Elsevier Editorial System(tm) for CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology Manuscript Draft Manuscript Number: 2011-F-Keynote PaperR1

Title: Mechanical servo press technology for metal forming Article Type: Annals 2011 - Vol. 60/2 Corresponding Author: Prof. Kozo Osakada, D., Corresponding Author's Institution: Osaka University First Author: Kozo Osakada, D., Order of Authors: Kozo Osakada, D.,; Ken-ichiro Mori, Dr.; Taylan Altan, Dr.; Peter Groche, Dr.

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CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology
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Mechanical servo press technology for metal forming
K. Osakada (1)a*, K. Mori (2)b, T. Altan (1)c, P. Groche (1)d

School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan c Center for Precision Forming, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA d Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany

Abstract. Recently several press builders developed gap and straight-sided metal forming presses that utilise the mechanical servo-drive technology. The mechanical servo-drive press offers the flexibility of a hydraulic press (infinite slide (ram) speed and position control, availability of press force at any slide position) with the speed, accuracy and reliability of a mechanical press. Servo drive presses have capabilities to improve process conditions and productivity in metal forming. This paper reviews the servo press designs, servo-motor and the related technologies, and introduces major applications in sheet metal forming and bulk metal forming. Keywords: forging, stamping, servo press

1. Introduction 1.1. Characteristic features of mechanical servo press Electro-mechanical servo-drives have been used in machine tools for several decades. Recently, several press builders, mainly in Japan [7,46] and Germany [1], developed metal forming presses that utilise the mechanical servo-drive technology. The mechanical servo-drive press offers the flexibility of a hydraulic press (infinite slide (ram) speed and position control, availability of press force at any slide position) with the speed, accuracy and reliability of a mechanical press [102]. Figure 1 shows two types of servo presses developed at early stages [80]. In the design of Figure 1a, the rotational motion of the servo-motor is transmitted to the slide using a timing belt and ball screw. The press slide is moved up and down by the reciprocating motion of the motor and ball screw. The tilting of the press slide is detected by linear sensors and corrected by adjusting the motion of each individual motor as needed. Thus, it is possible to maintain slide/bolster parallelism under off-centre loading of the press. In the linkage design, seen in Figure 1b [62,63], the knuckle-joint mechanism is activated by the ball screw. Due to the feed-back control of slide position of the servo press, scatter of the bottom dead centre is kept very small as shown in Figure 2, in which the result for the press of Figure 1a is given, and the product accuracy is kept high irrespective of working time or temperature change [12]. Because all the press motions such as starting, velocity change and stopping, are done only by the servo-motor, the mechanical servo press has a simple driving chain without flywheel, clutch and brake that are essential for a conventional

(a) Ball screw type servo press

(b) Ball screw and knucle-joint type servo press

Figure 1: Flexibility of slide (ram) motion in servo drive presses [80].

Figure 2: Change of position of bottom dead centre with working time [12].


