STUDY ON SHAPEWEAR PREFERENCES FOR WOMEN IN HONG KONG INTIMATE APPAREL MARKET

LEUNG KIN PING JENNES BA (Hons) Ssheme in Fashion and Textiles (Intimate Apparel Specialism)

INSTITUTE OF TEXTILES & CLOTHING THE HONG KONG POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

2012

STUDY ON SHAPEWEAR PREFERENCES FOR WOMEN IN HONG KONG INTIMATE APPAREL MARKET

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in Fashion & Textiles (Intimate Apparel Specialism) under the Supervision of Dr. Tracy MOK by Jennes, Kin Ping LEUNG

ACE Style Institute of Intimate Apparel Institute of Textiles & Clothing The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

March 2012

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Tracy Mok, for her constant guidance, invaluable advice, sustained interest as well as her motivational encouragement throughout my preparation of the project work. She answered all of my questions and also asked me particular questions that helped me to narrow my search. It was a very fruitful learning experience. I am also grateful to Agnes for the technical support.

Moreover, I would like to express my heartiest thanks to my beloved family and friends for their continuous encouragement throughout the years. Without whose love and support, I would have not been able to finish this thesis.

Not forgotten to thank those who made this thesis possible, including all the respondents who took time for answering my questionnaires and the subjects who participated in the wear trial.

Jennes (Name of student) . nor material that has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma. _____________________________________________________________ (Signed) LEUNG Kin Ping.CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY I hereby declare that this thesis is my own work and that. to the best of my knowledge and belief. it reproduces no materials previously published or written. except where due acknowledgement had been made in the text.

Shapewear comes in a variety of styles such as cut and sewn style and seamless style. The trend can be described as a simple design with seamless style. The result showed that a seamless style with highlight design was preferable. shapewear regarded as an assisting tool for enhance a beautiful female body figure. Moreover. total of 3 shapewear samples were examined by fitting trial. etc. questionnaire survey about the consumer preferences and buying behavior for shapewear products was conducted to collect the preferences from Hong Kong women. It is found that the pressure distribution is different in front. price. which applied the circular knit technology and the no VPL seamless technology. To investigate the preferences validity and reliability.ABSTRACT Every woman wants to have a beautiful figure for matching particular fashion styles of the time or look their best in a special occasion. Besides. side and back parts. There are many options let the consumers decide when they purchase shapewear products. Nowadays. market field research was conducted to find out the market tendency of shapewear. pressure sensor system is used in the wear trial to measure the pressure values everted by the samples. It is found that when consumer makes buying decision. . they would consider both functionality and aesthetic performance. It is the growing trend in intimate apparel market. so as to find out the preferred style of shapewear. it also comes with different control levels. as well as the waist girth and abdomen girth. The shapewear preferences from questionnaire survey and subjective feedback after wear trial evaluation are consistent in general. materials. This project is thus focused on investigation of consumer preferences and market tendency of shapewear. In this study.

1.1.1.4 One piece shapewear 2.5 Chapter summary CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.4.1.1 Upper body style shapwear 2.1.1.1 Background of Study 1.4 Methodology 1.3 Waist style shapewear 2.1.4.1 Various types of Shapewear in the Market 2.2 Hip and Thigh style shapewear 2.4.3 Market field research 1.1.1.CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.4.3 Scope of Study 1.1.1.4.2 Aim and Objective 1. Moderate.4 Consumer questionnaire survey 1.5 Light.5 Wear trial 1. Firm and Extra firm shaping 1 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 8 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 .2 Literature review 1.1 The market of Shapewear 2.1 Product development process 1.

2.2 Secondary data 3.1 Lingerie market field research 3.2 Size system of Shapewear 2.2 Factors affecting the consumer preference 2.1 Wearing comfort of Shapewear 2.2 Types of Data 3.5.4 Body shape measurement 2.1.3 Pressure distribution and Pressure sensation 2.3.2.4 Factors affecting the wearing comfort and Pressure sensation CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.3 Primary data: Qualitative research methods 3.2.1 Primary data 3.1 Reasons of Studying consumer preference 2.1 Shapewear market tendency 2.1 Introduction 3.2 Marketing needs for Shapewear 2.2.4.5.2 Personal factors 2.3.3.2 Causes of Clothing pressure 2.4.2.2 Customer dynamics on Shapewear 2.3 Overweight people in Hong Kong 2.1 Body Mass Index (BMI) 2.2 Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) 2.2.3 Definition of Consumer preference 2.5.5 Pressure and Comfort requirement of Shapewear 2.5.3.3.4.1 Cultural and Social factors 2.4 Primary data: Quantitative research methods 15 16 17 19 20 22 22 22 23 24 24 27 29 29 30 31 31 32 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 57 .2.

2.2.4.3 Wear trial procedures 3.4.2.2.2.4 Wear trial timeline 3.3.1.2 Subjective comfort: Subjective assessment CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS 4.3.1 Consumer questionnaire survey 3.1.2.2.2 Styles: Design and Colours 4.3 Materials and Technologies used 4.1 Survey response rate 4.2.4.2 Selection of Subjects 3.2.4 Buying behavior 4.4.3 Overall market shapewear preferences result 4.4.3 Pressure sensing system 3.2.5 Size 4.2 Market tendency of Shapewear products 4.1 Company background 4.2 Demographics profile of Respondents 4.1 Shapewear categories 4.2.4.1 Objective comfort: Objective pressure test 3.2.3 Occupation and Personal monthly income level 4.2 Results of Questionnaire 4.1. 2.1 Age 4.2.3.1.2.2.3 Shapewear preference of Respondents 58 41 42 45 45 46 48 49 52 53 53 54 63 64 65 68 69 70 70 70 71 71 72 73 74 75 .2 Education Level 4.2 Wear trial test: Pressure evaluation of Body shapers 3.2.4.1.2.4.2.4.2.1 Selection of Samples 3.1 Finding on Market research 4.1.

2.2.2.3.1 Overall evaluation of Shapewear samples 4.2.2.3 Comparison in Material properties 4.5 Respondents’ choices in Lingerie brand 4.4 Visual evaluation 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 92 94 95 95 98 100 100 103 103 104 .4 Clerks’ and Service employees’ choice 4.2.2 Categories preference 4.2 BMI value and Waist-to-hips ratio 4.2.3.4.1 Style and Categories 4.5.2.3.2 Colour 4.3.2.7 Others purchasing consideration 4.3 Material preference 4.5 Results of Clerks and Service employees 4.2 Comparison in Functionality 4.3 Satisfaction of Body parts 4.6 Correlation 4.3.1 Correlation between purchasing considerations 4.3.3.5.2.3 Basic results of Wear trial 4.4 Comparison in Design and Colours 4.2.3.2 Correlation when choosing samples 4.6.4 Colour preference 4.2.6.4.2.1 List of Samples’ measurement 4.4.6 Factors concerning purchasing behavior 4.2.4.5.3.2.5 Respondents’ choice 4.5.4.3 Price and Design factors in Purchasing behavior 4.2.3.2.4 Reasons of Choosing existing shapewear products 4.3.2.4.2.2. 2.1 Style preference 4.

3 Satisfaction on Aesthetic 4.1.7 Subjective feedback 4.7.5 Preferred pressure range CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.6.7.3.1.4 Subject’s choice 4.2 Recommendations APPENDIX REFERENCES 105 106 107 116 120 120 123 124 125 126 128 128 128 129 130 131 131 132 .2 Pressure distribution on Different subjects 4.2.1 Summary of Outcomes and Implications 5.3.3.5 Body measurement 4.1 Limitations 5.2 Satisfaction on Material used 4.6.7.4.3.6 Objective comfort evaluation 4.3.3 Proper pressure of Shapewear products 5.3.3.1.3.1 Pressure distribution on Different samples 4.2.3.7.1 Satisfaction on Functionality 4.3.7.2 Limitations and Recommendations for Future research 5.1 The rising trend of Seamless shapewear 5.2 Researched shapewear products preference 5.

9: Monthly expense on intimate apparel Table 4.14: Material preference of respondents Table 4.2: General details of the shapewear samples Table 3.5: Age group of respondents Table 4.1: International size system for shapewear Table 2.5: Points of the locations Table 4.7: Occupation of respondents Table 4.2: The international classification of adult according to BMI Table 2.8: Personal monthly income level of respondents Table 4.3: The difference of BMI cut-off points between Asian & European Table 2.4: Procedures of the wear trial test on January 2012 Table 3.3: Summary of shapewear design and colours offered by brands Table 4.15: Colour preference of respondents 16 26 27 28 57 43 44 46 50 54 64 65 68 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 75 76 77 78 .4: Acceptable levels for hip to waist ratio for women Table 3.12: Style preference of respondents Table 4.LIST OF TABLES Page Table 2.1: Target market and price range of selected brands Table 4.6: Education level of respondents Table 4.2: Summary of shapewear types offered by brands (for HK market) Table 4.11: Bra size of respondents Table 4.1: Lingerie brands visited Table 3.3: Design details of the shapewear samples Table 3.13: Categories preference of respondents Table 4.10: Sizes of respondents Table 4.4: Summary of materials and technologies used in shapewear Table 4.

24: Comparison in design and colours Table 4.27: Colour preference of clerks and service employees Table 4.21: Evaluation of Sample C Table 4.23: Comparison in material properties Table 4.19: Evaluation of Sample A Table 4.35: Body measurements of subjects before and after wearing the samples Table 4.38: Pressure values on different body location of subject 3 Table 4.29: Design factor in purchasing behavior Table 4.31: Correlation between purchasing considerations Table 4.26: Style preference of clerks and service employees Table 4.32: Correlation between estimation the performance Table 4.41: Satisfaction rating on fitting 79 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 91 92 92 93 94 95 98 103 103 105 107 109 111 113 120 122 .33: BMI and WHR of selected subjects Table 4.28: Price factor in purchasing behavior Table 4.25: Respondents’ favorite shapewear Table 4.34: Satisfaction rating of body parts Table 4.40: Satisfaction rating on samples’ functionally Table 4.37: Pressure values on different body location of subject 2 Table 4.30: Clerks’ and Service employees’ favorite shapewear Table 4.39: Pressure values on different body location of subject 4 Table 4.Table 4.18: Factors affecting purchasing behavior (others) Table 4.22: Comparison in functionality Table 4.17: Factors affecting purchasing behavior (Functionality & aesthetic) Table 4.16: Popular lingerie brands among respondents Table 4.20: Evaluation of Sample B Table 4.36: Pressure values on different body location of subject 1 Table 4.

43: Satisfaction rating on samples’ appearance Table 4.Table 4.44: Total scores of samples 123 124 125 .42: Satisfaction rating on samples’ material properties Table 4.

3. 1.2: Inner view of the shapewear samples Fig.6: Chart of Body Mass index Fig.1: Shaping vest and Underbust shaper Fig. 3. 3.1: Product development process Fig. 1. 3.1: Bonluxe store and Displays in Bonluxe store Fig. 4.3: Waist nipper Fig.3: Embry form store and Shaper from Embry form Fig.5: Source: Global Consumer Shapewear Study – 2009 Strategic Insights Fig.1: Different view of the shapewear samples Fig.6: Points for measuring garment pressures Fig. 3. 2. 4. 4.5: Connection of sensor equipment Fig. 4. 2. 2.2: Satami store and Shaper from Satami Fig. 3. 2.7: Waist-to-Hip ratio Fig. 2.8: Software interface of Novel Pliance pressure sensor Fig. 4.4: Control Slip and Bodysuit Fig.6: Shapers from Uniqlo 6 9 12 12 13 14 20 25 27 31 43 44 47 48 49 50 51 51 55 56 57 58 59 60 .4: Hardware of Novel pressure sensor system Fig. 2.5: Easy Shop store and Shaper from Easy Shop Fig.LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig.3: Points first marked on dummy before the test Fig. 3. 2.2: Shaping knicker.7: Sensing process Fig. 4.2 Flow Chart of this study Fig. 2.4: Bodibra store and Shaper from Bodibra Fig. Thigh shaper and Slimming Legging Fig. 3.8: Score scale of sensory evaluation Fig.

18: Pressure values of sample B Fig. 4.Fig.15: Pressure values of samples from subject 3 Fig.20: Subjects’ favourite shaper 61 62 63 82 101 104 108 110 112 114 116 117 118 125 . 4. 4. 4.19: Pressure values of sample C Fig. 4.13: Pressure values of samples from subject 1 Fig.17: Pressure values of sample A Fig.14: Pressure values of samples from subject 2 Fig.12: Wear trial outcomes Fig.7: Wacoal store and Advertisement of Wacoal’s shapewear Fig. 4.11: Measurement of samples Fig. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.10: Pictures of selected shapewear samples Fig.16: Pressure values of samples from subject 4 Fig.9: Marks & Spencer store and Shapewear from Marks & Spencer Fig.8: Triumph store and Advertisement of Triumph’s shapewear Fig. 4.

To my Parents and Sisters .

reshaping garments such as corsets and basques. party dresses and bridesmaid dresses call for slim silhouettes. Thus.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. have been regarded as an assisting tool for enhance a beautiful female body figure. Today. Every woman wants to have a beautiful look for matching particular fashion styles of the time as well as look pretty in a special occasion. Of course exercise combined with eating right can help losing weight and building an attractive body. However. which are worn under clothing as the base of every outfit and made functionality. having a beautiful body shape is probably one of the common dreams for all women in the world. Evening gowns. Women have long relied on corsetry to help them achieve the fashionable figure. also called shapewear. is an undergarment that designed to hold a part of the body in a particular form by exerting certain amount of pressure to the body. corsetry has gone through many transformations. some women choose to achieve their ideal body figure by using the reshaping garment. Over the years. the areas under pressure for a period 1 . As a result. people today are incredibly busy and it might be hard to do exercise to keep fit.1 Background of Study Throughout the human history. the reshaping garment. Since Renaissance.

also sold 370. they recorded an incredible 13. since the global lingerie brand Wacoal launched their shaping pant product Cross Walker® in 2005. And it is a win-win situation for women who do not want to starve themselves into fashion. The NPD (National Purchase Diary) Reports on the U. and also the secret weapon of women.8 million unit sales between 2005 and 2009. smooth their bulges. The rise in popularity and acceptance of shapewear has come over time. Apparel Market stated that shapewear continue to stand outs in women's intimates with over 7 percent growth in 2010. They use shapewear to look their best and stand out from the crowd.000 units in the five months following its 2009 launch. It is shown that shapewear is the potential market. Furthermore.S. the body shaper underneath can invisibly optimize their figure for the fashion. Whatever they wear an evening gown or jeans with a T-shirt. The improved version of the line. Definitely. beauty and confidence.of time can be reshaped. It is said that shapewear is "instant gratification". More and more women are using shapewear to achieve their ideal figures. called Cross Walker Shakitto® . lift what sags and straighten the posture. New 2 . shapewear is the secret for radiance. Shapewear is the growing trend in enhancement undergarments which helps women to reshape their bodies.

technologies in fabrics and new manufacturing techniques are used in the latest shapewear. New designs are giving women a double value of smooth curves and beautiful fashion. Nowadays shapewear comes in a variety of styles; some of the products are still using traditional cut and sewn style, while some of products have already applied the seamless technology. Also shapewear comes with different control levels, price, and materials, and shapewear products claimed to have different function such as providing the control and toning abdomen and waistline. There are many options let the consumers decide when they purchase these shaping garments. However, the market is saturated with brands introducing shapewear, it is needed to have a point of difference. Therefore, it is worthy to put more effort on studying women preferences on shapewear, hopefully this study can find out the preferred style of shapewear and have a little help on shapewear market when brands and manufactures produce different shapewear products.

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1.2 Aim and Objectives The aim of this study is, analyze market for shapewear in Hong Kong and investigate the consumer preferences on shapewear products so as to develop an effective and comfort shapewear design.

Specific research objectives are listed as follows: 1. To investigate the market and the needs of wearing shapewear 2. To find out the market tendency of shapewear 3. To explore the consumer preferences of choosing shapewear 4. To understand consumer’s perception of physical comfort, psychological comfort, and aesthetic appearance, so as to find out the consumer ’ s preferred style of shapewear 5. To examine consumer satisfaction with the shapewear in market 6. To examine the fitting effect of various styles of body shapers 7. To suggest improvement on current shapewear design

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1.3 Scope of Study The study mainly focuses on the women age 18 or above who are the users of intimate apparel products. The study is based on Asian market including China and Hong Kong, which are considered as fast-growing consumption markets and in fact, the consumption of intimate wear has been growing relatively fast in Asia. It should not be forgotten that shapewear is primarily worn by slim and normal people. Thus the target group is the women in size 10 and size 12 which are the common sizes in Asia. Although Asian women are naturally slim, they still share the same figure flaws such as tummy bulges and large stomachs that most women worry about, and they also want a shapewear garment to help correcting the flaws. In order to collect the consumer preferences so as to analysis which kind of shapewear products is the most popular, the questionnaire is mainly distributed to Hong Kong women who had been educated and with purchase power. And the wear trial is proceeded in Hong Kong; women who have experience in wear shapewear are invited to participate in the wear trial. The existing shapewear products in nowadays market are also studied, including the material and technology used in enhancing the body shape.

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Color and Fabric Wear trial  Functional performance  Technical Design Research objectives 3.4. including 6 .4 Methodology overview Idea Generation Literature review  Market analysis  User analysis Lingerie market field research  Trend analysis  Product analysis Research objective 1 Research objective 2 Design development Consumer questionnaire survey  Aesthetic performance  Style.1.1. 6 & 7 Prototype development Evaluation and Refinement Production Planning Fig.1: Product development process 1. five phases are involved in the new product development process. As shown in figure 1. 1.1 Product development process Product development is the process of bringing a new product to the market. 4 & 7 Research objectives 5.

Because of the technical limitation. It focuses on generating ideas for products to meet the needs of customers. Idea generation is the initial step of new product development. magazines. thesis. The preferences on aesthetic and functionality can be obtained from questionnaire study and wear trial. design development. 1. evaluation and refinement. The construction of a seamless shapewear prototype requires unique knitting techniques. In this thesis. and finally the production panning. internet and 7 . The information sources are from books. The concept is then developed into a prototype for evaluation. After that the ideas are refined into a product concept which develops according to the consumers’ preferences. prototype development.idea generation. However. the study will end at the design and development phase. a comprehensive search in literature about shaping garment and consumer behavior is conducted before starting the design and development. there is only a type of circular knits is provided. It is difficult to produce the prototypes in new concept. the range of circular machines is limited in the ITC knitting laboratory. or offer solutions to improve the performance of existing products.2 Literature review In order to provide a deeper understanding of the shapewear market and figure out what kind of study had been carried out. articles. the ideas can be obtained from literature review and market field research.4. journals.

