Ferdinand Magellan Magellan's expedition of 1519–1522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into

the Pacific Ocean (then named "peaceful sea" by Magellan; the passage being made via the Strait of Magellan), and the first to cross the Pacific. It also completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth, although Magellan himself did not complete the entire voyage, being killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines. (Magellan had, however, traveled eastwards to the Malay Peninsula on an earlier voyage, so he became one of the first explorers to cross all of the meridians of the globe.) Of the 237 men who set out on five ships, only 18 completed the circumnavigation and managed to return to Spain in 1522,[1][2] led by the Basque Spaniard navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano, who took over command of the expedition after Magellan's death. Seventeen other men arrived later in Spain: twelve men captured by the Portuguese in Cape Verde some weeks earlier and between 1525 and 1527, and five survivors of the Trinidad. Magellan also gives his name to the Magellanic Penguin, which he was the first European to note,[3] and the Magellanic clouds, now known to be nearby dwarf galaxies. Magellan was born around 1480 at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes Province, in Portugal. He was the son of Rui de Magalhães (son of Pedro Afonso de Magalhães and wife Quinta de Sousa) and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Duarte de Sousa, Diogo de Sousa and Isabel de Magalhães. After the death of his parents during his tenth year he became a page to Queen Leonor at the Portuguese royal court because of his family's heritage. In March 1505, at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D. Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. Although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa, Cochin and Quilon. He participated in several battles, including the battle of Cannanore in 1506, where he was wounded. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu[4] and later sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin.[5] In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, warning Sequeira and saving Francisco Serrão, who had landed.[6] This performance earned him honors and a promotion. In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, Magellan and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca. After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder, and in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptised Enrique of Malacca, returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the "Spice Islands" in the Moluccas, where he remained, having married a woman from Amboina and becoming a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories.[7][8] After taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Azemmour he was wounded and got a permanent limp. He was also accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but there were no further offers of employment after May 15, 1514. Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a crew member on a Portuguese ship, but rejected. In 1517 after a quarrel with King Manuel I, who denied his persistent demands to lead an expedition to reach the spice islands from the east (i.e., while sailing westwards, seeking to avoid the need to sail around the tip of Africa[9]), he left for Spain. In Seville he befriended his countryman Diogo Barbosa and soon married his daughter Beatriz Barbosa having had two children: Rodrigo de Magalhães[10] and Carlos de Magalhães, both of whom died at a young age. Meanwhile he devoted himself to studying the most recent charts, investigating, in partnership with cosmographer Rui Faleiro, a gateway from the Atlantic to the South Pacific

The expedition was funded largely by the Spanish Crown and provided with ships carrying supplies for two years of travel. Rui Faleiro. A fifth of the gains of the travel. The right to levy one thousand ducats on upcoming trips. they presented their project to the Spanish king. a Portuguese who had started working for Charles V in 1518[12] as a cartographer at the Casa de Contratación. On 6 March they reached the Marianas and Guam. and with the support of Aranda.[18] . Magellan called Guam the "Island of Sails" because they saw a lot of sailboats. He raised them to the rank of Commander of the Order of Santiago. Expert cartographer Jorge Reinel and Diogo Ribeiro. Magellan contacted Juan de Aranda. Charles I. took part in the development of the maps to be used in the travel. thanks to the tenacity of Magellan. 1521. with 5% of the resulting net gains. Members of his expedition became the first Spaniards to reach the Philippine archipelago. who provided a quarter of the funds and goods to barter. Magellan and other Portuguese incurring suspicion from the Spanish and the difficult nature of Faleiro. The idea was in tune with the times. Cebu in the Philippines. Through the bishop Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca they obtained the participation of merchant Christopher de Haro. the expedition was ready. following the arrival of his partner. They renamed it to "Ladrones Island" (Island of Thieves) because many of Trinidad's small boats were stolen there.and the possibility of the Moluccas being Spanish according to the demarcation of the Treaty of Tordesillas. with 150 crew left. 1518 the king named Magellan and Faleiro captains so that they could travel in search of the Spice Islands in July. Factor of the Casa de Contratación. including lack of money. since it would open the "spice route" without damaging relations with the neighbouring Portuguese. but they were not the first Europeans. Magellan's project was particularly interesting. the king of Portugal trying to stop them. Granting of an island for each one. future Charles V.[13] Finally. from which they would receive a fifteenth. The king granted them:[11] • • • • • Monopoly of the discovered route for a period of ten years. apart from the six richest. Their appointment as governors of the lands and islands found. Heading northwest. Several problems arose during the preparation of the trip. the crew reached the equator on February 13. On 16 March Magellan reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines. Then. On March 22. Funding and preparation In October 1517 in Seville. paying only 5% on the remainder. Death in the Philippines Monument in Lapu-Lapu City.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful