zoan, and will execute judgments in No. Eze 30:15 And I will pour My fury upon Sin, the strength of Egypt; and I will cut off the multitude of No. Eze 30:16 And I will set fire in Egypt: Sin shall have great pain, and No shall be rent asunder, and Noph shall have distresses daily. Eze 30:17 The young men of Aven and of Pi-beseth shall fall by the sword: and these cities shall go into captivity. Eze 30:18 At Tehaphnehes also the day shall be darkened, when I shall break there the yokes of Egypt: and the pomp of her strength shall cease in her: as for her, a cloud shall cover her, and her daughters shall go into captivity.
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Eze 30:19 Thus will I execute judgments in Egypt: and they shall know that I am the LORD .’” Eze 30:20 And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the first month, in the seventh day of the month, that the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Eze 30:21 “Son of man, I have broken the arm of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and, lo, it shall not be bound up to be healed, to put a roller to bind it, to make it strong to hold the sword. Eze 30:22 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘Behold, I am against Pharaoh king of Egypt, and will break his arms, the strong, and that which was broken; and I will cause the sword to fall out of his hand. Eze 30:23 And I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and will disperse them through the countries. Eze 30:24 And I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, and put My sword in his hand: but I will break Pharaoh’s arms, and he shall groan before him with the groanings of a deadly wounded man. Eze 30:25 But I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, and the arms of Pharaoh shall fall down; and they shall know that I am the LORD , when I shall put My sword into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall stretch it out upon the land of Egypt. Eze 30:26 And I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and disperse them among the countries; and they shall know that I am the LORD .’”
To Many Nations: “The Sword of the King of Babylon Shall Come Upon Thee”
Eze 32:11 For thus saith the Lord GOD ; ‘The sword of the king of Babylon shall come upon thee. Eze 32:12 By the swords of the mighty will I cause thy multitude to fall, the terrible of the nations, all of them: and they shall spoil the pomp of Egypt, and all the multitude thereof shall be destroyed. Eze 32:13 I will destroy also all the beasts thereof from beside the great waters; neither shall the foot of man trouble them any more, nor the hoofs of beasts trouble them. Eze 32:14 Then will I make their waters deep, and cause their rivers to run like oil, saith the Lord GOD . Eze 32:15 When I shall make the land of Egypt desolate, and the country shall be destitute of that whereof it was full, when I shall smite all them that dwell therein, then shall they know that I am the LORD . Eze 32:16 This is the lamentation wherewith they shall lament her: the daughters of the nations shall lament her: they shall lament for her, even for Egypt, and for all her multitude,’ saith the Lord GOD .” Eze 32:17 It came to pass also in the twelfth year, in the fifteenth day of the month, that the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Eze 32:18 “Son of man, wail for the multitude of Egypt, and cast them down, even her, and the daughters of the famous nations, unto the nether parts of the earth, with them that go down into the pit. Eze 32:19 Whom dost thou pass in beauty? go down, and be thou laid with the uncircumcised. Eze 32:20 They shall fall in the midst of them that are slain by the sword: she is delivered to the sword: draw her and all her multitudes. Eze 32:21 The strong among the mighty shall speak to him out of the midst of hell with them that help him: they are gone down, they lie uncircumcised, slain by the sword. Eze 32:22 Asshur is there and all her company: his graves are about him: all of them slain, fallen by the sword: Eze 32:23 Whose graves are set in the sides of the pit, and her company is round about her grave: all of them slain, fallen by the sword, which caused terror in the land of the living. Eze 32:24 There is Elam and all her multitude round about her grave, all of them slain, fallen by the sword, which are gone down uncircumcised into the nether parts of the earth, which caused their terror in the land of the living; yet have they borne their shame with them that go down to the pit. Eze 32:25 They have set her a bed in the midst of the slain with all her multitude: her graves are round about him: all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword: though their terror was caused in the land of the living, yet have they borne their shame with them that go down to the pit: he is put in the midst of them that be slain. Eze 32:26 There is Meshech, Tubal, and all her multitude: her graves are round about him: all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword, though they caused their terror in the land of the living.
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Eze 32:27 And they shall not lie with the mighty that are fallen of the uncircumcised, which are gone down to hell with their weapons of war: and they have laid their swords under their heads, but their iniquities shall be upon their bones, though they were the terror of the mighty in the land of the living. Eze 32:28 Yea, thou shalt be broken in the midst of the uncircumcised, and shalt lie with them that are slain with the sword. Eze 32:29 There is Edom, her kings, and all her princes, which with their might are laid by them that were slain by the sword: they shall lie with the uncircumcised, and with them that go down to the pit. Eze 32:30 There be the princes of the north, all of them, and all the Zidonians, which are gone down with the slain; with their terror they are ashamed of their might; and they lie uncircumcised with them that be slain by the sword, and bear their shame with them that go down to the pit. Eze 32:31 Pharaoh shall see them, and shall be comforted over all his multitude, even Pharaoh and all his army slain by the sword, saith the Lord GOD . Eze 32:32 For I have caused My terror in the land of the living: and he shall be laid in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that are slain with the sword, even Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord GOD .”
The entire book of Daniel is included in this study, as Daniel was a captive in Babylon (and later Persian-ruled former Babylonian area) when the book was written.
Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah Elevated in Babylon
Dan 1:1 In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it. Dan 1:2 And the LORD gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God: which he carried into the land of Shinar to the house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god. Dan 1:3 And the king spake unto Ashpenaz the master of his eunuchs, that he should bring certain of the children of Israel, and of the king’s seed, and of the princes; Dan 1:4 Children in whom was no blemish, but well favoured, and skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability in them to stand in the king’s palace, and whom they might teach the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans. Dan 1:5 And the king appointed them a daily provision of the king’s meat, and of the wine which he drank: so nourishing them three years, that at the end thereof they might stand before the king. Dan 1:6 Now among these were of the children of Judah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: Dan 1:7 Unto whom the prince of the eunuchs gave names: for he gave unto Daniel the name of Belteshazzar; and to Hananiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego. Dan 1:8 But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king’s meat, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself. Dan 1:9 Now God had brought Daniel into favour and tender love with the prince of the eunuchs. Dan 1:10 And the prince of the eunuchs said unto Daniel, “I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your meat and your drink: for why should he see your faces worse liking than the children which are of your sort? then shall ye make me endanger my head to the king.” Dan 1:11 Then said Daniel to Melzar, whom the prince of the eunuchs had set over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, Dan 1:12 “Prove thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink. Dan 1:13 Then let our countenances be looked upon before thee, and the countenance of the children that eat of
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the portion of the king’s meat: and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.” Dan 1:14 So he consented to them in this matter, and proved them ten days. Dan 1:15 And at the end of ten days their countenances appeared fairer and fatter in flesh than all the children which did eat the portion of the king’s meat. Dan 1:16 Thus Melzar took away the portion of their meat, and the wine that they should drink; and gave them pulse. Dan 1:17 As for these four children, God gave them knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom: and Daniel had understanding in all visions and dreams. Dan 1:18 Now at the end of the days that the king had said he should bring them in, then the prince of the eunuchs brought them in before Nebuchadnezzar. Dan 1:19 And the king communed with them; and among them all was found none like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: therefore stood they before the king. Dan 1:20 And in all matters of wisdom and understanding, that the king enquired of them, he found them ten times better than all the magicians and astrologers that were in all his realm. Dan 1:21 And Daniel continued even unto the first year of king Cyrus.
Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream of the Top-Heavy Image
The image of which Nebuchadnezzar dreamt was top-heavy by the weight of the metals of which the layers consisted. It was/is therefore doomed to collapse. Dan 2:1 And in the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams, wherewith his spirit was troubled, and his sleep brake from him. Dan 2:2 Then the king commanded to call the magicians, and the astrologers, and the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans, for to shew the king his dreams. So they came and stood before the king. Dan 2:3 And the king said unto them, “I have dreamed a dream, and my spirit was troubled to know the dream.” Dan 2:4 Then spake the Chaldeans to the king in Syriack, “O king, live for ever: tell thy servants the dream, and we will shew the interpretation.” Dan 2:5 The king answered and said to the Chaldeans, “The thing is gone from me: if ye will not make known unto me the dream, with the interpretation thereof, ye shall be cut in pieces, and your houses shall be made a dunghill. Dan 2:6 But if ye shew the dream, and the interpretation thereof, ye shall receive of me gifts and rewards and great honour: therefore shew me the dream, and the interpretation thereof.” Dan 2:7 They answered again and said, “Let the king tell his servants the dream, and we will shew the interpretation of it.” Dan 2:8 The king answered and said, “I know of certainty that ye would gain the time, because ye see the thing is gone from me. Dan 2:9 But if ye will not make known unto me the dream, there is but one decree for you: for ye have prepared lying and corrupt words to speak before me, till the time be changed: therefore tell me the dream, and I shall know that ye can shew me the interpretation thereof.” Dan 2:10 The Chaldeans answered before the king, and said, “There is not a man upon the earth that can shew the king’s matter: therefore there is no king, lord, nor ruler, that asked such things at any magician, or astrologer, or Chaldean. Dan 2:11 And it is a rare thing that the king requireth, and there is none other that can shew it before the king, except the gods, whose dwelling is not with flesh.” Dan 2:12 For this cause the king was angry and very furious, and commanded to destroy all the wise men of Babylon. Dan 2:13 And the decree went forth that the wise men should be slain; and they sought Daniel and his fellows to
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be slain. Dan 2:14 Then Daniel answered with counsel and wisdom to Arioch the captain of the king’s guard, which was gone forth to slay the wise men of Babylon: Dan 2:15 He answered and said to Arioch the king’s captain, “Why is the decree so hasty from the king?” Then Arioch made the thing known to Daniel. Dan 2:16 Then Daniel went in, and desired of the king that he would give him time, and that he would shew the king the interpretation. Dan 2:17 Then Daniel went to his house, and made the thing known to Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, his companions: Dan 2:18 That they would desire mercies of the God of heaven concerning this secret; that Daniel and his fellows should not perish with the rest of the wise men of Babylon. Dan 2:19 Then was the secret revealed unto Daniel in a night vision. Then Daniel blessed the God of heaven. Dan 2:20 Daniel answered and said, “Blessed be the name of God for ever and ever: for wisdom and might are His: Dan 2:21 And He changeth the times and the seasons: He removeth kings, and setteth up kings: He giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding: Dan 2:22 He revealeth the deep and secret things: He knoweth what is in the darkness, and the light dwelleth with Him. Dan 2:23 I thank Thee, and praise Thee, O Thou God of my fathers, Who hast given me wisdom and might, and hast made known unto me now what we desired of Thee: for Thou hast now made known unto us the king’s matter.” Dan 2:24 Therefore Daniel went in unto Arioch, whom the king had ordained to destroy the wise men of Babylon: he went and said thus unto him; “Destroy not the wise men of Babylon: bring me in before the king, and I will shew unto the king the interpretation.” Dan 2:25 Then Arioch brought in Daniel before the king in haste, and said thus unto him, “I have found a man of the captives of Judah, that will make known unto the king the interpretation.” Dan 2:26 The king answered and said to Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, “Art thou able to make known unto me the dream which I have seen, and the interpretation thereof?” Dan 2:27 Daniel answered in the presence of the king, and said, “The secret which the king hath demanded cannot the wise men, the astrologers, the magicians, the soothsayers, shew unto the king; Dan 2:28 But there is a God in heaven That revealeth secrets, and maketh known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days. Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these; Dan 2:29 As for thee, O king, thy thoughts came into thy mind upon thy bed, what should come to pass hereafter: and He That revealeth secrets maketh known to thee what shall come to pass. Dan 2:30 But as for me, this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have more than any living, but for their sakes that shall make known the interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest know the thoughts of thy heart. Dan 2:31 Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible. Dan 2:32 This image’s head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass, Dan 2:33 His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay. Dan 2:34 Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces. Dan 2:35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth. Dan 2:36 This is the dream; and we will tell the interpretation thereof before the king. Dan 2:37 Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory.
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Dan 2:38 And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath He given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou art this head of gold. Dan 2:39 And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth. Dan 2:40 And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise. Dan 2:41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters’ clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay. Dan 2:42 And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken. Dan 2:43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay. Dan 2:44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever. Dan 2:45 Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.” Dan 2:46 Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and worshipped Daniel, and commanded that they should offer an oblation and sweet odours unto him. Dan 2:47 The king answered unto Daniel, and said, “Of a truth it is, that your God is a God of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a revealer of secrets, seeing thou couldest reveal this secret.” Dan 2:48 Then the king made Daniel a great man, and gave him many great gifts, and made him ruler over the whole province of Babylon, and chief of the governors over all the wise men of Babylon. Dan 2:49 Then Daniel requested of the king, and he set Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, over the affairs of the province of Babylon: but Daniel sat in the gate of the king.
Nebuchadnezzar Makes an Image of Gold & Yahveh’s Children Protected in the Fiery Furnace
Dan 3:1 Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof six cubits: he set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon. Dan 3:2 Then Nebuchadnezzar the king sent to gather together the princes, the governors, and the captains, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, to come to the dedication of the image which Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up. Dan 3:3 Then the princes, the governors, and captains, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, were gathered together unto the dedication of the image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up; and they stood before the image that Nebuchadnezzar had set up. Dan 3:4 Then an herald cried aloud, “To you it is commanded, O people, nations, and languages, Dan 3:5 That at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up: Dan 3:6 And whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall the same hour be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.” Dan 3:7 Therefore at that time, when all the people heard the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and all kinds of musick, all the people, the nations, and the languages, fell down and worshipped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up. Dan 3:8 Wherefore at that time certain Chaldeans came near, and accused the Jews.
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Dan 3:9 They spake and said to the king Nebuchadnezzar, “O king, live for ever. Dan 3:10 Thou, O king, hast made a decree, that every man that shall hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, shall fall down and worship the golden image: Dan 3:11 And whoso falleth not down and worshippeth, that he should be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace. Dan 3:12 There are certain Jews whom thou hast set over the affairs of the province of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; these men, O king, have not regarded thee: they serve not thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.” Dan 3:13 Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage and fury commanded to bring Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. Then they brought these men before the king. Dan 3:14 Nebuchadnezzar spake and said unto them, “Is it true, O Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, do not ye serve my gods, nor worship the golden image which I have set up? Dan 3:15 Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made; well: but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who is that God that shall deliver you out of my hands?” Dan 3:16 Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, answered and said to the king, “O Nebuchadnezzar, we are not careful to answer thee in this matter. Dan 3:17 If it be so, our God Whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and He will deliver us out of thine hand, O king. Dan 3:18 But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.” Dan 3:19 Then was Nebuchadnezzar full of fury, and the form of his visage was changed against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego: therefore he spake, and commanded that they should heat the furnace one seven times more than it was wont to be heated. Dan 3:20 And he commanded the most mighty men that were in his army to bind Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, and to cast them into the burning fiery furnace. Dan 3:21 Then these men were bound in their coats, their hosen, and their hats, and their other garments, and were cast into the midst of the burning fiery furnace. Dan 3:22 Therefore because the king’s commandment was urgent, and the furnace exceeding hot, the flame of the fire slew those men that took up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego. Dan 3:23 And these three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, fell down bound into the midst of the burning fiery furnace. Dan 3:24 Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was astonied, and rose up in haste, and spake, and said unto his counsellors, “Did not we cast three men bound into the midst of the fire?” They answered and said unto the king, “True, O king.” Dan 3:25 He answered and said, “Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the form of the fourth is like the Son of God.” Dan 3:26 Then Nebuchadnezzar came near to the mouth of the burning fiery furnace, and spake, and said, “Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, ye servants of the Most High God, come forth, and come hither.” Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, came forth of the midst of the fire. Dan 3:27 And the princes, governors, and captains, and the king’s counsellors, being gathered together, saw these men, upon whose bodies the fire had no power, nor was an hair of their head singed, neither were their coats changed, nor the smell of fire had passed on them. Dan 3:28 Then Nebuchadnezzar spake, and said, “Blessed be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, who hath sent His angel, and delivered His servants that trusted in Him, and have changed the king’s word, and yielded their bodies, that they might not serve nor worship any god, except their own God. Dan 3:29 Therefore I make a decree, That every people, nation, and language, which speak any thing amiss against the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, shall be cut in pieces, and their houses shall be made a
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dunghill: because there is no other God that can deliver after this sort.” Dan 3:30 Then the king promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, in the province of Babylon.
