Role of Communication Facilities in Disaster Management
By: S.Shashank X-A Roll Number -29
Table of Contents
earthquakes. India is considered as the world's most disaster prone country. floods. both developed and developing. earthquakes. strikes according to the vulnerability of the area. volcanoes. causing huge destruction and creating human sufferings and producing negative impacts on national economies. Due to various geo-climatic conditions prevalent in different parts of the globe.Introduction
It is a well known fact that natural disasters strikes countries. etc. droughts. cyclones. cyclones. different types of natural disasters like floods. landslides. It has witnessed devastating natural disasters in recent past like droughts. landslides…
It is absolutely necessary to create awareness amongst the public as well as decision makers for allocating resources for appropriate investments in information technology. IT is useful to prevent as well as recover them.Abstract
Now in the age of technology it has become easier to manage natural disasters. as a tool can very effectively contribute towards identification of hazardous areas. GIS can improve the quality and power of analysis of natural hazards assessments. Remote Sensing. on the other hand. Communication satellites have become vital for providing emergency communication and timely relief measures. Satellite communication. GIS [Geographic Information System]. It may be observed that advancement in IT and communication facilities in the form of Internet. can help a great deal in planning and implementation of hazards reduction measures. Integration of space technology inputs into natural disaster monitoring and mitigation mechanisms is critical for hazard reduction.
. monitor the planet for its changes on a real time basis and give early warning to many impending disasters. etc. In this project an attempt has been made to highlight the role of communication facilities in management of natural disasters in India. guide development activities and assist planners in the selection of lessening measures and in the implementation of emergency preparedness and response action. Remote Sensing. We can manage them by using the various features of information technology and communication facilities.
This has brought in a significant positive change even though the multitude and frequency of disasters in the country has increased. considerable emphasis is now being placed on research and development activities in the area of information technology for disaster preparedness and prevention.Natural Disasters in India
India is a large country and prone to a number of natural hazards. Another major problem faced by the country is in the form of landslides and avalanches. The country has faced some severe earthquakes causing widespread damage to the life and property. Among all the natural disasters that country faces.
Super Cyclone in Orissa during 28-30 October 1999
. India has a coastline of about 8000 km which is prone to very severe cyclonic formations in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. With an increase in the perception towards spreading a culture of prevention in the disaster management scenario. The shortfall in the rainfall causes droughts or drought like stimuli in various parts of the country. river floods are the most frequent and often devastating.
Therefore. it can be seen that during any major disaster or emergency situation. Many district head quarters got totally cut-off from the State head quarter and neighboring districts due to submerged telephone exchanges or damaged cables and disrupted roads and railways communication. need for alternative communication systems during the large-scale natural disaster/emergency situations. severe flood situations in the States of Assam and Bihar caused major devastation. it is crucially important to have completely functional communication links among Government authorities at various levels to provide adequate assistance to the affected population. the communication links are totally disrupted.
From the above case study.
. State Government requested National Disaster Management Division of the Government of India to immediately send the emergency coordination kits containing satellite phones to establish communication links among the severely affected districts and state headquarters. In the worst affected districts the need for relief and rescue operation could not be communicated to the State head quarters.Case Study
In Monsoon-2004. and modes of emergency communication systems including satellite based communication systems. This project tries to explain various basic telecommunication facilities. Realizing this.
There are mainly applications we can use to manage disasters: 1) GIS and Remote Sensing 2) Internet 3) Amateur Radio 4) Satellite Based Communication System
.Application of Communication Facilities in Disaster Management
Though it is not possible to completely avoid the natural disasters. but the sufferings can be minimized by creating proper awareness of the likely disasters and its impact by developing a suitable warning system. disaster preparedness and management of disasters through application of information technology tools. The changing trends have opened up a large number of scientific and technological resources and skills to reduce disaster risk.
mapping. assessing and monitoring deterioration of natural conditions in a given area.
. SPOT Satellite. Some applications of GIS and Remote Sensing in various disasters are as follows:DROUGHT: GIS and Remote Sensing can be used in drought relief management such as early warnings of drought conditions will help to plan out the strategies to organize relief work. Remote sensing makes observation of any object from a distance and without coming into actual contact. flood damage assessment. districts or even for the entire country and tropical cyclone Threat Maps are used by meteorological departments to improve the quality of the tropical storm warning services and quickly communicate the risk to the people likely to get affected by the cyclone. Film transparencies. This can be used to facilitate measurement. photographs and digital data can be used for the purpose of locating.Hazard Mapping to show earthquake. floods or fire hazards. These are: Land sat. such as photographs and images from sensor on aircrafts and Satellite Remote Sensing which consists of several satellite remote sensing system which can be used to integrate natural hazard assessments into development planning studies. Remote sensing comprises Aerial Remote Sensing which is the process of recording information. can cover large area at one time to give a synoptic view. The specific GIS application in the field of Risk Assessment are:. FLOODS: Satellite data can be effectively used for mapping and monitoring the flood inundated areas. EARTHQUAKE: GIS and Remote Sensing can be used for preparing seismic hazards maps in order to assess the exact nature of risks. Remote sensing can gather data much faster than ground based observation. monitoring and modeling of variety of data types related to natural phenomenon. Advanced Very High Resolution Radio. Satellite data provides valuable tools for evaluating areas subject to desertification. landslides. Satellite data may be used to target potential ground water sites for taking up well-digging programmers. Theses map could be created for cities. flood hazard zoning and post-flood survey of rivers configuration and protection works.GIS AND REMOTE SENSING
GIS provides a tool for effective and efficient storage and manipulation of remotely sensed data and other spatial and non-spatial data types for both scientific management and policy oriented information. Satellite Radar System.