better product accuracy and better machine reliability without noise of hydraulic pump and complicated piping.mechanical press. The digital control of the servo press enables harmonic movements of various devices such as hydraulic. Since some metal forming processes. Figure 3 presents the typical motions used with the servo presses [3]. [134. many axes should be driven independently to achieve uniform density in a product with non-uniform heights. On a multi-axis servo press. In 1987 a 100kN press brake (bending machine) driven by an AC servo motor.44] servo systems have been manufactured by increasing the maximum load as the power of servo motor has been raised. In powder compaction. Figure 4: Decrease in cycle time as well as in impact speed using a servo press (150% increase in output) [15]. Similarly to later servo presses. [53] developed a 6 axis CNC powder compacting machine on the basis of servo-motor driven injection moulding machine. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) The accumulated know-hows with the existing presses can be inherited because the motions such as crank press and linkage press can be duplicated by a servo press. which results in a decrease of the voltage in the intermediate circuit [17]. The accuracy of the product can be improved by controlling the slide parallelism and choosing an optimum slide motion. motor controlled cushions with the main slide. they were applied to injection moulding machines in the late 1980s. shown in Figure 5. the mechanical servo press has higher productivity. High powered AC servo-motors were realised in the 1980s with the development of the strong magnets. Since a servo-motor can recover kinetic energy during deceleration. Tsuru et al. the force was transmitted through a ball screw. they were not mounted on the metal forming presses for a long time because their power was not strong enough for the large force required in metal forming. The most important feature of the servo press is flexible slide movement.135] and Kishi et al. hydraulic servo-presses were built in the 1970s. Lubrication is often improved and the working limit can be extended by using a pulsating or oscillating slide motion.2. Historical background Although the servo-motors were used in metal cutting machine tools as early as in the 1950s.by reducing the touching speed of the tool to the work piece. was developed by Toyokoki to carry out accurate bending [20] by measuring the stroke with the taco-generator of the motor and the load with the motor torque. and thus the maintenance of the servo press is simplified. Vibration of sheet metal can be reduced by an optimised slide motion and the shape of sheet metal product is stabilised. Figure 3: Typical slide motions of servo-press [3]. Impact loading is avoided and the tool life is extended. High powered servo-motors were also applied to CNC powder compacting machines. and since then press brakes driven by electro-hydraulic [2] and purely mechanical [38. Higher productivity is possible by shortening of a forming cycle with a partial short stroke around bottom dead centre as well as a high speed return motion as shown in Figure 4. and the production of servo-motor driven injection moulding machines increased rapidly in the 1990s [89]. Since a servo press can realize almost all the motions. some servo presses store the energy during dynamic braking in the capacitor or in the independent flywheel. such as enclosed die forging. necessitated complicated motions of multiple slides. two or more processes may be completed in a stroke by moving the driving axes cooperatively. 1. servo presses are often employed to extend the forming limit and to improve product accuracy. Together with the development of transistor controllers. The stored energy is taken out and used during short energy peak demands of the next stroke. This press is considered to be the first commercial servo press. but only a small number of presses was constructed because the areas of their application were limited. 2 . By utilizing this function. the following merits are considered to be brought about by choosing a motion suitable for each purpose. air and servo- Figure 5: 100kN press brake driven by servo motor built in 1987 [20]. Compared with the hydraulic servo press which has been used for many years. Touching and break-through noise is reduced by stopping the slide for a short time or reducing the slide speed.