Dan 4:1 Nebuchadnezzar the king, unto all people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; “Peace be multiplied unto you. Dan 4:2 I thought it good to shew the signs and wonders that the HIGH God hath wrought toward me. Dan 4:3 How great are His signs! and how mighty are His wonders! His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and his dominion is from generation to generation. Dan 4:4 I Nebuchadnezzar was at rest in mine house, and flourishing in my palace: Dan 4:5 I saw a dream which made me afraid, and the thoughts upon my bed and the visions of my head troubled me. Dan 4:6 Therefore made I a decree to bring in all the wise men of Babylon before me, that they might make known unto me the interpretation of the dream. Dan 4:7 Then came in the magicians, the astrologers, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers: and I told the dream before them; but they did not make known unto me the interpretation thereof. Dan 4:8 But at the last Daniel came in before me, whose name was Belteshazzar, according to the name of my god, and in whom is the spirit of the holy gods: and before him I told the dream, saying, Dan 4:9 “O Belteshazzar, master of the magicians, because I know that the spirit of the holy gods is in thee, and no secret troubleth thee, tell me the visions of my dream that I have seen, and the interpretation thereof. Dan 4:10 Thus were the visions of mine head in my bed; I saw, and behold a tree in the midst of the earth, and the height thereof was great. Dan 4:11 The tree grew, and was strong, and the height thereof reached unto heaven, and the sight thereof to the end of all the earth: Dan 4:12 The leaves thereof were fair, and the fruit thereof much, and in it was meat for all: the beasts of the field had shadow under it, and the fowls of the heaven dwelt in the boughs thereof, and all flesh was fed of it. Dan 4:13 I saw in the visions of my head upon my bed, and, behold, a watcher and an holy one came down from heaven; Dan 4:14 He cried aloud, and said thus, ‘Hew down the tree, and cut off his branches, shake off his leaves, and scatter his fruit: let the beasts get away from under it, and the fowls from his branches: Dan 4:15 Nevertheless leave the stump of his roots in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and let his portion be with the beasts in the grass of the earth: Dan 4:16 Let his heart be changed from man’s, and let a beast’s heart be given unto him; and let seven times pass over him. Dan 4:17 This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones: to the intent that the living may know that the MOST HIGH ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever He will, and setteth up over it the basest of men. Dan 4:18 This dream I king Nebuchadnezzar have seen. Now thou, O Belteshazzar, declare the interpretation thereof, forasmuch as all the wise men of my kingdom are not able to make known unto me the interpretation: but thou art able; for the spirit of the holy gods is in thee.’ Dan 4:19 Then Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, was astonied for one hour, and his thoughts troubled him. The king spake, and said, ‘Belteshazzar, let not the dream, or the interpretation thereof, trouble thee.’ Belteshazzar answered and said, ‘My lord, the dream be to them that hate thee, and the interpretation thereof to thine enemies. Dan 4:20 The tree that thou sawest, which grew, and was strong, whose height reached unto the heaven, and the sight thereof to all the earth;
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Dan 4:21 Whose leaves were fair, and the fruit thereof much, and in it was meat for all; under which the beasts of the field dwelt, and upon whose branches the fowls of the heaven had their habitation: Dan 4:22 It is thou, O king, that art grown and become strong: for thy greatness is grown, and reacheth unto heaven, and thy dominion to the end of the earth. Dan 4:23 And whereas the king saw a watcher and an holy one coming down from heaven, and saying, Hew the tree down, and destroy it; yet leave the stump of the roots thereof in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and let his portion be with the beasts of the field, till seven times pass over him;’ Dan 4:24 This is the interpretation, O king, and this is the decree of the MOST HIGH , which is come upon my lord the king: Dan 4:25 That they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the MOST HIGH ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever He will. Dan 4:26 And whereas they commanded to leave the stump of the tree roots; thy kingdom shall be sure unto thee, after that thou shalt have known that the heavens do rule. Dan 4:27 Wherefore, O king, let my counsel be acceptable unto thee, and break off thy sins by righteousness, and thine iniquities by shewing mercy to the poor; if it may be a lengthening of thy tranquillity.’ Dan 4:28 All this came upon the king Nebuchadnezzar. Dan 4:29 At the end of twelve months he walked in the palace of the kingdom of Babylon. Dan 4:30 The king spake, and said, ‘Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the kingdom by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty?’ Dan 4:31 While the word was in the king’s mouth, there fell a voice from heaven, saying, ‘O king Nebuchadnezzar, to thee it is spoken; The kingdom is departed from thee. Dan 4:32 And they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field: they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and seven times shall pass over thee, until thou know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever He will.’ Dan 4:33 The same hour was the thing fulfilled upon Nebuchadnezzar: and he was driven from men, and did eat grass as oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of heaven, till his hairs were grown like eagles’ feathers, and his nails like birds’ claws. Dan 4:34 And at the end of the days I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me, and I blessed the MOST HIGH , and I praised and honoured Him That liveth for ever, Whose dominion is an everlasting dominion, and His kingdom is from generation to generation: Dan 4:35 And all the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as nothing: and He doeth according to His will in the army of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth: and none can stay His hand, or say unto Him, ‘What doest Thou?’ Dan 4:36 At the same time my reason returned unto me; and for the glory of my kingdom, mine honour and brightness returned unto me; and my counsellors and my lords sought unto me; and I was established in my kingdom, and excellent majesty was added unto me. Dan 4:37 Now I Nebuchadnezzar praise and extol and honour the King of heaven, all Whose works are truth, and His ways judgment: and those that walk in pride He is able to abase.”
The Handwriting on the Wall & The End of Babylon
Dan 5:1 Belshazzar the king made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and drank wine before the thousand. Dan 5:2 Belshazzar, whiles he tasted the wine, commanded to bring the golden and silver vessels which his father Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the temple which was in Jerusalem; that the king, and his princes, his wives, and his concubines, might drink therein. Dan 5:3 Then they brought the golden vessels that were taken out of the temple of the house of God which was
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at Jerusalem; and the king, and his princes, his wives, and his concubines, drank in them. Dan 5:4 They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone. Dan 5:5 In the same hour came forth fingers of a man’s hand, and wrote over against the candlestick upon the plaister of the wall of the king’s palace: and the king saw the part of the hand that wrote. Dan 5:6 Then the king’s countenance was changed, and his thoughts troubled him, so that the joints of his loins were loosed, and his knees smote one against another. Dan 5:7 The king cried aloud to bring in the astrologers, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers. And the king spake, and said to the wise men of Babylon, “Whosoever shall read this writing, and shew me the interpretation thereof, shall be clothed with scarlet, and have a chain of gold about his neck, and shall be the third ruler in the kingdom.” Dan 5:8 Then came in all the king’s wise men: but they could not read the writing, nor make known to the king the interpretation thereof. Dan 5:9 Then was king Belshazzar greatly troubled, and his countenance was changed in him, and his lords were astonied. Dan 5:10 Now the queen, by reason of the words of the king and his lords, came into the banquet house: and the queen spake and said, “O king, live for ever: let not thy thoughts trouble thee, nor let thy countenance be changed: Dan 5:11 There is a man in thy kingdom, in whom is the spirit of the holy gods; and in the days of thy father light and understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was found in him; whom the king Nebuchadnezzar thy father, the king, I say, thy father, made master of the magicians, astrologers, Chaldeans, and soothsayers; Dan 5:12 Forasmuch as an excellent spirit, and knowledge, and understanding, interpreting of dreams, and shewing of hard sentences, and dissolving of doubts, were found in the same Daniel, whom the king named Belteshazzar: now let Daniel be called, and he will shew the interpretation.” Dan 5:13 Then was Daniel brought in before the king. And the king spake and said unto Daniel, “Art thou that Daniel, which art of the children of the captivity of Judah, whom the king my father brought out of Jewry? Dan 5:14 I have even heard of thee, that the spirit of the gods is in thee, and that light and understanding and excellent wisdom is found in thee. Dan 5:15 And now the wise men, the astrologers, have been brought in before me, that they should read this writing, and make known unto me the interpretation thereof: but they could not shew the interpretation of the thing: Dan 5:16 And I have heard of thee, that thou canst make interpretations, and dissolve doubts: now if thou canst read the writing, and make known to me the interpretation thereof, thou shalt be clothed with scarlet, and have a chain of gold about thy neck, and shalt be the third ruler in the kingdom.” Dan 5:17 Then Daniel answered and said before the king, “Let thy gifts be to thyself, and give thy rewards to another; yet I will read the writing unto the king, and make known to him the interpretation. Dan 5:18 O thou king, the MOST HIGH God gave Nebuchadnezzar thy father a kingdom, and majesty, and glory, and honour: Dan 5:19 And for the majesty that He gave him, all people, nations, and languages, trembled and feared before him: whom he would he slew; and whom he would he kept alive; and whom he would he set up; and whom he would he put down. Dan 5:20 But when his heart was lifted up, and his mind hardened in pride, he was deposed from his kingly throne, and they took his glory from him: Dan 5:21 And he was driven from the sons of men; and his heart was made like the beasts, and his dwelling was with the wild asses: they fed him with grass like oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of heaven; till he knew that the MOST HIGH God ruled in the kingdom of men, and that He appointeth over it whomsoever He will. Dan 5:22 And thou his son, O Belshazzar, hast not humbled thine heart, though thou knewest all this; Dan 5:23 But hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of His house before thee, and thou, and thy lords, thy wives, and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast
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praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know: and the God in Whose hand thy breath is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified: Dan 5:24 Then was the part of the hand sent from Him; and this writing was written. Dan 5:25 And this is the writing that was written, MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN. Dan 5:26 This is the interpretation of the thing: MENE; God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it. Dan 5:27 TEKEL; Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting. Dan 5:28 PERES; Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians.” Dan 5:29 Then commanded Belshazzar, and they clothed Daniel with scarlet, and put a chain of gold about his neck, and made a proclamation concerning him, that he should be the third ruler in the kingdom. Dan 5:30 In that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain. Dan 5:31 And Darius the Median took the kingdom, being about threescore and two years old.
Daniel in the Lion’s Den
Dan 6:1 It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom an hundred and twenty princes, which should be over the whole kingdom; Dan 6:2 And over these three presidents; of whom Daniel was first: that the princes might give accounts unto them, and the king should have no damage. Dan 6:3 Then this Daniel was preferred above the presidents and princes, because an excellent spirit was in him; and the king thought to set him over the whole realm. Dan 6:4 Then the presidents and princes sought to find occasion against Daniel concerning the kingdom; but they could find none occasion nor fault; forasmuch as he was faithful, neither was there any error or fault found in him. Dan 6:5 Then said these men, “We shall not find any occasion against this Daniel, except we find it against him concerning the law of his God.” Dan 6:6 Then these presidents and princes assembled together to the king, and said thus unto him, “King Darius, live for ever. Dan 6:7 All the presidents of the kingdom, the governors, and the princes, the counsellors, and the captains, have consulted together to establish a royal statute, and to make a firm decree, that whosoever shall ask a petition of any God or man for thirty days, save of thee, O king, he shall be cast into the den of lions. Dan 6:8 Now, O king, establish the decree, and sign the writing, that it be not changed, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.” Dan 6:9 Wherefore king Darius signed the writing and the decree. Dan 6:10 Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house; and his windows being open in his chamber toward Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime. Dan 6:11 Then these men assembled, and found Daniel praying and making supplication before his God. Dan 6:12 Then they came near, and spake before the king concerning the king’s decree; “Hast thou not signed a decree, that every man that shall ask a petition of any God or man within thirty days, save of thee, O king, shall be cast into the den of lions?” The king answered and said, “The thing is true, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.” Dan 6:13 Then answered they and said before the king, “That Daniel, which is of the children of the captivity of Judah, regardeth not thee, O king, nor the decree that thou hast signed, but maketh his petition three times a day.” Dan 6:14 Then the king, when he heard these words, was sore displeased with himself, and set his heart on Daniel to deliver him: and he laboured till the going down of the sun to deliver him. Dan 6:15 Then these men assembled unto the king, and said unto the king, “Know, O king, that the law of the Medes and Persians is, That no decree nor statute which the king establisheth may be changed.”
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Dan 6:16 Then the king commanded, and they brought Daniel, and cast him into the den of lions. Now the king spake and said unto Daniel, “Thy God Whom thou servest continually, He will deliver thee.” Dan 6:17 And a stone was brought, and laid upon the mouth of the den; and the king sealed it with his own signet, and with the signet of his lords; that the purpose might not be changed concerning Daniel. Dan 6:18 Then the king went to his palace, and passed the night fasting: neither were instruments of musick brought before him: and his sleep went from him. Dan 6:19 Then the king arose very early in the morning, and went in haste unto the den of lions. Dan 6:20 And when he came to the den, he cried with a lamentable voice unto Daniel: and the king spake and said to Daniel, “O Daniel, servant of the living God, is thy God, Whom thou servest continually, able to deliver thee from the lions?” Dan 6:21 Then said Daniel unto the king, “O king, live for ever. Dan 6:22 My God hath sent His angel, and hath shut the lions’ mouths, that they have not hurt me: forasmuch as before Him innocency was found in me; and also before thee, O king, have I done no hurt.” Dan 6:23 Then was the king exceeding glad for him, and commanded that they should take Daniel up out of the den. So Daniel was taken up out of the den, and no manner of hurt was found upon him, because he believed in his God. Dan 6:24 And the king commanded, and they brought those men which had accused Daniel, and they cast them into the den of lions, them, their children, and their wives; and the lions had the mastery of them, and brake all their bones in pieces or ever they came at the bottom of the den. Dan 6:25 Then king Darius wrote unto all people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; “Peace be multiplied unto you. Dan 6:26 I make a decree, That in every dominion of my kingdom men tremble and fear before the God of Daniel: for He is the living God, and stedfast for ever, and His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed, and His dominion shall be even unto the end. Dan 6:27 He delivereth and rescueth, and He worketh signs and wonders in heaven and in earth, Who hath delivered Daniel from the power of the lions.” Dan 6:28 So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian.
Daniel’s Vision of the Four Beasts
Dan 7:1 In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream, and told the sum of the matters. Dan 7:2 Daniel spake and said, “I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea. Dan 7:3 And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another. Dan 7:4 The first was like a lion, and had eagle’s wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man’s heart was given to it. Dan 7:5 And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said thus unto it, ‘Arise, devour much flesh.’ Dan 7:6 After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it. Dan 7:7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns. Dan 7:8 I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things. Dan 7:9 I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, Whose garment was white as
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snow, and the hair of His head like the pure wool: His throne was like the fiery flame, and His wheels as burning fire. Dan 7:10 A fiery stream issued and came forth from before Him: thousand thousands ministered unto Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before Him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened. Dan 7:11 I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake: I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame. Dan 7:12 As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time. Dan 7:13 I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought Him near before Him. Dan 7:14 And there was given Him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve Him: His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. Dan 7:15 I Daniel was grieved in my spirit in the midst of my body, and the visions of my head troubled me. Dan 7:16 I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him the truth of all this. So he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the things. Dan 7:17 These great beasts, which are four, are four kings, which shall arise out of the earth. Dan 7:18 But the saints of the MOST HIGH shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever. Dan 7:19 Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, and his nails of brass; which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet; Dan 7:20 And of the ten horns that were in his head, and of the other which came up, and before whom three fell; even of that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great things, whose look was more stout than his fellows. Dan 7:21 I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them; Dan 7:22 Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the Most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom. Dan 7:23 Thus he said, ‘The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces. Dan 7:24 And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. Dan 7:25 And he shall speak great words against the MOST HIGH , and shall wear out the saints of the MOST HIGH , and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time. Dan 7:26 But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end. Dan 7:27 And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the MOST HIGH , Whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey Him.’ Dan 7:28 Hitherto is the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my cogitations much troubled me, and my countenance changed in me: but I kept the matter in my heart.
Daniel’s Vision of the Ram and the He Goat
Dan 8:1 In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the first. Dan 8:2 And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in
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the province of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai. Dan 8:3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last. Dan 8:4 I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great. Dan 8:5 And as I was considering, behold, an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. Dan 8:6 And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power. Dan 8:7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. Dan 8:8 Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven. Dan 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land. Dan 8:10 And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them. Dan 8:11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the Prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of His sanctuary was cast down. Dan 8:12 And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered. Dan 8:13 Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, ‘How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?’ Dan 8:14 And he said unto me, ‘Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.’ Dan 8:15 And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man. Dan 8:16 And I heard a man’s voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision. Dan 8:17 So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, ‘Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision.’ Dan 8:18 Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground: but he touched me, and set me upright. Dan 8:19 And he said, ‘Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end shall be. Dan 8:20 The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia. Dan 8:21 And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. Dan 8:22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power. Dan 8:23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up. Dan 8:24 And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people. Dan 8:25 And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand. Dan 8:26 And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true: wherefore shut thou up the
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vision; for it shall be for many days.’ Dan 8:27 And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days; afterward I rose up, and did the king’s business; and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood it.
The Seventy Years
Chapter 9 is the begins a series of prophecies that extends to the end of the book, the understanding of which was to be sealed up “until the time of the end” per Daniel 12:4. We are further reminded in verses 8–9 that these prophecies are not to be understood until the end. Dan 12:8 And I heard, but I understood not: then said I, “O MY Lord, what shall be the end of these things?” Dan 12:9 And he said, “Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end. It is my personal belief that attempts to understand and apply these prophecies are yet futile.
Dan 9:1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans; Dan 9:2 In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem. Dan 9:3 And I set my face unto the LORD God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes: Dan 9:4 And I prayed unto the LORD my God, and made my confession, and said, “O LORD , the great and dreadful GOD, keeping the covenant and mercy to them that love Him, and to them that keep His commandments; Dan 9:5 We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from Thy precepts and from Thy judgments: Dan 9:6 Neither have we hearkened unto Thy servants the prophets, which spake in Thy name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land. Dan 9:7 O Lord, righteousness belongeth unto Thee, but unto us confusion of faces, as at this day; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, that are near, and that are far off, through all the countries whither Thou hast driven them, because of their trespass that they have trespassed against Thee. Dan 9:8 O Lord, to us belongeth confusion of face, to our kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against Thee. Dan 9:9 To the Lord our God belong mercies and forgivenesses, though we have rebelled against Him; Dan 9:10 Neither have we obeyed the voice of the LORD our God, to walk in His laws, which He set before us by His servants the prophets. Dan 9:11 Yea, all Israel have transgressed Thy law, even by departing, that they might not obey Thy voice; therefore the curse is poured upon us, and the oath that is written in the law of Moses the servant of God, because we have sinned against Him. Dan 9:12 And He hath confirmed His words, which He spake against us, and against our judges that judged us, by bringing upon us a great evil: for under the whole heaven hath not been done as hath been done upon Jerusalem. Dan 9:13 As it is written in the law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us: yet made we not our prayer before the LORD our God, that we might turn from our iniquities, and understand Thy truth. Dan 9:14 Therefore hath the LORD watched upon the evil, and brought it upon us: for the LORD our God is righteous in all His works which He doeth: for we obeyed not His voice. Dan 9:15 And now, O LORD our God, That hast brought Thy people forth out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and hast gotten Thee renown, as at this day; we have sinned, we have done wickedly.
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Dan 9:16 O LORD , according to all Thy righteousness, I beseech Thee, let Thine anger and Thy fury be turned away from Thy city Jerusalem, Thy holy mountain: because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and Thy people are become a reproach to all that are about us. Dan 9:17 Now therefore, O our God, hear the prayer of Thy servant, and his supplications, and cause Thy face to shine upon Thy sanctuary that is desolate, for the LORD ’s sake. Dan 9:18 O my God, incline Thine ear, and hear; open Thine eyes, and behold our desolations, and the city which is called by Thy name: for we do not present our supplications before Thee for our righteousnesses, but for Thy great mercies. Dan 9:19 O LORD , hear; O LORD , forgive; O LORD , hearken and do; defer not, for Thine own sake, O my God: for Thy city and Thy people are called by Thy name.’ Dan 9:20 And whiles I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God; Dan 9:21 Yea, whiles I was speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening oblation. Dan 9:22 And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, “O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill and understanding. Dan 9:23 At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to shew thee; for thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision. Dan 9:24 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. Dan 9:25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. Dan 9:26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. Dan 9:27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.’
The Man Who Came to Daniel to Explain
Dan 10:1 In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was revealed unto Daniel, whose name was called Belteshazzar; and the thing was true, but the time appointed was long: and he understood the thing, and had understanding of the vision. Dan 10:2 In those days I Daniel was mourning three full weeks. Dan 10:3 I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled. Dan 10:4 And in the four and twentieth day of the first month, as I was by the side of the great river, which is Hiddekel; Dan 10:5 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a certain man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz: Dan 10:6 His body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude. Dan 10:7 And I Daniel alone saw the vision: for the men that were with me saw not the vision; but a great quaking fell upon them, so that they fled to hide themselves.
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Dan 10:8 Therefore I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me: for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength. Dan 10:9 Yet heard I the voice of his words: and when I heard the voice of his words, then was I in a deep sleep on my face, and my face toward the ground. Dan 10:10 And, behold, an hand touched me, which set me upon my knees and upon the palms of my hands. Dan 10:11 And he said unto me, ‘O Daniel, a man greatly beloved, understand the words that I speak unto thee, and stand upright: for unto thee am I now sent.’ And when he had spoken this word unto me, I stood trembling. Dan 10:12 Then said he unto me, ‘Fear not, Daniel: for from the first day that thou didst set thine heart to understand, and to chasten thyself before thy God, thy words were heard, and I am come for thy words. Dan 10:13 But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia. Dan 10:14 Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many days.’ Dan 10:15 And when he had spoken such words unto me, I set my face toward the ground, and I became dumb. Dan 10:16 And, behold, one like the similitude of the sons of men touched my lips: then I opened my mouth, and spake, and said unto him that stood before me, ‘O my lord, by the vision my sorrows are turned upon me, and I have retained no strength. Dan 10:17 For how can the servant of this my lord talk with this my lord? for as for me, straightway there remained no strength in me, neither is there breath left in me.’ Dan 10:18 Then there came again and touched me one like the appearance of a man, and he strengthened me, Dan 10:19 And said, ‘O man greatly beloved, fear not: peace be unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong. And when he had spoken unto me, I was strengthened, and said, “Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.’ Dan 10:20 Then said he, ‘Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come. Dan 10:21 But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of truth: and there is none that holdeth with me in these things, but Michael your prince.
The Kings of the North and South
Dan 11:1 (Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.) Dan 11:2 And now will I shew thee the truth. “Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia. Dan 11:3 And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. Dan 11:4 And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those. Dan 11:5 And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion. Dan 11:6 And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king’s daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times. Dan 11:7 But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail: Dan 11:8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north. Dan 11:9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.
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Dan 11:10 But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress. Dan 11:11 And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand. Dan 11:12 And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it. Dan 11:13 For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches. Dan 11:14 And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall. Dan 11:15 So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand. Dan 11:16 But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed. Dan 11:17 He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him. Dan 11:18 After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him. Dan 11:19 Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found. Dan 11:20 Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle. Dan 11:21 And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries. Dan 11:22 And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant. Dan 11:23 And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people. Dan 11:24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers’ fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time. Dan 11:25 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him. Dan 11:26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain. Dan 11:27 And both these kings’ hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed. Dan 11:28 Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land. Dan 11:29 At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter. Dan 11:30 For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant. Dan 11:31 And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.
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Dan 11:32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits. Dan 11:33 And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days. Dan 11:34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries. Dan 11:35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed. Dan 11:36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the GOD of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done. Dan 11:37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any GOD: for he shall magnify himself above all. Dan 11:38 But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things. Dan 11:39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain. Dan 11:40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over. Dan 11:41 He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon. Dan 11:42 He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape. Dan 11:43 But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps. Dan 11:44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many. Dan 11:45 And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
The Time of Trouble, and the End
Dan 12:1 And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book. Dan 12:2 And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. Dan 12:3 And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever. Dan 12:4 But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.’ Dan 12:5 Then I Daniel looked, and, behold, there stood other two, the one on this side of the bank of the river, and the other on that side of the bank of the river. Dan 12:6 And one said to the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, ‘How long shall it be to the end of these wonders?’ Dan 12:7 And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by Him That liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall
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be finished. Dan 12:8 And I heard, but I understood not: then said I, “O MY Lord, what shall be the end of these things?” Dan 12:9 And he said, “Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end. Dan 12:10 Many shall be purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand. Dan 12:11 And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days. Dan 12:12 Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days. Dan 12:13 But go thou thy way till the end be: for thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot at the end of the days.’”
Israel Redeemed from Babylon and Her Enemies
Mic 4:1 But in the last days it shall come to pass, that the mountain of the house of the LORD shall be established in the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people shall flow unto it. Mic 4:2 And many nations shall come, and say, “Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD , and to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths:” for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. Mic 4:3 And He shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruninghooks: nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. Mic 4:4 But they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree; and none shall make them afraid: for the mouth of the LORD of hosts hath spoken it. Mic 4:5 For all people will walk every one in the name of his god, and we will walk in the name of the LORD our God for ever and ever. Mic 4:6 In that day, saith the LORD , will I assemble her that halteth, and I will gather her that is driven out, and her that I have afflicted; Mic 4:7 And I will make her that halted a remnant, and her that was cast far off a strong nation: and the LORD shall reign over them in mount Zion from henceforth, even for ever.” Mic 4:8 And thou, O tower of the flock, the strong hold of the daughter of Zion, unto thee shall it come, even the first dominion; the kingdom shall come to the daughter of Jerusalem. Mic 4:9 Now why dost thou cry out aloud? is there no king in thee? is thy counsellor perished? for pangs have taken thee as a woman in travail. Mic 4:10 Be in pain, and labour to bring forth, O daughter of Zion, like a woman in travail: for now shalt thou go forth out of the city, and thou shalt dwell in the field, and thou shalt go even to Babylon; there shalt thou be delivered; there the LORD shall redeem thee from the hand of thine enemies. Mic 4:11 Now also many nations are gathered against thee, that say, “Let her be defiled, and let our eye look upon Zion.” Mic 4:12 But they know not the thoughts of the LORD , neither understand they His counsel: for He shall gather them as the sheaves into the floor. Mic 4:13 Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion: for I will make thine horn iron, and I will make thy hoofs brass: and thou shalt beat in pieces many people: and I will consecrate their gain unto the LORD , and their substance unto THE LORD of the whole earth.
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Zion Dwelleth With the Daughter of Babylon
Zec 2:1 I lifted up mine eyes again, and looked, and behold a man with a measuring line in his hand. Zec 2:2 Then said I, “Whither goest thou?” And he said unto me, “To measure Jerusalem, to see what is the breadth thereof, and what is the length thereof.” Zec 2:3 And, behold, the angel that talked with me went forth, and another angel went out to meet him, Zec 2:4 And said unto him, “Run, speak to this young man, saying, ‘Jerusalem shall be inhabited as towns without walls for the multitude of men and cattle therein: Zec 2:5 For I, saith the LORD , will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and will be the glory in the midst of her. Zec 2:6 Ho, ho, come forth, and flee from the land of the north, saith the LORD : for I have spread you abroad as the four winds of the heaven, saith the LORD . Zec 2:7 Deliver thyself, O Zion, that dwellest with the daughter of Babylon. Zec 2:8 For thus saith the LORD of hosts; After the glory hath He sent me unto the nations which spoiled you: for he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of His eye. Zec 2:9 For, behold, I will shake Mine hand upon them, and they shall be a spoil to their servants: and ye shall know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me. Zec 2:10 Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion: for, lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the LORD . Zec 2:11 And many nations shall be joined to the LORD in that day, and shall be My people: and I will dwell in the midst of thee, and thou shalt know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me unto thee. Zec 2:12 And the LORD shall inherit Judah His portion in the holy land, and shall choose Jerusalem again. Zec 2:13 Be silent, O all flesh, before the LORD : for He is raised up out of His holy habitation.
“To Build It an House in the Land of Shinar”
Zec 5:1 Then I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a flying roll. Zec 5:2 And he said unto me, “What seest thou?” And I answered, “I see a flying roll; the length thereof is twenty cubits, and the breadth thereof ten cubits.” Zec 5:3 Then said he unto me, “This is the curse that goeth forth over the face of the whole earth: for every one that stealeth shall be cut off as on this side according to it; and every one that sweareth shall be cut off as on that side according to it. Zec 5:4 I will bring it forth, saith the LORD of hosts, and it shall enter into the house of the thief, and into the house of him that sweareth falsely by My name: and it shall remain in the midst of his house, and shall consume it with the timber thereof and the stones thereof.” Zec 5:5 Then the angel that talked with me went forth, and said unto me, “Lift up now thine eyes, and see what is this that goeth forth.” Zec 5:6 And I said, “What is it?” And he said, “This is an ephah that goeth forth.” He said moreover, “This is their resemblance through all the earth.” Zec 5:7 And, behold, there was lifted up a talent of lead: and this is a woman that sitteth in the midst of the ephah. Zec 5:8 And he said, “This is wickedness.” And he cast it into the midst of the ephah; and he cast the weight of lead upon the mouth thereof. Zec 5:9 Then lifted I up mine eyes, and looked, and, behold, there came out two women, and the wind was in their wings; for they had wings like the wings of a stork: and they lifted up the ephah between the earth and the heaven. Zec 5:10 Then said I to the angel that talked with me, “Whither do these bear the ephah?” Zec 5:11 And he said unto me, “To build it an house in the land of Shinar: and it shall be established, and set
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there upon her own base.”
Crowns to Heldai, Tobijah, Jedaiah, and Hen for a Memorial in the Temple of Yahveh
Interesting note: Zechariah 6:11 contains all 26 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Joshua was the high priest during the time of Ezra and Nehemiah when Judah, other Israelites, and foreigners returned from captivity in Babylon.
Zec 6:9 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Zec 6:10 “Take of them of the captivity, even of Heldai, of Tobijah, and of Jedaiah, which are come from Babylon, and come thou the same day, and go into the house of Josiah the son of Zephaniah; Zec 6:11 Then take silver and gold, and make crowns, and set them upon the head of Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest; Zec 6:12 And speak unto him, saying, ‘Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying, Behold the Man whose name is The BRANCH; and He shall grow up out of his place, and He shall build the temple of the LORD : Zec 6:13 Even He shall build the temple of the LORD ; and He shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon His throne; and He shall be a priest upon His throne: and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.’ Zec 6:14 And the crowns shall be to Helem, and to Tobijah, and to Jedaiah, and to Hen the son of Zephaniah, for a memorial in the temple of the LORD . Zec 6:15 And they that are far off shall come and build in the temple of the LORD , and ye shall know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me unto you. And this shall come to pass, if ye will diligently obey the voice of the LORD your God.”
Babylon in the New Testament
Carrying Away to Captivity in Babylon a Benchmark in Counting Joseph’s Generations
Mat 1:1 The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. Mat 1:2 Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren; Mat 1:3 And Judas begat Phares and Zara of Thamar; and Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram; Mat 1:4 And Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naasson; and Naasson begat Salmon; Mat 1:5 And Salmon begat Booz of Rachab; and Booz begat Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse; Mat 1:6 And Jesse begat David the king; and David the king begat Solomon of her that had been the wife of Urias; Mat 1:7 And Solomon begat Roboam; and Roboam begat Abia; and Abia begat Asa; Mat 1:8 And Asa begat Josaphat; and Josaphat begat Joram; and Joram begat Ozias; Mat 1:9 And Ozias begat Joatham; and Joatham begat Achaz; and Achaz begat Ezekias; Mat 1:10 And Ezekias begat Manasses; and Manasses begat Amon; and Amon begat Josias; Mat 1:11 And Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren, about the time they were carried away to Babylon: Mat 1:12 And after they were brought to Babylon, Jechonias begat Salathiel; and Salathiel begat Zorobabel; Mat 1:13 And Zorobabel begat Abiud; and Abiud begat Eliakim; and Eliakim begat Azor; Mat 1:14 And Azor begat Sadoc; and Sadoc begat Achim; and Achim begat Eliud; Mat 1:15 And Eliud begat Eleazar; and Eleazar begat Matthan; and Matthan begat Jacob; Mat 1:16 And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ. Mat 1:17 So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from David until the
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carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations. Mat 1:18 Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as His mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. Mat 1:19 Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a publick example, was minded to put her away privily. Mat 1:20 But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for That Which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. Mat 1:21 And she shall bring forth a Son, and thou shalt call His name JESUS: for He shall save His people from their sins. Mat 1:22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the LORD by the prophet, saying, Mat 1:23 “Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a Son, and they shall call His name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.” Mat 1:24 Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife: Mat 1:25 And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn Son: and he called His name JESUS.
Stephen Mentions Babylon in His Speech Before Martyrdom
Act 7:43 Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, figures which ye made to worship them: and I will carry you away beyond Babylon. Act 7:44 Our fathers had the tabernacle of witness in the wilderness, as He had appointed, speaking unto Moses, that he should make it according to the fashion that he had seen. Act 7:45 Which also our fathers that came after brought in with Jesus into the possession of the Gentiles, whom God drave out before the face of our fathers, unto the days of David; Act 7:46 Who found favour before God, and desired to find a tabernacle for the God of Jacob. Act 7:47 But Solomon built Him an house. Act 7:48 Howbeit the Most High dwelleth not in temples made with hands; as saith the prophet, Act 7:49 ‘Heaven is My throne, and earth is My footstool: what house will ye build Me? saith the LORD : or what is the place of My rest? Act 7:50 Hath not My hand made all these things?’ Act 7:51 Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost: as your fathers did, so do ye. Act 7:52 Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? and they have slain them which shewed before of the coming of the Just One; of Whom ye have been now the betrayers and murderers:
Peter Writes of a Church at Babylon
Bullinger wrote: A great many sojourners of the dispersion were in Babylon. See Josephus, Ant. XV. ii. 2.
1Pe 5:13 The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son. 1Pe 5:14 Greet ye one another with a kiss of charity. Peace be with you all that are in Christ Jesus. Amen.
Babylon in Revelation
“Babylon is Fallen . . .”
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“Babylon is fallen . . .” (verse 9) is a phrase that first occurs in Isaiah 21:19 and is repeated in Jeremiah 51:8, Revelation 14:8, and Revelation 18:2. The historical conquering of Babylon by the Persians and Medes is thus connected as a type with the death of the one-world Babylon of Revelation.
Rev 14:8 And there followed another angel, saying, “Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.”
Babylon Receives the Cup of Wrath
Rev 16:19 And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. Rev 16:20 And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. Rev 16:21 And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.
“MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH”
Rev 17:1 And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, “Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters: Rev 17:2 With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.” Rev 17:3 So he carried me away in the Spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication: Rev 17:5 And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH. Rev 17:6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration. Rev 17:7 And the angel said unto me, “Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns. Rev 17:8 The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is. Rev 17:9 And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth. Rev 17:10 And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. Rev 17:11 And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition. Rev 17:12 And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast. Rev 17:13 These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast. Rev 17:14 These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for He is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful.” Rev 17:15 And he saith unto me, “The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and
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multitudes, and nations, and tongues. Rev 17:16 And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire. Rev 17:17 For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil His will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled. Rev 17:18 And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.”
“Babylon the Great is Fallen . . .”
“Babylon is fallen . . .” (verse 9) is a phrase that first occurs in Isaiah 21:19 and is repeated in Jeremiah 51:8, Revelation 14:8, and Revelation 18:2. The historical conquering of Babylon by the Persians and Medes is thus connected as a type with the death of the one-world Babylon of Revelation.
Rev 18:1 And after these things I saw another angel come down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory. Rev 18:2 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, “Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird. Rev 18:3 For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.” Rev 18:4 And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, “Come out of her, My people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues. Rev 18:5 For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities. Rev 18:6 Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double. Rev 18:7 How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, ‘I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.’ Rev 18:8 Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the LORD God Who judgeth her. Rev 18:9 And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning, Rev 18:10 Standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, ‘Alas, alas, that great city Babylon, that mighty city!’ for in one hour is thy judgment come. Rev 18:11 And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buyeth their merchandise any more: Rev 18:12 The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble, Rev 18:13 And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men. Rev 18:14 And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all. Rev 18:15 The merchants of these things, which were made rich by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing, Rev 18:16 And saying, ‘Alas, alas, that great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls! Rev 18:17 For in one hour so great riches is come to nought.’ And every shipmaster, and all the company in
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ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off, Rev 18:18 And cried when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, ‘What city is like unto this great city!’ Rev 18:19 And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, ‘Alas, alas, that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate.’ Rev 18:20 Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets; for God hath avenged you on her.” Rev 18:21 And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, “Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all. Rev 18:22 And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee; Rev 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.” Rev 18:24 And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.
