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04

Newton-Raphson Method of Solving a Nonlinear

Equation More Examples

Chemical Engineering

Example 1

You have a spherical storage tank containing oil. The tank has a diameter of . You are

asked to calculate the height h to which a dipstick 8 ft long would be wet with oil when

immersed in the tank when it contains of oil.

ft 6

3

ft 6

h

r

Spherical Storage Tank

Dipstick

Figure 1 Spherical storage tank problem.

The equation that gives the height h of the liquid in the spherical tank for the given volume

and radius is given by

( ) 0 8197 . 3 9

2 3

= + = h h h f

Use the Newton-Raphson method of finding roots of equations to find the height to which

the dipstick is wet with oil. Conduct three iterations to estimate the root of the above

equation. Find the absolute relative approximate error at the end of each iteration and the

number of significant digits at least correct at the end of each iteration.

h

03.04.1

03.04.2 Chapter 03.04

Solution

( ) 8197 . 3 9

2 3

+ = h h h f

( ) h h h f 18 3

2

= '

Let us take the initial guess of the root of ( ) 0 = h f as 1

0

= h .

Iteration 1

The estimate of the root is

( )

( )

0

0

0 1

h f

h f

h h

'

=

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) 1 18 1 3

8197 . 3 1 9 1

1

2

2 3

+

=

15

1803 . 4

1

=

( ) 27869 0 1 . =

72131 0. =

The absolute relative approximate error

a

e at the end of Iteration 1 is

100

1

0 1

= e

h

h h

a

100

72131 0

1 72131 0

=

.

.

% 636 . 38 =

The number of significant digits at least correct is 0, as you need an absolute relative

approximate error of or less for one significant digit to be correct in your result. % 5

Iteration 2

The estimate of the root is

( )

( )

1

1

1 2

h f

h f

h h

'

=

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) 72131 0 18 72131 0 3

8197 . 3 72131 0 9 72131 0

72131 0

2

2 3

. .

. .

.

+

=

423 . 11

48764 . 0

72131 0

= .

( ) 042690 . 0 72131 0 = .

67862 0. =

The absolute relative approximate error

a

e at the end of Iteration 2 is

100

2

1 2

= e

h

h h

a

Newton-Raphson Method More Equations: Chemical Engineering 03.04.3

100

67862 0

72131 0 67862 . 0

=

.

.

% 2907 . 6 =

The number of significant digits at least correct is 0.

Iteration 3

The estimate of the root is

( )

( )

2

2

2 3

h f

h f

h h

'

=

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) 67862 0 18 67862 . 0 3

8197 . 3 67862 0 9 67862 0

67862 . 0

2

2 3

.

. .

+

=

834 . 10

012536 . 0

67862 0

= .

( ) 0011572 . 0 67862 0 = .

67747 0. =

The absolute relative approximate error

a

e at the end of Iteration 3 is

100

3

2 3

= e

h

h h

a

100

67747 0

67862 0 67747 0

=

.

. .

% 17081 . 0 =

Hence the number of significant digits at least correct is given by the largest value of for

which

m

m

a

s e

2

10 5 . 0

m

s

2

10 5 . 0 17081 . 0

m

s

2

10 34162 . 0

( ) m s 2 34162 . 0 log

( ) 4665 . 2 34162 . 0 log 2 = s m

So

2 = m

The number of significant digits at least correct in the estimated root 0.67747 is 2.

NONLINEAR EQUATIONS

Topic Newton-Raphson Method-More Examples

Summary Examples of Newton-Raphson Method

Major Chemical Engineering

Authors Autar Kaw

Date August 7, 2009

Web Site http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu

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