3 Market field research A market field research is also conducted to find out the market tendency and the product details of shapewear. The findings of market field research will be shown in Chapter 4. The data is used to find out the preferred aesthetic performance of shapewear so it can help developing products. This part will be presented in Chapter 2. Pressure sensory system is used in the wear trial to 8 . this part will be shown in Chapter 4. 1. a questionnaire is developed and distributed randomly in Hong Kong. 1.4 Consumer questionnaire survey To achieve the objective of exploring the consumer preferences. The information is obtained from both the internet and shop visit.4. Data collected will be examined and analyzed by using statistic methods.4. The subjects are asked to wear the shapewear for a day and give the feedbacks.5 Wear trial Wear trial is carried out to examine the shaping effects of existing products and find out the functional performance of shapewear.4. It is used to set the questionnaires as well as select the samples in wear trial. 1.shop visit.

1.collect to pressure value data exerted by the shaping garment. 1.5 Chapter summary Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Literature Review Chapter 3 Methodology Chapter 4 Findings and Analysis Chapter 5 Conclusion & Recommendations Fig.2: Flow Chart of this study 9 . The details will be described in Chapter 3 and the findings will be shown in Chapter 4.

2. consumer preference and several factors that affected the preferences are explained. corset was the only choice to reshape the body into an ideal shape. There are four parts in this chapter: (1) Overview of the shapewear market. the causes of shapewear pressure. Nowadays. the types of shapewear products. sizing system and marketing needs are mentioned. the definitions of Body Mass Index and Waist-to-Hip Ratio are illustrated clearly. But now.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Related literatures are reviewed in order to understand the market of shapewear and the consumer behavior. In part 1. achieving such an hourglass look no longer requires a corset of whalebone and canvas. 10 . After that. (3) Body shape measurement and (4) Pressure and Comfort requirement of shapewear. In part 2. shapewear comes in a variety of styles. Power fabrics have made possible a whole new line of undergarments. shapewear is the answer.1 The market of Shapewear In the past. from tummy-control panties to all-in-one bodysuits. (2) Consumer Preferences. which can minimize and enhance the body shape while providing comfortable support. In the last part. For any woman who wants to control of her body figure. if a woman wanted to have a beautiful body figure. pressure distribution and the sensation method are included. It also comes with different control levels.

from light control to extra-firm control. hip. 2011) 2. camisoles and underbust shaper are known as upper body shapewear.1. also lift the breasts slightly so that the cleavage can become visible. 11 . These styles generally make the stomach look firm and flat.1 Upper body shapewear Shaping vests. moderate. firm and extra firm shaping. (Ester. And all types of shapewear are divided into four categories depending on the amount of shaping level: light. They are commonly made of organic textiles such as cotton because it absorbs sweat and keeps the wearer comfortable.1.1 Various types of Shapewear in the market Apparel industries are required to supply different kinds of products corresponding to various needs of consumers. There are many types of shapewear which are used to enhance different body parts such as breasts. Women usually wear these kinds of shapewear under the blouses or form-fitting tops to work.1. 2. buttocks and tights. There are many options let the consumers decide where they want extra support and how much support they want. waist. abdomen.

thighs and butts.1. Thigh shaper and Slimming Legging 12 . these styles provide a solution by compressing the abdomen.2. Fig.Fig 2.1: Shaping vest and Underbust shaper 2.2: Shaping knicker.2 Hip and Thigh style shapewear Shaping knicker.1. To those who have bottom fat. They are come in many colours and some of them have decorative details such as laces. giving them a smooth finish. They are usually worn from high-waist and down to lower thigh without the visible panties lines. thigh shaper and slimming Legging are known as hip style and thigh style shapewear.

1.1.3: Waist nipper 2.1. This type of shapewear can cover the bust or start right below it. They usually made of nylon and spandex blended. 13 . It is suitable to wear under a slinky dress in special events. It can help to smooth and slim many parts of body underneath the clothing.1. These styles provide all-over coverage with maximum function.3 Waist style shapewear Girdles and waist nipper are known as the waist style shapewear which can help women to hide the mid-section flab and enhance the appearance of the tummy. creating a charming figure from the shoulders to the lower thigh. which is a combination of waist style and hip style shapewear.2.4 One piece shapewear Bodysuit and control slip are called as one piece shapewear. Fig.2.

4: Control Slip and Bodysuit 2. firm and extra firm shaping. but the level of support is difficult to wear the entire day.1. It helps in shaping the target areas like waist. It does not reshape the entire body but it can smoothen out bulges without any binding. hips and thighs. 2011) Light control shapewear such as shaping vest and slip is the lightest of all shapewear. (Ester.1. Firm control shapewear can help to minimize a problem area.2. Moderate. but does not necessarily reshape the entire body. moderate. abdomen. all types of shapewear are divided into four categories light. The fabric is thin and it is suitable for daily use. Extra 14 .Fig.5 Light. this type of shapewear such as shaping knicker and thigh shaper has light control panels built in. Firm and Extra firm shaping Based on the shaping level and the amount of pressure produced. Moderate control shapewear is much tighter than light shapewear as it is designed to provide more support and compression. Generally.

This is wrong. (Edmark.2 Size system of Shapewear According to Tomima Edmark. menopause. It helps in bringing out body curves and giving a totally different look. shapewear comes in a variety of styles. oral contraceptives. The size can varies from time to time. Besides that. The body style shapewear gives full coverage of the body. pregnancy.1. puberty. To improve the communication between customers and industries. with different size system. the owner of an online lingerie retailer. while choosing a size too small will create extra lumps and it may have a binding uncomfortable feeling all day. 2011) Choosing a size too big will not be as effective. In order to choose the correct shaper size. an effective sizing system is necessary. But a smaller garment will not fit correctly. some women make the mistake of buying shapewear one size smaller than their size to achieve additional support. even general weight gain and loss lead to a change in breast size and shape.firm control shapewear is the highest level of support that available in shaping garments. it is crucial for women to measure their bodies regularly. Moreover. It includes a built-in bra so this 15 . There are reinforced panels and boning to reshape the entire body as well as reduces an inch in the body size. 2.

its sizing comes in small. she would buy a 34C body shapewear.com/shapewear-fitting. If a lady wears a 34C bra.30.2 Marketing needs for Shapewear The shapewear market has grown tremendously in recent years as more and more 16 .1: International size system for shapewear Source: (http://www. The hip style and thigh style shapewear have a tummy control panel to smooth over the tummy.herroom.body shapewear comes in bra sizes. As the waist style shapewear generally is made up of a brief with an elongated waistband that comes up to the bottom of the bra.html) 2. medium. The size of these shapewear is based on the waist and hip measurements that used to determine the panty size. Waist Measurement 25-26" 27-28" 29-30" 31-32" 33-34" 35-36" 37-38" 39-40" 41-42" 43-44" 45-46" Hip Measurement 35-36" 37-38" 39-40" 41-42" 43-44" 45-46" 47-48" 49-50" 51-52" 53-54" 55-56" Panty Size 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Shaper Size Small Medium Large X-Large XX-Large 3X-Large 4X-Large 5X-Large 6X-Large 7X-Large 8X-Large Table 2. large format.927. Some shapewear that enhances the bust just like the underbust shaper also comes in bra sizes as well.

different cutting edge technologies such as heat sealing cut and sew and laser cut have been already developed and made available to lingerie manufacturers. Apparel Market stated that shapewear continue to be standouts in women's intimates with just over 7 percent growth in 2010. These statistics showed that the demand of shapewear keeps increasing. 2012) In the meantime. 2.customers ask for it.2. Every week there is a new line launching. This. (Wilson. Playtex marketing manager Marica Carleschi mentioned that the need for innovation is the biggest challenge in the shapewear market currently. Any change occurring will be based on technical advances and innovations in fabrics mainly. Thus.1 Shapewear market tendency The shapewear sector becomes crowded and saturated. And according to a world-wide consumer survey conducted by INVISTA in 2009.S. The NPD Reports on the U. will perfectly respond to the fast growing demand for shapewear. 17 . The report also revealed that one third of women considered wearing shapewear every day. 93 percent of women would like their lingerie to help with shaping and contouring. fabric innovation will be a major cause of evolution in the market. combined with fashion trends. Also consumers are more likely to take notice if the product is set at a consumer friendly price in the tough economic climate.

the luxury department in Hong Kong. China is considered one of the most fast-growing consumption markets. According to Maria Williams. they are expanding their shapewear lines as their store has had many requests for more foundation garments. In comparison. Besides that. With a combination of fashion and function. Jane Singer (2011) is the Editorial Director of Inside Fashion. She mentioned that shapewear has become prettier in its newest incarnation. The market in US and Europe will be relatively stable in these years.Although shapewear is often more expensive than traditional intimate apparel. instead of the plain nude or black or mostly available on the market. the consumption of intimate wear has been growing relatively fast in Asia. More and more Asian women want to enhance their body figure by using shapewear and other functional garments. She mentioned that Asian women do not like fat and they always think they are fat even when they are skinny. consumers are willing to pay more for the garments that make them look good. especially in China and India. Miss Lai claimed that there is about 20%-30% growth of business turnover each year since Bonluxe set up in Hong Kong at 2005. lingerie buyer for Lane Crawford. Many international and local brands began to develop and launch new lines of 18 . many top brands such as SPANX and Triumph have offered powerful garments in fashion colours and embellished with laces and trims. a leading provider of industry intelligence and international trends. with the chief designer of Bonluxe.

Thailand and other areas are well known for its capability and potential in lingerie and shapewear design. 29% came from Hong Kong.2 Consumer dynamics on Shapewear The global consumer survey conducted by INVISTA also found that there is a considerable gap between what women want from their lingerie and hosiery. It is a wicking fabric with soft touch and quick drying benefits that can provide all-day freshness and comfort. in a total of 160 exhibitors. 25% from other cities in Asia and 18% from all over the world. 2012) 88 percent of women said that they wanted underwear to enhance their shape. (Phong. 2010) Hong Kong. and what they feel it delivers. Many Chinese textile and apparel manufacturers have financially strengthened to support the technological upgrade. The fitting. In 2010. At the 4th Hong Kong Mode Lingerie exhibition which held in March 2010. but only 63 percent said that they were satisfied that 19 . price level and styles are making adaption to suit the new marketplace. 28% from China. They are no longer satisfied with a garment that fits all situations.shapewear for Asian women. comfortable and confident. 2.2. INVISTA showcased LYCRA® beauty fabrics. (Wilson. INVISTA believes that Chinese consumers today are looking for the shapewear that make them feel cool.

and improved shaping performance from this personal garment. It is also known as a study of the processes involved when individuals select.lycra.pdf 2. or 20 .5: Source: Global Consumer Shapewear Study – 2009 Strategic Insights Source: http://www. By evolving the market dynamics. use or dispose of products. while only 56 percent said that the shapewear they wear is comfortable.com/g_en/docs/1299511959-LYCRAbeauty_UK7. 2008). it is known that consumers want more comfort.3 Definition of Consumer preference Consumer preference is a study of personal needs focuses on how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources such as time.this requirement was being met. purchase. 94 percent of women said that they wanted the shapewear that make them feel comfortable. The quality value is more attractive for consumers. money and effort on consumption-related items (Schiffman & Kan. while fibers and fabrics are crucial for them to determine whether it is a quality apparel product. Fig 2. better fit.

However. The Engel-Blackwell-Miniard (EBM) model is one of the important models which explain consumer decision making process. consumer involves motivation and begins with the recognition of a need. It is a useful data for companies to anticipate consumer demand because they must know their consumers well enough to think ahead on their behalf and respond to the consumers' need. it could disappear promptly if the company cannot figure out the solution to fix the problem. image. Consumer preference for a product can make a company successful. if consumers dislike the product. and design are the important criteria when purchasing. so on & so forth. but also can break the company. Phone interviews. focus groups and consumer samplings are the common methods for collecting the information. style. (Forney & Park. quality. material breathability. hand feel. 21 . color. In every purchase. When talking about fashion products. it may sell millions pieces and stay around for years. electronic surveys. consumer also think about the comfort. This is usually done by an internal marketing department to a market research firm. and preference is what consumer choosing among alternatives products on the basis of selective criteria. If consumers generally like a product. 2005) When talking about the lingerie and shapewear products. paper surveys. It assumes that the consumer approach is that of problem-solving.experiences to satisfy needs.

2010) 2.2.1 Cultural and Social factors Cultural factors can be determined by nationality. Successful new product development need to through the identification of these consumer requirements in terms of consumer preferences. understanding and analyzing the factors that determine consumer preferences is important. research and development is needed to fast respond the changing needs. Therefore. It is the 22 . (Soreze. Designers and manufacturers have to continually revise their design and product range due to the continuous changing technology and the changing preference of customers.3. religion and geographical areas. It can help the companies to target their businesses and products towards specific consumer groups. especially when they would like to develop new products and identify the reasons of the successful products.3.2 Factors affecting consumer preference As consumer preferences describe the reasons for choices that consumer make when they select the products or services. Companies must continuously find ways to retain competitive in the market place. as well as maintain and increase their profits.3.2.1 Reasons of Studying consumer preference The apparel industry including the lingerie industry is highly competitive and changing very fast in global environment. 2.

interests and opinions can constitute their lifestyle. it is composed of small groups such as family. and they will prefer white colours to match with their wedding dress. For example. and people in there are more open-minded. personality and other self-concept that influence the buying behavior as well. lifestyle. wants and behavior. just like a fan’s mind can be affected by the idol. and the choice of products can be affected. (Andersson. London is a fashion city. Compared with other conservative countries. (Andersson. Social factors include the social grouping. A person’s activities. comfort is the biggest consideration 23 . membership groups and aspirational groups. People may be affected by the groups that they are not belonging to. consumers with similar demographic background tend to have the similar buying pattern and purchase preferences. Brides would prefer an extra firm control shapewear because they want to bring out the beautiful body curves on their big day.primary reason behind a person’s minds. Therefore.2. the buying preference may vary from country to country. some of them will wear shapewear as an outer garment. 2. 2006) Usually. Office ladies would prefer a light control shaper because of the long wearing time. people in London are more looking forward a shapewear with trendy and attractive design.3. 2006) For instance. occupation.2 Personal factors Personal factors can be determined by age and life-cycle stage. economic situation.

Also they are allowed to purchase a good quality one as their income can afford it. is a simple calculation for human body fat based on a person's weight and height.4. BMI is defined as a person's body weight in kilograms divided by the square of his or her height in meters. known as BMI. a graph of BMI is shown below. 2008) Although BMI is found to be the best proxy for body fat percentage among ratios of weight and height. 2. (M. and obesity. 2009) Its concept is to assess how much a person's body weight departs from what is normal or desirable for a person's height. in order to classify underweight. overweight. The chart displays BMI as a function of weight (horizontal axis) and height (vertical axis) using different colors for the four BMI categories and using dashed lines to 24 .4 Body shape measurement There are two major methods used to determine the body shape and define overweight: Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR). Dalton. (Singer-Vine.when they purchase shapewear. Based on the data from World Health Organization. it does not actually measure the percentage of body fat. 2003) 2.1 Body Mass Index (BMI) The body mass index. (Eknoyan.

this range is indicated as optimal weight.5 are considered as underweight and may indicate malnutrition or other health problems.wikimedia. Fig. People with a BMI lower than 18. WHO 2000 and WHO 2004 is shown below.0. 2. 25 .5 and 25.svg) Most health organizations including the WHO put a healthy BMI score between 18.0 is considered as overweight and above 30 is considered as obese in the international classification.6: chart of Body Mass Index (Source: http://upload. The table of international classification reference adapted from WHO 1995.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/Body_mass_index_chart.represent the subdivisions within a major class. while a BMI greater than 25.

00 .00 .22.50 .24.00 .34.0 in Asian populations.50 .49 18. 2002) 26 .jsp?introPage=intro_3.00 25.00 .00 30.29.2: The International Classification of adult according to BMI (Source:http://apps.00 . (James W.49 18.16..50 <16.00 30.50 .00 .50 <16.32.99 ≥40.99 ≥25.Classification Underweight Severe thinness Moderate thinness Mild thinness Normal range Overweight Pre-obese Obese Obese class I Obese class II Obese class III <18.00 .99 17.00 16.00 .99 23.00 Table 2.49 27.29.00 .27.who. as Asian people have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.49 32.int/bmi/index.34.99 ≥30.99 17.18. As Asian populations have different associations between BMI.00 25. percentage of body fat.99 35.00 BMI(kg/m2) Principal cut-off points Additional cut-off points <18. and health risks than do European populations.html) The range of BMI used to define overweight may vary from time to time and country to country.49 37.00 .24. a WHO expert recommended the BMI cut-off points for determining overweight should be lowered to 23.00 16.99 ≥25.39.50 .39.16.37.50 .99 ≥30.18.99 ≥40.00 .99 35.

WHR relies on the body measurement but not the weight.2 Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) Waist-to-Hip Ratio is the ratio of the circumference of the waist to the hip circumference.50 . When calculating the WHR. (Geneva.Category Underweight Normal Overweight Obese <18.50 BMI range – kg/m2 Asian populations 18.00 ≥27.7: Waist-to-Hip Ratio (Source: http://en.99 ≥23. 2.24. just like the figure showed below.wikipedia. the waist circumference should be measured at its narrowest point and the hip circumference should be measured around the widest portion of the buttocks.50 18. Different with BMI.org/wiki/File:Waist-hip_ratio.3: The different of BMI cut-off points between Asian and European populations 2. 2008) Fig.50 .50 European populations <18.svg) 27 .99 ≥25.00 ≥30.22.4.00 Table 2.

85 for females or a BMI above 30. (Geneva. 2010).75 Good 0.com/testing/tests/WHR. WHR is used as a measurement of obesity. People with more weight around the waist are defined as apple-shaped bodies. 2002).8 have higher health risk because of their fat distribution. they face more health risks than those with pear-shaped bodies who carry more weight around the hips. Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) also states that women with waist-to-hip ratios above 0.7 range (Singh.75 .85 .topendsports.WHR has been used to measure the health of a person and indicate the risk of developing serious health conditions.80 . (Freedieting.0.0.85 Unacceptable (Obesity) High 0.0. meaning the number is higher or closer to unity. The ideal WHR for women is considered within the 0. 2008) while The National Institute of Diabetes.htm) 28 . (ANI. 2011) The increased health risk is where the waist and hips are in a more similar measurement.90 Extreme > 0.0.4: Acceptable levels for hip to waist ratio for women (Source: http://www. Acceptable (Normal) Excellent < 0. Besides.80 Average 0.7 WHR are usually rated as more attractive. Some researchers have found that the WHR is a significant measure of female attractiveness and women with a 0.90 Table 2. WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as waist–hip ratio above 0.

5 Pressure and Comfort requirement of Shapewear In order to achieve the goal of becoming slim. since people desire to have such a product to enhance the body slimming effect. That may directly affect the overall comfort of the garment.2. firm and extra 29 . The work-life balance among people may be following a vicious cycle that contributes to the increasing number of obese people. It can be explained that many people are too busy at work or doing something else. as well as their body and weight measurements. moderate. eating and sleeping habits. All kinds of shapewear are divided into four categories depending on the amount of pressure level: light. (Cagape.3 Overweight people in Hong Kong According to the study by Hong Kong Baptist University. reshapes the body and flatten the tummy by applying a different amount of compression onto the skin. 19. Moreover. the young people are exposed to stress and unhealthy lifestyles that lead to poor eating habits which is one of the causes of obesity. The study has interviewed more than 3. Shapewear comprises elasticated panels. that they have little time left to do exercise.4. Respondents were asked about exercising. 2011) 2. it indicated that almost one in every five Hong Kong residents is obese. shapewear which helps reshaping the body is needed in the current market.000 residents from 5 years old to 74 years old.9 per cent of respondents were found to have abdominal obesity and 17.5 per cent were overweight.

