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APES- Introduction to the Worlds Biomes Objective: Understand the plants, animals and climate that characterize each

biome of the world. Site: Missouri Botanical Gardens Browse each biome and fill out the chart below and answer the questions below about each individual biome

Rainforests 1: What are the two types of rainforests? In the United States, where are our rainforests located? (Be specific). What percentage of our original rainforests does this represent?
Two types of rainforests are temperate and tropical. In the United States, our rainforests are located on the Pacific coast, from Oregon to Alaska. The percentage is 25%.

Tundra 2: Where is the Tundra Biome located? What is permafrost? What percentage of the Earths surface is covered by Tundra? The tundra is located near the North Pole. Permafrost is the permanently frozen layer of ground. Earths surface is covered by about 1/5 of Tundra. Taiga 3: Where is the Taiga Biome located? What is the soil like in the Taiga- why? The Taiga Biome is located in in the Northern parts of North America, Europe, Asia, and the Artic Circle. The soil is like a sponge because the undecayed vegetation builds up on the floor.

Desert 4: How much rainfall is characteristic of deserts? Explain where most deserts are located and the RAINSHADOW Effect. Deserts receive less than ten inches of rainfall per year. Most deserts are located in 30 degrees latitude north and 30 degrees latitude south. Since some deserts have nearby mountains, the air the moves up on a mountain range, making it colder and causes rain or snow. The other side receives warmer air, which holds moisture, forming a desert. Temperate Deciduous Forest 5: What is special about this biome? Deciduous trees have special leaves that are adapted to the biome- explain. Temperate deciduous forests are special because they have changing seasons. Deciduous trees have special leaves because they have adaptions to stay alive. In the autumn, the green chlorophyll begins to decompose, showing the oranges, yellows, and reds. In the winter, the water in the leaves freeze into ice, leaving the trees vulnerable to bacteria or fungi. Then in the spring, the trees grow new leaves. Grasslands 6: Grasslands are found on every continent except for onewhich? How much rainfall do grasslands get- why is this important? What are the 3 types of grasslands that are found in North America? What are grasslands called in other places in the world? Grasslands are not found in Antarctica. Grasslands receive 10 to 30 inches per year. This important because if they receive less, they become a desert. The three types of grasslands found in North

America are tall grass prairies, mixed grass prairies, and short grass prairies. The grasslands called around the world are called temperate and tropical grasslands. Rivers & Streams 7: How much water on Earth does running water represent? What is a watershed? What are the two main processes that happen to surface water? What is the longest river in the world? What is the longest river in the United States? What is a hydroelectric dam? The running water represents .3% of water on Earth. A watershed is an area of land that contains a set of streams/rivers that drain into a larger body of water. The two main processes that happen to surface water are surface runoff and infiltration. The longest river in the world is the Nile river. The longest river in the US is the Mississippi-Missouri river system. A hydroelectric dam is a manmade dam built across a river to control river flow, navigation, regulate flooding, and produce hydroelectric power. Ponds & Lakes 8: What is the difference between a pond and lake? Name the four stages of succession of a pond. Explain how an Oxbow Lake is formed. What is the largest lake in the world? What is the largest lake in the United States? What is the deepest lake in the world? What is Lake Effect Snow? Explain. What is the cause of summerkill in some lakes? The difference between a pond and lake is that a lake is bigger and deeper than a pond. The four stages are: a pond develops as seeds are flown by birds and animals, the debris increases in the bottom as more creatures appear, layers of decaying matter add up and layer over a period of time, and then the pond floor is close enough to the bottom that emergents grow across the floor, creating a marsh. An Oxbow lake is formed when erosion and deposits of soil

change the rivers course into a crescent-shaped lake. The largest lake in the world is the Caspian Sea. The largest lake in the US is the Lake Superior. The deepest lake in the world is Lake Baikal. The Lake Effect Show is when the cold air picks up moisture and forces it up on the nearby hills. It causes snow to fall. Summerkill is caused by some lakes when there is too much algae, decreasing the oxygen levels. Wetlands 9: What are the types of freshwater wetlands- name and define them. Explain why wetlands are so important. What is happening to our wetlands? Types of wetlands are: Marshes: an inland area inundated with 1-6 ft of water, filled with perennnials, forbs, and bushes. Swamps: slow moving streams, rivers, or isolated depressions that host trees and some shrubs Bog: a peat-accumulating wetland with no direct inflow of water. Prairie pothole: a wetland area found in notherthern Great plains. Used for breeding by birds. Riparian marsh: marshes that absorb excess water and release water when river levels are too low. Shorelines 10: What kind of lifeforms will you find in the intertidal zone? What is a barrier island? What is an estuary? What is life like in an estuary? What is a salt marsh? What is the Mangrove Forest? How are the trees specially adapted to living in that environment? Why are they important? Lifeforms that can be found in intertidal zones are algae, seashells,

and sea clams. A barrier island is an island separated from mainland by bodies of water. An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water with a flow of incoming seawater is mixed with fresh water. A salt marsh is a wetland that is in places where the land meets the sea. The Mangrove Forests are forests filled with mangrove trees near river deltas with lots of sediments. The trees are adapted because they have aerial roots and tap roots that are salt-filtering. They are important because these forests provide a safe habitat for many species of fish and birds. Temperate Ocean Zones 11: Name and describe the different zones of the ocean and how they are divided. Describe the different photic zones of the ocean. What are kelp forests? Where are they found?\ The different zones of the ocean are: Sunlit Zone: the top layer, near the surface. Also the euphotic zone where the water supports photosynthesis. Twilight Zone: only small amount of light that can penetrate the water. Also known as the disphotic zone, where only animals that adapted to little light survives. Midnight Zone: 90% of the ocean where there is no light and water pressure is extreme. Also called the aphotic zone. The kelp forests are forests filled layers of kelp. They are found in temperate oceans. Tropical Ocean Zones 12: What is coral made of? Explain. Where are most coral reefs located? Where is the largest coral reef? Coral reefs are made of corals that inhabit thousands of organisms living together. Most coral reefs are located in shallow, warm

waters where the water temperature is constant. The largest coral reef is the Great Barrier Reef.