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Appendix I—Babylon-Related Terms from Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Ash’penaz.—The master of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. i. 3). Ba’bel, Bab’ylon is properly the capital city of the country, which is called in Genesis Shinar, and in the later Scriptures Chaldaea, or the land of the Chaldaeans. The architectural remains discovered in southern Babylonia, taken in conjunction with the monumental records, seem to indicate that it was not at first the capital, nor, indeed, a town of very great importance. Erech, Ur, and Ellasar, appear to have been all more ancient than Babylon, and were capital cities when Babil was a provincial village. The first rise of the Chaldaean power was in the region close upon the Persian Gulf; thence the nation spread northwards up the course of the rivers, and the seat of government moved in the same direction, being finally fixed at Babylon, perhaps not earlier than B .C . 1700. I. Topography of Babylon—Ancient descriptions of the city.—The descriptions of Babylon which have come down to us in classical writers are derived chiefly from two sources, the works of Herodotus and of Ctesias. According to the former, the city, which was built on both sides of the Euphrates, formed a vast square, enclosed within a double line of high walls, the extent of the outer circuit being 480 stades, or about 56 miles. The entire area included would thus have been about 200 square miles. The houses, which were frequently three or four stories high, were laid out in straight streets crossing each other in right angles. In each division of the town, there was a fortress or stronghold, consisting in the one case of the royal palace, in the other of the great temple of Belus. The two portions of the city were united by a bridge, composed of a series of stone piers with moveable platforms of wood stretching from one pier to another. According to Ctesias the circuit of the city was not 480 but 360 stades—which is a little under 42 miles. It lay, he says, on both sides of the Euphrates, and the two parts were connected together by a stone bridge five stades (above 1000 yards) long, and 30 feet broad, of the kind described by Herodotus. At either extremity of the bridge was a royal palace, that in the eastern city being the more magnificent of the two. The two palaces were joined, not only by the bridge, but by a tunnel under the river! Ctesias’ account of the temple of Belus has not come down to us. In examining the truth of these descriptions, we shall most conveniently commence from the outer circuit of the town. All the ancient writers appear to agree in the fact of a district of vast size, more or less inhabited, having been enclosed with lofty walls, and included under the name of Babylon. With respect to the exact extent of the circuit they differ. The estimate of Herodotus and of Pliny is 480 stades, of Strabo 385, and of Q. Curtius 368, of Clitarchus 365, and of Ctesisas 360 stades. It is evident that here we have merely moderate variations to be expected in independent measurements, except the first of the numbers. Herodotus spoke of the outer wall, which could be traced in his time, while later writers, who never speak of an inner and an outer barrier, give the measurement of Herodotus’ inner wall, which may have alone remained in their day. Taking the lowest estimate of the extent of the circuit, we shall have for the space within the rampart an area of above 100 square miles; nearly five times the size of London! It is evident that this vast space cannot have been entirely covered with houses. Diodorus confesses that but a small part of the enclosure was inhabited in his own day, and Q. Curtius says that as much as nine-tenths consisted, even in the most flourishing times, of gardens, parks, paradises, fields, and orchards. With regard to the height and breadth of the walls there is nearly as much difference of statement as with regard to their extent. Herodotus makes the height 200 royal cubits, or 337 ½ feet; Ctesias 50 fathoms, or 300 feet; Pliny and Solinus 200 royal feet; Strabo 50 cubits, or 75 feet. We are forced to fall back on the earlier authorities, who are also the
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only eye-witnesses; and surprising as it seems, perhaps we must believe the statement, that the vast enclosed space above mentioned was surrounded by walls which have well been termed “artificial mountains,” being nearly the height of the dome of St. Paul’s! The estimates for the thickness of the wall are the following:—Herodotus, 50 royal cubits, or nearly 85 feet; Pliny and Solinus, 50 royal, or about 60 common feet; and Strabo, 32 feet. The latter may belong properly to the inner wall, which was of less thickness than the outer. According to Ctesias the wall was strengthened with 250 towers, irregularly disposed, to guard the weakest parts; and according to Herodotus it was pierced with a hundred gates, which were made of brass, with brazen lintels and side-posts. The gates and walls are alike mentioned in Scripture; the height of the one and the breadth of the other being specially noticed (Jer. li. 58; comp. 1. 15, and li. 53). Herodotus and Ctesias both relate that the banks of the river as it flowed through the city were on each side ornamented with quays. Some remains of a quay or embankment (E) on the eastern side of the stream still exist, upon the bricks of which is read the name of the last king. Perhaps a remarkable mound (K) which interrupts the long flat valley—evidently the ancient course of the river—may be a trace of the bridge which both these writers describe. II. Present State of the Ruins.—About five miles above Hilah, on the opposite or left bank of the Euphrates, occurs a series of artificial mounds of enormous size. They consist chiefly of three great masses of building—the high pile (A) of unbaked brickwork called by Rich ‘Mujellibe,’ but which is known to the Arabs as ‘Babil;’ the building denominated the ‘Kasr’ or palace (B); and a lofty mound (C), upon which stands the modern tomb of Amrám-ión-’Alb. Besides these principal masses the most remarkable features are two parallel lines of rampart (F F) bounding the chief ruins on the east, some similar but inferior remains on the north and west (I I and H), an embankment along the river-side (E), a remarkable, isolated heap (K) in the middle of a long valley, which seems to have been the ancient bed of the stream, and two long lines of rampart (G G), meeting at a right angle, and with the river forming an irregular triangle, within which all the ruins on this side (except Babil) are enclosed. On the west, or right bank, the remains are very slight and scanty. Scattered over the country on both sides of the Euphrates, are a number of remarkable mounds, usually standing single, which are plainly of the same date with the great mass of ruins upon the river bank. Of these, by far the most striking is the vast ruin called the Birs-Nimrod, which many regard as the tower of Babel, situated about six miles to the S.W. of Hillah. [BABEL , TOWER OF .]—III. Identification of sites.—On comparing the existing ruins with the accounts of the ancient writers, the great difficulty which meets us is the position of the remains almost exclusively on the left bank of the river. All the old accounts agree in representing the Euphrates as running through the town, and the principal buildings as placed on the opposite side of the stream. Perhaps the most probable solution is to be found in the fact, that a large canal (called Shebil) intervened in ancient times between the Kasr mound (B) and the ruin now called Babil (A), which may easily have been confounded by Herodotus with the main stream. If this explanation be accepted as probable, we may identify the principal ruins as follows:—1. The great mound of Babil will be the ancient temple of Belus. It formed the tower of the temple, and was surmounted by a chapel, but the main shrine, the altars, and do doubt the residences of the priests, were at foot, in a sacred precinct. 2. The mound of the Kasr will mark the site of the great Palace of Nebuchadnezzar. It is an irregular square of about 700 yards each way, and may be regarded as chiefly formed of the old palace-platform. No plan of the palace is to be made out of the existing remains, which are tossed in apparent confusion on the highest point of the mound. 3. The mound of Amrám is thought by M. Oppert to represent the “hanging gardens” of Nebuchadnezzar; but this conjecture does not seem to be a very happy one. Most probably it represents an ancient palace, coeval with Babylon itself, of which Nebuchadnezzar speaks in his inscriptions as adjoining his own more magnificent residence. 4. The ruins marked DD on either side of the Euphrates, together withl all the other remains on the right bank, may be considered to represent the lesser Palace of Ctesias, which is said to have been connected with the greater by a bridge across the river, as well as by a tunnel under the channel of the stream. 5. The two long parallel lines of the embankment on the east (FF in the plan), may either be the lines of an outer and inner inclosure, of which Nebuchadnezzar speaks as defences of his palace; or they may represent the embankments of an enormous reservoir, which is often mentioned by that monarch as adjoining his palace toward the east. 6. The embankment (E) is composed of bricks marked with the name of Labynetus or Nabunit, and is undoubtedly a portion of the
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work which Berosus ascribes to the last king. The most remarkable fact connected with the magnificence of Babylon, is the poorness of the material with which such wonderful results were produced. With bricks made from the soil of the country, in many parts an excellent clay, and at first only “slime for mortar” (Gen. xi. 3), were constructed edifices of so vast a size that they still remain among the most enormous ruins in the world.—IV. History of Babylon.—Scripture represents the “beginning of the kingdom” as belonging to the time of Nimrod, the grandson of Ham (Gen. x. 6–10). The most ancient inscriptions appear to show that the primitive inhabitants of the country were really Cushite, i.e. identical in race with the early inhabitants of Southern Arabia and of Ethiopia. The seat of government at this early time was, as has been stated, in lower Babylonia, Erech (Warka) and Ur (Mugheir) being the capitals. The country was called Shinar, and the people the Akkadim (comp. Accad of Gen. x. 10). Of the art of this period we have specimens in the ruins of Mugheir and Warka, the remains of which date from at least the 20th century before our era. The early annals of Babylon are filled by Berosus, the native historian, with three dynasties; one of 49 Chaldean kings, who reigned 458 years; another of 9 Arab kings, who reigned 245 years; and a third of 49 Assyrian monarchs, who held dominion for 526 years. It would appear then as if Babylon, after having had a native Chaldean dynasty, fell wholly under Semitic influence, becoming subject first to Arabia for two centuries and a half, and then to Assyria for above five centuries, and not regaining even a qualified independence till the time marked by the close of the Upper and the formation of the Lower Assyrian empire. But the statement is too broad to be exact; and the monuments show that Babylon was at no time absorbed into Assyria, or even for very many years together a submissive vassal. The line of Babylonian kings becomes exactly known to us from the year B .C . 747. The “Canon of Ptolemy” gives us the succession of the Babylonian monarchs, with the exact length of the reign of each, from the year B .C . 747, when Nabo-nassar mounted the throne to B .C . 331, when the last Persian king was dethroned by Alexander. Of the earlier kings of the Canon, the only one worthy of notice is Mardocempalus (B .C . 721), the MERODACH -BALADAN of Scripture, but it is not till we come to Nabopolassar, the father of Nebuchadnezzar, that a new era in the history of Babylon commences. He was appointed to the government of Babylon by the last Assyrian king, at the moment when the Medes were about to make their final attack: whereupon, betraying the trust reposed in him, he went over to the enemy, arranged a marriage between his son Nebuchadnezzar and the daughter of the Median leader, and joined in the last siege of the city. [NINEVEH .] On the success of the confederates (B .C . 625), Babylon became not only an independent kingdom, but an empire. At a later date hostilities broke out with Egypt. Nechoh, the son of Psamatik I., about the year B .C . 608, invaded the Babylonian dominions on the south-west (2 K. xxiii. 29 and xxiv. 7). Nabopolassar was now advanced in life; he therefore sent his son Nebuchadnezzar, against the Egyptians, and the battle of Carchemish restored to Babylon the former limits of her territory (comp. 2 K. xxiv. 7 with Jer. xlvi. 2–12). Nebuchadnezzar upon his father’s death was acknowledged king (B .C . 604). A complete account of the works and exploits of this great monarch—by far the most remarkable of the Babylonian kings—is given under NEBUCHADNEZZAR . He died in B .C . 561, having reigned for 43 years, and was succeeded by Evil-Merodach, his son, who is called in the Canon Illoarudamus. This prince was murdered, after having held the crown for two years only, by Neriglissar, his brother-in-law. [EVIL -MERODACH ]. Neriglissar—the Nerigassolassar of the canon—is (apparently) identical with the “Nergal-sher-ezer, Rab-Mag” of Jeremiah (xxxix. 3, 13). Neriglissar built the palace at Babylon, which seems to have been placed originally on the right bank of the river. He reigned but four years, and left the crown, to his son, Laborosoarchod. This prince, when he had reigned nine months, became the victim of a conspiracy. Nabonidus (or Labynetus), one of the conspirators, succeeded in B .C . 555, very shortly before the war broke out between Cyrus and Croesus. Having entered into shallow alliance with the latter of these monarchs against the former, he provoked the hostility of Cyrus, who, in the year B .C . 539, advanced at the head of his irresistible hordes, but wintered upon Diyaleh or Gyndes, making his final approaches in the ensuing spring, Nabonidus took the field in person at the head of his army, leaving his son Belshazzar to command in the city. He was defeated and forced to shut himself up in Borsippa (marked now by the BirsNimrod), till after the fall of Babylon, Belshazzar guarded the city, but allowed the enemy to enter the town by the channel of the river. Babylon was thus taken by a surprise, as Jeremiah had prophesied (li. 31)—by an army of Medes and Persians, as intimated 170 years earlier by Isaiah (xxi. 1–9), and, as Jeremiah had also foreshown (li.
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39), during a festival. In the carnage which ensued upon the taking of the town, Belshazzar was slain (Dan. v. 30). According to the book of Daniel, it would seem as if Babylon was taken, but not by Cyrus, king of Persia, but by a Median king, named Darius (v. 31). There is, however, sufficient indication that “Darius the Mede” was not the real conqueror, but a monarch with a certain delegated authority (see Dan. v. 31, and ix. 1). With the conquest by Cyrus commenced the decay and ruin of Babylon, though it continued a royal residence through the entire period of the Persian empire. The defences and public buildings suffered grievously from neglect during the long period of peace which followed the reign of Xerxes. After the death of Alexander the Great, the removal of the seat of empire to Antioch under the Seleucidae gave the finishing blow to the prosperity of the place. Since then Babylon has been a quarry from which all the tribes in the vicinity have derived the bricks with which they have built their cities. The “great city,” “the beauty of the Chaldees’ excellency,” has thus emphatically “become heaps” (Jer. li. 37). Her walls have altogether disappeared—they have “fallen” (Jer. I. 44), been “thrown down” (1. 15), been “utterly broken” (li. 58). “A drought upon her waters” (I. 39); for the system of irrigation, on which, in Babylonia, fertility altogether depends, has long been laid aside; “her cities” are everywhere “a desolation” (li. 43); her “land a wilderness;” “wild beasts of the desert” (jackals) “lie there;” and “owls dwell there” (comp. Layard, Nin. and Bab. p. 484, with Is. xiii. 21, 22, and Jer. 1. 39); the natives regard the whole site as haunted, and neither will with the “Arab pitch tent, nor the shepherd fold sheep there” (Is. xiii. 20). Ba’bel, Tower of.—The “tower of Babel” is only mentioned once in Scripture (Gen. xi. 4–5), and then as incomplete. It was built of bricks, and the “slime” used for mortar was probably bitumen. A Jewish tradition declared that fire fell from heaven, and split the tower through to its foundation; while Alxander Polyhistor and the other profane writers who noticed the tower, said that it had been blown down by the winds. Such authorities therefore, as we possess, represent the building as destroyed soon after its erection. When the Jews, however, were carried captive into Babylonia, they were struck with the vast magnitude and peculiar character of certain of the Babylonian temples, in one or other of which they thought to recognise the very tower itself. The predominant opinion was in favor of the great temple of Nebo at Borsippa, the modern Birs-Nimrod, although the distance of that place from Babylon is an insuperable difficulty in the way of identification. There are in reality no real grounds either for identifying the tower with the Temple of Belus, or for supposing that any remains of it long survived the check which the builders received (Gen. xi. 8). But the Birs-Nimrod, though it cannot be the tower of Babel itself, may well be taken to show the probable shape and character of the edifice. The building appears to have been a sort of oblique pyramid built in seven receding stages. “Upon a platform of crude brick, raised a few feet above the level of the alluvial plain, was built of burn brick the first or basement stage—an exact square, 272 feet each way, and 26 feet in perpendicular height. Upon this stage was erected a second, 230 feet each way, and likewise 26 feet high; which, however, was not placed exactly in the middle of the first, but considerably nearer to the south-western end, which constituted the back of the building. The other stages were arranged similarly—the third being 188 feet, and again 26 feet high; the fourth 146 feet square, and 15 feet high; the fifth 104 feet square, and 15 feet high; the fifth 104 feet square, and the same height as the fourth; the sixth 62 feet square, and again the same height; and the seventh 20 feet square and once more the same height. On the seventh stage there was probably placed an ark or tabernacle, which seems to have been again 15 feet high, and must have nearly, if not entirely, covered the top of the seventh story. The entire original height, allowing three feet for the platform, would thus have been 156 feet, or, without the platform, 153 feet. The whole formed a sort of oblique pyramid, the gentler slope facing the N.E., and the steeper inclining to the S.W. On the N.E. side was the grand entrance, and here stood the vestibule, a separate building, the debris from which having joined those from the temple itself, fill up the intermediate space, and very remarkably prolong the mound in this direction” (Rawlinson’s Herodotus, vol. ii., pp. 582–3). The Birs temple, which was called the “Temple of the Seven Spheres,” was ornamented with the planetary colours, but this was most likely a peculiarity. It is not necessary to suppose that any real idea of “scaling heaven” was present in the minds of those who raised either the Tower of Babel or any other of the Babylonian temple-towers. The expression used in Genesis (xi. 4) is more hyperbole for great height (comp. Deut. i. 28; Dan. iv. 11, &c.), and should not be taken literally. Military
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defence was probably the primary object of such edifices in early times; but with the wish for this may have been combined further secondary motives, which remained when such defence was otherwise provided for. Diodorus states that the great tower of the temple of Belus was used by the Chaldaeans as an observatory (ii. 9), and the careful emplacement of the Babylonian temples with the angles facing the four cardinal points, would be a natural consequence, and may be regarded as a strong confirmation of the reality of this application. Babylon.—(#"$L8f<; Babylon). The occurrence of this name in 1 Peter v. 13 has given rise to a variety of conjectures, which may be briefly enumerated.—1. That Babylon topically denotes Rome. In support of this opinion is brought forward a tradition recorded by Eusebius (H. E. ii. 15), on the authority of Papias and Clement of Alexandria, to the effect that I Peter was composed at Rome. Oecumenius and Jerome both assert that Rome was figuratively denoted by Babylon. Although this opinion is held by Grotius, Lardner, Cave, Whitby, Macknight, Hales, and others, it may be rejected as improbable. There is nothing to indicate that the name is used figuratively, and the subscription to an epistle is the last place we should expect to find a mystical appellation.—2. Cappellus and others take Babylon, with as little reason, to mean Jerusalem.—3. Bar-Hebraeus understands it by the house in Jerusalem where the Apostles were once assembled on the Day of Pentecost.—4. Others place it on the Tigris, and identify it with Seleucia or Ctesiphon, but for this there is no evidence. The two theories which remain are worthy of more consideration.—5. That by Babylon is intended the small fort of that name which formed the boundary between Upper and Lower Egypt. Its site is marked by the modern Baboul in the Delta, a little north of Fostat, or old Cairo. According to Strabo it derived its name from some Babylonian deserters who had settled there. In his time it was the head-quarters of one of the three legions which garrisoned Egypt. Josephus (Ant. ii. 15 §1) says it was built on the site of Letopolis, when Cambyses subdued Egypt. That this is the Babylon of 1. Pet. is the tradition of the Coptic Church, and is maintained by Le Clerc, Mill, Pearson, and others. There is, however, no proof that the Apostle Peter was ever in Egypt, and a very slight degree of probability is created by the tradition that his companion Mark was bishop of Alexandria.—6. The most natural supposition of all that is that by Babylon is intended the old Babylon of Assyria, which was largely inhabited by Jews at the time in question (Jos. Ant. xv. 3 §1; Philo, De Virt. p. 1023, ed. Turnebi, Franc. 1691). The only argument against this view is the negative evidence supplied by the silence of historians as to St. Peter’s having visited the Assyrian Babylon, but this cannot be allowed to have much weight. Lightfoot’s remarks are very suggestive. In a sermon preached at St. Mary’s, Cambridge (Works, ii. 1144, Eng. folio ed.), he maintained that Babylon of Assyria is intended, because “it was one of the greatest knots of Jews in the world,” and St. Peter was the minister of the circumcision. Again, he adds, “Bosor (2 Pet. ii. 15) speaks Peter in Babylon,” it being the Chaldee or Syriac pronunciation of Pethor in Num. xxii. 5. This last argument has not, perhaps, much weight, as the same pronunciation may have characterized the dialect of Judea. Bab’ylon.—In the Apocalypse, is the symbolical name by which Rome is denoted (Rev. xiv. 8, xvii., xviii.). The power of Rome was regarded by the later Jews as that of Babylon by their forefathers (comp. Jer. li. 7 with Rev. xiv. 8), and hence, whatever the people of Israel be understood to symbolize, Babylon represents the antagonistic principle. [REVELATION .] Babylo’nians.—The inhabitants of Babylon, a race of Shemitic origin, who were among the colonists planted in the cities of Samaria by the conquering Assyrians (Ezr. iv. 9). At a later period, when the warlike Chaldaens acquired the predominance in the 7th cent. B .C ., the names Chaldaean and Babylonian became almost synonymous (Ez. xxiii. 14, 15; comp. Is. xlviii. 14, 20). Babylo’nish Garment.—Literally ‘robe of Shinar’ (Josh. vii. 21). An ample robe, probably made of the skin or fur of an animal (comp. Gen. xxv. 25), and ornamented with embroidery, or perhaps a variegated garment with figures inwoven in the fashion for which the Babylonians were celebrated.