The Weber-Fechner’s law is used to describe the relation between the clothing pressure and the compressive feeling. 2006) As shown in figure 2. And the values of clothing pressure which give subjects the low and the moderate compression feelings are 1. seriously unreasonable clothing pressure may result in stress concentration. the compression feeling was judged on 7 scales.8kPa to 1.firm shaping. (Ester. while shapewear with a very low clothing pressure lost the functions to reshape the body.8. (Wang Y. (Kanai H..2kPa and 3.6kPa.1 Wearing comfort of Shapewear Human subject would not feel uncomfortable under certain amount of pressure. more discomfort will cause. the comfortable pressure is within a range of 0.. having a balance between the wearing comfort and the pressure applied is crucial. However. In order to achieve better slimming effect. which may be harmful to the human health because the blood flow and cardiac output are affected. 2011) 2.P.4kPa. 30 . Therefore. But the more pressure exerted. Usually. 2006) Shapewear with excessive clothing pressure can cause discomfort and affect the health. some women choose to wear shaper in smaller size even though it is uncomfortable.5.

evaluation of clothing pressure is important to investigate the functional performance of the shapewear products 31 . when the clothing’s weight acts on the body.5. Secondly. when the clothing changes its shapes according the body movement.8: Score scale of sensory evaluation (Source:https://soar-ir. (Chen. tied pressure is main factor as they are usually smaller than the body size to mold the body shape so as to obtain an ideal figure.ac. It is known as tied pressure.Fig. the pressure will be formed if the size of garments is less than that of the body. 2011) For the shapewear. Thirdly.shinshu-u.2 Causes of Clothing pressure The clothing pressure is caused by three factors. 2.jp/dspace/bitstream/10091/401/1/cameraEnglish. Firstly.3 Pressure distribution and Pressure sensation As excessive clothing pressure has been regarded as a problem.5. the cover pressure will be caused.pdf) 2. just the using a strap to tie the body. the weight pressure will be brought. 2.

the clothing pressure is obtained from different measurements. 2006) To compare with the direct methods. body weight and fabric tension.pressure zone is concentrated around the waist girth at the end of wearing process.4 Factors affecting the wearing comfort and Pressure sensation Clothing pressure varies with different body structure. Sometimes the high. 2003) The pressure sensor is linked with the computer system to measure objective data for comfort evaluation. 12 points will be marked on the body of each subject indicating the waist girth. 2. abdomen girth and hip girth. the clothing pressure is measured directly using sensors or gauges. (Yu & Fan. but clothing pressure cannot be measured accurately. In this project. the pressure sensor is used to measure the distributions of clothing pressures given by body shapers on different body parts.5. indirect methods are inexpensive and no additional hardware is required. Everyone have a different 32 . then the sensor will place on the points to check out the how much pressure exerted by the body shapers. As body shapers are primarily designed to exert pressure on a particular part of the body. In direct sensing method. (Anthony. the pressure distribution is not uniformly distributed at different body locations. for example the curvature.by using direct or indirect methods. In indirect sensing methods.

silhouette, which affects the comfort and pressure absorption when wearing body shapers. Besides, when women grow older and older, their bodies change noticeably especially the shapes of the abdomen and hips because of the increased body fat, the changed curvatures of the bodies also affect the sensory feelings from the shaper pressure. (Yu & Fan, 2006) The clothing pressure depends mainly on the geometry. Apart from the body structure, the soft tissue including muscles, vessels, nerves, tendons also affects the pressure absorption. Subjects who had less stiffness in their soft tissue tend to feel painful on their waist side because their soft tissue cannot transfer load in an effective way.

The clothing pressure depends on the fabric elongation as well. Body shaper is designed to flatten the stomach and abdomen by stretching an elastic fabric band around the body. The tension of the band should be the same all round the body, so the pressure will depend on the surface curvature. The greatest where the curvature is, the highest pressure is applied. For example, the curvature at the waist sides is about 3.5 times greater that the front part so the pressure on two sides is also 3.5 times greater than the flattening pressure on the front part. A study found out the shaping effect was better if the fabric elongation below 40 percent, while subjects still have no uncomfortable feeling when the fabric elongation is 40 percent. (Yu & Fan, 2006)

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction In this study, the main purpose is to have a better understanding on consumer preference for shapewear products in Hong Kong, in order suggest the improvement to the current shapewear products. Total 4 methods are used to collect the data. (1) Desk research which gathering and analyzing information already available in print or published on internet, as illustrated in chapter 2. (2) Qualitative research which is done by shapewear market research. (3) Quantitative research which is done by consumer questionnaire survey. (4) Quantitative research which is done by Wear trial test about pressure evaluation of body shapers.

3.2 Types of Data Every research is based on data which is analyzed and interpreted to get information. It is one of the most vital aspects in research study. Data collected are broadly classified into primary and secondary data, they are both contributed valuable information for the study.

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3.2.1 Primary data For primary data, the data is collected originally by the researcher. Collecting data is the first-hand-experience. It has not been published before so the data is more authentic, reliable and objective. Without primary data, a research is less reliable. There are many sources of collecting primary data, include experiments, survey, questionnaire, interview and direct observation. In this study, primary data is collected by market research, questionnaire survey and wear trial.

3.2.2 Secondary data Different with primary data, secondary data has already been published in any form, mostly from books, journals and periodicals. In this study, the review of literature in research is based on secondary data. Although secondary data is less valid, its importance is still there. The reason is that it provides a theoretical and academic background for the study, for example the market of shapewear, so as to help determine if a knowledge gap is existed. It is easier to obtain information from secondary sources than primary data.

3.3 Primary data: Qualitative research methods Qualitative research is a method of investigation in different academic disciplines, usually in the social sciences, market research and further contexts. (Denzin & Lincole, 2005) It
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etc. It involves the analysis of any unstructured material such as customer feedback forms. As more and more international and local brands produce shapewear products. motivations. colours. market trends and products.3. concerns. reports or media clips instead of numbers. behaviors.is all about understanding phenomena and answer questions. In this research. 3. It is used to gain insight into people's attitudes. After carried out a review of literature. The information can indicate a general preferred trend and it helps to choose the samples in the later wear trial test. It is also about investigating the shapwear styles. It helps to investigate the shapewear products in current market.1 Lingerie market field research Market research is used to find out information about lingerie and shapewear markets. pricing. culture or lifestyles and explain reasons. acting as a reference of desirable and popular design style of shapewear products. market field research is used in this study under qualitative research. total 9 lingerie brands have 36 . competitors. one of the useful data collection methods is shop visit. which are the domain of quantitative research. Market research can reflect the market tendency because the current products are produced to satisfy the demands for women. materials and technologies used.

Taiwan) Own shapewear line in chain shore Clothing retailer (International) Lingerie chain store.1 Lingerie brands visited 3. 2008) It is a research method that focuses on the collection and analysis of numerical 37 . M. Brand Names 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Bonluxe Satami Embry form Bodibra Easy shop Uniqlo Wacoal Triumph Marks & Spencer Type of Shops Lingerie chain store. Retailer (International) Lingerie chain store. of stores (HK) 8 15 20 12 6 16 10 11 12 Table 3.4 Primary data: Quantitative research methods Quantitative research is a systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena. Canada) Lingerie chain store. Retailer (China and Hong Kong) Lingerie chain store. Manufacturer & Retailer (China and Hong Kong) Lingerie chain store. (Lisa. Retailer (International) Own lingerie line in department store Retailer (International) No. consumer can provide feedback about the shapewear products and wearing experience each time they buy a product. Internet is also a great tool for research as it is a public forum. Hong Kong. Retailer (Hong Kong) Lingerie chain store.1.been studied and they are listed on table 3. Importer (China. Hong Kong. Retailer (China.

1 Consumer questionnaire survey The purpose of questionnaire survey is to collect consumer preferences and perception in shapewer design. It usually takes a look at large sample of groups of people. Quantitative research can enhance reliability of the result. styles. consumer questionnaire survey and wear trial test for pressure sensation are conducted under the quantitative research method. To address this limitation. and also shapewear is not a necessary for everyone. colours and the importance of consideration in purchasing shapewear products. In order to achieve the aim of investigating shapewear preferences for women. shapewear is still a new trend in Hong Kong. These data and statistics are then analyzed to find correlations inside. Not every woman has the experience in wearing shapewear. In this study. To enhance the validity of data.data and statistics. However. specific criteria had been set for 38 .4. In a research. materials. women who have shapewear experience are preferred and thus the sample size is limited. like the thin people. the target population for the consumer questionnaire survey in this study is 50-60 women. thus statistical background is required to support. Usually a sample size of 200 respondents is used in typical research. better reliable results can be achieved if the sample size is larger. 3.

including age range. it means that they have experience in purchasing intimate apparel products. occupation. respondents would be asked to write down their size and bra size. education level. The respondents must be aged from 18 and they are the user of lingerie products.selecting the sample size. illustrated as follow: Part 1: Personal information The first part intends to obtain the basic demographic profile of the respondents. Besides. while others questionnaires are sent to convenient samples including friends of friends. 39 . In order to generate as many respondents as possible. There are 3 major sections in the questionnaire. monthly income range and the expense range on buying intimate apparel and shapewear. colleagues and relatives The questionnaire (Appendix 1) contains an introduction which explains clearly the purpose of study. it also contains clear instructions to well-guide the respondents when they fill out the questionnaire. some of the questionnaires are conducted by street interviews in Hong Kong from December 2011 to January 2011.

Multiple answers are given to respondents so that they can choose their preferences on design. allowing 40 . These questions are also developed using existing 5-point Likert scale. from least important to most important. calculated and analyzed. can be reflected. respondents are asked to look at the pictures and read the info of 3 shapewear products with different design elements. etc. including overall comfort.Part 2: Shapewear preferences The second part intends to obtain their shapewear preferences and general buying behavior when purchasing shapewear products. On the other hand. they are required to choose their favorite one and briefly give the reason. A numerical result of respondents view from 1 to 5. price. materials and colours from different brands. Then they need to estimate the product functionality and aesthetic performance. styles. These questions are developed using existing 5-point Likert scale. colours and materials used. respondents are also requested to rate the importance of various criteria in decision making process of shapewear purchasing behavior. The selection of respondents can be compared with the answer of bra preferences in part 2. material breathability. easy to wear. At the end of part 3. Part 3: Shapewear details The third part is aimed to find out the actual preferred shapewear selection among respondents.

There are two main focuses in the fitting test. 41 . The other focus is to examine the performance of the products including the overall body reshaping effect. Therefore. The clothing pressure can directly affect subjects' overall comfort of feeling and their satisfaction level.the data to be consolidated. they cannot physically feel and touch the items. One is the distribution of clothing pressure exerted by body shapers on different body locations. respondents are asked to estimate the product performance and choose their favorite shapewear.2 Wear trial test: Pressure evaluation of Body shapers In the questionnaire survey. 3. However. The wear trial test is carried out in this project to evaluate the product functionality and aesthetic performance of three shapewear products. The test is also conducted to verify the previous results of consumer preferences of shapewear products from the questionnaire survey. more authentic result can be gotten by wear tried test because the subjects can physically try on the samples for evaluation.4. They can only provide the ratings according to the given photographs and descriptions. since too loose means the shaper is not effective in shaping and too tight means it is not comfortable and may have physiological effects.

1 and 3. High-waist control panties are designed to beautify the lower body part of a woman without creating any discomfort and detrimental physiological effects. 1990) After the research on the consumer preferred style. three M size samples of High-waist control panties are purchased from different shops as experimental samples for comparison.4. design. hips. thighs.2. The pressure data.3. With the ordinary style of high-waist body shapers as the targets of study. colour and the material used are different. including the buttocks.1 Selection of Samples Labat and DeLong (1990) found that female consumers are more dissatisfied with their lower bodies.3. fitting measurements and comments would be made to subjects’ favorite shaper to generate a reliable investigation on subjects’ shapwear preferences. (Labat. The details of the samples are shown in Tables 3. The price range of these 3 samples is similar (HK$300-500). The pictures of the samples are showed in Figures 3. pant length.2. than their upper bodies. 42 . while the style.2 and 3. crotch. and waist. it is found that shaping panties is one of the popular shapewear products.

it is unavailable to put on the dummy normally used as the hips are too tight. 3.1: Different view of the shapewear samples Sample A is made of double-layer fabrics and the materials are not stretchable enough.Sample Front view Side view 3/4 view Back view A B C Fig. 43 . Thus a same size separate mannequin which separates at the waist and one leg is used for the sample A.

Sample A B C Inner View Fig.2: General details of the shapewear samples Sample Style Bones Tummy control belt Panelled design Silicon waistband A Cut and Sewn  (6 bones) (H&E Opening)   Elastic band Black   B Seamless (with back-seam)     Visible panty line Nude   Seamless C (circular knit)     Lace edging Pink   Leg finish Colour Lace decoration Bow detailing Table 3.2: Inner view of the shapewear samples Sample Size Brand Made in Material M Satami China A 10 B M Marks & Spencer Sri Lanka 66% polyamide 34% elastane* Crotch:100% cotton HK$450 C Triumph Israel 74% polyamide 26% elastane Crotch:100% cotton HK$320 Shell: 85% Nylon 15% Spandex Lining:79% Nylon 21%Spandex Crotch:100% cotton HK$398 Price *LYCRA® is a trademark of INVISTA Table 3. 3.3: Design details of the shapewear samples 44 .

3.4.2.2 Selection of Subjects In this day and age, more and more women are seeking shapewear. Shapewear is no longer designed for overweight women only. Underweight or normal women can also have a little tummy and they also want a body shaper to smooth out the lumps and bumps under the skin. In a wear trial, usually 5-8 subjects are required in typical research. However, as mentioned in section 3.4.1, the sample size is limited in this study as shapewear is still a new trend in Hong Kong, while not every woman is interested in it or has experience to use a shapewear product. Besides, specific body shape is required for the subjects. Therefore, total 4 Asia female subjects aged 20-25 are recruited for the wear trial test in this study. The subjects are invited through e-mail recruitment. To ensure the subjects are having similar body dimensions, they are selected according to their BMI value and the waist-to-hip ratio. The world Health Organization (WHO) defines BMI 18.5 -22.9 kg/m2 as the normal weight status in Asian populations. In this test, the required BMI value of subjects is from 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m2, and the waist-to-hip ratio is from 0.75 to 0.8. The 4 subjects are all in normal range, while they have stomach fat and belly fat, and all of them are not satisfied with their body shapes.

3.4.2.3 Wear trial procedures The 3 samples are given to the fitting subjects before the test day and they are asked to
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put on each sample shaper for half day (8-12 hours) before the test, so that they can feel the shapers and give their comments. Because of personal hygiene, the shapers should be washed after a subject has put on and after the test before shifting to another subject. The schedule of fitting trial is shown in Table 3.6. Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Subject 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 Activities Receive the three samples and try on the sample A for half day Try on the sample B for half day Try on the sample C for half day Wear trial in HKPU. Wash and dry the 3 samples after the trial. Receive the three samples and try on the sample A for half day Try on the sample B for half day Try on the sample C for half day Wear trial in HKPU. Wash and dry the 3 samples after the trial. Receive the three samples and try on the sample A for half day Try on the sample B for half day Try on the sample C for half day Wear trial in HKPU. Wash and dry the 3 samples after the trial. Receive the three samples and try on the sample A for half day Try on the sample B for half day Try on the sample C for half day Wear trial in HKPU. Wash and dry the 3 samples after the trial.

Table 3.4: Procedures of the wear trial test on January 2012

3.4.2.4 Wear trial timeline 5 minutes Measurement #1 taking 10 minutes Putting on sample for adaption Measurement #2 taking 20 minutes Pressure measuring (12 points)

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Quiet laboratory with constant temperature (25°C) is needed in the wear trial. At the beginning, subject ’s body measurements such as height, weight, natural waist, abdomen, top hip and hips are taken for the BMI and WHR calculation. Then the subject is asked to put on the first sample for about 5-10 minutes to let the body adapt to the changed shape. At the same time, body measurements are taken again for calculating the deviation before and after wearing the sample shaper. And 12 different points are marked on the body using stickers (first marked on dummy before the test as consistent testing points are required on different subjects, see figure 3.1). After that, pressure tests are done to measure the pressure values. The sensor is placed on the 12 points between the skin and the sample shaper to measure the pressure value exerted. In order to get data with stable distributions, each point should be measured around 50 seconds. The second and third samples would be tested in turn.

Fig. 3.3: Points first marked on dummy before the test

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The Novel Pliance Pressure Sensor system in ITC laboratory is used to measure objective data for comfort evaluation. It is linked with the PC that has installed the Pliance x-16 software. To guarantees accurate data can be collected.4.3 Pressure sensing system In this project. It can detect the pressure below 24 kPa so it is suitable to measure the small values of garment pressure. When the sensing part experiences the stress between the shaper and the skin.4: Hardware of Novel pressure sensor system 48 .3. Below figures shows the hardware and the connection of the sensor system. a wireless synchronization device with built-in Bluetooth technology and a pressure mat.2_192. The sensor in the mat is very small and coated with a layer of resin to soften the surface. the data would be collected and transferred to the computer system through Bluetooth. The pressure mat used in this wear trial test is No. 3. The Pressure sensor hardware consists of a battery. Fig. it is suggested to check the sensor using weight at any time before the test.

4. Objectively measured pressure values are significantly different amongst the 3 different shapewear products. Objective comfort means the objective measurement of clothing pressure distribution and it is done by the Novel Pliance Pressure Sensor system.1 Objective comfort: Objective pressure test Clothing pressure comfort is an important part in clothing comfort assessment. 49 . 12 points are first marked on each subject to check out the exact pressure exerted by the sample shapers.5: Connection of sensor equipment 3. The 12 points are marked on the body indicating the waist girth. upper hip girth and hip girth.Fig. Sensors are placed on these 12 points to detect how much pressure has exerted by the shaper on these parts. therefore the range of pressure preferred by subjects can be found in the test. both objective and subjective pressure comfort evaluations are carried out. 3.3. In order to find out a suitable range of pressure to exert on human body as well as evaluate the product functionality. It is based on the subjective tightness sensation and the clothing pressure of body shapers.

B 6 C.5: Points of the locations 50 . 3.Fig.B 11 Side 12 hip girth Table 3.F Abdomen girth 7 8 Side 9 10 C.F 2 3 Side Waist girth 4 5 C.6: Points for measuring garment pressures Point Location 1 C.

