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(COMPLETE) mkgandhi.org Mind of Mahatma Gandhi Chronology
Year/Month Date Event Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi born of a Bania (Vaishya or trading caste) family at Porbunder, Kathiawar, the youngest of the three sons of Karamchand ALIAS Kaba Gandhi, prime Minister successively in Porbunder, Rajkot and Vankaner States, and his fourth wife Putlibai. Goes to Rajkot with parents; attend primary school there till twelfth year; is betrothed to Kasturbai, daughter of Gokuldas Makanji, merchant. Enters high school at Rajkot.
Takes to meat-eating in secret, but abandons habit after about a year to avoid deceiving his parents. Passes matriculations examinations; joins Samaldas College at Bhavnagar (Kathiawar), but gives up studies at close of first term. 4 Sails for England Reaches London
1887 1888 Sept
Lives on vegetarian diet. Takes lessons in dancing and music for a short time, thinking they are necessary parts of a gentleman’s equipment Reads books on simple living and decides to reduce expenses by half; studies religious literature; reads Gita for first time and is deeply impressed. Cultivates contacts with vegetarian movement; for short while conducts vegetarian club.
being engaged by a Muslim firm for legal work Experience colour bar in various forms. Poona and Calcutta educating Indians in regard to grievances of south African Indians Sails for South Africa with wife and children. 1892 struggles with legal practice at Rajkot and Bombay. Returns to India and starts agitation on behalf of south African Indians. later settles down at former place as legal draftsman. Nov Applies for admission to Bombay High Court. the Koran and Tolstoy’s The kingdom of god is within you. Gets more committed to south African Indian cause. decides to remain and fight race prejudice.June passes London Matric Sept 1891 June 10 12 joins Vegetarian Society. Tours Bombay. being first Indian to be so enrolled. madras. leaves for South Africa. issues The Indian Franchise : An appeal to Every Briton in South Africa. July Reaches Bombay. 20 Mobbed on landing at Durban by crowd excited by reports of his speeches in India on conditions of indentured Indian labour in South Africa. Studies religious literature including the Bible. Publishes The Green Pamphlet at Rajkot. Called to the Bar Sails for India. 22 Founds Natal Indian Congress Enrolled as Advocate of Supreme Court of Natal. 1893 April May-June 1894 Aug Sept 1895 1896 July Aug Nov 1897 Jan 14 30 13 .
organizes hospital during outbreak of plague in Johannesburg. Represents to Indian National Congress. Shifts to and sets up practice at Bombay Is called to south Africa to champion Indian’s cause against anti-Asiatic legislation in Transvaal. Raises Indian Ambulance Corps in Boer War. 28 Feb July Nov 1 Visits Rangoon Stays for a month with Gokhale at Calcutta. Carries on programme of petitioning local and Imperial Authorities. which goes into action and is mentioned in dispatches. Sends weekly statements regarding situation to Dadabhai Naoroji Indian opinion commences publication Reads Ruskin’s Unto This Last: founds Phoenix Settlement near Durban (Natal). as well as ofcommunicating with British and Indian public men regarding discriminatory laws. Dec Arrives in Durban : leadsdelegation to chamberlain Enrolled as Attorney of Supreme Court of Transvaal. background. for Congress session April 6 1898-99 1899 1990 1901 Oct Dec 18 14 27 Sails for India Reaches Rajkot via Porbunder. Returns to Rajkot.20 Declines to prosecute assailants. awarded war medal. founds Transvaal British Indian Association. Submits long memorial to Chamberlain. Colonial and Imperial authorities. Moves resolution on South Africa at congress 1902 Jan. regarding landing incidents. settles down to Practice. writes series of articles in Gujarati on dietetics which are later translated into English and 1903 June 1904 . secretary of State for colonies. against Locations and restrictions on Indian’s trading rights. Sends Dadabhai Naoroji draft resolution on South African Indian problem.