and rate of mass movement of the slope mass.-extent of the slop area likely to be affected. SEARCH AND RESCUE: GIS can be used in carrying out search and rescue operations in a more effective manner by identifying areas that are disasters prone and zoning them accordingly to risk magnitudes. Depending upon the methodology adopted and the comprehensiveness of the input data used.
.LANDSLIDES: Landslide zonation map comprise a map demarcating the stretches or area of varying degree of anticipated slope stability or instability. a landslide hazard zonation map able to provide help concerning location. The map has an inbuilt element of forecasting and is hence of probabilistic nature.
In the present era of electronic communication. are experimenting with the Internet for real-time dissemination of weather observation. the internet provides a useful platform for disaster mitigation communications. automatic.
. Launching of a well defined web site is a very costeffective means of making an intra-national and international presence felt. and global dissemination of disaster information. including several national meteorological services. In the most critical phase of natural disasters electronic communication have provided the most effective and in some instances perhaps the only means of communication with the outside world. satellite and other data. A number of individuals and groups. It provides a new and potentially revolutionary option for the rapid.
. monitoring and issuing early warnings plays the most significant role in determining whether a natural hazard will assume disastrous proportions or not. Satellite data can be used very effectively for mapping and monitoring the flood inundated areas. to provide numerical guidance.WARNING AND FORECASTING SYSTEM:
An advance system of forecasting. Ministry of Water Resources. flood hazard zoning and past flood survey of river configuration and protection works. It has made operational a satellite based communication system called Cyclone Warning Dissemination System for direct dissemination of cyclone warnings to the cyclone prone coastal areas. IMD runs operationally a Limited-area Analysis and Forecast System (LAFS). based on an Optimal Interpretation (OI) analysis and a limited area Primitive Equation (PE) model. NATIONAL REMOTE SENSING AGENCY (NRSA): Long term drought proofing programmes on the natural resources of the district have been greatly helped by the use of satellite data obtained by NRSA.
FLOOD FORECASTING: Flood forecasts and warnings are issued by the Central Water Commission (CWC) . which is the nodal agency. and is primarily based on monitoring of vegetation status through National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution (AVHR) data. WARNING SYSTEM FOR DROUGHT: The National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Management System (NADAMS) has been developed by the Department of Space for the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. flood damage assessment. Our country has the following forecasting systems: INDIAN METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT (IMD): IMD provides cyclone warnings from the Area Cyclone Warning Centers (ACWCs) It has developed the necessary infrastructure to originate and disseminate the cyclone warnings at appropriate levels. These are used for alerting the public and for taking appropriate measures by concerned administrative and state engineering agencies in the flood hazard mitigation. These stations have collected data over long periods of time. SEISMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS: Seismological observations in the country are made through national network of 36 seismic stations operated by the IMD.
Satellite imagery received from weather satellite is extensively used in detecting the development and movement of Tropical Cyclones over oceanic regions. Ministry of Communications. Government of India. also known as ‘Ham radio’.
In the event of major disasters/emergencies. CYCLONE TRACKING: Information on cyclone warnings is furnished on a real-time basis to the control room set up in the Ministry of Agriculture. it has been experienced that Amateur Radios have worked successfully when no other communications worked. These radars can locate and track approaching Tropical Cyclones within a range of 400 km. Amateur radio. The laid down rules allow these frequencies to be used only
. particularly when they are beyond the range of the coastal radars.Information is gathered from the CWC's vast network of Forecasting Stations on various rivers in the country. High-power Cyclone Detection Radars (CDRs) that are installed along the coastal belt of India have proved to be a very useful tool to the cyclone warning work. does not refer to special kind of radio but to a special set of rules which apply to certain frequencies as defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and regulated in India by Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing.
The word Amateur implies the use of radio communications for non-commercial purposes. Different satellites carry out different jobs. Such Amateur volunteers provided commendable services during the Orissa super cyclone in 1999 and Gujarat earthquake in 2001. Most Governments expect their Amateurs to provide emergency communication support in case of an emergency and Amateurs always come forward to provide their services voluntarily for establishing crucial communications among the emergency response managers. and has limited power requirements which can be easily met by batteries and generators and thus work successfully in emergencies. a satellite. Department of Information Technology has initiated a nation wide programme to establish Amateur Radio Stations at various places and provide the necessary training for interested Amateur Station Operators.for research.000 licensed Amateur Radio Operators (Hams) in India. Amateur Radio operation does not use the ground based infrastructure.e.
. In efforts to popularize the Amateur Radio in the country and develop a trained force of licensed Amateurs.a radio that receives a conversation at one frequency and then amplifies it and re-transmits it back to Earth on another frequency.
Satellite Based Communications Systems
Satellite based Communication systems mean communication systems intended for users on the Earth but which have some equipment in space. The most important feature of a communications satellite is the transponder . i. The other words you may hear are SATCOMS for satellite communications in general and SATPHONE for a satellite phone terminal. education and personal purpose. Amateur radio is getting popular in India as a creative hobby and there are around 15. Communications satellites are essentially radio relay stations in space and are sometimes referred to as COMSATs. such as taking weather pictures or finding accurate positions on earth in terms of latitudes and longitudes.
Q. the regular telecommunication infrastructure of public wired and wireless (mobile) telephones get severely damaged and become nonfunctional. This mainly happens because of the damaged cables and cellular transmission towers or disrupted power supply to operate the
. television. meteorology and disaster warning and Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) for resources monitoring and management.) Why does telecommunication network get disrupted or jammed in event of a major natural disaster or emergency situation? A. Data. television broadcasting.A satellite normally contains hundreds or thousands of transponders. flood and landslide. Present operational Indian space systems include Indian National Satellite (INSAT) for tele-communication. cyclone. image and some telephone transmissions are routinely received and re-broadcasted by these transponders of communication satellites.) Unfortunately at the time of major natural disasters such as earthquake.
Need for Alternative Communications System
In most of the natural disasters the telecommunication network gets disrupted which increases the risk of disaster.
) Yes. Satellite communication. For maximum benefit. relief and response measures are communicated among the authorities of State Government.telephone exchanges and cellular transmission towers. At the time of any major disaster or emergency situation.)Do we really need to have alternative communication systems. voluntary organizations and the affected population. Remote Sensing. The wireless radio communication network of Police and Civil authorities also gets affected due to damaged transmission towers. we do. voluntary organizations and unaffected populations in the vicinity. complete failure of network. During this emergency situation. GIS can improve the quality and power of analysis of natural hazards assessments. can help a great deal in planning and implementation of hazards reduction. Remote Sensing. local administration. monitor the planet for its changes on a real time basis and give early warning to many impending disasters. etc. Q. as a tool can very effectively contribute towards identification of hazardous areas. It becomes imperative to ensure that the critical needs of search and rescue operations. GIS. Communication satellites have become vital
. which ensures the rapid movement of the right resources to the right place at the right time. it is extremely necessary to have the communication links operational among Government authorities at various levels and the people/ volunteers working in the disaster affected areas to help the affected population.
It may be observed that advancement in IT and Communication’s Teachnology in the form of Internet. It may also happen that some severely affected areas get completely disconnected from other parts of the world. on the other hand. This may lead to severe losses in terms of human lives. In such situations. the communication traffic goes beyond its capacity which leads to congestion of the network or in worst case. the urgent needs of the disaster-affected population are not known or communicated to the responsible Government authorities. livestock and property. new technologies for public communication should be made use and natural disaster mitigation messages should be conveyed through these measures. in case the normal communication lines fail? A. guide development activities and assist planners in the selection of mitigation measures and in the implementation of emergency preparedness and response action. This situation calls for reliable alternate communication links.
Integration of space technology inputs into natural disaster monitoring and mitigation mechanisms is critical for hazard reduction.
. My parents for their unstinted support. Awareness and training in Information technology in a much greater measure is required to develop human resources. It is absolutely necessary to create awareness amongst the public as well as decision makers for allocating resources for appropriate investments in information technology. who are chronically suffer from natural disasters. The disaster preparedness and awareness is the only effective way of mitigating the impact of future disasters.for providing emergency communication and timely relief measures. 2. particularly in the developing countries. Debjanee Mam for her guidance throughout the project.
1999. pp. Forecasting and Warning Systems for Cyclones in India.Bibliography and References
1. Anil (1999). Together Towards a Safer India Part 3
. Mandal. 3. 1999. pp. G. 9-12. October. October. S. 24-26. Relief Administration and Capacity Building for Coping Mechanism towards Disaster Reduction. Shelter. 2. (1999). Sinha. Shelter.