3.Fig. 3.8: Software interface of Novel Pliance Pressure Sensor 51 .7: Sensing process Fig.

hips and body curve. There are 2 major sections in the evaluation form. 52 . An evaluation form is prepared (Appendix 2) and subjects are invited to fill out the form after the wear trial. The result can testify the previous results from the questionnaire survey. Part 2: Shapewear evaluation After the subjects put on the sample.3.3. Finally.2 Subjective comfort: Subjective assessment Subjective comfort means the subjective pressure sensation. they are asked to choose the shaper they like the most and briefly write down the reason. And subjects are asked to rate the satisfaction with their bodies such as waist. they have to rate the shapers in terms of the functionality and aesthetic performance and material properties. 1 refers to poor performance. A 5-point Likert scale is used to measure subjects’ opinions. tummy. They can also provide subjective comments on the samples. including age. illustrated as follow: Part 1: Personal information The demographic profile of the subjects. while 5 refers to excellent performance.4. body measurement and size are obtain in Part 1.

53 . Data were collected by shop visiting and internet searching. The size range offered is also investigated (Appendix 3). it is found that the brands have a similar size range so it will not be discussed in the thesis.CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS 4. colours. By gathering and analyzing the information collected. it is helpful to figure out the market tendency of shapewear products. However. These preferences correspond to the styles.1 Finding on Market research Total of 9 international or local brands which have opened stores in Hong Kong and produces shapewear products have been studied in this project. materials used and the technologies applied. pricing. reflecting the consumer ’s needs and preferences in shapewear market.

Hong Kong China. Hong Kong China. Europe Asia.1: Target market and price range of selected brands 54 .1 Company background Since brand images. market strategies. Hong Kong. target groups and characteristics of product vary from brands to brands. Macau.800 HK$138– HK$420 HK$199 – HK$980 HK$269 – HK$799 HK$350 – HK$670 HK$79 HK$280 – HK$1100 HK$320 – HK$580 HK$350 – HK$450 Table 4.100 – HK$3. understanding the company background such as the target markets and nature of business is necessary before analyzing the information.1. America. Canada China. America. Europe World-wide World-wide Price range (per piece) HK$2. Taiwan China.4. Taiwan Asia. Hong Kong. Hong Kong. Brand Names A B C D E F G H I Bonluxe Satami Embry form Bodibra Easy shop Uniqlo Wacoal Triumph Marks & Spencer Target markets China.

600 Hong Kong dollars. Fig.A. to ensure them are being well-served with the best body shape-up solution in the store. Slim Bra. A bodysuit typically costs around 3. Bonluxe functional lingerie has over 40 years history in Japan and founded in HK as the market leader in 1995. APIS® silk protein. Bonluxe is specialized in the materials that with the strong research and development. etc. while they are targeting for high spending women. Bonluxe is also well-known for their good customer service. since then the sales of functional lingerie continue rising.1: Bonluxe store and Displays in Bonluxe store 55 . 4. Bonluxe is relatively expensive than other shapewear products in the market. Bonluxe Bonluxe is famous for its high quality functional lingerie. They got a lot of patent products such as Bridge Body. They are the only lingerie company which the consultants can offer professional and personalized service for customers.

The consultants in the stores are well-trained to provide professional knowledge for customers and high standard of after sales service for further improvement. advanced technology has been integrated into their design. Fig. 4. Satami has established a high-end product image in the lingerie market. They established in 1985 and their production line is set up at Taiwan.B.2: Satami store and Shaper from Satami 56 . Satami Satami is a local lingerie brand selling functional lingerie including the shapewear. Normally a control shaper costs around 350 Hong Kong dollars. With over 20 years of experience. Their business concept is positioning in high-level with an affordable price for everyone. trendy and comfortable shapewear products. Through the chain network and a lot of advertising. providing the innovative.

They have chosen supermodel Jocelyn Luko as the protagonist in the commercials. They provide a full range of intimate apparel products for women of all ages and stages of life. And their TV advertising and print ads can be found in fashion publications and outdoor venues. as well as other different kinds of apparel and accessories. Fig. They have a variety of assortments of style and design. shapewear. Advertising is one of their marketing strategies. 4. aerobic wear. Besides brassieres and panties. maternity and nursing wear. sleepwear.3: Embry form store and Shaper from Embry form 57 . from adolescent girls to mature women and even to pregnant mothers. Embry form Embry Form is a renowned lingerie brand based firm in Hong Kong and Mainland China for over 30 years.C. while their shapewear products are elegant and classic. they also sell swimwear. They are now holding 19 applications patents and 13 appearance design patents.

Its founder. Mrs. It provides shapewear for instant effects and long term results at affordable prices. they have created a new line called "BoomBoom Bra". Fig. resulting in the online consultation lingerie store. ensuring the customers wear functional lingerie which are fit to meet professional standards. Different with other brands that using mass production. The stores do not have much on display. In order to reach out to consumers globally. Bodibra BodiBra Lingerie established in Canada since 1989 under the name "My Heart Lingerie".4: Bodibra store and Shaper from Bodibra 58 . the customer will be measured and the staff will find the suitable one for them in the stock room. all BodiBra lingerie is handmade and every piece is carefully cut and sewn.D. Pat Ma. returned to Hong Kong and opened her first shop (changed the name to "BodiBra") in 2003. Their product designs are patented in Asia. 4.

Fig. They sell lingerie. Tsim Sha Tsui and Causeway Bay. Usually their corsets can be worn as outerwear. 4. where most young people always go shopping.5: Easy Shop store and Shaper from Easy Shop 59 . shapewear and sleepwear products from its own brand Audrey and other well-known international lingerie brands such as embûche and Yauco. their stores are located in Mongkok. corsets with elegant design and applique details in wide range of colours can be found.E. In Easy Shop. Easy shop Easy shop came from Taipei. As they are targeting for young ladies. Their stores mainly use orange for the background colour to give customers a modern feeling.

Currently there is only one type of shaping camisole. The shapers are made of lightweight fabrics and the design is simple without any accessory and trimming. Fig. In 2011.F. Uniqlo launched a new line "Style up" of women undergarments. Moreover. 4. America and Europe. while there are two versions for their thigh shapers.6: Shapers from Uniqlo 60 . Uniqlo Uniqlo is Japan's leading clothing retail chain company that the stores are opened in major cities in Asia. offering seamless shapewear products which provides support and enhances the body lines. Uniqlo sell it at a cheap price which per piece only costs 79 Hong Kong Dollars.

panties. It is designed with compression panels at the waist and bum areas to flatten the stomach. sculpt the thighs and boost the butt. Fig. shapewear. Also it refers to a completely new technology that firm up the body when customers walk while wearing products. Wacoal Wacoal is a worldwide lingerie manufacturer and the leader in designer intimate apparel. camisoles and accessories for women at different ages. "Cross Walker fat-burning weight loss pants" is one of the best selling shapewear products in Asia.G.7: Wacoal store and Advertisement of Wacoal’s shapewear 61 . America and Europe. 4. Wacoal produces brassieres. Their business set up in Asia. Their shapewear are designed with minimal seams to provide a smooth appearance when worn.

Triumph launched its innovative shapewear line named Shape Sensation. which is a newly developed fashionable lingerie collection that shapes and brings out the body curves of women. underwear. Triumph Triumph is also a leading lingerie manufacturer in the world and their business operates in 120 countries.8: Triumph store and Advertisement of Triumph’s shapewear 62 . Each line offers its own styles and qualities.H. 4. In their shapewear product. beach fashion. They produce and sell lingerie. Retro Sensation and Smooth Sensation. Fig. leisurewear and sleepwear for women and men. eye-catching shades such as plum-fusion and pink are complemented by the essential black and nude colours. shapewear. In spring 2011. Shape Sensation collection consists of three main lines: Lace Sensation.

Fig. home furnishings and luxury food products.9: Marks & Spencer store and Shapewear from Marks & Spencer 4. the preferences on shapewear types. materials.2 Market tendency of shapewear products In this section. 63 . Marks & Spencer Marks & Spencer is a worldwide department store chain that specializes in the selling of clothing. colours. They have their own lingerie line to produce brassieres. A waist cincher typically costs around 450 Hong Kong dollars. styles.I. Since 2010. knickers. shapewear and sleepwear products. They work with fabric suppliers on fabric innovation to provide full range of shapewear products which are made of lightweight microfiber material and boost comfort. the sales of shapewear at Marks & Spencer have jumped 12 percent. while they are selling at a reasonable price. technologies used and the sizes in Hong Kong market would be discussed.1. 4.

4.2: Summary of shapewear types offered by brands (for Hong Kong market) As shown in Table 4. Bodysuit (including the full torso control bodysuit) and Shaping panties are also preferable to the market. 64 .2.1. all of them have produced the thigh shaper whatever is high waist or low waist style. There is a tendency to shape up the lower body specialized in the abdomen. most of the selected local and international brands provide these products for customer. Although the 9 selected brands sell different kinds of shapewear.1 Shapewear categories Brand Names Control Slip tank top Types of shapewear offered Shaping Bodysuit Underbust shaper Waist nipper Shaping Panty Thigh shaper Slimming legging Corset A Bonluxe B Satami C Embry form D Bodibra E Easy shop F Uniqlo G Wacoal H Triumph I M&S                                            Table 4. hip and thigh.2. thigh shaper is the most common type to be seen in the shapewear market of Hong Kong.

g.g.4. Lacing) Glossy effect Fancy straps 65 .g. orange) Black White Nude Brown Pastel purple Pastel orange Various colors available D Bodibra        E Easy shop        Cut and sewn: Various design from brands Print (E. Animal) Lace panel/ Lace trim Embroidery Accessorized (E. Crystal) No VPL (Visual Panty line) leg finish Cut and sewn:    Lace panel/ Lace trim Sheer Plain            Black White Nude Brown Pastel purple Pastel orange Black White Nude Grey Purple Black White Nude Brown Red Pastel colours (E.1.2 Styles: Design and colours Brand Names A Bonluxe   Design elements Cut and sewn: Lace panel/ Lace trim Glossy effect Colours       B Satami    C Embry form      Cut and sewn: Lace panel/ Lace trim Glossy effect (All plain) Seamless: Plain Cut and sewn: Elegant lace panel/ lace trim Glossy effect Embroidery Accessorized (E.g. purple.2.

g. For the preferred design elements. It is usually used as an additional decorative element for the underwear. and this is also 66 . Animal) No VPL leg finish Seamless:        Black Nude Grey Blue Purple Black Nude Brown G Wacoal        H Triumph            Black Brown Grey Pink Black White Nude Plain bow detailing Lace edging Lined design Seamless: Glossy effect Diamond design Panel design No VPL leg finish I Marks & Spencer     Table 4. With long years of experience.F Uniqlo   Seamless: Plain. while international brands that have a few years ’ experience on shapewear prefer the seamless style for Hong Kong market. lace seems to be a must for the cut and sewn shaper as lace is synonymous with elegance and feminine charm. the local and Asia brands prefer producing cut-and-sewn shaping garments. non-lined X-shaped design Seamless: Plain (most) Sheer X-shaped design Diamond design Jacquard pattern Print (E. satin or silk.3 Summary of shapewear design and colours offered by brands Both cut-and-sewn style and the seamless style can be found in current shapewear market. Shiny effect can be produced by using nylon.

For the seamless style. 67 . However. there is an increasing usage of pastel colours and bright colours in the products to make them more fashionable. For the preferred colour of shapewear products. basic colours including black. white and nude are still the must-have colours for the brands. so as to match up with minimal seams design. while black goes well with outerwear in dark colour. a clean and plain design is most common in the market. Nude and white colour shapewear can closely match the skin color and it is good for light colored shirts.preferable for this style to increases the glamour of garment.

Since a good shapewear has to do two 68 . which are soft and lightweight fabrics.1.4: Summary of materials and technologies used in shapewear Most shapewear products in Hong Kong market are made of a combination of nylon and spandex.4.2.3 Materials and technologies used Brand Names Materials A Bonluxe  APIS® silk protein fiber Technologies used  APIS® silk protein  Tourmaline far infrared rays (powders sandwiched among cotton)  Bamboo Charcoal fabric  Cool Fabric fabric  No VPL seamless technology (Ultrasound) / / B Satami  Nylon/Spandex blended  Polyester/Cotton blended  Polyester (100%)  Nylon/Spandex blended  Nylon/Lycra blended  Nylon/Spandex/Polyester blended  Vary from brands  Polyester blended and Nylon blended usually  Nylon/Spandex blended  LYCRA® Beauty  Nylon/Spandex blended  Nylon/Lycra blended  Nylon/Spandex blended     C Embry form D Bodibra E Easy shop F Uniqlo  Circular knit technology  Moulding technology*  Circular knit technology  Heat sealed interior panel  Soft touch brushed fabric  No VPL seamless technology  Circular knit technology  Moulding technology* G Wacoal H Triumph I M&S LYCRA® Beauty  No VPL seamless technology Nylon/Spandex blended  Secret Support™ Nylon/Spandex/Lycra blended (Integrated zone panels) Nylon/Spandex/Polyester blended * Apart from the pad moulding Table 4.

Spandex is a strong material that helps to control and compress troublesome spots on the body while allowing normal circulation. since the circular knit technology and the no VPL seamless technology become more popular in the market. the market tendency of the latest shapewear can be described as a seamless style with simple design and shiny effect. while some brands start using bright colors 69 . these innovative fabrics can achieve those things by providing comfort. Therefore. Nylon/Spandex blended fabrics are the most popular in this industry.things well . For the popular technologies used. the circular knit technology and the no VPL seamless technology become more common in the market to satisfy the needs of consumer.3 Overall market shapewear preferences result To summarize.stretch and breathe. No VPL technology is usually done by the ultrasonic cutting machine. as well as its shinny effect makes the shapewear appearance even better. Circular knit technology is done by circular knitting machine. hips and thighs. waist. white and nude colors will also be available for sure. support and elasticity to the shapewear. The shapers and panties with no VPL can save the women from the embarrassment and discomfort of bulging seams. This technology gives a seam-free finish and provides shaping features to achieve a smooth natural silhouette to stomach. Black. 4.1.

6 questionnaires were under the aged sample or uncompleted. yielding a response rate of 70%. The target respondents were Hong Kong women aged 18 or above. Date will be analyzed with Strategical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). 4. who are the user of lingerie products.1 Survey response rate The questionnaire about the consumer preferences and buying behavior for shapewear products was conducted in December 2011 and January 2012.2. occupation. monthly income level and expense on lingerie would be discussed as follow.2.with creative design. The information can indicate a general preferred trend and it helps to choose the samples in the later wear trial test.2 Results of Questionnaire 4. the demographic background. Based on the 70 sample size. 4.2 Demographic profile of Respondents The demographic data such as age. education level. shapewear preference and the buying behavior of respondents would be discussed and analyzed. 100 questionnaires were distributed with 76 were returned. in which 70 questionnaires were valid. 70 .

3%) among five groups.0 Table 4. 4.2.5: Age Group of respondents The age range of respondents is shown in Table 4. 2 Education level Frequency Primary School or less Secondary School Associate Degree Bachelor's Degree Total 2 17 4 47 70 Percent 2. female within this age range are considered as young ladies and most of them want to live with a good quality life and good lifestyle.1 Age Frequency 18-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 40 or above Total 38 12 10 3 7 70 Percent 54.1 100.1 32.4 85.0 Cumulative Percent 2. Over 85% respondents are aged of 18-35.6.2.0 Table 4.3 17.9 24.2.6: Education level of respondents The education level of respondents is shown in Table 4.0 100.7 90. 24.3 5. Followed by is the respondents aged 26-30 and the respondents aged 31-35.3 4.4.9 27. The respondents who are aged of 18-25 occupy the largest percentage (54.1 14.5.2.0 100.7 67.3 71.0 Cumulative Percent 54.3% of respondents are at 71 .9 100.3 10.

3 87.0 31. 18. 4.3 57. The education levels of respondents are distributed normally.6 24.0 Table 4.4 7.6 5.1 64.0 Cumulative Percent 18.9 100.4 61. sales co-coordinator.secondary school level and 72.2.9 7.000-30.1% respectively. who are the white-collar workers working in office.000-20.9 100.9%) are worked as clerks.1 22.0 Cumulative Percent 20.7% and 67. including salesperson. Most respondents (32.000 or below HK$5.2.8 respectively.000 Total 14 8 43 5 70 Percent 20.9 12.9% of respondents are in sales and service sectors. etc.7: Occupation of respondents Frequency HK$5.7 and Table 4.0 11.3 Occupation and Personal monthly income level Frequency Student Education Clerk Housewife Sales & Service Others Total 13 4 23 5 16 9 70 Percent 18.4 92.7 32.8: Personal monthly income level of respondents The occupation and monthlt income level of respondents is shown in Table 4. 5. 22.000-10.1 100.000 HK$20.8% are completed in degree level including the associate degree and bachelor's degree.6% of respondents are 72 .1 100.0 Table 4. flight attendant.000 HK$10.

000 Total 42 23 3 2 70 Percent 60.2.5% respondents earning HK$10.students.9 100. most respondents spend less than HK$500 on intimate apparel per month. it corresponds to results of total 68.000 on intimate apparel.9 97. Almost 33% of them usually spend HK$500-1.000 or below per monthly income.9 4.000 HK$1. while only few percents of respondents spend more than $1. which represent 60% of the respondents.4 Buying behavior Frequency HK$500 or below HK$500-1. thus it is found that 20% of respondents are having HK$5. These people usually have economical support and ability on the consumption of quality lingerie.0 92. 73 .3 2.500-2.9. Over half of the respondents are working in clerk jobs and service sector. 4.500 HK$1.0 32.0 Cumulative Percent 60. It is shown that the respondents do not spend too much on intimate apparel.1 100. as they may only have part-time jobs or in leisure.2.000-1.9: Monthly expense on Intimate apparel As shown in table 4.000.000 or above per month.0 Table 4.

5 Size Frequency XS S M L Total Table 4.3 98.9 7.11: Bra size of respondents As shown table 4.9%. And the table 4.3 1. followed by are small size (30%) and large size (18.4.0 7 16 1 2 16 12 2 2 5 3 3 1 70 .6 100.4 81.9 34.1 60.9 2.4 100.4 2.11 showed that most respondents are having a bra size of 32B and 34B. both in 22.1 2.9 90.0 77.4 30.2.0 32. It is found that medium size is the common size and B cup are the common bra size on intimate apparel in Hong Kong.6 100.0 94.0 Cumulative Percent 10.3 4.0 18. 74 Percent 1.2.1 80.9 17.0 22.0 1 21 35 13 70 Percent 10.10: Sizes of respondents Frequency 32A 32B 32D 34A 34B 34C 34D 36B 36C 38B 38C 38D Total Table 4.1 4.4 100.0 50.4 31.10.6%). half of the respondents is in medium size.0 Cumulative Percent 1.9 1.0 82.9 22.3 37.

the preferences of shapewear products as well as the purchasing considerations of respondents would be discussed and analyzed.0 Table 4. Seamless style is expected to be preferable as it 75 . 4.3 Shapewear preference of respondents In this part. 4.2. the designers and manufacturers can improve the existing products in market.2.0 Cumulative Percent 87. category. the existing shapewear products can be mainly divided into two types: (1) traditional cut and sewn style which often features seams sewn and (2) seamless style which is crafted without visible seams. By understanding it.1 Style preference Frequency Seamless Cut and Sewn Total 61 9 70 Percent 87.3.1 100.These people may look for shapewear products in order to enhance their body figures. The preferences would be detail explained in style. subjects in medium size were selected in the wear trial.12: Style preference of respondents Based on the style.9 100. Also. the importance level of consideration when respondents select the shapewear can respond to the needs of consumers. which can be clustered as a respondents’ preferred shapewear. material and colour. For this reason.1 12.