British High Commissioner. published weekly in Indian Opinion and later. 1905 1906May Sept Oct.21 Nov 30 Dec. in Indian Opinion. In England on deputation to present Indian’s case to Colonial Secretary Returns to South Africa. with consideration. picketing of Permit Offices. declaring disinterestedness in worldly possessions. Lakshmidas. opposition to‘ Black Act’. 18 1907 JanFeb. takes vow of Brahmacharya for life. defends passive resisters in court. 11 Addresses mass meeting of Indian sat Johannesburg. Sees smuts at Pretoria. Leads deputation to Lord Selborne. suggesting amendments. During Gokhale. appeals to Colonial statement to treat India. acquaints him with resolutions adopted at mass meeting. Writes series of 8 articles in Gujarati on "Ethical Religion". Aug . Opposes Bengal Partition. Lajpat Rai deputation to Britain. Indians hold protect meetings. Passive resistance. ‘Black Act’ receives royal assent March April May July Address mass meeting opposing ‘Black Act’ Writes to Smuts criticising Registration Act. Pledge. 12 27 June-July Support ‘home rule’ for India ‘ in the name of justice and for good of humanity’ Writes to brother.published under the title Guide to Health. which takes oath of passive resistance against newly promulgated Transvaal Asiatic Law Amendment Ordinance. as a book Asiatic Registration Act passed in Transvaal Parliament. concerning Transvaal Indian problem. ‘an integral part of the Empire’. Raises Indian Stretcher-bearer Corps in Zulu Rebellion. supports boycott of British goods.
on deportation. Negotiates with Smuts forfulfillment of promise of repeal of Act which Smuts denies. refuses to prosecute his assailants.‘ Satyagraha’ in place of ‘Passive Resistance’. Agrees to settlement on basis of voluntary registration. as a betrayal of Indian interests. Registration certificates burnt at meetings. Nearly killed by Pathans who regard the compromise. but released on bail. criticizing the harsh. Adopt word. Smuts refuses Indian terms for settlement 15 Arrested and sentenced sentenced to 2 months rigorous imprisonment Released from VolksrustJail. passive resistance resumed Royal assent is given to amended Registration Act. Indian National Congress adopts resolution on South Africa. Summoned to see General Smuts at Pretoria and released. Corresponding with Smuts released. Indians in mass meeting decide to refuse thumb impression and burn registration certificates Declares use of violence ‘harmful. returned and is re-arrested. Sentenced to 2 months imprisonment for failure to leave Transvaal. Arrested at Volksrust for failing to produce registration certificate. humiliating and cruel treatment of British Indians in South Africa as injurious to British Empire. under which Indians are expected to give their finger – prints voluntarily. on reaching a compromise. Writes to press calling on Indians to prepare for final phase of struggle 1908Jan 8 10 21 30 Feb 10 March-June July Aug Sept Oct Dec 12 1909 Jan 16 20 . even useless to uproot British rule’ in India Appeals to Smuts to repeal ‘Black Act’.Dec Smuts decides to prosecute Gandhiji Asks Government for suspension of Registration act. if registration Act is repealed. offers voluntary registration.
sends his biography by Doke. Leaves with Haji Habib. and to move Imperial authorities. on deputation to England to represent Indian case. urging ban on indenture. no colour bar taint in laws Dec 1910 April May 29 4 8 30 Dec 1911 Jan March April 27 22 4 Interviews smuts atCape town Smuts agrees to assurances demanded by Indians in reciprocation of suspension of Passive Resistance movement . June 21 July 10 Oct Nov 1 9 10 13 Leaves England for South Africa Writes Hind Swaraj on board "s. With the assistance of Lord Ampthill. works ceaselessly to educate influential British leaders.Feb May 25 2 24 Arrested at Volksrust. sentenced to 3 months Transferred toPretoria Central Jail released. Replies to Tolstoy. s. Arrives in London. question of passive Resistance of greatest importance not only for India but for humanity. Founds Tolstoy Farm Pays memorial tribute to Tolstoy Communicates with Smuts regarding amendments to Immigrants’ Restrictions Bill. the public. Kildonan Castle" 30 Reaches South Africa Congress at Lahore adopts resolution praising Indian’s struggle in South Africa. Writes to Tolstoy regarding Passive Resistance movement. seeks comments Tolstoy replies. latter assures. Sends Tolstoy copy of Indians Home Rule. The times reports failure of Gandhi Government negotiations on Transvaal laws.
Indians in mass meeting protest against Searle Judgement In Indian opinion draws attention to new Immigration Bill’s failure to fulfill terms of Provisional Settlement of 1911. Laurenco Marques.Kasturba decides to join passive Resistance struggle. Refers in Indian Opinion to the possibility of return home to India by mid-year. Warns Government of certainty of revival of movement if it fails to grant promised relief. Gives up European dress and milk and restricts himself to diet of fresh and dried fruit. 3000 minor strike Oct 17 . Idea of return to India deferred in view of stringent application of discriminatory laws and likely resumption of satyagraha Express readiness for negotiations Announces negotiation "proved abortive Passive Resistance is revived Oct 22 1913Jan March 18 14 30 April 12 May 19 June 7 27 Sept 13 15 16 Kasturba is arrested Visits Newcastle. urges indentured Indians to cease work till repeal of £3 tax. on tour of South Africa.May June Dec 1912 March Sept 3 24 8 16 12 Meets Smuts: ‘ProvisionalSettlement" arrived on Smuts’ promise of repeal of Asiatic Registration and Immigrations’ Restriction Acts’ Pledges loyalty to King-emperor on coronation Invites Gokhale to South Africa Commends Gokhale’s attempts for abolition of indenture system Phoenix Trust is set up Accompanies Gokhale. Indian marriages in South Africa invalidated by Searle’s Supreme Court judgement. Mozambique and Zanzibar.
rejoin Marchers 8 Arrested at Standerton.24 proposes ‘March’ into Transvaal 28 March’ formNewcastle begins 30 Nov 3 5 Reaches Charlestown Announces ‘March" into Transvaal to court arrest Telephones Smuts seeking assurance of repeal of £ 3 tax 6 Leads ‘ Great March’ Arrested at Palmford 7 At Volksrust. from time of release till settlement take only one meal a day and puts on indentured labourer’s dress. released on bail. released on recognizance. taken to Balfour 10 Takes ‘one meal a day’ pledge till repeal of tax 11 Sentenced. Fourteen day’s penitential fast for moral lapse of inmates of Farm . ‘March’ continues 9 Arrested at Teakworth. Dec 1914 Jan 18 13.16 Interviews Smuts. at Dundee. to 9 months’ rigorous imprisonment 13 Removed to Volksrust gaol 14 Sentenced to 3 months on fresh count at Volksrust Released unconditionally. submits proposals 22 Suspends satyagraha following agreement with Smuts.
troops firing on an unarmed crowd and killing over 400. escorted back to Bombay. after the name of the river) at Ahmedabad Tours India and Burma. Addresses public meeting near Sabarmati Ashram and declares three day’s penitential fast 13 .June July Aug 18 4 Indian Relief Act is passed Sails for England. subsequently tours Kaira District to raise recruits for army Signs Satyagraha pledge to secure withdrawal of Rowlatt Bills. appointed by Bihar Government as member of committee set up t o inquire into ryots’ grievances. Raises Indian Volunteer Corps volunteer corps on duty 19 9 20 Sails for India Reaches India. inaugurates all-India satyagraha movement . initiates satyagraha in Kaira District (Bombay) to secures suspension of revenue assessment on failure of crops 27 Attends Viceroy’s War Conference at Delhi and addresses it in Hindustani. travelling 3rd class on the railways Successfully agitates against indentured Indian emigration. countrywide HARTAL Oct Dec 1915Jan May 1915-16 1917 April 1918 JanMarch April 1919Feb April 28 6 Arrested on way to Delhi for refusal to co. Awarded Kaiser-I-Hind Gold Medal for Ambulance services Founds Satyagraha Ashram (later known as Sabarmati Ashram. idea of making use of spinning-wheel to produce handmade cloth on large scale takes root in his mind Goes to Champaran (Bihar) to investigate conditions of labour in indigo plantations. arrested and later released. EN ROUTE to India Reaches London. Takes up cause of textile labourers of Ahmedabad and fasts to secure amicable settlement of dispute. Jallianwala Bagh tragedy at Amritsar. ply with order 8-11 not to enter Punjab. outbreaks of violence in several towns.
