How to Use the Rule of Three in Your Speeches

by Andrew Dlugan May 27th, 2009

The rule of three is powerful speechwriting technique that you should learn, practice, and master. Using the Rule of Three allows you to express concepts more completely, emphasize your points, and increase the memorability of your message. That‘s the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. What is the rule of three? What are some famous examples? How do you use it in speeches? Read on!

Western Culture and the Rule of Three
Trios, triplets, and triads abound in Western culture in many disciplines. Just a small sampling of memorable cultural triads include:

         

Christianity Father, Son, and Holy Spirit Heaven, hell, and purgatory (Catholicism, primarily) Three Wise Men with their gold, frankincense, and myrrh Movies & Books The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Sex, Lies, and Videotape Superman‘s ―Truth, Justice, and the American Way― Nursery rhymes such as the Three Little Pigs or Goldilocks and the Three Bears In a more general sense, there is the allure of trilogies as withIndiana Jones, The Godfather, The Matrix, Star Wars, and many others.

        

Politics U.S. Branches of Government: Executive, Judicial, and Legislative U.S. Declaration of Independence: ―Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness‖ French motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Abundance of tri-colored flags Civic, Organizational, and Societal Mottos Fire safety motto: Stop, Drop, and Roll Olympic motto: Citius, Altius, Fortius or Faster, Higher, Stronger Real estate: Location, Location, Location

Historic Rule of Three Speech Examples
Speechwriting is, of course, part of our culture. Examples of the Rule of Three can be found in some of the most famous speeches ever delivered:

Use two for comparison. The mojo of three offers a greater sense of completeness than four or more. and begin again the work of remaking America ― What’s Magical About the Rule of Three? It is reasonable to ask what‘s so special about three? Why is it so popular in our culture? Aren‘t there just as many examples of two.Roy Peter Clark … the ―encompassing‖ magic of number three … in our language or culture.― ―Government of the people. I conquered) Shakespeare‘s Julius Caesar ―Friends. there is Patrick Henry‘s ―Give me liberty or give me death. by the people. roundness. Use three for completeness.― Abraham Lincoln‘s Gettysburg Address ―We can not dedicate — we can not consecrate — we can not hallow — this ground. … Use one for power. vici‖ (I came. there is something magical about the Rule of Three in the way that it allows a speaker to express a concept. Rhetorical Devices — Rule of Three The rule of three describes triads of all types — any collection of three related elements. for the people― General MacArthur.‖ [Julius Caesar] . Hendiatris A hendiatris is a figure of speech where three successive words are used to express a central idea.‖ Despite examples like these. Countrymen. Use four or more to list. vidi.” -. Romans. and make it memorable.           Julius Caesar ―Veni. Roy Peter Clark provides insights to the magic of the number three: “The mojo of three offers a greater sense of completeness than four or more.or four-element famous speech lines? For a famous duo. vidi. and expand. it is tough to beat Winston Churchill‘s ―I would say to the House as I said to those who have joined this government: I have nothing to offer but blood. contrast. tears and sweat. inventory. three provides a sense of the whole … … in the anti-math of writing. the number three is greater than four. Two more specific triad variants are hendiatris and tricolon. Examples of hendiatris include:  ―Veni. 1962 ―Duty. toil. wholeness. Inaugural Speech ―we must pick ourselves up. Country‖ [repeated several times in the speech] Barack Obama. In his book Writing Tools: 50 Essential Strategies for Every Writer.‖ For a classic quartet. Lend me your ears. Honor. vici. I saw. dust ourselves off. compile. emphasize it. West Point Address.