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Bal’adan. [MERODACH -BALADAN .] Belshaz’zar.—the last king of Babylon. According to the well-known narrative in Daniel v., he was slain during a splendid feast in his palace. Similarly Xenophon tells us that Babylon was taken by Cyrus in the night, while the inhabitants were engaged in feasting and revelry, and that the king was killed. On the other hand the narratives of Berosus in Josephus and of Herodotus differ from the above account in some important particulars. Berosus calls the last king of Babylon Nabonnedus or Nabonadius, and says that in the 17th year of his reign king Cyrus took Babylon, the king having retired to the neighbouring city of Borsippus or Borsippa. Being blockaded in that city Nabonnedus surrendered, his life was spared, and a principality or estate given to him in Carmania, where he died. According to Herodotus the last king was called Labynetus, a name easy to reconcile with the Nabonnedus of Berosus, and the Nabannidochus of Megasthenes. Cyrus, after defeating Labynetus in the open field, appeared before Babylon, within which the besieged defied attack and even blockade. But he took the city by drawing off for a time the waters of the Euphrates, and then marching in with his whole army along its bed during a great Babylonian festival. These discrepancies have lately been cleared up by the discoveries of Sir Henry Rawlinson. From the inscriptions on some cylinders found at Um-Qeer, it appears that the eldest son of Nabonnedus was called Bel-shar-ezar, contracted into Belshazzar, and admitted by his father to a share in the government. In a communication to the Athenæum, No. 1377, Sir Henry Rawlinson says, “we can now understand how Belshazzar, as joint king with his father, may have been governor of Babylon, when the city was attacked by the combined forces of the Medes and Persians, and may have perished in the assualt which followed; while Nabonnedus leading a force to the relief of the place was defeated, and obliged to take refuge in Borsippa, capitulating after a short resistance, and being subsequently assigned, according to Berosus, an honourable retirement in Carmania.” In Dan. v. 2, Nebuchadnezzar is called the father of Belshazzar. This of course, need only mean grandfather or ancestor. Rawlinson connects Belshazzar with Nebuchadnezzar through his mother, thinking it probable that Nabu-nahit would strengthen his position by marrying the daughter of that king, who would thus be Belshazzar’s maternal grandfather. A totally different view is taken by Marcus Niebuhr, who considers Belshazzar to be another name for Evilmerodach, the son of Nebuchadnezzar. On Rawlinson’s view, Belshazzar died B .C . 538; on Niebuhr’s, B .C . 559. Chalde’a, more correctly Chaldae’a, is properly only the most southern portion of Babylonia. It is used, however, in our version for the Hebrew ethnic appellative Casdim (or “Chaldeans”), under which term the inhabitants of the entire country are designated; and it will therefore here be taken in this extended sense. The origin of the term is very doubtful.—1. Extent and boundaries.—The tract of country viewed in Scripture as the land of the Chaldaeans is that vast alluvial plain which has been formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris—at least so far as it lies to the west of the latter stream. This extraordinary flat, unbroken except by the works of man, extends, in a direction nearly N.E. and S.W., a distance of 400 miles along the course of the rivers, and is on an average about 100 miles in width.—2. General character of the country.—The general aspect of the country is thus described by a modern traveller, who well contrasts its condition now with the appearance which it must have presented in ancient times. “In former days,” he says, “the vast plains of Babylon were nourished by a complicated system of canals and watercourses, which spread over the surface of the country like a net-work. The wants of a teeming population were supplied by rich soil, not less bountiful than that on the banks of the Egyptian Nile. Like islands rising from a golden sea of waving corn, stood frequent groves of palm-trees and pleasant gardens, affording to the idler or traveller their grateful and highly valued shade. Crowds of passengers hurried along the dusty roads to and from the busy city. The land was rich in corn and wine. How changed is the aspect of that region at the present day! Long lines of mounds, it is true, mark the courses of those main arteries which formerly diffused life and vegetation along their banks, but their channels are now bereft of moisture and choked with drifted sand; the smaller offshoots are wholly effaced. ‘A drought is upon her waters,’ says the prophet, ‘and they shall be dried up!’ All that remains of that ancient civilisation—that ‘glory of the kingdoms,’—‘the praise of the whole earth,’—is recognisable in the numerous mouldering heaps of brick and
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rubbish which overspread the surface of the plain. Instead of the luxurious fields, the groves and gardens, nothing now meets the eye but an arid waste—the dense population of former times is vanished, and no man dwells there.” (Loftus’s Chaldaea, pp. 14–15).—3. Divsions.—The true Chaldea is always in the geographers a distinct region, being the most southern portion of Babylonia, lying chiefly (if not solely) on the right bank of the Euphrates. Babylonia above this, is separated into two districts, called respectively Amordacia and Auranitis. The former is the name of the central territory round of Babylon itself; the latter is applied to the regions toward the north, where Babylonia borders on Assyria.—4. Cities.—Babylonia was celebrated at all times for the number and antiquity of its cities. The most important of these which have been identified are Borsippa (Birs-Nimrod), Sippara or Sepharvaim (Mosaib), Cutha (Ibrahim), Calneh (Niffer), Erech, (Warka), Ur (Mugheir), Chilmad (Kalwadha), Larancha (Senkera), Is (Hit), Duraba (Akkerkuf); but besides these were a multitude of others, the sites of which have not been determined.—5. Canals.—One of the most remarkable features of ancient Babylonia was its network of canals. Three principals carried off the waters of the Euphrates towards the Tigris, above Babylon. These were, 1. The original “Royal River,” or Ar-Malcha of Berosus; 2. the Nahr Malcha of the Arabs; and 3. the Nahr Kutha. On the other side of the stream, a large canal, leaving the Euphrates at Hit, where the alluvial plain commences, skirted the deposit on the west along its entire extent, and fell into the Persian Gulf at the head of the Bubian creek; while a second main artery branched from the Euphrates nearly at Mosaib, and ran into a great lake, in the neighborhood of Borsippa, whence the lands to the south-west of Babylon were irrigated.—6. Sea of Nedjef, Chaldean marshes, &c.—Chaldea contains one natural feature deserving of description—the “great inland freshwater sea of Nedjef” (Loftus, p. 45). This sheet of water is a permanent lake of considerable depth, and extends in a south-easterly direction a distance of 40 miles. Its greatest width is 35 miles. Above and below the Sea of Nedjef, from the Birs-Nimrod to Kufa, and from the south-eastern extremity of the Sea to Samava, extend the famous Chaldaean marshes, where Alexander was nearly lost.—7. Productions.—The extraordinary fertility of the Chaldaean soil has been noticed by various writers. It is said to be the only country in the world where wheat grows wild. Herodotus declared (i. 193) that grain commonly returned 200-fold to the sower, and occasionally 300-fold. The palm was undoubtedly one of the principal objects of cultivation. The soil is rich, but there is little cultivation, the inhabitants subsisting chiefly upon dates. More than half the country is left dry and waste from the want of a proper system of irrigation; while the remaining half is to a great extent covered with marshes owing to the same neglect. Chalde’ans, or Chal’dees, appear in Scripture, until the time of the Captivity, as the people of the country which has Babylon for its capital, and which itself is termed Shinar; but in the Book of Daniel, while this meaning is still found (v. 30, and ix. 1), a new sense shows itself. The Chaldaeans are classed with the magicians and astronomers; and evidently form a sort of priest class, who have a peculiar “tongue” and “learning” (i. 4), and are consulted by the king on religious subjects. The same variety appears in the profane writers. It appears that the Chaldaeans (Kaldai or Kaldi) were in the earliest times merely one of the many Cushite tribes inhabiting the great alluvial plain known afterwards as Chaldaea or Babylonia. Their special seat was probably that southern portion of the country which is found to have so late retained the name of Chaldaea. Here was Ur “of the Chaldees,” the modern Mugheir, which lies south of the Euphrates, near its junction with the Shat-el-Hie. In process of time, as the Kaldi grew in power, their name gradually prevailed over those of other tribes inhabiting the country; and by the era of the Jewish captivity it had begun to be used generally for all the inhabitants of Babylonia. It had come by this time to have two senses, both ethnic: in the one it was the special appellative of a particular race to whom it had belonged from the remotest times, in the other it designated the nation at large in which this race was predominant. It has been observed above that Kaldi proper were a Cushite race. This is proved by the remains of their language, which closely resembles the Galla or ancient language of Ethiopia. Now it appears by the inscriptions that while both in Assyria and in later Babylonia, the Shemitic type of speech prevailed for civil purposes, the ancient Cushite dialect was retained, as a learned language for scientific and religious literature. This is no doubt the “learning” and the “tongue” to which reference is made in the Book of Daniel (i. 4). The Chaldaeans were really the learned class; they were priests, magicians, or astronomers, and in the last of the three
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capacities, they probably effected discoveries of great importance. According to Strabo, there were two chief seats of Chaldaen learning, Borsippa, and Ur or Orchoë. To these we may add from Pliny Babylon, and Sippara or Sepharvaim. The Chaldaeans (it would appear) congregated into bodies, forming what we may perhaps call universities, and pursuing the studies, in which they engaged, together. They probably mixed up to some extent astrology with their astronomy, even in the earlier times, but they certainly made great advances in astronomical science. In later times they seem to have degenerated into mere fortune-tellers. Chaldees. [CHALDEANS .] E’vil-Mer’odach.—(2 K. xxv. 27) according to Berosus and Abydenus, was the son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar. He reigned but a short time, having ascended the throne on the death of Nebuchadnezzar in B .C . 561, and being himself succeeded by Neriglissar in B .C . 559. At the end of this brief space Evil-Merodach was murdered by Neriglissar. Mero’dach-Bal’adan.—is mentioned as king of Babylon in the days of Hezekiah, both in the second book of Kings (xx. 12) and in Isaiah (xxxix. 1). In the former place he is called Berodach-Baladan. The orthography of “Merodach” is, however, to be preferred. The name Merodach-Baladan has been clearly recognised in the Assyrian inscriptions. The Canon gives Merocach-Baladin (Mardocempal) a reign of 12 years—from B .C . 721 to B .C . 709—and makes him then succeeded by a certain Arceanus. Polyhistor assigns him a six months’ reighn, immediately before Elibus, or Belibus, who (according to the Canon) ascended the throne in B .C . 702. It has commonly been seen that these must be two different reigns, and that Merodach-Baladin must therefore have been deposed in B .C . 709, and recovered his throne in B .C . 702, when he had a second period of dominion lasting half a year. The inscriptions contain express mention of both reigns. Sargon states that in the twelfth year of his own reign he drove Merodach-Baladan out of Babylon, after he had ruled over it for twelve years; and Sennacherib tells us that in his first year he defeated and expelled the same monarch, setting up in his place “a man named Belib.” Putting all our notices together, it becomes appartent that Merodach-Baladin was the head of the popular party, which resisted the Assyrian monarchs, and strove to maintain the indpendence of the country. It is uncertain whether he was slef-fraised or was the son of a former king. In the second Book of Kings he is styled “the son of Baladan;” but the iscriptions call him “the son of Yagin;” whence it is to be presumed that Baladan was a more remote ancestor. There is some doubt as to the time at which Merodach-Baladan sent his ambassadors to Hezekiah, for the purpose of enquiring as to the astronomical marvel of which Judaea had been the scene (2 Chr. xxxii. 31). We prefer to assign the embassy to Merodach-Baladin’s earlier reign, and bring it within the period, B .C . 721–709, which the Canon assigns to him. Now the 14th year of Hezekiah, in which the embassy should fall (2 K. xx. 6; Is. xxxviii. 5), appears to have been B .C . 713. This was the year of MerodachBaladin’s first reign. The real object of the mission was most likely to effect a league between Babylon, Judaea, and Egypt (Is. xx. 5, 6), in order to check the growing power of the Assyrians. The league, however, though designed, does not seem to have taken effect. Sargon sent expeditions into both Syria and Babylonia—seized in the stronghold of Ashdod in the one, and completely defeated Merodach-Baladan in the other. That monarch sought safety in flight, and lived for eight years in exile. at last he found an opportunity to return. In B .C . 703 or 702, Babylonia was plunged in anarchy—the Assyrian yoke was thrown off, and various native leaders struggled for the mastery. Under these circumstances the exiled monarch seems to have returned, and recovered his throne. Merodach-Baladan had obtained a body of troops from his ally, the king of Susiana; but Sennacherib defeated the combined army in a pitched battle. Merodach-Baladan had obtained a body of troops from his ally, the king of Susiana; but Sennacherib defeated the combined army in a pitched battle. Merodach-Baladan fled to “the islands at the mouth of the Euphrates.” He lost is recovered crown after wearing it for about six months, and spent the remainder of his days in exile and obscurity. Mesopota’mia.—[Due to the fact that most of the lengthy entry is more relevant to Assryia, it is greatly
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abbreviated to include only its apparent relevance to Babylon.] Mesopotamia seems to have been divided between the Medes and the Babylonians. The conquests of Cyrus brought it wholly under the Persian yoke; and thus it continued to the time of Alexander. Ne’bo.—1. A town on the eastern side of Jordan, situated in the pastoral country (Num. xxxii. 3), one of those which were taken possession of and rebuilt by the tribe of Reuben (ver. 38). In these lists it is associated with Kirjathaim and Baal-mean or Beon; and in anohter record (1 Chr. v. 8) with Aroer. In the remarkable prophecy adopted by Isaiah (xv. 2) and Jeremiah (xlviii. 1, 22) concerning Moab, Nebo is mentioned in the same connexion as before, but in the hands of Moab. The notices of Eusebius and Jerome are confused, but they at least denote that Mout Nebo and the town were distinct, and distant from each other. The town they identify with Nobah or Kenath, and place it 8 miles south of Heshbon, where the ruins of el-Habis appear to stand at present.—2. The children of Nebo returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezr. ii. 29; Neh. vii. 33). Seven of them had foreign wives, whom they were compelled to discard (Ezr. x. 43). The name occurs between Bethel and Ai, and Lydda, which implies that it was situated in the territory of Benjamin to the N.W. of Jerusalem. This is possibly the modern Beit-Nûbah, about 12 miles N.W. by W. of Jerusalem, 8 from Lydda. Ne’bo.—Which occurs both in Isaiah (xlvi. 1) and Jeremiah (xlviii. 1) as the name of a Chaldaean god, is a wellknown deity of the Babylonians and Assyrians. The original native name was, in Hamitic Babylonian, Nabiu, in Shemitic Babylonian and Assyrian, Nabu. Nebo was the god who presided over learning and letters. his general character corresponds to that of the Egyptian Thoth, the Greek Hermes, and the Latin Mercury. Astronomically he is identified with the planet nearest the sun, called Nebo also by the Mendaeans, and Tir by the ancient Persians. Nebo was of Babylonian rather than of Assyrian origin. In the early Assyrian Pantheon he occupies a very inferior position. The king supposed to be Pul first brings him prominently forward in Assyria. A statue of Nebo was set up by this monarch at Calah (Nimrod), which is now in the British Museum. In Babylonia Nebo held a prominent place from an early time. The ancient town of Borsippa was especially under his protection, and the great temple there (the modern Birs-Nimrod) was dedicated to him from a very remote age. He was the tutelar god of the most important Babylonian kings, in whose names the word Nabu, or Nebo, appear as an element. Nebuchadnez’zar, or Nebuchadrez’zar.—was the greatest and most powerful of the Babylonians kings. His name, according to the native orthography, is read as Nabu-kuduri-utsr, and is explained to mean “Nebo is the protector against misfortune.” Nebuchadnezzar was the son and successor of Nabopolassar, the founder of the Babylonian Empire. He appears to have been of marriageable age at the time of his father’s rebellion against Assyria, B .C . 625. It is suspected, rather than proved, that he was the leader of a Babylonian contingent which accompanied Cyaxeres in his Lydian war, by whose interposition, on the occasion of an eclipse, that war was brought to a close, B .C . 610. At any rate, a few years later, he was placed at the head of a Babylonian army, and sent by his father, who was now old and infirm, to chastices the insolence of Pharaoah-Necho, king of Egypt. Nebuchadnezzar (B .C . 605) led an army against him, defeated him at Carchemish in a great battle (Jer. xlvi. 2–12), recovered Coele-syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine, took Jerusalem (Dan. i. 1, 2), pressed forward to Egypt, and was engaged in that country or upon its borders when intelligence arrived which recalled him hastily to Babylon. Nabo-polassar, after reigning 21 years, had died, and the throne was vacant. In some alarm about the succession he turned back to the capital, accompanied, only by his light troops; and crossing the desert, probably by was of Tadmor or Palmyra, reached Babylon before any disturbance had arisen, and entered peaceably on his kingdom (B .C . 604). Within three years of Nebuchadnezzar’s first expedition into Syria and Palestine, disaffection again showed itself in those countries. Jehoakim, who, although threatened at first with captivity (2 Chr. xxxvi. 6) had been finally maintained on the throne as a Babylonian vassal, after three years of service “turned and rebelled” against his suzerain, probably trusting to be supported by Egypt (2 K. xxiv. 1). Not long afterwards Phoenicia seems to have broken in revolt; and the Chaldaean monarch, who had previously endeavoured to subdue the
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disaffected by his generals (ib. ver. 2), once more took the field in person, and marched first of all against Tyre. Having invested that city in the seventh year of his reign (Joseph c. Ap. i. 21), and left a portion of his army there to continue the siege, he proceeded against Jerusalem, which submitted without a struggle. According to Josephus, who is here our chief authority (Ant. x. 6 §3; comp. Jer. xxii. 18, 19, and xxvi. 30), but placed his son Jehoaichin upon the throne. Jehoiachin reigned only three months; for, on his showing symptoms of disaffection, Nebuchadnezzar came up against Jerusalem for the third time, deposed the young prince (whom he carried to Babylon, together with a large portion of the population of the city, and the chief of the Temple treasures), and made his uncle, Zedekiah, king in his room. Tyre still held out; and it was not till the thirteenth year from the time of its first investment that the city of merchants fell (B .C . 585). Ere this happened, Jerusalem had been totally destroyed. This consummation was owing to the folly of Zedekiah, who, despite the warnings of Jeremiah, made a treaty with Apries (Hophra), king of Egypt (Ex. xvii. 15), and on the strength of this alliance renounced his allegiance to the king of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar commenced the final siege of Jerusalem in the ninth year of Zedekiah,—his own seventeenth year (B .C . 588), and took it two years later (B .C . 586). One effort to carry out the treaty seems to have been made by Apries. An Egyptian army crossed the frontier, and began its march toward Jerusalem; upon which Nebuchadnezzar raised the sige, and set off to meet the new foe. According to Josephus (Ant. x. 7 §3) a battle was fought, in which Apries was completely defeated: but the Scriptural account seems rather to imply that the Egyptians retired on the advance of Nebuchadnezzar, and recrossed the frontier without risking an engagement (Jer. xxxvii. 5–8). After an eighteen months’ siege Jerusalem fell. Zedekiah escaped from the city, but was captured near Jericho (ib. xxxix. 5) and brought to Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah in the territory of Hamath, where his eyes were put out by the king’s order, while his sons and his chief nobles were slain. Nebuchadnezzar then returned to Babylon with Zedekiah, whom he imprisoned for the remainder of his life; leaving Nebuzar-adan, the captain of his guard, to complete the destruction of the city and the pacification of Judaea. Gedaliah, a Jew, was appointed governor, but he was shortly murdered, and the rest of the Jews either fled to Egypt, or were carried by Nebuzar-adan to Babylon. The military successes of Nebuchadnezzar cannot be traced minutely beyond this point. It may be gathered from the prophetical Scriptures and from Josephus, that the conquest of Jerusalem was rapidly followed by the fall of Tyre and the complete submission of Phoenicia (Ez. xxvi.-xxviii.; Joseph. c. Ap. i. 21); after which the Babylonians carried their arms into Egypt, and inflicted severe injuries on that fertile country (Jer. xlvi. 13–26; Ez. xxix. 2–20; Joseph. Ant. x. 9, §7). But we have no account, on which we can depend, of these campaigns. We are told by Berosus that the first care of Nebuchadnezzar, on obtaining quiet possession of his kingdom after the first Syrian expedition, was to rebuild the temple of Bel (BelMerodach) at Babylon out of the spoils of the Syrian war (ap. Joseph. Ant. x. 11, §1). He next proceeded to strengthen and beautify the city, which he renovated throughout, and surrounded with several lines of fortification, himself adding one entirely new quarter. Having finished the walls and adorned the gates magnificently, he constructed a new palace. In the grounds of this palace he formed the celebrated “hanging garden.” This complete renovation of Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, which Berosus asserts, is confirmed to us in every possible way. But Nebuchadnezzar did not confine his efforts to the ornamentation and improvement of his capital. Throughout the empire at Borsippa, Sippara, Cutha, Chilmad, Duraba, Teredon, and a multitude of other places, he built or rebuilt cities, repaired temples, constructed quays, reservoirs, canals, and aqueducts, on a scale of grandeur and magnificence surpassing everything of the kind recorded in history, unless it be the contructions of one or two of the greatest Egyptian monarchs. The wealth, greatness, and general prosperity of Nebuchadnezzar are strikingly placed before us in the book of Daniel. Towards the close of his reign the glory of Nebuchadnezzar suffered a temporary eclipse. As a punishment for his pride and vanity, that strange form of madness was sent upon him which the Greeks called Lycanthropy, wherein the sufferer imagines himself a beast (Dan. iv. 33). Nebuchadnezzar himself in his great inscription appears to allude to it, although in a studied ambiguity of phrase which renders the passage very difficult of translation. It has often been remarked that Herodotus ascribes to a queen, Nitocris, several of the important works, which other writers (Berosus, Abydenus) assign to Nebuchadnezzar. The conjecture naturally arises that Nitocris was Nebuchadnezzar’s queen, and that, as she carried on his constructions during his incapacity, they were by some considered to be hers. After an interval
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of four, or perhaps seven years (Dan. iv. 16), Nebuchadnezzar’s malady left him. As we are told in Scripture that “his reason returned, and for the glory of his kingdom his honour and brightness returned;” and he “was established in his kingdom, and excellent majesty was added to him” (Dan. iv. 36), so we find in the Standard Inscription that he resumed his great works after a period of suspension, and added fresh “wonders” in his old age to the marvellous constructions of his manhood. He died in the year B .C . 561, at an advanced age (83 or 84), having reigned 43 years. A son, EVIL -MERODACH , succeeded him. Nebushas’ban.—One of the officers of Nebuchadnezzar at the time of the capture of Jerusalem. He was Rabsaris, i.e. chief of the eunuchs (Jer. xxxix. 13) as Nebuzaradan was Rab-tabbachim (chief of the body-guard), and Nergal-sherezer, Rab-Mag (chief of the magicians), the three being the most important officers then present, probably the highest dignitaries of the Babylonian court. Nebu-shasban’s office and title were the same as those of Ashpenaz (Dan. i. 3), whom he probably succeeded. Nebuzar’adan.—The Rab-tabbachim, i.e. chief of the slaughterers (A. V. “captain of the guard”) a high officer in the court of Nebuchadnezzar, apparently the next person of the monarch. He appears not to have been present during the siege of Jerusalem; probably he was occupied at the more important operations at Tyre, but as soon as the city was actually in the hands of the Babylonians he arrived, and from that moment everything was completely directed by him. One act only is referred directly to Nebuchadnezzar, the appointment of the governor or superintendent of the conquered district. All this Nebuzaradan seems to have carried out with wisdom and moderation. He seems to have left Judea for this time when he took down the chief people of Jerusalem to his master at Riblah (2 K. xxv. 18–20). In four years he again appeared (Jer. lii. 30). Nebuchadnezzar in his twenty-third year made a descent on the regions east of Jordan, including the Ammonites and Moabites, who escaped when Jerusalem was destroyed. Then he proceeded to Egypt, and, either on the way thither or on the return, Nebuzaradan again passed through the country and carried off seven hundred and forty-five more captives (Jer. lii. 30.) Ner’gal-share’zer.—Occurs only in Jeremiah xxxix. 3 and 13. There appear to have been two persons of the same name among the “princes of the king of Babylon,” who accompanied Nebuchadnezzar on his last expedition against Jerusalem. One of these is not marked by any additional title; but the other has the honorable distinction of Rab-mag, and it is to him alone that any particular interest attaches. In sacred Scripture, he appears among the persons, who, by command of Nebuchadnezzar, released Jeremiah from prison; profane history gives us reason to believe that he was a personage of great importance, who not long afterwards mounted the Babylonian throne. The identification depends in part upon the exact resemblance of name, which is found on Babylonian bricks in the form of Nergal-shar-uzur; but mainly it rests upon the title of Rubu-emga, or Rab-Mag, which the king bears in his inscriptions. Assuming on these grounds the identity of the Scriptural “Nergal-sharezer, RabMag,” with the monumental “Nergal-shar-uzur, Rubu-emga,” we may learn something of the history of the prince in question from profane authors. There cannot be a doubt that the monarch called Neriglissar or Neriglissoor by Berosus (Joseph. c. Ap. i. 20), who murdered Evil-Merodach, the son of Nebuchadnezzar, and succeeded him upon the throne. This prince was married to a daughter of Nebuchadnezzar, and was thus the brother-in-law of his predecessor, whom he put to death. His reign lasted between three and four years. He appears to have died a natural death, and certainly left his crown to a young son, Laborosoarchod, who was murdered after a reign of nine months. There is abundant reason to believe from his name and his office that he was a native Babylonian—a grandee of high rank under Nebuchadnezzar, who regarded him as a fitting match for one of his daughters. His reign preceded that of the Median Darius by 17 years, dated from B .C . 559 to B .C . 556. Nim’rod.—A son of Cush and grandson of Ham. The events of his life are recorded in a passage (Gen. x. 8 ff.) which, from the conciseness of its language, is involved in considerable uncertainty. We may notice, in the first place, the terms in vers. 8, 9, rendered in the A. V. “mighty” and “mighty hunter before the Lord.” The idea of
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any moral qualities being conveyed by these expressions may be at once rejected. They may be regarded as betokening personal prowess with the accessory notion of gigantic stature. It is somewhat doubtful whether the prowess of Nimrod rested on his achievements as a hunter or as a conqueror. The literal meaning of the Hebrew words would undoubtedly apply to the former, but they may be regarded as a translation of a proverbial expression originally current in the land of Nimrod, where the terms of “hunter” and “hunting” appear to have been applied to the forays of the sovereigns against the surrounding nations. But the context certainly favours the special application of the term in the case of conquest. The next point to be noticed is the expression in ver. 10, “The beginning of his kingdom,” taken in connexion with commencement of ver. 11, which admits of the double sense. “Out of that land went forth Asshur,” as in the text of the A. V., and “out of that land he went forth to Assyria,” as in the margin. These two passages mutually react on each other; for if the words “beginning of his kingdom” mean, as we believe to be the case, “his first kingdom,” or, as Gesenius renders it, “the territory of which it was at first composed,” then the expression implies a subsequent extension of his kingdom, in other words, that “he went forth to Assyria.” If, however, the sense of ver. 11 be, “out of that land went forth Asshur,” then no other sense can be given to verse 10 than that “the capital of his kingdom was Babylon,” though the expression must equally be applied to the towns subsequently mentioned. This rendering appears untenable in all respects, and the expression may therefore be cited in support of the marginal rendering of ver. 11. With regard to the latter passage, either sense is permissible in point of grammatical construction. Authorities, both ancient and modern, are divided on the subject, but the most weighty names of modern times support the marginal rendering, as it seems best to accord with historical truth. The chief events in the life of Nimrod, then, are (1) that he was a Cushite; (2) that he established an empire in Shinar (the classical Babylonia), the chief towns being Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh: and (3) that he extended this empire northwards along the course of the Tigris over Assyria, where he founded a second group of capitals, Ninevah, Rehoboth, Calah, and Resen. These events correspond to and may be held to represent the salient historical facts connected with the earliest stages of the great Babylonian empire. 1. In the first place there is abundant evidence that the race that first held sway in the lower Babylonian plain was of Cushite or Hamitic extraction. The name Cush itself was preserved in Babylonia and the adjacent countries under the forms of Cossaei, Cissia, Cuthah, and Susiana, or Chuzistan. The earliest written language of Babylonia, as known to us from existing inscriptions, bears a strong resemblance to that of Egypt and Ethiopia. Even the name Nimrod appears in the list of the Egyptian kings of the 22nd dynasty, but there are reasons for thinking that dynasty to have been of Assyrian extraction.—2. In the second place, the earliest seat of empire was in the south part of the Babylonian plain. The large mounds, which for a vast number of centuries have covered the ruins of ancient cities, have already yielded some evidences of the dates and names of their founders, and we can assign the highest antiquity to the towns represented by the mounds of Niffer (perhaps the early Babel, though also identified with Calneh), Warka (the Biblical Erech), Mugheir (Ur), and Senkerah (Ellasar), while the name of Accad is preserved in the title Kinzi-Akkad, by which the founder or embellisher of those towns was distinguished (Rawlinson, i. 435). The date of their foundation may be placed at about B .C . 2200. 3.—In the third place, the Babylonian empire extended its sway northwards along the course of the Tigris at a period long anterior to the rise of the Assyrian empire in the late 13th century B .C . The existence of Nineveh itself can be traced up by the aid of Egyptian monuments to about the middle of the 15th century B .C . Our present information does not permit us to identify Nimrod with any personage known to us either from inscriptions or from classical writers. Sam’gar-Ne’bo.—One of the princes or generals of the king of Babylon who commanded the victorious army of the Chaldaeans at the capture of Jerusalem (Jer. xxxix. 3). The Nebo is the Chaldaean Mercury; about the Samgar, opinions are divided. Shi’nar.—Seems to have been the ancient name of the great alluvial tract through which the Tigris and Euphrates pass before reaching the sea—the tract known in later times as Chaldaea or Babylonia. It was a plain country where brick had to be used for stone, and slime for mortar (Gen. xi. 3). Among its cities were Babel
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(Babylon), Erech or Orech (Orchoë), Calneh or Calno (probably Niffer), and Accad, the site of which is unknown. These notices are quite enough to fix the situation. The native inscriptions contain no trace of the term, which seems to be purely Jewish, and unknown to any other people. At least it is extremely doubtful whether there is really any connexion between Shinar and Singara or Sinjar. Singara was the name of a town in Central Mesopotamia, well known to the Romans. It may be suspected that Shinar was the name by which the Hebrews originally knew the lower Mesopotamian country, where they so long dwelt, and which Abraham brought with him from “Ur of the Chaldees.” Ur.—Occurs in Genesis only, and is there mentioned as the land of Haran’s nativity (Gen. xi. 28), the place from which Terah and Abraham started “to go into the land of Canaan” (xi. 31). It is called in Genesis “Ur of the Chaldaeans” while in Acts St. Stephen places it, by implication, in Mesopotamia (vii. 2, 4). These are all the indications which Scripture furnishes as to its locality. One tradition identifies Ur with the modern Orfah. There is some ground for believing that this city, called by the Greeks Edessa, had also the name of Orrha as early as the time of Isidore (ab. B .C . 150). According to Pocock that Ur is Edessa or Orfah is “the universal opinion of the Jews;” and it is such also the local belief. A second tradition, which appears in the Talmud, and in some of the early Arabian writers, finds Ur in Warka, the ’?DP`0 of the Greeks, and probably the Erech of Holy Scripture. A third tradition distinguishes Ur from Warka. There can be little doubt that the city whereto this tradition points is that which appears by its bricks to have been called Hur by the natives, and which is now represented by the Mugheir, or Umgheir, on the right bank of the Euphrates, nearly opposite its junction with the Shat-el-Hie. An opinion, unsupported by any tradition, remains to be noticed. Bochart, Calmet, Bunsen, and others identify “Ur of the Chaldees” with a place of the name, mentioned by a single late writer—Ammianus Marcellinus—as “a castle” existing in his day in Eastern Mesopotamia, between Hatra and Nisibis. Of these four localities two are situated in Upper Mesopotamia, between the Mons Masius and the Sinjar range, while the other two are in the alluvial tract near the sea, at least 400 miles further south. That Chaldaea was, properly speaking, the southern part of Babylonia, the region bordering upon the Gulf, will be admitted by all. Those who maintain the northern emplacement of Ur argue, that with the extension of Chaldaean power the name travelled northward, and became coextensive with Mesopotamia; but, in the first place, there is no proof that the name Chaldaea was ever extended to the region above the Sinjar; and secondly, if it was, the Jews at any rate mean by Chaldaea exclusively the lower country, and call the upper, Mesopotamia or Padan-Aram (see Job i. 17; Is. xiii. 19, xliii. 14, &c.) Again there is no reason to believe that Babylonian power was established beyond the Sinjar in these early times. Moreover, it is in the lower country only that a name closely corresponding to the Hebrew $! is found. The cuneiform Hur represents $! letter for letter, and only differs from it in the greater strength of the aspirate. The argument that Ur should be sought in the neighbourhood of Arrapachitis and Seruj, because the names of Arphaxad and Serug occur in the genealogy of Abraham as no weight till it is shown that the human names in question are really connected with the places, which is at present assumed somewhat boldly. On the whole we may regard it as tolerably certain that “Ur of the Chaldees” was a place situated in the real Chaldaea—the low country near the Persian Gulf. The only question that remains in any degree doubtful is, whether Warka or Mugheir is the true locality. Traditions attached to both, but perhaps more distinctly to Warka. On the other hand, it seems certain that Warka, the native name of which was Huruk, represents the Erech of Genesis, which cannot possibly be the Ur of the same book. Mugheir, therefore, which bore the exact same name of ’Ur or Hur, remains with the best claim, and is entitled to be (at least provisionally) regarded as the city of Abraham. ’Ur or Hur, now Mugheir, or Um-Mugheir, “the bitumened,” or “the mother of bitumen,” is one of the most ancient, if not the most ancient, of the Chaldaean sites hitherto discovered. It lies on the right bank of the Euphrates, at the distance of about six miles from the present course of the stream, nearly opposite the point where the Euphrates receives the Shat-el-Hie from the Tigris. It is now not less than 125 miles from the sea; but there are grounds for believing that it was anciently a maritime town. The most remarkable building is near the northern end of the ruins. It is a temple of the true Chaldaean type. The bricks of this building bear the name of a certain Urukh, who is regarded as the earliest of the Chaldaean monumental kings. His supposed date is B .C . 2000, or a little
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earlier. ’Ur was the capital of this monarch. It retained its metropolitan character for above two centuries, and even after it became second to Babylon, was a great city, with an especially sacred character. It is in the main a city of tombs.