later published weekly in Hindi also Assumes editorship of the English weekly. Navajivan. 1 Address letter to Viceroy surrendering Kaiser-I-Hind Medal. Leads deputation to Viceroy to press on British Government not to deprive Sultan of Turkey (who was also Khalifa of Muslim) of his suzerainty over Holy Places of Islam. 18 Suspends satyagraha. Young India. Zulu War Medal and Boer War Medal Special session of Indian National Congress at Calcutta accepts his programme of non-co-operation to secure redress of Punjab and Khilafat wrongs Founds Gujarat Vidyapeeth at Ahmedabad Nagpur Congress session adopts his resolution declaring object of Congress to be attainment of Swaraj by the people of India by all legitimate and peacefully means Launches programme of enlisting a crore of members in Congress. Sept Assumes editorship of the Gujarati monthly. raising a crore of rupees for Tilak Swaraj fund and setting up 20 lakhs of charkhas in the country in furtherance of national constructive movement Leads campaign for complete boycott of foreign cloth and light s monster bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay Invested with full dictatorial powers by Congress session at Ahmedabad 1 Gives notice to Viceroy of Intention to launch satyagraha campaign in Bardoli (Gujarat). Oct Nov Dec 1920Jan Aug Sept Nov Dec 1921April Aug Dec 1922Feb .14 Confesses at Nadiad his 'Himalayan miscalculation’ regarding satyagraha martial law declared in Punjab. joins non-official committee of inquiry into official excesses in Punjab 24 presides over all-India Khilafat Conference at Delhi Advises acceptance of Montague-Chelmsford Reforms by Congress at Amritsar.
I.'The story of my Experiments with Truth'. Arrested and imprisoned without trial.C. as Congress Dictator to launch Civil Disobedience movement. fasts for five days and abandons plan of satyagraha movement Arrested for sedition at Sabarmati and sentenced (march 18) to six years imprisonment.5. in which 21 police constables and one sub-inspector were burnt to death by a mob. HARTAL all over India. Poona (jan. over 100. 2 Addresses letter to Victory intimating his intention to break Salt law if Congress demands are not conceded Commences march to Dandi sea-beach.000 are jailed before close of year Unconditionally released from prison Nov 1927Nov 1928Dec 1929Dec 1930Feb March 12 May 1931Jan 5 26 . Appointed by A. Begins 21 day’s fast for Hindu-Muslim unity. Provides over Congress session at Belgaum. Visits Ceylon Moves resolution at Calcutta Congress session in favour of Independence if Dominion Status in not granted by end of 1929. 1925Sept Founds All-India Spinner’s Association Seven days vicarious fast for misdeeds of Ashram inmates. Operated on for appendicitis in Sassoon Hospital. At his instance Lahore Congress session declares that Swaraj in Congress creed shall mean Purna Swaraj (complete independence).12) and released on Feb. where he ceremoniously picks up salt (April 6).C.5 Following Chauri Chaura (UP) tragedy. Commences writing his autobiography. March 10 1924Jan-Feb April Sept Dec 18 Resumes editorship of Young India and Navajivan.