or [2] the power of our military. A sandal of joy when you listen to your heart.‖ [Julius Caesar] ―Be sincere.    Click through the links to read the detailed analysis. Égalité.  Steve Jobs: Stanford Commencement Address.” Nearly every speech critiqued on Six Minutes has wielded the magic of the Rule of Three.   ―Liberté. Note how memorable these passages are within the whole speech.  Electrify Your Audience with a Shocking Speech Opening . Fraternité― [French motto] ―Citius. and then apply the lessons to your own speechwriting to see how you can incorporate the Rule of Three. we gather to affirm the greatness of our nation – not because of [1] the height of our skyscrapers. Watch the speech being delivered. and song‖ [Anonymous] Tricolon A tricolon is a series of three parallel elements (words or phrases). the elements have the same length but this condition is often put aside.‖ [Barack Obama. be brief. or [3] the size of our economy. Roosevelt] ―Tonight.A. July 2004] Contemporary Speech Examples using the Rule of Three “Using the Rule of Three allows you to express concepts more completely.‖ [Advice for speakers from Franklin D. be seated. 2005 [1] It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you‘d have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. and increase the memorability of your message. [3] who hold our hands or hug us when we need it. Fortius‖ [Olympic motto] ―Wine. Examples of tricola include:    ―Veni. [3] It means to say your goodbyes. Keynote speech to Democratic National Convention. jobs shed.  J. Gamache: Toastmasters.  5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama‘s Inaugural Speech Homes have been lost. 2007 A sandal of hope when you reach out. businesses shuttered. A sandal of courage when you dare to care. vidi. [2] who wipe our tears. Examples like these cross a wide array of speech types and settings. as shown by numerous examples below. [2] It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. You can study these examples.  Dalton Sherman: Do you believe? You‘re the ones [1] who feed us. Altius. vici. emphasize your points. women. In a strict tricolon. and note the delivery of these key triads.

finally. and the classic The Golden Goose from the Brothers Grimm. [long pause] Alcohol. the porridge was too cold. [long pause] Guns.  Speech Preparation #6: Add Impact with Rhetorical Devices … we cannot predict when the wind blows. We certainly cannot predict its direction. “Every great movie. the oldest brother fails. phrases. the hilarious Caps for Sale: A Tale of a Peddler. and sentences.Tobacco. 2009 Previously. the youngest brother succeeds — a three-part plot structure. my daughter and I visited our local library to fetch another bounty of children‘s books. (Note to parents: All highly recommended!) The Golden Goose is the story of three brothers who attempt to chop down the thickest tree in the forest. by how well you write. Storytelling and the Rule of Three Last week. to craft memorable triads of words.” -. Biblical tales. We returned with a diverse collection that included:    the educational Sesame Subjects: My First Book About Fish. the third pig‘s house of bricks is strong. we will learn how the rule of three improves speeches at the macro-speech level when applied to speech stories or to entire speech outlines. the middle brother fails. Why Successful Speech Outlines follow the Rule of Three by Andrew Dlugan Jun 3rd. The Three Billy Goats Gruff — The first two goats sneak past the troll. First. while the third goat defeats the troll. and how to create humor with the Rule of Three to get your audience laughing. Other Magical Ways to Harness the Power of Three in Speechwriting The next Six Minutes articles in this series show you how to apply the Rule of Three to speech outlines. [long pause] Criminal items seized in a search [slight pause] of a 6th grade locker in a bad school district. Cannell The three-part story outline is a common structure in folk tales.Stephen J. . then.  Patrick Henry Winston: How to Speak Your careers will be determined largely by how well you speak. We cannot predict how strong it will be. In this article. and by the quality of your ideas… in that order. and Hollywood plots:    Three Little Pigs — The first two pigs get eaten because their houses are weak. Goldilocks and the Three Bears— The porridge was too hot. the porridge was just right. we learned how the rule of three improves speeches when used at the micro-speech level. book or play that has stood the test of time has a solid Three-Act structure. Some Monkeys and Their Monkey Business.

With the three-part outline framing your ideas. Stephen J. The second traveller passes. Three-Part Speech Outlines When you apply the rule of three to your speech outline.‖ Syd Field (author of The Screen Writer’s Workbook and other instructive screenwriting guides) asserts that most successful screenplays follow a structure like this:    Act I: Setup (approximately 30 minutes of a 2-hour movie) Act II: Confrontation (approximately 60 minutes) Act III: Resolution (approximately 30 minutes) He further asserts that these acts are separated by two plot points: events that thrust the plot in a new direction. The third (the Samaritan) helps the injured man. Plot point #2 might be the moment when the momentum swings from the villain to the hero. and understandability. This three-part structure is so pervasive in movies. Your presentation gains warmth. and other storytelling forms that audiences feel naturally comfortable when it is used. boy gets girl in the end. boy loses girl. It seems obvious. you will improve as a speaker if you consistently apply this generic speech outline. Almost too obvious. and Conclusion It doesn‘t get any simpler than this. The Three Act Structure These fall under a general pattern known as a Three Act Structure. books. Even if you don‘t read the rest of this article. your speech will be easier to follow and remember. This comfort can be leveraged by a skillful public speaker.  Result: The audience wonders ―How did we get here?― . Omit the introduction: The speaker launches directly into the meat of the content without providing a roadmap or context. Yet two of the most common speaking blunders are: 1. beginning with the most basic. plot point #1 might be the pivotal moment when the reluctant hero is convinced to join the crusade for justice (after spending most of Act One refusing to do so). eventually leading to a triumphant climax. Body. For example. It is widely used in storytelling and screenwriting because it is a proven formula. Let‘s examine a variety of three-part speech outlines. you gain all the benefits of the three-part structure. familiarity. The Good Samaritan [New Testament. book or play that has stood the test of time has a solid Three-Act structure. Bible] — The first traveller passes.  Boy meets girl. Cannell claims that ―Every great movie. Speech Outline #1A: Introduction.