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Appendix 2—Names and Places Mentioned in This Study
Notes: Names in blue are of foreign, or more specifically Chaldee, Persian, or Egyptian origin. Names in green are names of uncertain derivation & are possibly of uncertain Hebrew origin. Names in black are of Hebrew origin. Calling out foreign names seemed especially important in this study in which the issue of foreigners mixing with the true seed of Israel was a problem. Also, due to wording that was unclear to me in Ezra and Nehemiah, and despite attempts to check, some names may have been mistaken for places and vice versa. All words were first checked in Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. If Strong’s did not provide a name meaning, Smith’s Bible Dictionary was consulted next. In some cases, neither could provide a name meaning.
Aaron (175) of uncert. deriv. Abda (5653) work Abed-nego (5664) of for. or.; Smith’s servant of Nego, that is, Mercury the god Abia/Abijah (29) father (i.e. worshiper) of Yah Abihu (30) father (i.e. worshiper) of Him (i.e. God) Abishua (50) father of plenty (i.e. prosperous) Abiud (Greek 10/Hebrew 31) father (i.e. possessor) of renown Abraham (85) father of a multitude Abram (87) high father Achaz (Greek 881/Hebrew 271) possessor Achim (Greek 885/Hebrew 3137) Yahveh will raise Adaiah (5718) Yah has adorned Addon (114) powerful Adin (5720) voluptuous Adna (5733) pleasure Adonijah (138) lord (i.e. worshiper) of Yah Adonikam (140) lord of rising (i.e. high) Adrammelech (152) splendor of (the) king Ahab (256) brother [i.e. friend] of (his) father Ahasai (273) seizer Ahasuerus (325) of Pers. or.; Smith’s Achashverosh Ahaz (271) possessor Ahijah (281) brother (i.e. worshiper) of Yah Ahikam (296) brother of rising (i.e. high) Ahimaaz (290) brother of anger Ahitub (285) brother of goodness Aholah (170) her tent (i.e. idolatrous sanctuary) Aholibah (172) my tent (is) in her Akkub (6126) insidious Amalekites (6003) prob. of for. or.; Smith’s to lick up Amariah (568) Yah has said (i.e. promised)
Amashai (6023) burdensome Ami (532) skilled, i.e. an architect [like 542] Aminadab (Greek 284/Hebrew 5992) people of liberality Ammonite/Ammonites (5984) tribal, i.e. inbred Amok (598) (Chald.) to insist; fig. to distress Amon (526) skilled, i.e. an architect Amorite/Amorites (567) a mountaineer Amoz (531) strong Amram (6019) high people Amraphel (569) of uncert. (perh. for.) der.; Smith’s keeper of the gods Amzi (557) strong Anaiah (6043) Yah has answered Anammelech (6048) of for. or.; Smith’s kingly image Anan (6052) cloud Ananiah (6055) Yah has covered Anathoth (6068) answer Aner (6063) (concr.) a boy (as active), from the age of infancy to adolescence; by impl. a servant; also (by interch. of sex), a girl (of similar latitude in age) Apharsachites/Apharsathchites (671) (Chald.) of for. or. Apharsites (670) (Chald.) of for. or. (only in the plur.); an Apharsite or inhabitant of an unknown region of Assyria Arabian/Arabians (6163) from 6150 in the fig. sense of sterility; 6150 to grow dusky at sundown Arah (733) way-faring Aram (758) the highland Archevites (756) (Chald.); patrial from 751, length Ariel (740) lion of God, i.e. heroic Arioch (746) of for. or.; Smith’s lion-like Arphaxad (775) prob. of for. or.; region of the Chasdim
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Artaxerxes (783) of for. or.; Smith’s great king Asa (609) of uncert. der.; Smith’s physician Asahel (6214) God has made Asaph (623) collector Ashdodites (796) ravager Ashpenaz (828) of for. or.; Smith’s Ashpenaz Asnah (619) of uncert. der. Asnappar (620) of for. der. Asshur (804) appar. from 833 (in the sense of successful); 833 a prim. root; to be straight (used in the widest sense, espec. to be level, right, happy); fig. to go forward, be honest, prosper Ater (333) maimed Athai (6270) constringent Athaiah (6265) Yah has helped Athaliah (6271) Yah has constrained Avites (5757) overthrow Azaniah (245) heard by Yah Azarael/Azareel (5832) God has helped Azariah (5838) Yah has helped Azbuk (5802) stern depopulator Azgad (5803) stern troop Aziza (5819) strengthfulness Azor (Greek 107/Hebrew 5809) helpful Azrikam (5840) help of an enemy Azzur (5809) helpful Baal (1168) a master; hence a husband, or (fig.) owner (often used with another noun in modifications of this latter sense) Balaam (1109) not (of the) people, i.e. foreigner Baana (1195) in affliction Baanah (1196) in affliction Baasha (1201) offensiveness Babylonians (896) (Chald.) confusion Bakbuk (1227) a bottle (from the gurgling in emptying) Bakbukiah (1229) emptying (i.e. wasting) of Yah Baladan (1081) house of a partridge Bani (1137) built Barkos (1302) of uncert. der. Baruch (1263) blessed Barzillai (1271) iron hearted Bavai (942) prob. of Pers. or. Bazlith/Bazluth (1213) a peeling Bebai (893) prob. of for. or. Bedeiah (912) servant of Yahveh Bel (1078) a master; hence a husband, or (fig.)
owner (often used with another noun in modifications of this latter sense) Belshazzar (1113) (Chald.) of for. or. Belteshazzar (1095) of for. der.; Smith’s favored by Bel Benaiah (1141) Yah has built Beninu (1148) our son Benjamin (1144) son of (the) right hand Bera (1298) of uncert. der.; Smith’s son of evil Berechiah (1296) knee (i.e. blessing) of Yah Berodach-baladan (1255) of for. der. Besai (1153) domineering Besodeiah (1152) in (the) counsel of Yahveh Bezai (1209) domineering Bezaleel (1212) in (the) shadow (i.e. protection) of God Bigvai (902) prob. of for. or.; Smith’s husbandman Bilgah (1083) desistance Bilgai (1084) desistant Bilshan (1114) of uncert. der.; Smith’s eloquent Binnui (1131) built up Birsha (1306) with wickedness Bishlam (1312) of for. der.; Smith’s son of peace Booz/Boaz (Greek 1003/Hebrew 1162) from an unused root of uncert. mean.; Smith’s agile Bukki (1231) wasteful Bunni (1138) built Buz (938) disrespect Canaanites (3669) a pedlar (the Canaanites standing for their neighbors the Ishmaelites, who conducted mercantile caravans) Careah (7143) bald Chaldean/Chaldeans/Chaldees (3679/3778) towards the Kasdites Chedorlaomer (3540) of for. or. Chelal (3636) complete Chelluh (3622) completed Chenani (3662) planted Christ (Greek 5547) anointed, i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus Col-hozeh (3626) every seer Coniah (3659) Yah will establish Cush (3568) prob. of for. or. Cyrus (3566) from the Pers. Daniel (1840) judge of God Darius (1867) of Pers. or. Darkon (1874) of uncert. der.
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David (1732) loving Dehavites (1723) of uncert. der. Delaiah (1806) Yah has delivered Dinaites (1784) (Chald.) patrial from an uncert. prim.; a Dinaite or inhab. of some unknown Ass. province Ebed (5651) a servant Ebed-melech (5663) servant of a king Eber (5677) prop. a region across; but used only adv. (with or without a prep.) on the opposite side (espec. of the Jordan; usually mean. the east) Egyptians (Hebrew 4713/Greek 124) the same as 4692
in the sense of a limit; 4692 something hemming in, i.e. (obj.) a mound (of besiegers), (abstr.) a siege, (fig.) distress; or (subj.) a fastness/Greek says of uncert. der.
El-nathan (494) God (is the) giver Elam (5867) hidden, i.e. distant Elamites (5962) (Chald.) hidden, i.e. distant Elasah (501) God has made Eleazar (499) God (is) helper Eliakim (471) God of raising Eliashib (475) God will restore Eliezer (461) God of help Elihoenai/Elionai (454) toward Yahveh (are) my eyes Elijah (452) God of Yahveh Eliphelet (467) God of deliverance Elishama (476) God of hearing Eliud (Greek 1664) God of majesty Elnathan (494) God (is the) giver Emims (368) terrors Ephai (5778) birdlike Esar-haddon (634) of for. der.; Smith’s fire-given Eshcol (812) a bunch of grapes or other fruit Esrom (Greek 2074/Hebrew 2696) court-yard Ethiopian (3571) prob. of for. or. Evil-merodach (192) of Chald. der. and prob. mean. soldier of Merodak; Smith’s Merodak’s fool Ezekias (Greek 1478/Hebrew 2396) strengthened of Yah Ezekiel (3168) God will strengthen Ezer (687) treasure Ezra (5834) aid Gabbai (1373) collective Gabriel (1403 Hebrew/1043 Greek) man of God Gahar (1515) lurker Galal (1559) great Gashmu (1654) a shower
Gazzam (1502) devourer Gedaliah (1436) Yah has become great Gemariah (1587) Yah has perfected Gershom/Gershon (1648) a refugee Geshem (1654) a shower Gibbar (1402) a person Gibeonite (1393) hilly Giddel (1435) stout Gilalai (1562) dungy Gileadite (1569) heap of testimony Ginnetho/Ginnethon (1599) gardener Girgashites (1622) patrial from an unused name [of uncert. der.] Gispa (1658) of uncert. der.; Smith’s caress Habaiah (2252) Yah has hidden Habaziniah (2262) of uncert. der.; a Rechabite; Smith’s light of Yah Hachaliah (2446) darkness of Yah Hadid (2307) a peak Hagab (2285) locust Hagaba/Hagabah (2286) locust Haggai (2292) festive Hakkatan (6997) small Hakupha (2709) crooked Hallohesh/Halohesh (3873) the enchanter Hamutal (2537) father-in-law of dew Hanan (2605) favor Hananeel (2606) God has favored Hanani (2607) gracious Hananiah (2608) Yah has favored Hanun (2586) favored Haran (2039) mountaineer Harhaiah (2736) fearing Yah Harhur (2744) inflammation Harim (2766) snub-nosed Hariph (2756) autumnal Harsha (2797) magician Harumaph (2739) snub-nosed Hashabiah (2811) Yah has regarded Hashabnah (2812) inventiveness Hashabniah (2813) thought of Yah Hashbadana (2806) considerate judge Hashub (2815) intelligent Hashum (2828) enriched Hashupha (2817) nakedness Hassenaah (5570) thorny Hasupha (2817) nakedness Hatipha (2412) robber
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Hatita (2410) explorer Hattil (2411) fluctuating Hattush (2407) from an unused root of uncert. signif.; Smith’s assembled Hazaiah (2382) Yah has seen Hebrew (5680) prop. a region across; but used only adv. (with or without a prep.) on the opposite side (espec. of the Jordan; usually mean. the east) Hebron (2275) seat of association Helkai (2517) apportioned Henadad (2582) favor of Hadad Hezekiah (2396) strengthened of Yah Hezir (2387) perh. protected Hilkiah (2518) portion of Yah Hittites (2850) terror Hizkijah (2396) strengthened of Yah Hodaviah (1938) majesty of Yah Hodevah (1937) majesty of Yah Hodijah (1941) majesty of Yah Horites (2752) cave-dweller or troglodyte Horonite (2772) double cave-town Hoshaiah (1955) Yah has saved Hoshea (1954) deliverer Hur (2354) white linen; OR the crevice of a serpent; the cell of a prison Iddo (5714) timely Igdaliah (3012) magnified of Yah Immer (564) talkative Imri (566) wordy Isaac (3327) laughter (i.e. mockery) Isaiah (3470) Yah has saved Ishijah (3449) Yah will lend Ishmael (3458) God will hear Ithamar (385) coast of the palm-tree Ithiel (384) God has arrived Izhar (3324) oil (as providing light); fig. anointing Jaala/Jaalah (3279) the same as 3280 or direct from 3276; 3280 fem. of 3277; 3277 an ibex (as climbing); 3276 a prim. root; prop. to ascend; fig. to be valuable (obj. useful, subj. benefited) Jaasau (3299) they will do Jaazaniah (2970) heard of Yah Jachin (3199) he (or it) will establish Jacob (3290) heel-catcher (i.e. supplanter) Jadau (3035) praised Jaddua (3037) knowing
Jadon (3036) thankful Jahaziah (3167) Yah will behold Jahaziel (3166) beheld of God Jair (2971) enlightener Jamin (3226) the right hand or side (leg, eye) of a person or other object (as the stronger and more dexterous); locally, the south Jarib (3402) lit. he will content; prop. adj. contentious; used as noun, an adversary Jashub (3437) he will return Jebusites (2983) trodden, i.e. threshing-place Jechonias (2423) an animal Jeconiah (3204) Yah will establish Jedaiah (3042) praised of Yah Jeduthun (3038) laudatory Jehiel (3273) carried away of God Jehoahaz (3059) Yahveh-seized Jehohanan (3076) Yahveh-favored Jehoiachin (3078) Yahveh will establish Jehoiada (3077) Yahveh-known Jehoiakim (3079) Yahveh will raise Jehonathan (3083) Yahveh-given Jehozadak (3087) Yahveh-righted Jeiel (3273) carried away of God Jeremai (3413) elevated Jeremiah (3414) Yah will rise Jeremoth (3406) elevations Jeroboam (3379) (the) people will contend Jeroham (3395) compassionate Jesaiah/Jeshaiah (3470) Yah has saved Jeshua (3442) he will save Jesse (3448) extant Jesus (Greek 2424/Hebrew 3091) Yahveh-saved Jews (3064) celebrated Jezaniah (3153) heard of Yah Jeziah (3150) sprinkled of Yah Jezrahiah (3156) Yah will shine Joab (3097) Yahveh-fathered Joatham (Greek 2488/Hebrew 8147) two; also (as ordinal) twofold Job (347) hated (i.e. persecuted) Joed (3133) appointer Joel (3100) Yahveh (is his) God Johanan (3110) Yahveh-favored Joiada (3111) Yahveh-known Joiakim (3113) Yahveh will raise Joiarib (3114) Yahveh will contend Jonadab (3122) Yahveh-largessed
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Jonathan (3083) Yahveh-given Jorah (3139) rainy Joram (3141) Yahveh-raised Josaphat (Greek 2498/Hebrew 3092) Yahveh-judged Josedech (3087) Yahveh-righted Joseph (3130 Hebrew/Greek 2501) let him add (or perh. simply act. part. adding) Joshua (3091) Yahveh-saved Josiah/Josias (Hebrew 2977/Greek 2502) founded of Yah Josiphiah (3131) Yah (is) adding Jozabad (3107) Yahveh-endowed Jozadak (3136) Yahveh-righted Judah (3063/2455 Greek) celebrated Kadmiel (6934) presence of God Kallai (7040) frivolous Keilah (7084) citadel Kelaiah (7041) insignificance Kelita (7042) maiming Keros (7026) ankled Kish (7027) a bow Koa (6970) curtailment Kohath (6955) allied Kolaiah (6964) voice of Yah Korah (7141) ice Koz (6976) a thorn Lebana/Lebanah (3838) prop. (the) white, i.e. the moon Levi/Levite/Levites (3878/3881) attached Lot (3876) a veil Ludim (3866) prob. of for. der. Maachathite (4602) depression Maadai (4572) ornamental Maadiah (4573) ornament of Yah Maai (4597) sympathetic Maaseiah (4641) work of Yah Maaziah (4590) rescue of Yah Machnadebai (4367) what (is) like (a) liberal (man)? Magpiash (4047) exterminator of (the) moth Mahalaleel (4111) praise of God Mahli (4249) sick Malchiah/Malchijah (4441) king of (i.e. appointed by) Yah Malluch (4409) regnant Mamre (4471) lusty Manasseh (Hebrew 4519/Greek 3128) causing to
forget Mary (Greek 3137/Hebrew 4813) rebelliously Mattan (Hebrew 4977/Greek 3157) a present Mattaniah (4983) gift of Yah Mattathah (4992) gift of Yah Mattenai (4982) liberal Mattithiah (4993) gift of Yah Meah (3968) prob. a numeral; a hundred; also as a multiplicative and a fraction Mede/Medes (4075/4074) of for. der. Mehetabeel (4105) bettered of God Mehida (4240) junction Mehunim (4586) a residence Melatiah (4424) (whom) Yah has delivered Melchiah (4441) king of (i.e. appointed by) Yah Melchizedek (4442) king of right Melicu (4409) regnant Melzar (4453) of Pers. der.; the butler or other officer in the Bab. court; steward Meraiah (4811) rebellion Meraioth (4812) rebellious Merari (4847) bitter Meremoth (4822) heights Merodach (4781) of for. der.; Smith’s bold Merodach-baladan (4757) of for. der. Meronothite (4824) patrial from an unused noun; a Meronothite, or inhab. of some (otherwise unknown) Meronoth Meshach (4335) borrowed from 4336; 4336 (Chald.) of for. or. and doubtful signif.; Smith’s ram Meshech (4902) the same in form as 4901, but prob. of for. der.; 4901 a sowing; also a possession; Smith’s drawing out Meshezabeel (4898) delivered of God Meshillemoth (4919) reconciliations Meshullam (4918) allied Meunim (4586) a residence Miamin (4326) from (the) right hand Micha (4316) who (is) like Yah? Michael (4317) who (is) like God? Michaiah (4320) who (is) like Yah? Mijamin (4326) from (the) right hand Milalai (4450) talkative Miniamin (4509) from (the) right hand Miriam (4813) rebelliously Mishael (4332) who (is) what God (is)? Mispar (4558) number