published in English and Hindi Commences at noon 21 days fast for self purification. May 11 8 9 29 July 26 30 31 Aug 4 16 . released unconditionally at 9 p. Attends session of Conference 5 28 Leaves England for India lands in Bombay Arrested and imprisoned without trial commences ‘ fast unto death’ in jail to secure abolition of separate electorates for Harijans in communal Award Breaks fast on Government of India’s acceptance of his demand regarding Harijans Founds the weekly paper Harijan. Disbands Satyagraha Ashram Informs Government of Bombay of his decision to March from Ahmedabad to Ras with 33 followers to revive Civil Disobedience Movement Arrested and imprisoned without trial Released and rearrested for breaking a restraint order Goes on fast on being denied facilities to carry on antiuntouchability propaganda Aug Sept-Dec Dec 1932 Jan Sept 4 20 26 1933 Feb.Feb-march Has series of talks with Viceroy resulting in Irwin-Gandhi Pact 29 sails for England as sole Congress delegate to Second Round Table Conference. Announces suspension of Civil Disobedience movement for six weeks and calls on the Government to withdraw its Ordinances Breaks fast.m.
I. Restarts Harijan and allied weeklies Meets Sir Stafford Cripps in New Delhi. session in Bombay on implication of Quit India resolution.C. 1939 March 3 1940 July&Sept Oct 1941Dec 1942Jan March 30 18 27 At his own request is relieved of his leadership of Congress by Working Committee.23 Nov 1934Sept Oct 1936April 1937Oct 7 17 26 30 22 Released unconditionally commences Harijan-uplift tour Announces decision to retire from politics from October 1 to engage himself in development of village industries. later declares Cripps proposals to be a ‘post-dated cheque’. Appeals to British Government to quit India Addresses A. Arrested and interned in Agakhan’s palace at Poona May Aug 8 9 15 Death of Mahadev Desai. in Aga Khan’s palace . making it his headquarters Presides over Educational Conferences at Wardha and outlines his scheme of education through basis crafts Commences ‘fast unto death’ at Rajkot to secure Ruler’s adherence to promise given to reform administration. from heart failure. Harijan service and education through basic crafts Inaugurates All-India Village Industries Association. suspends Harijan and allied weeklies following official demand for precensorship of reports and writing in Harijan on the subject of Satyagraha.C. Settles down at Sevagram. and ends it on March 7 on Viceroy’s intervention Meets viceroy by invitation in connection with war situation Sanctions individual civil disobedience. Gandhiji’s personal secretary. a village near Wardha in the Central Provinces.
25.Aug-Dec 1943Feb 1944Feb May Sept Oct 10 22 6 Corresponds with Viceroy and Government of India regarding disturbances Commences 21 days fast. 10 Revives Harijan and allied group of weekly journals.000) for Kasturba Memorial on occasion of 75thbirthday In a statement regarding the ensuing San Francisco Conference says that peace is impossible without equality and freedom of India. which he breaks on march 3 Kasturba Gandhi dies in Aga Khan palace Released unconditionally 9-27 Carries on talks with M. Lays foundation stone of C. Simla Conference in session.F.A. Participates in political talks with Cabinet Mission in Delhi In Simla. Tour Bengal and Assam 1945 April 17 Dec 1945-46DecJan 1946 Jan& Feb Feb April 19 tours Southern India for anti-untouchability and Hindustani Propaganda. Andrews’ Memorial Hospital at Santiniketan. . Jinnah regarding Pakistan 2 Presentation of purse of 110lakhs of rupees (£ 8. In Mussoorie Returns to Delhi. deliberations prove infructuous Cabinet mission announces Plan May 5-12 16 1819 Discusses Plan with Cabinet mission 26 June 6 7 Considers Plan best document produced by British Government under circumstances. Also demands a just peace for Germany and Japan.