but once forming starts the slide is decelerated very rapidly. In the energy controlled screw press. Figure 8: Stroke-time diagrams of mechanical presses. energy controlled presses (screw press. various mechanisms with crank.1. Designs of servo-motor driven press 2.138]. high speed motors require timing belt. but the fundamental driving mechanisms remain the same as conventional presses. Figure 8 shows the time-stroke curves of the mechanical presses. The crank press moves with a sinusoidal motion due to the simple crank system. and the slide velocity can be controlled during forming. In the following. a general purpose servo press was not built until 1997 when Komatsu HCP3000. and the slide is driven by the oil pressure. By using the flow control servo valves and air accumulators. the slide movement is usually slow. the presses driven by servo-motors are reviewed. the pressure of the working oil is raised by the motor. linear motors began to be used for small servo presses. In the knuckle-joint and linkage presses. high maximum working load is possible when the slide position is low. The driving mechanism of this press is given in Figure 1a. the screw press that simply 3 . linkage or ball screw drives [14]. Germany. The common feature of stroke controlled presses and the screw press is that the rotational movement of motor is mechanically converted into the linear slide movement. Taiwan. linkage and gears to transform the high speed rotational motion into the low speed motion. it is possible to control the velocity and position of the slide. The high powered servo-motor enabled direct driving of the mechanical press without using a flywheel and clutch. .e. Due to the limit of the motor power. The crank press is the most commonly used model. hammer) and force controlled presses (hydraulic press) [64]. 2. The motion of the linear motor press is fast and is controlled accurately. and the knuckle-joint and the linkage presses are used to modify the shortcomings of the crank press. the maximum load of 800kN was transmitted through two ball screws. servo-motors can be used in two different ways. shown in Figure 7. and are also applied in micro-forming and precision coining [32. and thus the bottom dead centre cannot be pre-determined. the velocities near the bottom dead centre are lowered compared to the crank press [22]. linkage press). In the case of the hydraulic press. Differently from the traditional screw press. and the slide stops when the energy stored in the flywheel is consumed completely. are used. but the power of the press is limited. Spain [27] and China. shown in Figure 6.2. to reduce the slide velocity around the bottom dead centre and to extend the slide travel of large available force. From around year 2000. The low speed and high torque servo-motors allow direct drive of the eccentric or crank mechanism and thus there is no need for belt. this press does not require a flywheel and clutch. Servo-motor and ball screw driven presses The first servo presses illustrated in Figures 5 and 6 employed ball screws to reduce the friction of the screws. knuckle-joint. knuckle- joint and linkage presses. as used in the hydraulic servo presses. the rotational movement of the flywheel is changed to the linear motion with a screw. Since the torque applied to the driving axis is limited by the twisting strength of the axis. the energy supplied by the motor is stored into the fly wheel as the rotating kinetic energy as shown in Figure 7 and is released in a short time when forming is carried out. Later. linkage and screw. the positions of top and bottom dead centres and the velocity characteristics are determined by the driving mechanism. To provide high forces needed for forming. The linear motor driven presses are mainly used for high speed punching of polymer tapes and metallic foils [97.Because the power of servo motor was not large enough. Since then various types of servo presses have been developed in Japan. In presses. In this press. (a) Crank (b) Knuckle-joint (c) Linkage (4) Screw Figure 7: Conventional mechanical presses (S: Slide. 2. The slide velocity of the screw press is kept almost constant. In the cases of crank. B: Bolster). appeared. Types of mechanical press Conventional presses are classified into stroke controlled presses (crank press. To convert the movement. i. Figure 6: 800kN servo-motor driven press developed in 1997 [80]. Either they are used as high speed motors or as low speed and high torque motors. Since the power of a conventional motor is not large enough to carry out a metal forming operation directly.121]. knuckle-joint press.

as shown in Figure 10. and linkage presses. (a) Driving Axes [39] (b) Perspective view [144] Figure 9: Four axis 5000kN ball screw type servo press. knuckle-joint. The maximum load is limited by the torque capacity of the servo motor. The structural stiffness and the gear-eccentric drive were the same as the conventional crank presses while only the flywheel. and for forming that needs a high speed motion at the end of forming. gap (C-frame) presses shown in Figure 13 were developed by Aida Engineering [127.replaced the motor with a servo-motor keeping the flywheel was developed [22]. a high torque servo-motor is attached directly to the press drive shaft. 2. the position of the slide can be kept parallel to the table of the press by an appropriate control of the servo motors. Servo-motor driven crank presses Since the ball screw type presses were expensive. and thus it can be applied to almost all the forming methods. Further. Since the spindles are not linked mechanically. 92] as will be explained in section 4. Figure 12 shows the crank type driving mechanism [40]. Sensors recognize a tilting of the slide due to eccentric loading. Servo presses with four spindles were developed also in Germany. slide for each planetary roller thread spindle.119]. the stroke-time curve is the same as the conventional press (see Figure 8). Figure 11 shows the presses from Heitkamp and Tumann [41] as well as Synchropress [126]. the reduction of the belt drive and the load carrying capacity of the ball screw. Press forces from 630kN up to 2500kN are used for both transfer and progressive tools. the four spindles are moved independently. Figure 9 shows the 5000kN ball screw type servo press with four spindles build by Hoden Seimitsu Kako (HSK) [144]. As will be introduced later. An important feature of the ball screw type servo press is that the maximum force and the maximum slide speed are available at any slide position. This feature is especially useful for forming with a long working stroke such as extrusion. it is possible to drive multiple axes by several servo-motors in order to carry out multiple processes in a single stroke [90. the majority of the present servo presses.5 [39].128] and Amada [118. and the slide velocity is slowed down around the bottom dead centre although it is controllable to some extent. In this case. When the main shaft rotates at a constant speed. One of the solutions to increase the power of the ball screw type servo press is to increase the number of motors and driving axes (spindles). 4 . 91]. where the high torque servo-motor is directly coupled to press drive shaft [40]. such as the crank. The slide is guided by linear bearings. use crank mechanisms to achieve large press forces. Figure 10: Multiple moving axes in ball screw type servo press [92]. Figure 12: Direct gear driven gap press with servo drive. clutch and main motor were replaced with the servo-motor. They use servo motors positioned above (Figure 11a) or below (Figure 11b) the By combining the servo driving mechanism and the existing press structure.3. In this press. and thus the inclination of the slide to any direction can be corrected [43. crank presses driven by servo-motors began to be manufactured. (a) H+T [41] (b) Synchropress [126] Figure 11: Direct drive ball screw type servo presses produced in Germany.