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Mispereth (4559) enumeration Mithredath (4990) of Pers. or. Moabites (4124) from (her [the mother’s]) father Moadiah (4153) assembly of Yah Moloch (4432) Molek (i.e. king), the chief deity of the Ammonites Mordecai (4782) of for. der.; Smith’s little man Moses (4872) drawing out (of the water), i.e. rescued Naasson (Greek 3476/Hebrew 5177) enchanter Nadab (5070) liberal Nahamani (5167) consolatory Nahor (5152) snorer Nathan (5416) given Nebai (5109) fruitful Nebo (5015) prob. of for. der.; Smith’s project Nebuchadnezzar/Nebuchadrezzar (5019) of for. der.; Smith’s Nebo the mighty Nebushasban (5021) of for. der.; Smith’s adherent of Nebo Nebuzar-adan (5018) of for. or. Necho (5224) prob. of Eg. or. Nehelamite (5161) dreamed Nehemiah (5166) consolation of Yah Nehum (5149) comforted Nehushta (5179) copper Nekoda (5353) distinction Nephishesim/Nephusim (5304) expansions Nergal-sharezer (5371) from 5370 and 8272; 5370 of for. or.; 8272 of for. der. Neriah (5374) light of Yah Nethaneel (5417) given of God Nethaniah (5418) given of Yah Nethinims (5411) one given, i.e. (in the plur. only) the Nethinim, or temple-servants (as given up to that duty) Netophathite (5200) distillation Neziah (5335) conspicuous Nimrod (5248) prob. of for. or.; Smith’s the extremely impious rebel Noadiah (5129) convened of Yah Nun (5126) perpetuity Obadiah (5662) serving Yah Obed (5744) serving Og (5747) round Ono (207) strong Ozias/Uzziah (Greek 3604/Hebrew 5818) strength of Yah
Padon (6303) ransom Pahath-moab (6355) pit of Moab; Moab from (her [the mother’s]) father Palal (6420) judge Parosh/Pharosh (6551) a flea (as the isolated insect) Paseah (6454) limping Pashur (6583) liberation Pathrusim (6625) of Eg. der. Pedaiah (6305) Yah has ransomed Pekod (6489) punishment Pelaiah (6411) Yah has distinguished Pelatiah (6410) Yah has delivered Peleg (6389) earthquake Perez (6557) a break (lit. or fig.) Perida (6514) dispersion Perizzites (6522) inhab. of the open country Persian/Persians (6539/6540/6542) of for. or.; 6540 is the Chaldee equivalent of 6539; Smith’s pure Peruda (6514) dispersion Pethahiah (6611) Yah has opened Pharaoh (6547) of Eg. der.; Smith’s Heb. PA ’RÔH , the king; from PHRA , the sun Pharaoh-hophra (6548) of Eg. der. Pharaoh-necho (6549) of Eg. der. Phares (Greek 5329/Hebrew 6557) a break (lit. or fig.) Phaseah (6454) limping Philistines/Philistim (6430) rolling, i.e. migratory Phinehas (6372) mouth of a serpent Pileha (6401) slicing Piltai (6408) delivered Pochereth of Zebaim (6380) trap of gazelles Raamiah (7485) Yah has shaken Rab-mag (7248) chief Magian Rachab (Greek 4477/Hebrew 7343) proud Raham (7357) pity Ramiah (7422) Yah has raised Ramoth (3406) elevations Reaiah (7211) Yah has seen Rechab (7394) rider Rechabites (7397) softness Reelaiah (7480) made to tremble (i.e. fearful) of Yah Rehob (7340) a width (i.e. concr.) avenue or area Rehum (7348) compassionate Rephaiah (7509) Yah has cured Rephaims (7497) a giant Reu (7466) friend
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Rezin (7526) delight (espec. as shown) Roboam (Greek 4497/Hebrew 7346) a people has enlarged Ruth (7327) friend Sadoc (Greek 4524/Hebrew 6659) just Salah (7974) a missile of attack, i.e. spear; also (fig.) a shoot of growth, i.e. branch Salathiel (7597) I have asked God Sallai/Sallu (5543) weighed Salmon (Hebrew 8012/Greek 4533) investiture Samgar-nebo (5562) of for. or. Sanballat (5571) of for. or. Sarsechim (8310) of for. der.; Smith’s chief of the eunuchs Satan (Hebrew 7854/Greek 4566/4567) an opponent; espec. (with the art. pref.) Satan, the arch-enemy of good Senaah (5570) thorny Senuah (5574) pointed Sepharvites (5617) of for. der. Seraiah (8304) Yah has prevailed Serug (8286) tendril Shabbethai (7678) restful Shadrach (7714) prob. of for. or.; Smith’s circuit of the sun Shallum/Shallun (7967) a requital, i.e. (secure) retribution, (venal) a fee Shallun (7968) a requital, i.e. (secure) retribution, (venal) a fee Shalmai (8073) clothed Shammua (8051) renowned Shaphan (8227) a species of rock-rabbit (from its hiding), i.e. prob. the hyrax Sharai (8298) hostile Shashai (8343) whitish Sheal (7594) request Shealtiel (7597) I have asked God Shebaniah (7645) Yah has grown (i.e. prospered) Shechaniah (7935) Yah has dwelt Shechem (7927) ridge Shelemiah (8018) thank-offering of Yah Shelomith (8019) peacableness Shem (8035) name Shema (8087) something heard, i.e. a sound, rumor, announcement; abstr. audience Shemaiah (8098) Yah has heard Shemariah (8114) Yah has guarded Shemeber (8038) name of pinion, i.e. illustrious
Shephatiah (8203) Yah has judged Sherebiah (8274) Yah has brought heat Sheshbazzar (8339) of for. der.; Smith’s fireworshiper Shethar-boznai (8370) of for. der.; Smith’s star of splendor Shiloh (7886) tranquil Shiloni (7888) tranquil Shimei (8096) famous Shimeon (8095) hearing Shimshai (8124) (Chald.) sunny Shinab (8134) a father has turned Shoa (7772) rich Shobai (7630) captor Shobek (7733) forsaking Sia/Siaha (5517) congregation Sinai (5514) of uncert. der. Sisera (5516) of uncert. der.; Smith’s battle-array Solomon (8010) peaceful Sophereth (5618) a scribe (prop. female) Sotai (5479) roving Stephen (Greek 4736) a chaplet (as a badge of royalty, a prize in the public games or a symbol of honor gen.; but more conspicuous and elaborate than the simple fillet, 1238), lit. or fig. Susanchites (7801) of for. or.; Smith’s identifies this as a Hebrew word, lily, associated with Shushan Syrian/Syrians (761/758) the highland; Aram or Syria, and its inhabitants Tabbaoth (2884) rings Tabeel (2870) pleasing (to) God Talmon (2929) oppressive Tamah (8547) of uncert. der.; Smith’s laughter Tanhumeth (8576) compassion, solace Tarpelites (2967) (Chald.) from a name of for. der. Tatnai (8674) of for. der.; Smith’s gift Tekoites (8621) a trumpet Telem (2928) oppression Terah (8646) of uncert. der.; Smith’s station Thamah (8547) of uncert. der. Thamar (Greek 2283/Hebrew 8559) a palm tree Tidal (8413) fearfulness Tikvah (8616) lit. a cord (as an attachment [comp. 6961]); fig. expectancy Tirshatha (8660) of for. der.; the title of a Pers. deputy or governor; Smith’s stern
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Tobiah (2900) goodness of Yahveh Uel (177) wish of God Unni (6042) afflicted Uri (221) fiery Uriah/Urijah/Urias (Greek 3774/Hebrew 223) flame of Yah Uthai (5793) succoring Uzai (186) strong Uzza (5798) strength Uzzi (5813) forceful Uzziah (5818) strength of Yah Uzziel (5816) strength of God Vaniah (2057) Yah has answered Zabad (2066) giver Zabbai (2079) prob. by orth. err. for 2140; 2140 pure Zabbud (2072) given Zabdi (2067) giving Zabdiel (2068) gift of God Zaccai (2140) pure Zaccur (2139) mindful Zadok (6659) just Zalaph (6764) from an unused root of unknown mean.; Smith’s wound Zanoah (2182) rejected Zara/Zerah (Greek 2196/Hebrew 2226) a rising of light Zatthu/Zattu (2240) of uncert. der.; Smith’s a sprout Zebadiah (2069) Yah has given Zebina (2081) gainfulness Zechariah (2148) Yah has remembered Zedekiah (6667) right of Yah Zephaniah (6846) Yah has secreted Zerahiah (2228) Yah has risen Zerubbabel/Zorobabel (Hebrew 2216/Greek 2216) descended of (i.e. from) Babylon, i.e. born there Zichri (2147) memorable Zidkijah (6667) right of Yah Zidonians (6722) fishery Ziha (6727) drought Zuzims (2104) prominent
Accad (390) a fortress Achmetha (307) of Pers. der.
Addan (135) firm Addon (114) powerful Admah (126) earthy Adullam (5725) prob. from an unused root of uncert. mean. Ahava (163) prob. of for. or.; Smith’s river Ai/Aija (5857) a ruin (as if overturned) Ammon (5983) tribal, i.e. inbred Anamim (6047) as if plur. of some Eg. word Ananiah (6055) Yah has covered Anathoth (6068) answer Arabia (6154) the web (or transverse threads of cloth); also a mixture (or mongrel race) Ararat (780) of for. or.; Smith’s holy land Ashchenaz (813) of for. or. Ashdod (795) ravager Ashima (807) of for. or.; Smith’s goat with short hair Ashkelon (831) prob. from 8254 in the sense of weighing-place (i.e. mart); 8254 to suspend or poise (espec. in trade) Ashteroth Karnaim (6255) Ashteroth of (the) double horns (a symbol of the deity); Ashteroth 6252 increase Asshur/Assyria (804) appar. from 833 (in the sense of successful); 833 a prim. root; to be straight (used in the widest sense, espec. to be level, right, happy); fig. to go forward, be honest, prosper Ava (5755) overthrow Azekah (5825) tilled Azmaveth (5820) strong one of death Azzah (5804) strong Babel (894) confusion Babylon (894) confusion Bashan (1316) of uncert. der.; Smith’s soft, rich soil, or basalt soil Beer-sheba (884) well of an oath Beeroth (881) wells Bela (1106) a gulp; fig. destruction Benjamin (1144) son of (the) right hand Beth-azmaveth (1041) house of Azmaveth; Azmaveth 5820 strong one of death Beth-el (1008) house of God Beth-haccerem (1021) house of the vineyard Beth-lehem (1035) house of bread Beth-phelet (1046) house of escape Beth-shemesh (1053) house of (the) sun
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Beth-zur (1049) house of (the) rock Calah (3625) maturity Calneh (3641) of for. der.; Smith’s [possibly] fort of Ann Canaan (3667) humiliated Caphtorim (3732) appar. the same as 3730; Caphtor (i.e. a wreath-shaped island), the original seat of the Philistines; 3730 prob. from an unused root mean. to encircle; a chaplet; but used only in the architectonic sense, i.e. the capital of a column, or a wreath-like button or disk on the candelabrum Carmel (3760) a planted field (garden, orchard, vineyard or park); by impl. garden produce Casiphia (3703) silvery Chaldea (3778) towards the Kasdites; patron. from 3777; 3777 from an unused root of uncert. mean. Chebar (3529) length Chephirah (3716) the village (always with the art.) Cherub (3743) of uncert. der.; a cherub or imaginary figure; Smith’s mystic figure on the ark Chimham (3643) pining Chittim (3794) patrial from an unused name denoting Cyprus (only in the plur.); Smith’s maritime Cush (3568) prob. of for. or. Cuthah (3575) of for. or. Damascus (1834) of for. or. Dedan (1719) of uncert. der.; Smith’s low country Dibon (1769) pining Edom (123) red Egypt (Hebrew 4714/Greek 125) the same as 4692 in
the sense of a limit; 4692 something hemming in, i.e. (obj.) a mound (of besiegers), (abstr.) a siege, (fig.) distress; or (subj.) a fastness/Greek says of uncert. der.
Ekron (6138) eradication El-paran (364) oak of Paran; Paran 6290 ornamental Elam/other Elam (5867) hidden, i.e. distant En-mishpat (5880) fountain of judgment En-rimmon (5884) fountain of a pomegranate Ephraim (669) double fruit Erech (751) length Euphrates (6578) rushing Gaba/Geba (1387) a hillock Gibeon (1391) hilly
Gihon (1521) stream Gilead (1568) heap of testimony Gilgal (1537) a wheel; by anal. a whirlwind; also dust (as whirled) Gittaim (1664) double wine-press Gomorrah (6017) a (ruined) heap Grecia (3120) effervescing (i.e. hot and active) Hadid (2307) a peak Ham (2526) hot (from the tropical habitat) Hamath (2574) walled Hanameel (2601) God has favored Haran (2039) mountaineer Harim (2766) snub-nosed Hazar-shual (2705) village of (the) fox Hazezon-tamar (2688) division [i.e. perh. row] of (the) palm-tree Hazor (2674) village Heshbon (2809) prop. contrivance; by impl. intelligence Hiddekel (2313) prob. of for. or. Hinnom (2011) prob. of for. or. Immer (564) talkative Ishmael (3458) God will hear Israel (3478) he will rule as God Jarmuth (3412) elevation Jedaiah (3042) praised of Yah Jekabzeel (3343) God will gather Jericho (3405) its month; OR fragrant Jerusalem (3389) founded peaceful Jeshua (3442) he will save Johanan (3110) Yahveh-favored Jonathan (3083) Yahveh-given Joppa (3305) beautiful Judah (3063) celebrated Kadesh (6946) sanctuary Kareah (7143) bald Kedar (6938) dusky (of the skin or the tent); Kedar, a son of Ishmael; also (collect.) bedawin (as his descendants or representatives) Keilah (7084) citadel Kirjath-arba (7153) city of Arba, or city of the four (giants); Arba 704 four Kirjath-arim/Kirjath-jearim (7157) city of forests, or city of towns Lachish (3923) from an unused root of uncert. mean.; Smith’s obstinate Lebanon (3844) (the) white mountain (from its snow)
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Lehabim (3853) flames Libnah (3841) some sort of whitish tree, perh. the storax Lod (3850) from an unused root of uncert. signif. Magbish (4019) stiffening Mamre (4471) lusty Media (4074) of for. der. Mekonah (4368) a base Merathaim (4850) double bitterness Michmas/Michmash (4363) hidden Migdol (4024) prob. of Eg. or.; Smith’s tower Minni (4508) of for. der.; Smith’s division Miphkad (4663) assignment Mizpah (4709) an observatory, espec. for military purposes Mizraim (4719) fold Moab (4124) from (her [the mother’s]) father Moladah (4137) birth Naphtuhim (5320) plur. of for. or.; Smith’s the people of the (Nine) bows Neballat (5041) foolish secrecy Nebo/Nebo (other) (5015) prob. of for. der.; Smith’s project Nergal (5370) of for. or. Nethaniah (5418) given of Yah Netophah/Netophathi (5199/5200) distillation Nibhaz (5026) of for. or.; Smith’s Heb. NABACH ; to bark Nineveh (5210) of for. or.; Smith’s Nin-navah=Nintown Nob (5011) fruit Noph (5297) of Eg. or. Ono (207) strong Ophel (6077) a tumor; also a mound, i.e. fortress Ophir (211) of uncert. deriv.; Smith’s dust—red dust? Palestina (6429) rolling, i.e. migratory Pathros (6624) of Eg. der. Persia (6539) of for. or.; Smith’s pure Philistia (6429) rolling, i.e. migratory Rabbath (7237) great Rahab (7343) proud Ramah (7414) a height (as a seat of idolatry) Rehoboth (7344) streets Riblah (7247) fertile Salem (8004) peaceful Samaria (8111) watch-station Seir (8165) rough
Senaah (5570) thorny Sepharvaim (5617) of for. der. Seraiah (8304) Yah has prevailed Shaveh Kiriathaim (7741) plain of a double city Shaveh (7740) plain Sheshbazzar (8339) of for. der.; Smith’s fireworshiper Sheshach (8347) of for. der. Shinar (8152) prob. of for. der.; Smith’s country of the two rivers Shushan (7800) a lily (from its whiteness), as a flower or arch. ornament; also a (straight) trumpet (from the tubular shape) Siddim (7708) flats Sihon (5511) tempestuous Siloah (7975) rill Sin (5512) of uncert. der.; Smith’s mire Sodom (5467) burnt (i.e. volcanic or bituminous) district Succoth-benoth (5524) booths of (the) daughters; brothels, i.e. idolatrous tents for impure purposes Tabor (8396) broken region Tahpanhes (8471) of Eg. der.; Smith’s Daphne? Tanhumeth (8576) compassion, solace Tarshish (8659) prob. the same as 8658 (as the region of the stone, or the reverse); Tarshish, a place on the Mediterranean, hence the epithet of a merchant vessel (as if for or from that port); 8658 prob. of for. der. [comp. 8659]; a gem, perh. the topaz Tartak (8662) of for. der. Tel-haresha/Tel-harsa (8521) mound of workmanship Tel-melah (8528) mound of salt Tema (8485) prob. of for. der.; Smith’s desert Tubal (8422) prob. of for. der.; Smith’s equates it with Hebrew to prepare Tyre/Tyrus (6865) a rock Ulai (195) of Pers. der. Uphaz (210) perh. a corruption of 211; 211 Ophir, of uncert. der.; Smith’s dust—red dust? Ur (218) flame, hence (in the plur.) the East (as being the region of light) Uz (5780) consultation Zanoah (2182) rejected Zareah (6881) a wasp (as stinging) Zeboiim/Zeboim (6636) gazelles
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Zidon (6721) fishery Ziklag (6860) of uncert. der. Zimri (2174) musical Zion (6726) a monumental or guiding pillar Zoan (6814) of Eg. der.; departure Zoar (6820) little
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