10 Refuses to enthuse over Allied Victory as not being ‘Victory of truth over falsehood’. but only Constituent Assembly 11 16 18 20-1 23 24 Meets Cabinet Mission 28 Leaves Delhi forPoona. Viceroy proposes Interim Government. also writes to Wavell Interim Government formed Has interview with Wavell . Congress accepts Cabinet Mission Plan of May 16. Jinnah threatens sanctions of ‘Direct Action’ Viceroy announces invitation to Congress to form Provisional Government. meeting at Bombay. moots proposal of coalition Government at Centre Cabinet Mission negotiations discontinued. Viceroy interviews Gandhiji. attempts made to derail train EN ROUTE Address A.C. Congress Working Committee decides to accept interim Government scheme. The ‘Great Calcutta Killing’ July 7 31 Aug Aug 12 1618 24 Viceroy Wavell broadcasts Plan 27 Sept 4 26 Gandhiji cables warning to British Government against repetition of ‘Bengal tragedy’. Gandhiji is seen by Cripps Advices Congress not to enter Interim Government.C.I. Attends Working Committee meeting.
Noakhali tour begins. Starts tour without party Completes month-long sojourn at Srirampur At Noakhali. Jawaharlal Nehru calls on Gandhiji. issues statement on ‘Partial Fast’. In interview. says :"I am being tested through and through". touring riot-affected areas 30 April 1-2 15 Leaves Patna for Delhi Gandhiji addresses Asian Relation Conference in Delhi Issues with Jinnah joint appeal for communal peace 29 May 1 5 In Bihar Congress Working Committee accepts Partition in principle. Riots breaks out in Bihar Leaves for Noakhali. Gandhiji denies that communal division of India is inevitable . who says: "my reason wholly supports my heart Says: "all around me is utter darkness".Oct 9 10 Jinnah’s 9-point demands conveyed to Congress Noakhali Massacre 15 Muslim League agrees to enter Interim Government 28 Leaves for Calcutta. Leaves Srirampur on walking tour Nov 6 20 Dec 20 25 30 1947 Jan 2 3-29 In Bihar.
Pakistan is born Hindu-Muslim fraternization in Calcutta Hails ‘Miracle of Calcutta’ Considers Calcutta peace nine-days wonder. 24 Pakistan raiders invade Kashmir. Indian leader broadcast on Mountbatten Plan Gandhiji writes to Mountbatten. with Pakistan conceded to persuade Jinnah to amicable settle all outstanding points with Congress Addresses Congress Working Committee June 2 3 6 12 July ‘Independence of India Bill passed’ 27 Appeals to Princes to regard people’s paramountcy as a privilege Hails following day as one of rejoicing for deliverance from British bondage. but deplores partition.gives up idea of Noakhali visit. commences daily visits to riotraced areas. Viceroy’s Partition plan revealed.24 Leaves Bihar for Delhi 31 Declares peace must precede Partition. Peace efforts intensified August Aug 14 15 16 Sept 1 2 4 Breaks fast 7 Leaves Calcutta for Delhi. he would not be party to India’s vivisection. . decides on fast Is mobbed in Calcutta house . Congress Working Committee conveys acceptance.
Hails Indian Cabinet’s decision to release Pakistan dues of Rs.mkgandhi. Source: http://www. 1948 12 15 17 18 20 Bomb explodes at prayer meeting 27 Visits Mehrauli Muslim Fair 29 Angry refugees ask Gandhiji to retire to the Himalayas 30 Drafts constitution of a Congress transformed into Lok Sevak Sangh.ht m .C. presents ‘Peace Pledge’ to Gandhiji. Decides to fast for communal peace in Delhi.N. 550 million.C 11 Dec 25 30 Defends Junagadh’s accession to India Pleads for amicable settlement between India and Pakistan India refers Kashmir dispute to U.org/momgandhi/chronology. Mountbatten fails to dissuade Gandhiji. decides on ‘Peace Pledge’ Peace Committee signs. Fast continues for establishment of communal peace. Doctors warn fast must be ended. Is assassinated on way to evening prayer. Central Peace Committee formed. Address A. who breaks fast.I.25 Kashmir accedes to Indian Union 26 Nov 1 3 Criticises Churchill's holocaust in India’ statement Indian troops enter Junagadh Junagadh accedes to India. Enters ‘danger zone’.
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