Present – You lay out the decision to be made now. Tell them what you‘re going to say (Introduction) Say it (Body) Tell them what you said (Conclusion) Some may say that this speech structure is almost too simplistic. your audience is more likely to be confused if you jump forward and backward in time repeatedly (talk about the decision first.R. Future]. Speech Outline #2: Past. However. Future – You paint a picture of prosperity that will be realized if the right choice is made (perhaps you use a successful case study). then…) Speech Outline #3: Complication. then another alternative. If it is accompanied by boring content and lifeless delivery.E. I‘ll skip the conclusion. Example. Tell them what you said “Repetition is a powerful speechwriting technique.‖  Result: The audience feels stranded. Body [= Past. repetition is a powerful speechwriting technique. wondering ― That’s it? What does it mean?― Speech Outline #1B: Tell them what you’re going to say. Conclusion A common application is a persuasive speech where you pitch a solution to a business problem:    Past – You set the context by identifying a problem facing your company. 2.Resolution. Omit the conclusion: The presentation ends abruptly immediately after the last statistic or slide with ―So… any questions?‖ Perhaps this is the result of poor time management and a novice speaker who decides ―I‘m running short on time.Co. Future This speech outline can either stand on its own:  Past. 3. If you apply this speech outline well. Present. and you can do much worse than repeating your key points three times during a speech to persuade your audience. Example Another three part speech outline for persuasive speeches is the S. Present. that‘s a fair critique. Future or take the place of ―Body‖ in the pattern above to make:  Introduction. Abela recommends starting your speech (Introduction) by establishing theSituation. Resolution. far from the point of origin. then the root cause of the past problem. and the alternatives to choose from.2. Present. In a sequence form. On the other hand. and describing how it came to be. your speech might look like:  Introduction – Situation . then the future prosperity. but a slight elaboration of the first: 1.” This isn‘t a new speech outline. method offered by Andrew Abela in Advanced Presentations by Design: Creating Communication that Drives Action (read the Six Minutes book review). Take inspiration from Lewis Carroll in The Hunting of the Snark: I have said it thrice: What i tell you three times is true. Say it. your audience will more easily understand your message. and then iterating through a three-element series of Complication.

list supporting points Body 1. call-to-action In this case. Resolution.      Body Complication.g. Tell story #2. Example …. Any fewer. 3. When you tell stories. for longer speeches.g. and your message risks becoming tedious. and your message won’t be compelling. Supporting Point One Supporting Point Two Supporting Point Three Conclusion — Recap main points.” A basic three-part informative speech outline is as follows: 1. 2. and your message risks becoming tedious. a one-hour seminar). 2. Any more. but select your best three. Bert Decker goes on to say that.  3. Example Complication. Attention grabbing opening which introduces the topic and core message Tell story #1. Introduction — Establish topic and core message. Resolution. The Decker Grid System (from You’ve Got to Be Believed to Be Heard – reviewed here) is built on this foundation. … Conclusion The three-part Complication-Resolution-Example structure can be repeated once (e.  4.” 1. pattern them on the three-act structure for maximum impact. the rule of three magic lies in limiting yourself to your best three points. …. 2. Brainstorm many. a five-minute speech) or many times (e. but are especially powerful in motivational speeches where making an emotional connection with your audience is required. . The Three Main Points speech outline can be given a storytelling slant with the following: “When you tell stories. summarize core message. Speech Outline #4B: Three Stories Stories can strengthen any type of speech. Any more. Speech Outline #4A: Three Main Points “Limit yourself to your best three points. Tell story #3. Example Complication. Make point #1. Make point #2. each of your three supporting points can be reinforced with (no surprise) three subpoints each. Resolution. and your message won‘t be compelling. Any fewer. pattern them on the three-act structure for maximum impact. 3.

How to Add Power or Humor with the Rule of Three by Andrew Dlugan Jun 8th. In Trust Me: Four Steps to Authenticity and Charisma. Three-element sets are found in many cultural areas. there‘s something magical about words. 5. we find something complete and satisfying in a group of three. Whatever the reason. Pros – What are the benefits of this proposal? Cons – What are the drawbacks of this proposal? Recommendation – Why do the pros outweigh the cons? Conclusion – Restate the pros and repeat the recommendation Other Three-Part Speech Outlines? Do you use other speech outlines that follow the rule of three? Please share in the comments. Make point #3. Rule of Three + Unexpected Twist = Speech Gold As we‘ve learned in the earlier articles.. Cons. or sentences that come in sets of three. but that may be putting the cart before the horse: the religions may have settled on groups of threes for the same psychological reasons that everyone else finds them powerful. 3. like a three-legged stool that can stand firmly on uneven ground” -. 3. Conclusion of the Rule of Three Article Series The final article addresses how the rule of three applies to speech humor. like a three-legged stool that can stand firmly on uneven ground [. author Nick Morgan searches for an explanation: Why do we respond so powerfully to them? It‘s a mystery — something psychological. Introduction – Brief setup of problem and proposal Body 1.] “We find something complete and satisfying in a group of three. phrases. Speech Outline #5: Pros. 1. you will learn how adding an unexpected twist to the third element can add power or humor to your speech. 2009 In the first two articles of this series. and sentences and [2] by applying three-part speech outlines. 2. including religion. In this article. Some say it has to do with religious symbolism.. since there are groups of three in most major religions. Recommendation We‘ll conclude with a common speech outline used for persuasive speeches where you are recommending a course of action.Nick Morgan . Memorable conclusion which ties together all three stories to support the core message. 2. we learned how using therule of three can improve your speeches by [1] writing triads of words. phrases.

Professor Max Atkinson suggests one way to add a twist: If your third point is the most important of the three. so it will linger longest in your audience‘s memory.  ―[1] It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you‘d have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. The first two elements (―lies‖ and ―damned lies‖) set a pattern in the mind of the audience. All of these will cause your audience to think deeper. . ‗or even ―deadly lies‖. even if the three elements are perfectly parallel. [2] It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. and the pursuit of happiness [U. then give it a twist‖. or give it a twist in meaning. Consider one popular example that is attributed to both Benjamin Disraeli and Mark Twain: There are three kinds of lies: lies.Triads are a classical speechwriting technique. and Videotape [movie title] ―we must pick ourselves up. Consider the ―bang‖ created in these examples where the third element deviates from the pattern in length and/or meaning:     Life. or shorter. liberty. Stanford Commencement] Humor and the Rule of Three Adding a twist to the third element is also the key to creating humor in your speeches. making it longer is a simple way of implicitly highlighting its greater significance compared with the first two. dust ourselves off. damned lies. and the American Way [Superman] Sex. He notes that three parallel elements create a rhythm of ―boom boom boom‖. You can take advantage of this natural emphasis by deviating from true parallelism. In Writing Tools: 50 Essential Strategies for Every Writer. Roy Peter Clark advises writers to ―establish a pattern. Lies. Why does this work? Let‘s break it down. and the wisdom to know the difference. In Lend Me Your Ears: All you Need to Know about Making Speeches and Presentations. grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change. but adding a twist to the third element creates the more memorable ―boom boom bang―. The third element in a list of three is often followed by a pause when speaking.‖ [Steve Jobs. You could make the third element longer. Declaration of Independence] Truth. Humor results from the mismatch between expectation and reality. They expect a third element such as ―white lies‖. but you can squeeze evenmore power out of them by carefully choosing your order and adding a twist to the third element. the courage to change the things I can. This creates a natural emphasis on this element.S. [3] It means to say your goodbyes. Justice. and statistics. ―torturous lies‖. and begin again the work of remaking America‖ [Barack Obama‘s Inauguration Speech]  God.

 Break the pattern with the third element. phrases. begins with two desirable character traits — dignity and respect — and concludes with an unexpected twist. [2] Our mortgage tripled. Be More Memorable by Repeating Your Speech Words (Anaphora) by Andrew Dlugan Jul 30th. It is not very memorable because all three elements form a consistent pattern. charisma. The audience expected quadrupled or some other multiplier in the third element.” Thus. The second triad. diamonds and pearls. I opened with a humorous triad. In speeches. This triad works because the pattern begins with doubled and tripled. confidence). memorable.g. study stand-up comedians. my wife and I traded our condo keys for house keys. 2012 What if your speeches were more quotable? What if your speeches were more powerful? . wisdom. it‘s not exactly noble. Watch for it the next time you are watching the monologue on the late-night talk shows. the last element of your triad is the key which will determine whether you are humorous. The second sentence establishes the pattern. diamonds and pearls — includes three common material benefits.I like this technique because it is like a magician who is able to distract us with one hand while deftly completing the ―trick‖ with the other. Some time ago. The first triad — money. respect. They expect the pattern to continue with another noble quality (e. To perfect the rule of three humor technique. the recipe for a humorous triad in your next speech is simple. or sentences. or forgettable. This line provokes laughter from audience members. Eighteen months ago. I delivered a humorous (and rhyming) speech about the (fictitious) origins of Toastmasters. I suggested (withtongue firmly in cheek) possible motivations for young men to improve their speaking skills: Strong speaking will earn you money. while the third element may be human. Remember. In the couplet below. These elements could be words. “Humor results from the mismatch between expectation and reality. on the other hand. Maximize your audience response by making the third element as absurd as you can while ensuring there is still a connection. [3] Our income didn‘t change. Dignity. The third sentence breaks the pattern with a punch line. and — most importantly — girls! The couplet above includes two different triads: 1. and thus magnifies the surprise. The first sentence introduces a new topic. the pattern distracts. In my ―Face the Wind‖ speech (the focus of a 10-article series on Speech Preparation).  Set a pattern with the first two elements to create audience expectations. [1] Our floor space doubled. 2.

From literature. it was the season of Light. Anaphora. is commonly used in literature as well as in speeches. it was the spring of hope. In this article. like many other rhetorical techniques. it was the age of foolishness. it was the season of Darkness. . it was the age of wisdom.What if your speeches were more memorable? Anaphora can do this for you. we examine how strategic use of repetition can elevate your speechwriting. it was the epoch of belief. it was the worst of times. consider the opening words from Charles Dickens‘ Tale of Two Cities: It was the best of times. Rhetorical Devices Article Series      Speech Quotations Rhetorical Questions Triads (the Rule of Three) Anaphora Chiasmus What is Anaphora? A Definition… Anaphora is the Greek term used to describe the repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences. it was the epoch of incredulity.

we had everything before us. including: Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. For more examples. it doesn‘t always need to be used in this way. we had nothing before us. Martin Luther King Jr.it was the winter of despair. we were all going direct the other way – Dickens‘ use of anaphora (combined with skillful use of contrast) helps make this passage one of the most famous openings in all of literature. 1950: . we shall never surrender. see the Six Minutes Speech Analysis of ―I Have a Dream‖. we were all going direct to Heaven. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God‘s children. 1940: We shall go on to the end. we shall defend our Island. King‘s speech contains eight examples of anaphora. addressing Congress to speak against McCarthyism. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. we shall fight in the hills. we shall fight in the fields and in the streets. 1963. we shall fight in France. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. anaphora is used more for its emphatic and unifying characteristics. we shall fight on the seas and oceans. June 1. This includes ―I have a dream …‖ and many other repetition-laden passages. we shall fight on the landing grounds. June 4. He uses anaphora three times:    10 clauses beginning with ―it was the‖ 2 clauses beginning with ―we had‖ 2 clauses beginning with ―we were all going direct‖ Anaphora in “I Have a Dream” and “We Shall Fight” In August. we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air. whatever the cost may be. gave us one of the richest speech examples for anaphora. we shall fight on the beaches. In all. In the three examples below. As well. Another famous anaphora passage was delivered in the midst of World War II by Winston Churchill in the House of Commons. Other Anaphora Examples While anaphora was used by King and Churchill in highly emotional passages. note that the second and third examples involve the repetition at the beginning of phrases (as opposed to the beginning of sentences): Senator Margaret Chase.