crank presses with two connecting rods were produced as shown in Figure 14 [21. Meng et al. Figure 16: 6300kN linkage servo press (Komatsu) [8]. 5 . Groche et al. the main function of forming is carried out by the conventional motor. 57]. (b) Four motors with 1 gear [116] Figure 15: Crank shaft systems with multiple servo-motors attached to a gear. and they are often applied to cold forging presses. By utilizing this motor arrangement. which can be rotated during a stroke as shown in Figure 17.4. and having large available load over a relatively long working stroke. [65] examined some other linkage mechanisms. investigated various linkage [146] and double knuckle [147. [18] and Li et al. Using this concept of combining a conventional motor and a servo motor. many servomotors can be attached to one driving gear shown in Figure 15. To increase the power and to keep parallelism of the slide under off-centre loading. Yossifon et al. By tilting the slide.148] mechanisms suitable for metal forming processes on servo presses. a product which necessitates plural tool actions from different directions can be produced. Du et al. (a) Four motors with 2 gears [104] (a) Linkage mechanism (b) CAD image Figure 17: Three degree of freedom servo press [31]. Figure 14: Crank press with two crank shafts (Komatsu) [57]. [30. For crank presses with larger forming forces. For servo-motor driven presses. In this mechanism.31] proposed a three degree of freedom servo press which enables three dimensional movement of the slide. and a servo-motor is used to vary the velocity of the slide during a stroke depending on the purpose of forming.2. [78] proposed a link mechanism using a conventional constant speed motor and a servo-motor. Servo-motor driven linkage presses Linkage mechanisms are often used for presses to reduce the slide velocity and to increase the load capacity of a given motor torque around the bottom dead centre as shown in Figure 8. Figure 16 shows a 6300kN servo press for cold forging driven by two servo-motors and the linkage mechanism [8]. linkage mechanisms are considered to be advantageous in increasing the approaching and returning speeds by slowing down the slide speed in the working region in a stroke. (a) Aida Engineering [127] (b) Amada [120] Figure 13: Crank shaft type servo presses in Japan. a 50000kN hot forging press is under construction.