As shown in Table 4.6 20.9 100. respondents are asked to choose the 2 options that they prefer. 4.2 Categories preference Frequency Control Slip Shaping Tank Top Bodysuit Underbust Shaper Waist Nipper Shaping Knicker Thigh Shaper Slimming Legging Total 13 27 17 14 12 29 11 17 140 Percent 9.3 19.9% and 8.1 100.6% of respondents 76 . thigh shaper and waist nipper were less preferable. 20. However.9% of them preferred the cut and sewn one. only 7.13: Categories preference of respondents In this question.3 80 87.3.3% preferred shaping tank top. It also validated the growing trend of control panties.6 40. Their choices are combined and thus the frequency of this question is 140. while only 12.7 59.lies very flat against the skin. making it a comfortable option. there are 8 options which are the main types of shapewear products.7% of respondent selected shaping knicker as their favorite type and 19.7 50.1 10 8. Results proofed that it is true as 87.3 28. as these types of products were relatively light control and they provide comfort for wear all day long.2.0 Table 4.9 12.7 7.13.0 Cumulative Percent 9.3 12.1% of respondents chose the seamless style.

Each style have got around 10%-12% respondents’ support. 77 .3 74. In this question. 64. 4.3% of respondents preferred Nylon/Spandex/Lycra.3. data is evenly distributed. respondents are asked to choose their preferred material for shapewear.7 100. lycra and polyester.3 Material preference Frequency Nylon/Spandex/Lycra Nylon/Lyca Nylon/Spandex Total 45 7 18 70 Percent 64.3 100. especially in the seamless shapewear. For other types such as underbust shaper or bodysuit. spandex.0 Cumulative Percent 64.0 25.3 10.preferred these types of shapewear only.0 Table 4. this special materials can be made into a wide variety of garments.2.14 Material preference of respondents Shapewear which requires to provide compression often made of nylon. It is not a surprising result as Nylon/Spandex/Lycra fabric is the one of the most common materials used in the shapewear market nowadays.

9 100.15: Colour preference of respondents According to the Table 4.3%) and light colour (21.7 52.1 47. as they were easy to match with the outer garments in any colours. Basic colours (24. white and nude were relatively popular.15. It is shown that black.4 Colour preference Frequency Basic(White/Skin) Light Bright Dark Total 17 15 5 33 70 Percent 24.2.4%) were also preferable. They were highly acceptable because black is visually slimming and other dark colours can make a room appear to shrink in size.3 45.4 7.5%) of the respondents picked dark colour including black as favorite colour in shapewear.1 100.3. 78 .0 Cumulative Percent 24. almost half (47.0 Table 4.4. therefore the lingerie products often offer these 3 colours for customer to choose.3 21.

9 81.6 10.6 47.16: Popular lingerie brands among respondents Respondents are asked to choose two lingerie shops that they often purchase the lingerie and shapewear products.2 100 Table 4.2 70 72.6 8. Not long ago. Triumph launched the new shapewear line called Shape Sensation and its products were popular. Triumph and Wacoal are international well-known brands and the global leaders in lingerie.5 Respondents’ choices in Lingerie brand Frequency Triumph Wacoal Satami Embry Fom Bonluxe Easy Shop Calvin Klein Victoria's Secret M&S H&M Others Total 27 27 12 12 2 7 11 4 12 15 11 140 Percent 19.3. Surprisingly only 2% respondents picked Bonluxe. Although Bonluxe is famous in functional underwear.8 2.0 Cumulative Percent 19.8 57.3 38. Results showed that Triumph and Wacoal were respondents ’ choices that they both had the highest votes of 27%.2.4. 79 .4 5 7.2 55. respondents thought that it was too expensive to buy.2 62. Shapewear has performed well for them.3 8.7 7.6 1.5 92.3 19.9 8.8 100.

6% 28 40.3% 5 7.7% 16 22.9% 7 10.9% 21 30.0% 3 4.9% 13 18. 75.7% of respondents rated 5 in comfort.9% 5 22 31. Among consumers' needs.0% 7 10.7% 37 52. The material used would affect the comfortableness of shapewear as a soft.3.9% Material softness 1 1.76 4.69 3.1% 32 45.4% 53 75.05 Total Mean Table 4.9% 20 28.4% Material breathability 4 5. breathable fabric could wrap the body like the 80 .17: Factors affecting purchasing behavior (Functionality & aesthetic aspects) A list of considerations comes out when consumer select shaping products and this will directly affect the purchasing behavior.1% 12 17. It would be a nightmare if the women need to be working in uncomfortable shaping garments for more than eight hours. This question was developed to study the importance of these factors. Respondents thought that comfortableness to wear is primarily important in buying shapewear.1% Most important 4 32 45.2.91 4.1% 18 25.3% 2 2 2.6 Factors affecting purchasing behavior (Functionality and aesthetic aspects) Factors Importance Least important  1 Design 0 0% Comfort 1 1.17. material softness and breathability were also important criteria.02 3.4% Pressure 2 2.9% 2 2. As shown in Table 4.63 4.4.0% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 2.7% Thermal functionality 17 24.6% 9 12.0% 16 22.9% 12 17.7% 12 17.7% 3 14 20% 2 2. Shapewear should provide comfort while firming and flattening bulges.

to compare in the factors in the Table 4. while 45.4% Most important 4 19 27.1% 17 24.96 2.3.9% 13 18.7% of respondents rated 4 and 31.9% 1 1.9% 25 35. 4. The above Table 4.6% 5 24 34.6% 3 12 17.1% 13 18.17. design also counted heavily in buying behavior.4% 2 12 17.1% 13 18.second skin and give the wearer a comfortable feeling.18 showed that respondents agreed that durability.6% 19 27.4% 2 2.9% 12 17.1% 22 31.0% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 2.18: Factors affecting purchasing behavior (others) Apart from the functionality and aesthetic performance of products.1% 23 32.9% Brand image 23 32.1% 9 12.9 3.77 1. these factors were relatively less important.4% 7 10.9% 12 17. An attractive design could definitely draw consumer ’s attention.2.3% 7 10. Moreover. easy to wear and prices have played an important role in shapewear selection.7% 22 31. other factors would also be the consideration and affect the purchasing behavior in shapewear.55 3.7 Others purchasing consideration Factors Importance Least important  1 Durability Easy to wear 3 4.9% Customer service 15 21.1% 8 11.3% 19 27.7 Total Mean Table 4. About 60% of the respondents 81 .4% 2 2.0% Price 2 2.3% 11 15.7% 16 22. However.46 3.4% of them rated 5 in design aspect.9% Advertisement 37 52.

Respondents' considerations as well as the reasons when making decision would be discussed and analyzed as below. in this part respondents are asking to choose their favorite shapewear of 3 shaping garments based on the given information.9% of respondents rated 1 in advertisement. 4.4 Reasons of Choosing existing shapewear products In order to validate the consumer preferences clustered in last part. comfort is the primarily important in shapewear selection. Fig. 4.2.10 Pictures of selected shapewear samples 82 .rated 4 or 5 in these 3 factors. brand image and advertisement had less impact on the buying behavior. 52. Compared with others. Overall.

19: Evaluation of Sample A Respondents are asked to evaluate the samples’ performance on functionality and aesthetic.1% 38 54.1% Table 4.2.4% 11 15.4.7% Excellent 5 12 17. However. design and colours were also considered as ―average‖ performance.9% 8 11.4.1% 2 2.9% 26 37.4% 20 28.7% 11 15.3% 4 5.0% 14 20.4% Evaluation of Colour 5 7.9% 5 7. Thus 48. Table 4.6% 29 41.3% Good 4 25 35.19 showed the evaluation results of sample A. not bad but not good enough.7% 10 14.0% 26 37. perhaps because this traditional shaping garment consists of an adjustable control belt and few bones to shape the body.1% 22 31.3% 9 12.1 Overall evaluation of Shapewear samples Factors Poor 1 Estimation of Body reshaping function Estimation of Pressure comfort Estimation of Material breathability Estimation of Material softness Evaluation of Design 0 0% 10 14. Other factors such as material properties.4% 30 42.7% 8 11.4% 8 11. the control belt and bones exerts more pressure on the skin.1% 3 4.6% of respondents estimated the performance of pressure comfort was just in average. as a result the wearer would have a tight feeling.9% 2 2.7%) considered that the body reshaping function was good.1% 34 48.3% Total 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% . It showed that respondents remained neutral when they evaluated 83 Performance Acceptable Average 2 14 20.6% 13 18. Most respondents (35.9% 2 2.6% 3 19 27.

1% 3 4.4% 23 32. 45.0% 1 1.0% Good 4 33 47. half of the factors including the aesthetic were considered as ―average‖ performance while other factors were considered as ―good‖ performance.9% Evaluation of Colour 4 5.1% 14 20.3% 7 10.1% 26 37.20.9% 5 7.4% 3 4.0% 7 10.0% 7 10.7% 26 37.6% 9 12. Looking at the overall ranking. 84 .9% 34 48.0% 24 34.3% Total 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% As shown in Table 4.20: Evaluation of Sample B Performance Acceptable Average 2 9 12.4% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 2 2. the evaluation results of sample B were similar with those of sample A without big difference.0% Excellent 5 6 8.9% 12 17. Factors Poor 1 Estimation of Body reshaping function Estimation of Pressure comfort Estimation of Material breathability Estimation of Material softness Evaluation of Design 1 1. Respondents tended to think that this sample was better after they evaluated two similar products.1% 28 40.6% 28 40.7% of respondents estimated the shaping function and the pressure comfort were good in this seamless control panty.1% 26 37.3% 29 41.the first product.1% 32 45.0% 3 21 30.7% Table 4.

85 .1% 39 55.21 showed that the evaluation results of sample C. None of the respondents thought the functionality and aesthetic of sample C were poor performance.7% 9 12.1% 28 40.3% 4 5.7% Total 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 4.3% 3 4.1% 15 21.3% 3 4. A bit differences with the first and second samples.7% 36 51.4% 7 10. most factors were considered as ―good‖ performance with over 50% of respondents’ support.Factors Poor 1 Estimation of Body reshaping function Estimation of Pressure comfort Estimation of Material breathability Estimation of Material softness Evaluation of Design 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% Evaluation of Colour 0 0% Table 4.21: Evaluation of Sample C 2 3 Performance Acceptable Average 3 35 50.6% 37 52.1% 12 17.4% 37 52.9% 41 58.3% 2 2.4% Good 4 29 41.9% 11 15.9% Excellent 5 3 4.0% 26 37.3% 3 4.3% 8 11.0% 26 37.95 3 4.0% Table 4. It showed that the sample C was good in respondents' minds.

22 showed the comparison in functionality of sample A. It could be explained in the style of products.1% 6 8.0% 9 12.3% 32 45. Table 4.9% 3 4.7% 39 55.1% 21 30.9% 3 4.9% 9 12.7% 33 47.3% 26 37.3% 0 0% Sample C 0 0% Table 4. while sample B and C have applied the seamless technology.1% 29 41.7% Excellent 5 12 17.1% 2 2.2.4% 0 0% Estimation of Sample A Pressure comfort Sample B 10 14. the pressure exerted by the garment was relatively low and 86 Performance Acceptable Average 2 14 20. Also as they are designed without using any bones.4. According to the given info.1% Good 4 25 35. they would not only evaluate the product’s performance. B and C.22: Comparison in functionality When consumer makes buying decision. Seamless shapers could lie flat against the skin. while most of them thought that the pressure comfort of sample A was just in ―average‖.4.95 3 19 27.0% 34 48.0% 35 50.6% 3 4.2 Comparison in Functionality Factors Poor 1 Estimation of Sample A Body reshaping function Sample C Sample B 0 0% 1 1.3% 14 20.1% 10 14. Most respondents thought that the pressure of sample B and C was good. comparison would also be involved in their buying behavior. sample A was a cut and sewn style.6% 24 34. They would compare the similar products then pick the best one.0% 5 7.3% Total 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% .3% 2 2.

That was the reason why the respondents rated ―good‖ performance in sample B and C.3% 22 31.2.9% 23 32. B and C.23: Comparison in material properties Table 4.7% 0 0% Sample C 0 0% Estimation of Sample A Material softness Sample B 8 11. Because of the double layer fabrics. It showed that sample B and C have got a better rating than sample A.4% 28 40.4% 26 37. That was the reason why the rating of sample A was relatively lower than other samples.4% 7 10.1% 3 4.1% 37 52.9% 26 37.9% 14 20.1% 36 51. as the fabrics used in these 2 87 .4% 29 41.4% 8 11.0% 30 42.0% 3 4. The percentage showed that sample B and C have got similar results in breathability and softness.1% 3 4.9% Excellent 5 2 2.9% 26 37.4.1% Good 4 9 12.provide better comfort than the traditional shapewear.23 showed the comparison in material performance of sample A. 4.3 Comparison in Material properties Factors Poor 1 Estimation of Sample A Material breathability Sample B 4 5.3% 3 29 41.3% 2 2.4% 0 0% Sample C 0 0% Performance Acceptable Average 2 26 37.0% 4 5.9% 12 17.7% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% Total Table 4. Sample A was constructed by shell and lining. the material breathability and softness would be reduced.3% 3 4.

sample C offered a wider colour range for consumer to choose.7% Sample C 0 0% Performance Acceptable Average 2 20 28. B and C.7% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% 70 100% Total Table 4.1% 1 1.6% 11 15.2.24: Comparison in design and colours Table 4.7% 28 40.9% Sample C 0 0% Evaluation of Sample A Colour Sample B 5 7.0% 8 11.3% 11 15. Compared with the other samples. Additionally the colours used (pink.0% 7 10. skin and black only.1% 4 5. Besides.4 Comparison in Design and Colours Factors Poor 1 Evaluation of Sample A Design Sample B 8 11. that make the shaper more attractive.1% 38 54.0% 3 26 37.4.4% 2 2.0% 15 21. 4.samples were made of same material. no longer the white. brown. Bright colours could draw customer’s attention. sample C had a lot of design details such as lace edging and bow detailing in contrast colour.4% Good 4 11 15.3% 28 40.6% 7 10.0% 37 52.9% Excellent 5 5 7. It is found that 88 .7% 26 37.1% 34 48. and black) in sample C have broken the colour rules in shapewear products.3% 3 4. Sample A got a better rating than sample B and C in both factors.4% 13 18.4% 9 12.1% 41 58.6% 12 17.9% 3 4.6% 7 10.24 showed the comparison in design and colour of sample A.

0 Cumulative Percent 12. sample C was their most favorite shapwear that 52.4. while only 12. a better appearance 89 .9% of them also picked sample A as their favorite shaper.5 Respondents’ choice Frequency Sample A Sample B Sample C Total 9 24 37 70 Percent 12.consumer tends to want a shapewear which is more trendy and with details. When similar products can achieve the similar function.1. They thought that the traditional one can offer a guarantee in shaping function.1 100. The result showed that when consumer makes buying decision. 4.9% of them picked it. Respondents thought that sample C performed well in both functionality and aesthetic aspects. they would consider both functionality and aesthetic performance.1% of respondents chose the seamless style. 2.9 47.12 in section 4. Some of them said that they feel comfortable when wearing it and they need not to change.25: Respondents’ favorite shapewear Refer to the Table 4. Coincidentally.9% of them preferred the cut and sewn one. 87.9 100.2.3 52. Among the respondents. Some respondents have answered the open-end questions and gave the reason.9 34. Reasons included (1) good reshaping function (2) Fashionable (3) Pretty appearance (3) Wider colour range (4) reasonable and lower price (5) Internation brand (6) Easy to wear.3.2.0 Table 4.

The style.2. 90 . These women usually have economical support and ability on the consumption of quality lingerie. fat is easily stored around the tummy part at last. it is found that over 50% of respondents are worked as clerks (23 people) or in sales and service sectors (later called service employees in this section) (16 people). favorite lingerie brand which were similar with the overall results among 70 respondents. are highly advised to keep slim.2. so they would be the target customers of shapewear products.3. the salesperson and flight attendants whose need to maintain the shop or airline images. 4. It is difficult to for clerks to maintain their figure.2. Besides. thus they may need shapewear to assist them in looking even better. except some results such as demographic backgrounds.2. type. Because of lack of time for exercising and strong appetite for goodies. colour and the brand of sample C are matched with the results of shapewear preferences.can definitely affect the consumer’s decision.3. the data of clerks and service employees would be discussed and analyzed. The result also validated the consumer preferences clustered in section 4. material.5 Results of Clerks and Service employees In section 4. Clerks work in office and sit for long periods of time. In this section.

0 Table 4.54 7.5.03 48.98 20.69 100.2.69 5. they wanted the shapewear which were light control and could provide comfort as they need to put on for whole day if they use it. 91 .72 53. Same with the overall result.13 26.4.49 41. 37 of them chose seamless style while only 2 of them liked cut and sewn style.77 92.51 11. 16 of them selected shaping knicker as their favorite type while also 21 of them preferred shaping tank top. Perhaps seamless style shapewear can completely invisible even under the tightest uniform as well as provide a comfortable feeling.85 80.26: Style preference of Clerks and Serives employees Among 23 clerks and 16 service employees.0 Cumulative Percent 8.54 7.92 11.1 Style and Categories Frequency Control Slip Shaping Tank Top Bodysuit Underbust Shaper Waist Nipper Shaping Knicker Thigh Shaper Slimming Legging Total 7 16 9 6 4 21 9 6 78 Percent 8.98 29.31 100.

5% of clerks rated 5 in price.2 3. the results of clerks had a similar pattern with the overall result.51 7.28: Price Factor in Purchasing Behavior For the factors in the purchasing behavior. 43.97 100.4.0 Table 4.5.0 Cumulative Percent 30. It validated that these colours were the most popular in shapewear products.7% 9 39.27: Colour preference of Clerks and Serives employees Same with the overall result. basic colours and dark colours were preferable on lingerie among clerks and sales employees.9% 0 0% 3 19 27. excluding the price factor.1% 5 22 31. 92 .9 Total Mean Table 4.9% Clerks 1 4. It showed that clerks are relatively price-oriented.2. They considered price as most important.4% 10 43.5% 70 100% 23 100% 4.3 Price and Design factors in Purchasing behavior Factors Importance Least important  1 Price All respondents 2 2.69 41.03 100. as they were easy to match with the outer garments.77 51.1% 3 13.2. 4.3% 2 2 2.5.0% Most important 4 25 35.2 Colour Frequency Basic(White/Skin) Light Bright Dark Total 12 8 3 16 39 Percent 30.77 20.28 58.

5% of them thought that design was one of the most important factors when making purchasing decision. However.9% 0 0% 3 14 20% 1 6. service 0 0% 4. Table 4. only 31.29 showed that service employees considered design as ―most important‖.even though they have stable income.7% 5 31. 93 .3% 5 22 31.4% 10 62.05 Sales. Over 90% of service employees rated 4 or 5 in design aspects. Factors Importance Least important  1 2 2 2. Service employees tend to purchase the shapewear products which they consider as beautiful and trendy.4% of them considered design at a high importance level. in which 62.5% Total Mean Design All respondents 0 0% 70 100% 16 100% 4. among the 70 respondents.3% Most important 4 32 45.7 Table 4.29: Design Factor in Purchasing Behavior Slightly different with the overall results.

46 100. Design would be another reason as sample C had more design details like lace trimming or bow.0 Table 4.26 38.54 100.0 Cumulative Percent 10.26 28. It validated the results among 70 respondents in table 4.30: Clerks’ and Sales’ favorite shapewear Almost 60% of clerks and sales employees preferred sample C.20 61.25. 94 .28 in last section showed that clerks are relatively price-oriented and they selected price as ―most important‖ in their purchasing consideration. Price would be one of reasons behind as sample C was the cheapest one among 3 samples.5.2. and colours offered were wider when comparing with other samples. while the Table 4.4 Clerks’ and Service employees’ choice Frequency Sample A Sample B Sample C Total 4 11 24 39 Percent 10.4.

(2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation 70 .000 70 .000 70 1 Thermal factor .250* .31: Correlation between purchasing considerations 95 .019 70 .000 70 .037 70 70 1 .000 70 .165 70 .280* .059 70 .058 70 70 . It is an index used to determine whether a linear between two variables.480** .488** .168 .280* . (2-tailed) factor N Thermal function factor Pearson Correlation Sig.058 70 .161 .161 . correlation is significant at the 0.1 Correlation between purchasing considerations Comfort factor Pressure factor Material softness factor Comfort factor Pearson Correlation Sig.228 .037 70 1 breathability functionality Breathability Sig. Thus it is useful to find that whether two of the purchasing considerations are related when consumer makes the buying decision or evaluates the products.228 . In this section.4.000 70 .057 70 .6 Correlation The correlation is known as the most common and most useful statistics. (2-tailed) N Material Softness factor Material Pearson Correlation Sig.227 . (2-tailed) N Table 4.488** .227 .228 .2.165 70 70 . (2-tailed) N Pressure factor Pearson Correlation Sig.651** .183 70 70 .480** .2.019 70 1 .651** .6.168 .228 . 4.05 level.057 70 .250* .059 70 1 Material factor .000 70 .183 70 .

1.00 which is less than the 0. p=0. they will also concern the breathability of material used. Thus there is a linear relationship between these two factors.28 increase in comfort factor. 3. This suggested that when consumer thinks about the comfort of shapewear.28. p=0.00 which is less than the 0. The pearson correlation coefficient between comfort and material breathability is 0. The pearson correlation coefficient between material softness and breathability is 0. 2.019 which is less than the 0. A one-unit increase in pressure factor is associated with an expected 0.5 significant level. The pearson correlation coefficient between comfort and pressure factor is 0. p=0. Thus there is a linear relationship between these two factors.5 significant level.488 increase in comfort factor. This suggested that when consumer thinks about the comfort of shapewear.488. If they think that the shaper is firm control with high pressure. they will also concern the pressure exerted on body. they will consider as ―less comfortable‖. Thus there is a linear relationship between these two factors. A one-unit increase in material breathability factor is 96 . as breathable materials ensure a high level of sweat absorption and provide great comfort.488. A one-unit increase in material breathability factor is associated with an expected 0.5 significant level.

associated with an expected 0. This suggested that when consumer will mainly concern if the material is breathable when they select a product with thermal function.037 which is less than the 0. This suggested that when consumer will concern the breathability and softness together when making decision. Thermal fabrics are required to ensure a high degree of warmth.488 increase in material softness. because breathable fabrics are usually in a lightweight with a soft texture. p=0.25. 97 . Thus there is a linear relationship between these two factors. 4. The pearson correlation coefficient between material breathability and thermal function is 0. breathability. quick drying and softness to the touch.5 significant level. A one-unit increase in thermal function is associated with an expected 0.25 increase in material breathability.

359** .6.000 70 70 . (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig.000 70 . There are linear relationships between all the factors.000 70 .4.000 70 .000 70 .620** . (2-tailed) N Estimation of Style C design Pearson Correlation Sig.32 showed that the correlations between all factors are less than the 0. When respondents evaluated the performance of sample C.001 70 .000 70 .375** .000 70 70 1 .853** .001 70 1 .32: Correlation between estimation the performance According to Table 4.2. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig.000 70 . 98 .333** .299* .007 70 .559** .501** .501** .566** .000 70 1 Style C softness Style C design Style C colour Table 4.000 70 1 .566** .375** .299* .001 70 . (2-tailed) N 70 .321** .000 70 1 Style C pressure comfort Style C material breathabili -ty .692** .000 70 70 .007 70 70 .000 70 .359** .002 70 .692** .000 70 1 .000 70 .4.611** .390** .2.005 70 70 .445** . (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig.5.000 70 .620** .853** .005 70 .25 in section 4.415** . sample C is the favorite shapewear among respondents.000 70 .012 70 . Table 4.000 70 .001 70 .333** .415** .611** .5 significant levels.2 Correlation when selecting samples Estimation Style C Body reshaping function Estimation of Style C Body reshaping function Estimation of Style C pressure comfort Estimation of Style C material breathability Estimation of Style C softness Pearson Correlation Sig.002 70 .321** .012 70 .559** .445** . they concern the factors for overall. (2-tailed) N Estimation of Style C colour Pearson Correlation Sig.390** .

aesthetic.Factors are affected with each others. material properties and functionality respectively. It is reasonable as they are considered as same aspects. between breathability and softness. 99 . as well as between the shaping function and comfort as the pearson correlation coefficient are much higher than others. There are fairly strong relationships between design and colour.

2.1.3. The measurements of samples are shown in Figure 4. as well as to evaluate the products performance and collect subjects’ personal feedbacks. 100 .4. In the following sections. 4.11 below.1 List of Samples’ measurement The photographs and the specification of 3 selected samples that fitted on subjects have been showed in tables in section 3. the pressure distribution of different control panty samples and the subjects’ satisfaction level will be discussed and analyzed.3 Basic results of Wear trial A wear trial was conducted in January 2012 in order to testify the previous results of consumer preferences of shapewear products from the questionnaire survey.4.

Front Back Sample A Sample B Sample C 101 .

5 36 29 34.11: Measurement of samples 102 .5 26 6 / / / / st Sample B 28.5 31.5 / 1.5 31 / / 31.3 / / / / G Back rise (from top to back crotch) H 1/2 leg opening (relaxed) I J L 1/2 leg opening (extended) Front leg opening (front crotch to seam) Side seam height K Back leg opening (front crotch to seam) M Crotch length (straight) N Front crotch width (along curve) O Back crotch width (along curve) P Crotch width at narrowest point Q Waistband / Elastic width R Leg opening elastic width S T Leg opening lace width Side bones height U Back bones height V Distances between bones at back W Control belt width (1 hook to eye) X Control belt height Y Control belt H&E height Z Crotch H&E height Fig.5 4.5 35 / / 27.5 33.5 14 8 16 5.5 31 17 31 36.7 6 3.5 30 / / 31 11.5 7 15.8 20 5.Descriptions A 1/2 Waistband (relaxed) B 1/2 Waistband (extended) C Front waist finished D Back waist finished E F Front width at leg openings Front rise (from top to front crotch) Measurements (cm) Sample A 31.5 28 35 23.8 1.4 1.5 34 30 37 24.5 / / / / / / Sample C 29.5 19 5. 4.5 27 26.2 / 24 17.5 1.5 20.5 35 / / 39.

2 mentioned that the 4 subjects were selected according to their body shape.4.4 49.78 Average 160.78 Subject 3 160 53.2 20.25 2 (* 5 represent most satisfied while 1 represent least satisfied) Table 4.75 Subject 4 168 58 20.98 0.34: Satisfaction rating of body parts 103 .84 0.7 20.765 Table 4.4. and the waist-hip ratio as well. 4.5 1.3.3.2 BMI value and Waist-to-hips ratio Measurement/ Value Subject 1 Height (cm) Weight (kg) BMI value (kg/m2) Waist – Hip ratio 162 55 20. As the selected samples were the M sizes.33: BMI and WHR of selected subjects Section 3.55 0.3 Satisfaction of Body parts Satisfaction* Body Part Tummy Waist Hips Body curve Subject 1 2 2 3 3 Subject 2 1 2 2 2 Subject 3 2 2 3 2 Subject 4 1 1 1 1 Mean 1. BMI value. the BMI values and Waist-hip ratio of subjects were all in normal range. The selected subjects were all in medium size.33.75 Subject 2 153. They were aged from 22 to 24. As showed in Table 4.88 0.75 2.2.96 0. the sizes of subjects are also considered.9 54.0 20.

waist-slimming and lifting up the buttock. 4. They required a shaper which can help slimming down the bottom parts and enhancing the curves.3.12: Wear trial outcomes 104 .4. flattening the tummy.34 showed the subjects’ satisfaction rating with their bodies.Table 4. The overall rating is low (below average 2. for example. hips and body curves. waist. including the tummy.5). that means the subjects are dissatisfied with bottom half of their bodies.4 Visual evaluation Front View A Side View 3/4 View Back View B C Fig .

1 85 88.2 79.8 -1 -1.5 95 74 88.5 -0.5 -2. Subject 3 BEFORE AFTER D.2 86 92 -2. 4.2 88.8 -0. By visual observation.5 95 71.3 91.5 -2 -1.5 -3. Waist Abdomen A Top hip hips Waist Abdomen B Top hip hips Waist Abdomen C Top hip hips 72.7 -1.6 -2.3 67.1 0 -1.4 71 83.5 95.6 -2 -1 -0. while some creases are found in sample A and sample C.5 87.4 69 83.9 83 88 67. especially in tummy-flatting and waist-slimming.1 82 88 96 69.3.5 -3.6 92 -2.5 81 83 89.4 74 88. However.4 95.The wear trial photos of one of the subjects are showed above.6 69.4 94.2 87 94.8 -0.5 86.5 -1.5 Body measurement Subject 1 BEFORE AFTER D.5 68.5 95.5 84.1 82 88 96 72.6 90.2 80.5 95.5 95 74 88. Subject 4 BEFORE AFTER D.7 80.5 70.7 -0.8 -2 -1.8 70 86 88.4 72 87 88.2 79.8 -2 -4 69. Sample A had a better result in smoothing out the lumps and bumps.5 -1.9 -2.1 76. sample B could lie very flat against the skin without any crease.5 69.6 91 93.8 72 87 88.4 -2. Subject 2 BEFORE AFTER D. while the tummy could not really be flattened and seemed that not a big difference to the figure.1 -0.9 -2 -0.8 -3.1 0 -3 -3.35: Body measurements of subjects before and after wearing the samples 105 . it is found that the sample A and sample C could offer a firm control and achieve a better shaping effect compared with sample B.6 79 82.5 79.1 82 88 96 72. creating a very smooth body curve.5 85.5 69.4 -4. They optically reduced measurements.9 -3.5 95.9 -3 Table 4.3 86.2 -1. By analyzing the 3/4 view displayed.5 -0.7 -0.7 93 72.7 -0.3 -2.5 81 83 89.5 73.9 -1.3 91.5 81 83 89.3 91.5 -1.5 -0.5 94 -1 -3. the body-shaping result of sample B was not as well as other samples.4 72 87 88.5 88.

as some areas could feel more pressure while some areas might not have a pressure feeling.Table 4. and this section has testify the results as the overall reduced measurements were least. 106 . sample C reduced more in body measurement than sample A.35 showed the subjects’ body measurements before and after wearing the samples. (2) the relationship between the body shape and pressure values.3. Although both sample A and sample C could slim the body by visual observation. Normally.4) exerted by the samples. Also pressure values exerted by the 3 samples might be different. (3) suitable range of pressure to exert on human body.6 Objective comfort evaluation The wear trial was mainly done by Novel Pliance Pressure Sensor system to measure the pressure values on 12 different areas (On Page 50. it is found that the body-shaping result of sample B was the worst among 3 shapers. In the above section. The seams and 6 bones used have made sample A much thicker than other samples. The deviation part showed that the selected high-waist control panties could generally help in reducing the measurements. figure 3. The data will be discussed and analyzes in the following parts. thus the reduced measurement were less. as sample C was a seamless style without any seams any bones. the reduction in abdomen area is the largest while the top hip had a smallest reduction. in order to find out (1) the relationships between the shaping performance and pressure values. 4.

5 0 0 0 0 0 Pt.3.9 0 3.5 0 0.1 0.7 0 0.270886 0.2 0 1.626049 1.240558 0.1 0.9 Pt.2 Pt.300533 1.1 0 3.6 Pt.172859 0.11 5.2 1. In this section.2 2.261958 0.4 1.7 3 0.2 Pt.222228 0.088408 1.3 1.3 2 1.12 3.7 Pt.425916 1.9 Pt.080813 1.917388 4.108216 0.2 2.D.10 0.9 1.2 0.414947 0.18994 2.437041 0.36: Pressure values on different body location of subject 1 107 .1 0.00513 1.8 Pt.171938 1.10 0.12 2.11 3 1.3 1.657761 0.3 2.4 Pt.2 Pt.3 Pt.2 0.10 3 1.3 2 0.4 2 1 1 Pt.858296 0.5 0. B and C on s subjects are shown in below tables respectively.6 A Minimun Range Average S.3 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 Pt.521089 0.6 3 2.1 0.005863 2.665107 Table: 4.834444 6.3 0 1.469697 0.6 1.8 2.2 0 1.7 Pt.7 Pt.8 Pt.D.173623 0.182146 0.7 0 0.353043 0.5 0 1.1 3.6 0 0 0 0 0 Pt.5 1.124317 2.782478 2.9 0.3 1.5 5.9 3.8 2.8 0.472492 0.7 0 0.6.5 Pt.168664 0.269687 0.513157 0.234777 2.420795 Pt.7 2.2 1.4 3.7 0 Pt.5 Pt.7 1.5 5.1 Pressure distribution on Different samples The pressure values of samples A.5 Pt.7 0.928115 0.2 1.3 Pt.223518 0.6 2.554097 0.2 1.4. 1.6 Pt.1 Maximum Minimun B Range Average S.3 Pt.5 0.3 Pt.1 Maximum Minimun C Range Average S.11 1.257295 0.9 7.3 Pt.317255 0.032845 0.162349 0.2 1.9 Pt.239203 0.852498 0.3 1 Pt.D.160784 0.516322 0.5 Pt.597935 0.8 6 2.165898 0.4 2.1 Maximum 3 1.12 1.157259 Pt.561559 0.321119 0.248823 0.8 3.6 0 2. the data of the samples would be compared from the same subject.2 Pt.489863 0.8 2.5 0.576039 0.067551 0.985143 0.8 1.538574 3. Pressure Value Pt.6 1 2.307494 0.373484 1.7 3.188541 4.6 Pt.275125 0.6 3.259427 0.041221 0.328581 2.9 2.3 Pt.111649 0. 0.5 Pt. 2.5 1.04088 0.

Positions 4. the pressure values on most of the points were more than 2kPa (in average). 9 and 11 had a higher value than other positions among the 3 108 . most of the points were just recorded below 1kPa. 8. 4.Fig. In the table of average values. Sample B exerted the lowest pressure on body when compared. it is found there is a similar pattern in sample A.13: Pressure values of samples from subject 1 As showed in Figure 4. B and C . Followed by was sample C. while half of the points were above 1kPa (in average). sample A exerted the highest pressure on subject 1.13.

4.749075 1.1 Pt.049684 0.711485 0.2 5.50209 0.1 Maximum Minimun C Range Average S.7 3.11 3.676815 3.1 Pt.725317 0.4 Pt.163225 1.3 Pt.244994 0.12 3 0.8 0.6 1.650167 0.155703 0.2 0 0.2 1.4453 0.9 0.8 0.3 0.96529 4.4 0 2.658122 0.673575 2.2 7.8 2.4 0.9 3 0.035677 1.373222 0.9 3.980385 3.D.7 1.7 3.843837 1.1 0 2.11 3.samples.6 Pt.323251 4.319393 0.703598 0.2 1.005161 0. thus these areas are more affected and experienced a higher pressure by the reshaping effect.4 Pt.8 3.4 9.926649 1.3 Pt.7 1. it resulted in a small concave in the low back and these centre back areas cannot feel the pressure.195536 6.06115 0.6 Pt.2 3.4 Pt.3 2.D.9 0. 1.6 0 3.5 Pt.83886 0.7 Pt.08954 0. these positions are located in the side and the side back of the body.9 5.3 1.800933 2.5 Pt.25888 0.332094 0.9 0.3 3 2.5 0 1.168709 0.3 0.970244 1.3 0.284906 0.1 Maximum 2.8 0.8 1.21621 0.405438 0.4 2.7 0. there is a bone located in centre back.362915 0.11 0.117522 1.8 0 0.3 1.5 Pt.8 0.6 1.7 0. 0.126849 0.5 1.024574 0.10 1.5 1.12 2 1.512731 1. the bone would place closely exert pressure on the body.579409 0.6 0.2 2.2 1.1 Pt.336864 0.146326 0.3 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 Pt.3 1.100627 0.000133 0.080108 Table: 4.921386 3.9 Pt.3 0.1 0.210526 2.157525 0.7 2.4 Pt.6 2.8 2.2 Pt. as back spine was in a slight concave curve.3 0.1 0.6 3.13774 Pt.520932 0.5 0.4 1 Pt.3 Pt.553031 8.7 0.7 0.37 Pressure values on different body location of subject 2 109 .154327 0.792041 Pt.6 Pt.4 1.7 Pt.8 2.8 Pt.036709 1.4 2.461825 1.3 1.5 0.7 3.135118 0.169318 0.3 0 Pt.10 0.612658 0.9 A Minimun Range Average S.5 4 2. 0.1 Maximum Minimun B Range Average S.9 Pt.6 2.2 0.9 Pt.4 Pt. Refer to figure 3.055759 0.1 0.3 0.640306 2.348116 0.103757 0.5 0.8 Pt.8 Pt. Pressure Value Pt.D.8 1.521021 1.5 0. Position 5 and position 10 had no record in sample B and C. Except the sample A.114003 0.2 3 2.12 1.2 Pt.3 0.150213 0.14242 0.3 0.7 2.10 7.9 3.297868 0.8 6.109478 0.3 2.6 Pt.5 Pt.242039 0.6 Pt.

Sample B still exerted the lowest pressure on the second subject. but it seems perform better when compared than subject 1.Fig. The table of average values showed that the pressure values were getting higher from centre front to side back. Most points were recorded in 2kPa (in average) or above. both on waist girth and abdomen girth. even half of the points were above 3kPa (in average). 4.14: Pressure values of samples from subject 2 Similar to subject 1. Followed by was sample C. sample A exerted the highest pressure on subject 2. This pattern represented that the 110 .

7 2.1 3.4 1.9 3.11 2.215398 0.704064 2.4 1.3 1.380829 0.169136 Pt.3 4.141819 0.6 2.4 2.10 2.9 Pt.1 Maximum Minimun B Range Average S.280213 1.109164 0.3 0.5 0.7 2.2 1.477282 0.002265 1.671086 0.7 1.7 1. which means the abdomen part was also more affected by the shaping function when compared with the waist part.900733 1.6 Pt.957695 1. 2.088995 0. Moreover.3 2.1 Pt.9 1.501932 1.13152 0.D.118257 0.553764 2.018321 1.4 Pt.12 3.3 2.127818 0.465956 1.4 Pt.135238 0.6 1.211978 0.05843 2.5 0.275183 0.9 5.3 Pt.7 6.D.1 Pt.8 1.318166 0.2 Pt.8 1.2 Pt.8 3.3 Pt.127173 0.11 6.9 2.7 Pt.6 Pt.7 2. Pressure Value Pt.05318 0.45463 0.4 Pt. the pressure of position 6 to position 9 is generally higher than the first 4 positions among the all samples.8 0.110926 1.5 Pt.11 2 1.7 1.150822 0.192507 0.8 2.6 2 0.3 0 0.6 Pt.271419 2.6 1.127715 2.947901 0.859294 0.5 Pt.338945 0.1 1.789074 0.7 2.288029 0.1 Pt.5 0 0 0 0 0 Pt.6 2.151358 0.4 0 2.7 0.776616 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 Pt.2 0.8 1.2 12.5 Pt.2 1.8 15.3 Pt.12 3.2 0.221549 0.6 Pt.112725 0.2 2. 0.9 3.7 0.7 2.446593 0.205197 8.D.4 1 1.7 0.492072 2.4 0.5 0.024317 1.452566 0.8 7.7 1.4 2 0.6 Pt.5 Pt.6 Pt.shaping function worked better on side and side back areas than the front part of subject 2.6 1.2 2.216392 1.432845 0.6 Pt.3 0.788341 14.4 0.1 Maximum Minimun C Range Average S.40493 0.1 0.4 Pt.522652 2.432322 Pt.8 2.6 Pt.8 0.069887 0.1 Maximum 3.790873 2.4 1 2.2 0 1.6 1.3 8. 0.687275 2.10 1.4 Pt.9 Pt.263262 0.3 0.1 1.8 2.6 2.7 3.1 0.3 Pt.8 1.801133 2.8 A Minimun Range Average S.1 1.5 0 0.233178 5.12 2.214476 0.8 1.3 3 2.9 2.38: Pressure values on different body location of subject 3 111 .6 Pt.750366 1.334475 0.120623 0.022975 0.10 2 0 2 Pt.6 1.539404 0.307372 0.550817 Table: 4.6 0.083742 0.

The shaping effect mostly performed in two sides of 112 . not continued to increase.15: Pressure values of samples from subject 3 Sample A still exerted the highest pressure among the 3 samples. It shows that the side part of body was under higher pressure than other positions. while sample C was in the middle and sample B gave the lowest pressure on the body.Fig. 4. The pattern of subject 3 was slight different with the previous subjects. generally the pressure values were increased from centre front positions to side positions. than the pressure was dropped in side back points.

1 1 2.001466 0.4 1.3 0.318588 0.2 0.1 0.3 Pt.8 2.7 2.5 Pt.737841 1.756296 0.9 2. Pressure Value Pt.384211 2.D.6 2 0.8 Pt.118779 Pt.6 A Minimun Range Average S.8 Pt.7 2.3 0 Pt.8 2.167376 0.2 6.161378 0.3 0.5 0.217479 Table 4.8 Pt.7 1.212991 0.241122 0.10 2.150492 0.418854 1.123718 0.847102 0. therefore the lines are dropped after position 4 and position 9.21821 0.268288 1.5 1.11 2 1.11 3.4 0.123222 0.2 1.657895 1. 1.5 5.9 5.8 4.10 1.738574 4.4 Pt.2 Pt.5 0.3 0 0.3 1.8 1.111459 2.264961 0.9 Pt.7 4.5 0.3 Pt.106462 2.5 Pt.345752 0.131299 0.141783 0.3 Pt.371486 5.3 3.165043 0.342112 0.3 0.8 Pt.49034 2.8 0.2 2.2 0.3 1.543904 2.1317 0.8 Pt.5 Pt.1 Maximum Minimun B Range Average S.376682 2.318934 0.162381 0.12 2.1 1.8 Pt.3 0 1.9 2.8 5.280832 0.8 0.3 1 0.292871 2.149438 0.3 4.601133 2.8 1.D.8 5 0.088749 0. while the shaping performance was similar in front and side back areas.8 Pt.262692 0.3 2 Pt.073186 0.1 Maximum 1.144506 0.8 Pt.7 0.16846 1.147425 0.1 Pt.3 1.1 Pt.3 Pt.7 2.6 1.7 1.4 2.body of subject 3.1 Pt.3 0.3 1.6 1.1 0.179442 0.8 Pt.3 1.9 2.6 1.103088 Pt.9 3.270486 4.1 Maximum Minimun C Range Average S.227485 0.164091 1.3 1 1.04546 0.4 Pt.594004 0.134683 0. Because of the spine.3 1.4 1.01026 0.3 2.283078 0.7 3.11 2.239851 0.693132 0.1 1.D. 1.889607 0.6 2.73038 6.3 0 1.1 Pt.2 3.6 2.642971 2.9 Pt.7 1.441718 0.5 1 0.3 1. 1.911259 1.646236 3.5 0.39: Pressure values on different body location of subject 4 113 .862225 2.6 2.5 0.1 1 1.984477 2.4 2.204415 0.10 6.947169 2.3 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 Pt.154584 0.12 3.8 Pt.502931 2.7 1 Pt.7 Pt.12 3.3 Pt.9 2 0.6 2.213434 0.6 1.3 1 Pt. there was no record on position 5 and position 10 which located in the centre back.7 1.

Fig. while they all experienced a higher pressure on side 114 . most of the points resulted in 1kPa to 3kPa (in average) from these two samples. the pressure distributed without a pattern on subject 4.16: Pressure values of samples from subject 4 Although the highest pressure was still exerted by the sample A. the pressure values exerted by sample B and sample C were similar. For the sample C. 4. It was different with the previous 3 subjects. an unobvious pattern still can be seen the line was dropped at side positions and back positions. For the first 2 samples. The pressure exerted on the side area (position 3 and position 8) was lower than the side front and side back areas.

the waist girth and abdomen girth as well. The result in this section was matched with the visual result. Usually. sample A achieved a better performance in shaping the body by observation. the side and side back areas would experience a higher pressure as shown in the above tables. Perhaps these samples could provide a back control. According to the result measured by the pressure sensor.3. while the pressure given by sample B was the lowest. From these findings. the shaping effect on those areas was better than that of front parts. and the functionality of sample B was the worst among the samples. which means the pressure garment can help in slimming effect. it was obvious to see that the result of the traditional cut and sewn shaper have better effect in the body reshaping. The more pressure exerted. In section 4. 115 . Thus the bumps at sides and side back could also to be smoothed well. The result also showed that the pressure distribution was totally different in front.3. it was quite obvious that the pressure exerted by sample A was much higher than other samples.part than the front part. side and back parts. the better slimming effect can be achieve.

6. Fig.4.17: Pressure values of sample A 116 .2 Pressure distribution on Different subjects In this section. 4. the data would be compared from the same sample.3.

Fig 4.18: Pressure values of sample B 117 .

19 showed the pressure distribution of samples on different subjects. and then the graphs were descended from position 8 or point 9.17.Fig. The Table 4. As sample B and C are seamless style shaper which have applied the circular knit technology.19: Pressure values of sample C Figure 4. This pattern also can be found at the first 5 positions located the waist girth on some of the subjects. 4.18 and 4. the graphs were raised and reached the highest. Starting at position 6. especially from position 6 to position 10 which located in the abdomen girth.18 and 4. it is found that the pressure exerted by seamless shapewear may 118 .19 were slightly similar. 4.

However. The result in this section showed that both traditional style and seamless style shapewear would exert different amount of pressure values according to the body shape of wearer. 8 and 11) of subject 3. higher pressure were focused on the side areas (positions 3. In Table 4. in order to reshape and slim the body. 119 .have a pattern among different subjects – pressure exerted to the side or side back are more than the pressure exerted to the front bodies. while higher pressure were focused on the side back areas (positions 4 and 9) of subject 2. The difference of the body shapes may just have a slight influence to the pressure given. The pressure exerted by this traditional shaper would be affected and changed according to the subject ’s body shape. there is a pattern that pressure exerted to the side or side back are more than the pressure exerted to the front bodies. the seamless shapewear is relatively less affected by the body shape.17 that showing the result of sample A. there was no similar pattern of the graphs. For example.

An evaluation form is prepared for the wear trial test in order to collect subjective feedback. Lifts up the buttock 1 2 3 4 V. fitting. aesthetic performance and material properties. Flattens the tummy 1 2 3 4 III.7.3. Subjects were asked to rate the shapers in terms of the functionality.4. Slims the waist 1 2 3 4 IV.7 Subjective feedback The subjective feeling upon the shapewear from the subjects themselves is also important. Pressure comfort Subject 1 2 3 4 II. 4.3.1 Satisfaction on Functionality Criteria I. Overall body reshaping function 1 2 3 4 120 Satisfaction Sample A 4 1 2 3 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 2 4 4 5 5 5 5 Sample B 3 3 4 4 2 1 4 3 1 4 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 Sample C 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 .

121 . which means the subjects thought that sample C is the most comfortable among the 3 shaper samples. All subjects are satisfied with the overall body reshaping function given by sample A.63 4 5 4 4 68 2.VI. including flatting the tummy. They are also most satisfied with slimming effect of sample A.83 4 2 4 3 87 3. it got a higher rating on the pressure comfort. The rating of sample C was slightly lower than sample A on these criteria. slimming the waist and lifting up the buttock. since all of them gave the highest rating on this criterion. sample A and sample C got the highest average score on the functionality rating. even though all subjects thought that it is easiest to put on and take off.40 Satisfaction rating on samples’ functionally As shown in Table 4.63 Table 4. Easy to put on and off 1 2 3 4 Total Mean 2 1 1 2 87 3.40. However. Sample B got the lowest average score on the functionality.

However. all of the subjects considered that the fitting of sample C was appropriate. 3 subjects thought that the fitting of sample A was appropriate while only one subject said that sample A is too tight to wear. 2 represent the fitting is appropriate) Table 4.58. but the comfort of the shaper would be reduced. from this finding. 3 of them agreed that sample B is too loose to wear.Criteria Fitting on the body Subject 1 2 3 4 Total Mean Satisfaction Sample A 2 1 (T) 2 2 7 1. 122 . Normally if the shaper is more tight-fitting. According to the result measured by the pressure sensor. higher pressure may not actually lead to a lower comfort rate.75 Sample B 1 (L) 1 (L) 1 (L) 2 5 1.41:Satisfaction rating on fitting For the performance on the fit of samples. This result is consistent with the rating of pressure comfort in Table 4. the pressure exerted by sample A was the highest.25 Sample C 2 2 2 2 8 2 (1 represent fitting is too tight / too loose. better slimming effect can be achieved.

5.3 on page 87.92 Sample B 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 47 3. It is a trademark of INVISTA.23 in section 4. Actually.3. the LYCRA® Beauty fabric used in sample B is an innovation in shapewear industry. softness and hand feel when compared with other samples. Its soft and lightweight properties become an advantage. The result is same to what have analyzed in the questionnaire survey referred to the Table 4.2 Satisfaction on Material used Criteria I.4. Material softness 1 2 3 4 III.42. 123 .58 Table 4. designed to meet the consumer desire for shaping with more comfort. thus sample B got the highest average score.7.92 Sample C 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 43 3.42: Satisfaction rating on samples’ material properties From Table 4. Material breathability Subject 1 2 3 4 II. sample B got the highest average score on the material rating. Material hand feel 1 2 3 4 Total Mean Satisfaction Sample A 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 2 3 35 2. All subjects agreed that the material used in sample B had better properties in breathability.

sample C got the highest average score. Nude colour has made the sample look old-fashioned.7. 124 . It is shown that the shapewear with some accessory and details would be preferred. the result is also same with the result analyzed in the questionnaire.88 Table 4. The rating showed that the subjects were not satisfied with the appearance of sample B.4. For the color. In wear trial. Colour 1 2 3 4 Total Mean Satisfaction Sample A 4 3 2 4 4 5 4 4 30 3.75 Sample B 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 16 2 Sample C 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 2 31 3. Sample B got the lowest average score on aesthetic performance. The black colors are the popular color on shapewear. rather than sample A which just had a lace panel.3. Subjects were more satisfied with this sample which had a simple design with some lace trimmings and bow. Also plain design was not preferable by the subjects. Design Subject 1 2 3 4 II. Although bright colours were not preferable by the questionnaire respondents.3 Satisfaction on Aesthetic Criteria I. 3 of the subjects were satisfied with the eye-catching pink colour in sample C.43: Satisfaction rating on samples’ appearance For the aesthetic performance.

05 Sample B 2.5 3 3 Scores Sample A 3.44: Total scores of samples Subject’s choice 3.4 Subject’s choice Criteria Funtionality Fitting Material Properities Appearance Total Table 4.88 13.92 3. subjects’ satisfactions in all criteria were high. for the sample C.25 in section 4.3.58 3.92 2 10 Sample C 3.5 0 Sample A Sample B Sample C 1 Fig. followed by was sample B (34.7.75 2.2. sample C was their most favorite shapwear that 52.9% of respondents picked it.5 2 1.25 3.44. of people 2.4.63 1. 4.9%). In wear trial. 3 of the subjects chose sample C as their favorite shaper.63 2 3.75 12.83 1. which result in the highest total 125 .3%) and sample A (12.4. the result is similar to what have analyzed in the questionnaire.5 1 0.09 No.5.20: Subjects’ favourite shaper Refer to the Table 4. As showed in Table 4.

4. when two products can achieve the similar function. the main reason was the poor outcome achieved. since she was pleased with the obvious slimming effect. From the subjective feedback. A trendy design with suitable comfort would be more preferable. it is found that the decision-making was mainly based on the comfort and the appearance of the products when the subjects were asked to choose their favorite one. just one of the subjects like sample A most.5 Preferred pressure range To sum up. which means both of them can perform well in shaping the body. and the slimming effect was good without any uncomfortable feeling. None of them considered sample B. Sample A is not easy to put on as well. subjects would consider the comfort and the appearance. In this test. the wear trial can testify the previous results of consumer preferences of shapewear products from the questionnaire survey.7. it is found that the subjects liked sample C most because the appearance was attractive and different from the traditional shapewear products. while others said that the sample caused a serious bulge upper the waistband areas and left a mark after taking off. One of the subjects thought that sample A was too tight. However.3. Actually sample A and sample C got the highest average score on the functionality rating. The highlight 126 . From the personal feedback.scores.

it is considered as the preferred pressure range. while the subjects commented that it is too loose.point is that higher pressure may not equal to a lower comfort.5. even though it exerted higher pressure on the body than other samples.8kPa to 3. As most subjects agreed that the fitting of sample A is appropriate. The pressure exerted by both sample A and C are mostly within the range from 0.1. Apart from the sample B. with reference to the theoretical finding shown in section 2. 127 .6kPa.

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. Some international brands that can afford the costs of development have already produced seamless shapewear with circular knit technology and no VPL technology. the project has found that there is a tendency to focus on the fabrics and technologies used in the shapewear.1.1 The rising trend of seamless shapewear With reference the data collected in the shapewear market field research. It is expected to further promote and develop this seamless shapewear business as any change occurring will be based on technical 128 . The development of seamless technology is becoming more popular and mature in the market. evaluating the existing shapewear products and analyzing the needs and preferences of female consumer. 5.1 Summary of Outcomes and Implications By investigating the market tendency. The major findings of this study are summarized as follows. the project aims to explore the consumers’ preferences on shapewear products in the Hong Kong intimate apparel market. so as to find out the preferred style of shapewear. while some local brands also start to develop seamless products to satisfy the needs of consumers in Hong Kong. as well as the pressure value range that the consumer prefer to have when they put on the shaping garment.

light and bright colours are also generally accepted by the consumers. 5. However.advances and innovations in fabrics mainly.2 Shapewear products preference As shown in the data analysis results in chapter 4. For the preferred style of shapewear. the shapewear preferences from questionnaire survey and subjective feedback after wear trial evaluation are consistent in general. There are different types of shapewear in the market. 129 . most existing seamless shapewear use plain design without any accessory. plain design is not preferable. In the market. It is suggested to improve the design in seamless products as consumers tend to prefer a shapewear in simple design with few highlight details such as bow and lace trimming to increase the aesthetic look. but control panties and shaping tank top are more preferable as they are relatively light and they provide comfort for wear all day long. elasticity and glossy effect to the shapewear is preferable. while basic colours. For the material. Nylon/Spandex/Lycra blended fabric which can provide comfort. seamless style which is crafted without visible seams is more preferable than the cut and sewn style.1. support. Dark colours including black are considered as consumers’ favorite colour in shapewear.

but the pressure value exerted by the cut-and-sewn shaper is much higher and it may affect the comfort of the garment if wear it for long hours. material softness and breathability have also been found counted heavily in the buying behavior. Consumers. especially clerks and service employees mainly consider purchase if they think the shaping garments can provide comfort. as well as the body shaping function. Besides. The result of wear trial found that the pressure range from 0. A trendy design and the soft. lightweight fabrics can affect consumers ’ buying decision. 5. The result also showed that the pressure distribution of shapers would be different in front. aesthetic performance.6kPa is considered as the preferred pressure range. and is effective in firming and flattening bulges.3 Proper pressure of shapewear products The results of wear trial also indicated that the pressure comfort is the most important criteria in choosing a shapewear product. The correlation indicated that there are fairly strong relationships between these criteria when consumers make purchase decision. The cut-and-sewn shaper with whalebones can achieve a better shaping effect than seamless shapewear.1.The project has also found that wearing comfort is the primarily important factor affecting the shapewear purchase decision. 130 .8kPa to 3.

5.2.1 Limitations This project had several limitations. Also the sample was randomly selected. Besides. In sampling problem. the pressure value collected in the wear trial cannot be perfectly accurate since the pressure sensor is sensitive equipment. Although the subjects are asked to stop any motion such as walking and talking during using the pressure sensor.2 Limitations and recommendations for Future Research 5. Thus the pressure exerted by the shapwear and the evaluation would be affected by this motion. the population size of questionnaire survey is small. as well as the waist girth and abdomen girth. In technical problem. Thus the bumps at sides and side back can be smoothed well when putting on a shapewear. only 4 subjects were selected to participate in the wear trial. the side and side back areas would experience a higher pressure that means the shaping effect on those areas would be better than that of front parts.side and back parts. It is hard in the subjects’ selection 131 . the results would be still affected when subjects breathe. as a result some respondents have no need for a shapewear product or they have no experience on wearing shapwear. Usually. it cannot generate an in-depth analysis on Hong Kong shapewear preferences on fair basis. as the abdomen swell up and move in during breathe.

in this study.as all subjects are required in the same size. Moreover. Firstly. 3D 132 . to increase the validity and reliability of the conclusion. many people are not willing to take part in the wear trial because it is embarrassed to put on the underwear in front of others. Secondly. the population size should be increased and it is suggested that further research can focus on certain target respondents to attend the research. These respondents usually have a basic knowledge on shapewear and they will easily give the answers when they are asked to estimate the functionality and aesthetic performance of products. And their BMI value and Waist-hip ratio must stay within the normal range.2 Recommendations Below recommendation are suggested to improve the accuracy of the result and have a further study on this topic. 5. Therefore.2. the evaluation of body shaper is only done by using pressure sensor. the feedback and data collected cannot represent the opinions of all women. To further evaluate the functionality of the shaper. measuring the body by manual tape measurement. for example the women who had experience on wearing a shapewear before. visual observation and collecting subjective feedbacks.

further study can also examine other types of shapewear products and examine their functions.body scanning can be adopted to find out the change of body shape before and after putting on the shaper. In this study. Finally. 133 . A further study on this pattern should be conducted later. it is found that there is a pattern for the pressure exerted by the seamless shaper. The pressure exerted to the side and side back of the body is more than the pressure exerted to the front bodies.

H. ATA Journal of Asia of Textile & Apparel. August 31). (2011. Inside Fashion. C. (2010). INVISTA Apparel Newsletter.1. (2008). [3] LYCRA® Beauty Fabrics Shape The Future of Intimate Apparel. That is the Question: A study About Different Factors Affecting Consumer Preferences. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management.REFERENCES [1] NPD Reports on The U.156 – 165 [9] Bruce. L. Consumer Behaviour. (2011. Effects of Evaluative Criteria on Fashion Brand Extension. E. Retrieved December 13. Eun Joo Park. 2011 from http://news. Vol.com/Sales/5464/2/ Market_Insight_about_Shapewear_in_2012. 79. 1 . October Date). Ezine Articles. (2011. [2] Ester.S. Market Insight about Shapewear In 2012. [10] Andersson. (2010. June 28). 2012). 9 Iss: 2.html [5] Singer. L. Best Shapewear for Ladies . Hidden Consumer Needs and New Product Development. The NPD Group Inc.Four Types That You Should Have. [8] Judith C. 19th EDAMBA Summer Academy. 1-2. Student Thesis of Växjö University. (2010). United Kingdom: Prentice Hall and Financial Times. J. p. February 10). Coca-Cola or Pepsi.. Forney. [4] Wilson (January 14. G. M. [7] Schiffman. [6] Phong. Arvidsson. & Lindström.globalintimatewear. (2006). E. M. 3-7. pp. Lynn Brandon (2005). Inside Fashion Forecast: Shapewear to Become a Worldwide Wardrobe Staple. Apparel Market for 2010. Asian Consumption of Intimate Wear Continues to Rise. New York.

23 (1). Dial. [13] Singer-vine. (2003). Objective Test and Evaluation on Pressure Comfort for Brassiere.cms [19] Cagape.[11] Dalton.st yle/ r elat io nship s/ manwoman/Perfect-waist-to-hip-ratio-is-07/articleshow/6438017.. Why Doctors Won't Stop Using An Outdated Measure For Obesity. W. Garabed (January 2008). J. 254 (6). 3 (3). (2006). Transplant. Journal of Textile Research.7. Waist –hip Ratio and Body Mass Index and Their Correlation With Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Australian Adults. Cameron. Neuroendocrinology Letters Special Issue. ind iat imes. Retrieved November 12. Switzerlan: World Health Organization. (2002). 2011 fr o m ht t p: //t imeso find ia. 2011 from http://www. Perfect Waist-to-Hip Ratio is 0.com/tools/waist_to_hip_ratio.com/5009/one-in-fivehongkongers-obese/ [20] Wang. 555-563. 82-88.. 139. P.com/ articles/health_and_science/science/2009/07/beyond_bmi. co m/ life . M. Zhao. 2010). P. S. [21] Kanai H. Inoue S. P. Journal of Internal Medicine. & Gao. E. Y. (July 29. D.. A. Adolphe Quetelet (1796–1874) — The Average Man and Indices of Obesity. Obesity Review. Waist circumference. Female Mate Value at a Glance: Relationship of Waist-To-Hip Ratio to Health.. (July 20.htm [17] Singh. Appropriate Asian Body Mass Indices?. Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. Chen C. Retrieved September 19. Fecundity and Attractiveness. [15] Geneva (2008). 23 . [18] Ani (Sep 25. Z.travelwireasia. W. (2007) Evaluation of Kinetic Performance for 2 .slate. 2009). & Zimmet.html [14] James W.. Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio. X. (2002). & Kamijo M. 2012 from http://www. Tsuji H. Retrieved January 3. [12] Eknoyan. Retrieved March 19. [16] Waist to Hip Ratio Calculation and Explanation (4 Oct 2011). 2012 from http://www. 2011).freedieting. 47–51. Nephrol. One in Five Hongkongers Obese.

W. Sen'i Gakkaishi. P. 221-226. L. The Measurement and Analysis of Clothing Pressure. 187-198. W. 4 (2). G. S. L. 3 . [27] Wang. K. [26] Given. N. 159-164 [22] Chen. Z. 2 . (2006). & (2011). B. Prediction of Clothing Sensory Comfort Using Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic. [24] Wong. S. M. 63(6). & Ng. Innovation and Technology of Women's Intimate Apparel. Applied Mechanics and Materials. SAGE Publications. & Lin. L. 79(221).. & Lincole. [28] Wang. [23] Yu. Y.Men's Suit Jacket in Exercise of Shoulder Joint. D. Advanced Materials Research. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. [25] Denzin. USA: SAGE Publications. & (2008). 332-334. Effect of Elastic Materials on Pressure Comfort of Tight-Fit Bra. (2011). S. Effects of Side Strap and Elastic Hems of Bra Materials on Clothing Pressure Comfort. (2005). (2011). D. Journal of Fiber Bioengineering & Informatics. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Hong Kong: Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles No.. 55. Chen. Z. S. (2003). 1176. & Chen. The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research.

000  More than 30. How much you spend on buying intimate apparel (including shapewear) each month?  Less than 500  1.000 to less than 20.000  1000 to less than 1.000  20.500 1 .000 to less than 30.000 5.000 to less than 10.000  5. Thank you for your time and consideration! PART ONE: Personal information (All information will be kept in strict confidential) 1. I am currently conducting a research on consumer preferences for shapewear products.APPENDIX 1 THE HONG KONG POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TEXTILES AND CLOTHING (INTIMATE APPAREL SCHEME) STUDENT’S FINAL YEAR PROJECT CONSUMER PREFERENCES ON SHAPERWAER I am an undergraduate student of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Data collected will be used for academic purpose only and all interviewee information will be kept in strict confidential.000  10. Education Level:  Primary School or less  Bachelor’s Degree  Secondary School  Master’s Degree or higher 26-30 31-35 36 -40 40or above  Associate Degree 3.500 to less than 2. Age:  18-25 2. Personal Monthly Income Level (Hong Kong Dollars):  Less than 5. Occupation: _____________________________ 4. I would appreciate if you can take a few minutes to complete the questionnaire.000  500 to less than 1000  More than 2.

6. Material:  Shaping knicker  Thigh shaper  Slimming Legging  Polyamide/Elastane ( Lycra)  Others: ________________ 8.  Control Slip  Shaping tank top  Bodysuit  Underbust shaper  Waist nipper 7.PART TWO: Shapewear Preferences *** Please tick the box representing the most appropriate response for the following items. Colour:  Basic (White/Skin colour)  Nylon/ Lycra  Nylon / Spandex  Light  Bright  Dark 2 .  Seamless  Traditional cut & sewn (ii) Please choose the two styles you like. Style: (i) Please choose preferred style category for shapewear.

9. What is your bra Size (e. Which two lingerie brands you often use?  Triumph  Bonluxe  Marks & Spencer  Wacoal  Easy Shop  H&M  Satami  Calvin Klein  Embry form  Victoria’s secret  Others: _________________________ 11. Least important Design Overall comfort Pressure Material softness Material breathability Material thermal functionality Durability Easy to wear Price Brand image Advertisement Customer service Others: __________________ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Most important 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 10. Purchase consideration: *** Please circle the number representing the most appropriate response.g. 34B)? _______________________ 3 . What is your size?  XS S M L  XL  No 13. Do you have any experience in wearing shapewear?  Yes 12.

Colour: Pink/ Brown/ Black .Material: 74% polyamide 26% elastane .Silicon stay-put waistband .Material: 66% polyamide 34% elastane( lycra) . Triumph Shape sensation High Waist Control Panty .Colour: Skin/ Black . Satami High Waist Control Panty (With adjustable control belt) B.Claimed function: Shapes tummy& waist Lifts up the buttock .Seamless .Shell: 85% Nylon 15%Spandex .Colour: Skin/ Black . Marks & Spencer Secret support Waist Cincher C.Lace front design .Price: HK$320 4 .Cut and Sewn .Price: HK$450 .Circular knit technology .Panelled design: Different knitting methods result in different elasticity . .Bow detailing & lace edging . please estimate the product functionality and aesthetic performance based on the given info for the following three shapewear products.Claimed function: Shapes tummy & waist Firm bum .With the use of 5 bones .PART THREE: Shapewear details *** In this part.Price: HK$398 . please circle your answers. A.Lining: 79% Nylon 21%Spandex .Double-layer tummy control belt .Seamless .Claimed function: Shapes waist &bottom Flattens tummy.

For the style A: Poor Functionality: Body reshaping function Pressure comfort Material breathability Material softness Aesthetic: Design Colour 15. For the style C: Poor Functionality: Body reshaping function Pressure comfort Material breathability Material softness Aesthetic: Design Colour 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 Acceptable Average Good Excellent 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 Acceptable Average Good Excellent 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 Acceptable Average Good Excellent 17. For the style B: Poor Functionality: Body reshaping function Pressure comfort Material breathability Material softness Aesthetic: Design Colour 16.14. Which shapewear you like the most?  Style A  Style B  Style C Give your reasons:___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ *End of questionnaire* Thank you very much! 5 .

000 .500 .1000  HK$ 2.1.10. 年齡:  18-25 歲 2. 職業:_____________________________ 4.500 6 .000 . 您每月收入大約為:  HK$ 5.000 以上  HK$ 1000 .000  HK$ 500 .000 以上  HK$ 10.000 5. 教育程度:  小學程度或以下  大專/ 大學程度  中學程度  碩士程度或以上  副學士/ 文憑程度 26-30 歲 31-35 歲 36 -40 歲 40 歲以上 3.000  HK$ 30.30.000 .香港理工大學 紡織及製衣學系(內衣學) 本人是香港理工大學紡織與設計學系三年級學生,現正進行一項有關女性消費者對於選購 調整束衣產品的喜好調查,希望閣下能花幾分鐘時間完成這份問卷。閣下所提供之資料和 數據只作學術用途並將會被保密,謝謝! 第一部分: 個人資料(所有提供的個人資料將會保密) 1.000  HK$ 5.000 以下  HK$ 20. 您每月花費在內衣上的金額(包括調整束衣)大約為:  HK$ 500 以下  HK$ 1.2.20.

顏色:  白色/ 肉色  淺色  Nylon / Lycra 尼龍拉架混紡  其他: ________________  鮮色  深色 / 黑色 7 . 物料:  Shaping knicker 護臀褲  Thigh shaper 束褲 Slimming Legging 腿線長束褲  Polyamide/Elastane ( Lycra) 拉架布  Nylon / Spandex 尼龍彈性纖維混紡 8.第二部分:選購調整束衣的喜好(* 請在你認為最恰當的答案方格加上✔。) 6. 款式: (i) 請選擇您首選的調整束衣類形。  無縫設計  傳統剪裁設計 (ii) 請選擇您喜歡的調整束衣款式(可選兩項)。  Control Slip 塑身裙  Shaping tank top 塑身背心  Bodysuit 連身束衣  Underbust shaper 吊橋連身束衣  Waist nipper 腰封 7.

選購因素: (請圈出最能表達您意見的正確答案) 極不重要 設計 整體舒適度 壓力 物料柔軟度 物料透氣度 物料保暖度 耐用性 穿著容易 價錢 品牌形象 廣告 客戶服務/ 售後服務 其他:__________________ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 非常重要 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 10. 您有穿著調整束衣的經驗嗎?  有 12. 您的胸圍尺寸是(如 34B) : ________________________ 8 . 您的尺寸是:  加細碼  細碼  中碼  大碼  加大碼  沒有 13.9. 您最常選購哪個內衣品牌(可選兩項)?  Triumph 黛安芬  Bonluxe 葆露絲  M&S 馬莎百貨  Wacoal  Easy Shop  H&M  Satami 莎娜美  Calvin Klein  Embry form 安莉芳  Victoria’s secret  其他:_________________________ 11.

第三部分:不同調整束衣的功能性及美觀性 (請圈出最能表達您意見的正確答案。) 在此部分,請根據所提供的資料估計以下三款調整束衣產品的功能性和美學表現。 A. Satami 莎娜美 高腰束褲 (連可調較束腰帶) B. Marks & Spencer 馬莎百貨 Secret support 高腰束褲 C. Triumph 黛安芬 Shape sensation 高腰束褲

- 傳統剪裁設計 - 雙層裁布設計 - 採用五支軟鋼骨作支撐 - 前幅用上蕾絲布 - 製造腰線、撫平腹部脂肪 - 臀部提升效果 - 顏色:肉色 / 黑色 - 面: 85% Nylon 15%Spandex - 裡: 79% Nylon 21%Spandex - 價錢:HK$398

- 無縫設計 - 分格式設計 以不同的針織方法達至 各部位有不同的彈性 - 撫平腹部 - 修飾腰線及臀形 - 顏色:肉色 / 黑色 - 物料:66% polyamide 34% elastane (Lycra) - 價錢:HK$450

- 無縫設計 - 圓筒針織技術 - 腰位加入矽膠防滑 - 蝴蝶裝飾及蕾絲飾邊 - 修飾腰線、控制腹部脂肪 - 塑造圓渾的臀形 - 顏色:粉紅 / 淺啡 / 黑色 - 物料: 74% polyamide 26% elastane - 價錢:HK$320

9

14. 對於款式 A: 非常差 功能方面 修身功能 壓力/ 舒適度 物料透氣度 物料柔軟度 美學方面 設計 顏色 15. 對於款式 B: 非常差 功能方面 修身功能 壓力/ 舒適度 物料透氣度 物料柔軟度 美學方面 設計 顏色 16. 對於款式 C: 非常差 功能方面 修身功能 壓力/ 舒適度 物料透氣度 物料柔軟度 美學方面 設計 顏色 1 1 2 2  款式 A 3 3 4 4  款式 B 5 5  款式 C 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 可接受 一般 好 非常好 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 可接受 一般 好 非常好 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 可接受 一般 好 非常好

17. 總括而言,你最喜歡哪一款調整束衣? 原因是:

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ *問卷完* 感謝閣下寶貴的意見及時間!
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APPENDIX 2
THE HONG KONG POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TEXTILES AND CLOTHING (INTIMATE APPAREL SCHEME) STUDENT’S FINAL YEAR PROJECT CONSUMER PREFERENCES ON SHAPERWAER EVALUATION OF HIGH-WAIST CONTROL PANTIES IN A WEAR TRIAL I am an undergraduate student of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. I am currently conducting a research on consumer preferences for shapewear products. I would appreciate if you can take a few minutes to complete the questionnaire after the wear trial. Data collected will be used for academic purpose only and all interviewee information will be kept in strict confidential. Wear trial Details: Date: _____________ Time: _____________ Place: _____________ PART ONE: Personal information 1. Age: _________________ 2. Body Measurement: Natural Waist Abdomen 3. Height: ________________cm; Weight: ________________kg 4. What is your size? (Please tick the box representing the most appropriate response)  XS S M L  XL cm Top hip cm Hip cm cm

5. What is your bra Size (e.g. 34B)?

_____________________

6. Please rate your overall satisfaction with your body: Least satisfied Tummy Hip Body curve Waist 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
11

Most satisfied 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5

A. Hand feel Aesthetic: X. Body Measurement when wearing the sample: Underbust Natural Waist Abdomen Top hip Hip A.PART TWO: Evaluation of high-waist control panties *** Please evaluate the product functionality and aesthetic performance. Easy to put on and off Material properties: VII. Lift up the buttock V. Colour _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 12 . II. Fit: A. Evaluation: Poor Acceptable Average Good Excellent cm cm cm cm cm Functionality/Effectiveness: I. Please circle the number representing the most appropriate response.3. Pressure comfort Flattens the tummy 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  Too tight 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  Appropriate 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  Too loose III. Other comments: Design XI. Softness IX. Slims the waist IV. Breathability VIII. Body reshaping function Overall VI. Sample 1: Satami High Waist Control Pant (With adjustable control belt) A.1.2.

B. Softness IX. Colour Fit: B. Design XI.3. Evaluation: Poor Acceptable Average Good Excellent cm cm cm cm cm Functionality/Effectiveness: I. Slims the waist IV. Flattens the tummy III. Sample 2: Marks & Spencer Waist Cincher B. Hand feel Aesthetic: X. Lift up the buttock V. Breathability VIII.1. Body Measurement when wearing the sample: Underbust Natural Waist Abdomen Top hip Hip B. Easy to put on and off Material properties: VII. Body reshaping function Overall VI.2. Other comments: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 13 . Pressure comfort 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  Too tight 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  Appropriate 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  Too loose II.

Hand feel Aesthetic: X. Body reshaping function Overall VI. which high-waist panty you like the most?  Sample 1  Sample 2  Sample 3 Give your reasons:_________________________________________________________ *End of questionnaire* Thank you very much! 14 . Slims the waist IV. Breathability VIII. Fit: C. Other comments: Design XI. Pressure comfort Flattens the tummy 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  Too tight 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  Appropriate 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  Too loose III. Softness IX. Evaluation: Poor Acceptable Average Good Excellent cm cm cm cm cm Functionality/Effectiveness: I.3. II. Body Measurement when wearing the sample: Underbust Natural Waist Abdomen Top hip Hip C.1. Sample 3: Triumph Shape Sensation High Waist Control Panty C.C.2. Lift up the buttock V. After the wear trial. Easy to put on and off Material properties: VII. Colour _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ D.

APPENDIX 3 Sizes range offered by brands 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 XS S A B C D DD E F M L XL XXL A B C D DD E F 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 XS S M L XL XXL Bonluxe 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 XS S A B C D DD E F M L XL XXL Satami 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 XS S A B C D DD E F M L XL XXL Embry form 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 XS S A B C D DD E F M L XL XXL Bodibra 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 XS S A B C D DD E F M L XL XXL Easy shop (Depends on brands) Uniqlo 15 .

30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 XS S A B C D DD E F M L XL XXL A B C D DD E F 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 XS S M L XL XXL Wacoal 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 A B C D DD E F 8 10 12 14 16 18 1 Triumph Marks & Spencer 16 .

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