Justin Trudeau. every wave and every pirouette. morecivilians. it may be best to use anaphora sparingly within a speech. A Guide for Using Anaphora in Your Speeches The examples above highlight how anaphora helps create more emotional. I speak as simply as possible because the issue is too great to be obscured by eloquence. every tear. If you use it over and over again in every paragraph. 1986: We‘ll continue our quest in space. former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau. yet important words to repeat. But ―simple‖ doesn‘t mean the words are negligible. but opening or closing a speech with anaphora is common. 2000: My father‘s fundamental belief never came from a textbook. I speak simply and briefly in the hope that my words will be taken to heart. the repeated words echo key themes of the speech. Simple language is always a good choice. can you benefit by using anaphora too? Yes. Guideline 2: Choose simple. use anaphora strategically to highlight a passage which is central to your core message. but this is especially so for repeated words. It stemmed from his deep love for and faith in all Canadians and over the past few days. Keep these guidelines in mind when stitching anaphora into your speeches. in a ―normal‖ speech. more quotable. Ronald Reagan. I speak as a Republican. and more memorable passages. Churchill served notice that Britain was ready to fight. There‘s no rule that says where this should be. Nothing ends here. So. Consider:    King: ―Now is the time …‖ and ―I have a dream …‖ Churchill: ―We shall fight …‖ Pope John Paul II: ―I hope that …‖ (example below) In each case. more powerful. yes. more volunteers. eulogy for his father. I speak as an American. Guideline #3: Emphasize your delivery. address following Challenger disaster. absolutely! You can use anaphora in the classroom. more teachers in space. There will be more shuttle flights and more shuttle crews and. once or twice is probably enough. every rose. In nearly every example in this article. you returned his love.” Guideline 1: Don’t overdo it. January 28. Contrary to the example from ―I have a dream‖. King was sharing his dream and believed that the time had come for action. our hopes and our journeys continue. I speak as a United States Senator. “Use anaphora strategically to highlight a passage which is central to your core message. We are rarely called to address a national or global audience on hi storic occasions. its impact may be reduced. the speaker chose to repeat common. But let‘s be honest. one-syllable words. the boardroom. with every card. or the ballroom. In most speeches. I speak as a woman. Pope John Paul II expressed hope for the future. Instead. .I speak as briefly as possible because too much harm has already been done with irresponsible words of bitterness and selfish political opportunism.

they packed up their few worldly possessions and travelled across oceans in search of a new life. your audience doesn‘t have this luxury. Guideline #4: Consider combining anaphora with other rhetorical devices. For example: Lyndon B. try weaving anaphora with another rhetorical device. 2007: A sandal of hope when you reach out. G―. A sandal of joy when you listen to your heart. Pause appropriately. In a spoken speech.A. There is no Southern problem. Inaugural Address. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. For us. For us. consider these three contemporary speech examples: Steve Jobs. which is doctor‘s code for prepare to die. and magnifies the similarities or differences. March 15. With anaphora and epistrophe combined. such as:    the rule of three epistrophe climax Rule of Three When you combine anaphora with the rule of three. the anaphora is obvious. This focuses the attention on the connecting words in the middle. It means to say your goodbyes. this is known as climax. 1979: . they toiled in sweatshops and settled the West. June 12. 2009: For us. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you‘d have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. ―Being a Mr. epistrophe is repetition at the end of consecutive clauses or sentences. J. they fought and died. Johnson. To achieve maximum effect. be sure to emphasize the repetitive words in your delivery. Gamache. There is no Northern problem. Epistrophe The mirror of anaphora. Add vocal power if it makes sense to do so. you get sentences which begin and end with the same words. Pope John Paul II. however. 2005: My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order. Barack Obama. To craft a really memorable passage. 1965: There is no Negro problem. Address to the United Nations General Assembly. Climax When successive sentences increase in scope. in places like Concord and Gettysburg. endured the lash of the whip and plowed the hard earth. Normandy and Khe Sahn. October 2. A sandal of courage when you dare to care. January 20. Stanford Commencement Speech.When speech examples are written out (as in this article). Note the amplification in the passage below from Pope John Paul II as he transitions from individual (1 and 2) to country (3 and 4) to global community (5). For example. the result is strong unity between the three statements. Enunciate clearly. There is only an American problem.

At the close of this address. Each one has its own history and culture. and those that have been forcibly robbed of it. I hope that they will live and grow in the freedom and truth of their own history for that is the measure of the common good of each one of them. I hope that each person will live and grow strong with the moral force of the community that forms its members as citizens. I hope that the State authorities. and your speechwriting will improve. I hope that the United Nations will ever remain the supreme forum of peace and justice. will meet in full equality with the others in the United Nations Organization. all the nations of the earth. even those that do not yet enjoy full sovereignty. I hope that all the nations. and share your passage in the article comments. the authentic seat of freedom of peoples and individuals in their longing for a better future. will enjoy the confidence of all for the common good. even the smallest. Try it out. . while respecting the just rights of each citizen. Your Turn: Try it Out! You can add power and make your speeches more memorable. I wish to express once more before all the high representatives of the States who are present a word of esteem and deep love for all the peoples. for all human communities. Craft one or two passages using anaphora.