131]. To reduce cogging to a minimum the permanent magnets inside the rotor are fixed. (a) DDVC hydraulic system Figure 20: Layout of a torque motor [133].1.5. in connection with pre-loaded ball bearings. In the 1980‟s servo-motors were mainly DC motors because their large currents could only be controlled by silicon-controlled rectifiers. This is the major of the reason why servo presses are primarily driven by torque motors. Characteristic torque curves and the operating area for both motor types are shown. Figure 19b shows the hydraulic servo press made by Kawasaki hydromechanics. Figure 18: 25000kN Hybrid type servo press (Amino) [6]. and used in a variable-frequency drive in another application. which provide high torques. The layout of a torque motor is shown in Figure 20. Due to the large number of poles a high torque at a very low speed can be achieved. precision.2. Further higher power. Servo-motor Servo-motors are available as AC or DC motors. and other mechanical transmission elements since the rotor is directly connected to the shaft. The stator consists of a large number of magnetic coils integrated in an iron stack. Hence any simple AC induction motor connected to a velocity controller may be denoted as a servomotor [54]. Various manufacturers define any closed-loop system that does not use a stepper motor without feedback system as a servo system. 3.joint As shown in Figure 8. Figure 18 shows a 25000kN servo press driven by a different type of combination of a ball screw and knucklejoint mechanisms [4. That means that a motor may be used in a servo system in one application. worm-gear drives. The servo press shown in Figure 1b is a 5000kN hybrid press with ball screw drives and knuckle-joint mechanisms [61]. Control and systems of servo presses 3. the flow rate and direction of oil flow are controlled without using flow control valves. A torque motor is in principle a large scaled servo-motor with a hollow shaft and optimised torques.42]. Some hydraulic presses driven by servo-motors have been developed [143] because the high power servo-motors realised higher slide speed compared with the conventional servo press with flow control valves. angular speed and acceleration can be realised [133]. the knuckle joint and the linkage mechanisms are used to increase the press power with the crank shaft mechanism. the AC servo-motor became common. The required velocity is controlled by the frequency. There is no need for gearboxes. The advantage of torque motors (broken line) compared to conventional asynchronous motors without control (solid line) is explained in Figure 21. Depending on the used control system the rigidity of the drive can be increased. Linear motors are employed as well in several types of servo presses [33. 2. 6 . The asynchronous motor is reaching its maximum torque with an increasing number of revolutions while the torque motor directly provides the maximum torque. These coils are star-connected and provided with three-phase current. absolutely free of play. Today most motor manufacturers offer a wide range of motors. The moving part is a drum with fixed magnets on the inner surface. and they can be combined with the ball screw mechanism for servo presses. As transistors became capable of controlling and switching larger currents at higher frequencies. This combination is. Early servo-motors were specifically designed for servo amplifiers [24]. Furthermore the characteristic curve of a linear motor is identical to the shown torque curve.6. (b) Perspective view Figure19: CCVD hydraulic servo press (Kawasaki Hydromechanics) [51]. This is possible because the torque motor has no slip. Hybrid servo press with ball screw and knuckle. Servo-motor driven hydraulic press By the direct drive volume control (DDVC) of hydraulic system (Figure 19a) with the AC servo-motor. which are designed for applications that use a servo amplifier or a variable-frequency controller. It works like a regular synchronous motor. Torque motors represent a type of servo-motors.

Servo control The control of a servo press can be differed between the control of the motor position and the control of the motor moment. that most energy is required during the forming and acceleration processes. Hence an overrun of the servo-motor directly leads to an overrun of the slide‟s motion. the size of the main line connection can be reduced by 30% to 70% [59]. Hence environmental fluctuations. Figure 23: Multi motor servo presses using linear sensors for compensation of slide tilting. To avoid errors in position sensing. Conventional mechanical presses store this energy in a flywheel. Further redundant control loops are employed to avoid incorrect outputs [37]. pulse coders and. By storing the energy inside the press. multiple position measuring is employed. This can be used to detect and compensate slide tilting in multi drive presses. Therefore the motor position is monitored and fed into the controller. a large amount of energy is taken from the electric circuit. such as the break through during blanking.3. In hydraulic presses the energy is lost.Figure 21: Motor Characteristics. The determined deflection is used to adjust the following stroke. This scheme can also be employed for the control of more than one motor as multiple input multiple output system. An analysis of different operating press modes shows. Either the energy is stored in a flywheel or fed back to the electricity network by using capacitors. Therefore most attention has been paid to the on/off operation of the clutch brake [37]. The slide position is measured and fed back to the controller. In that case the variables represent vectors instead of scalars. A force limiter or a default force function is used to perform defined forming operations and to avoid overshooting of the slide [23]. For most servo presses the energy is directly transmitted. Figure 22: Schematic of an internal control loop [23]. To further improve the press accuracy for unpredicted changes an iterative learning control (ILC) can be used for repetitive movements. Figure 22 displays an internal control loop for a single input single output system. To control the slide movement usually an internal control loop is employed. if applicable. Figure 24: Schematic of an iterative learning control [65]. Figure 25 shows the modification possibilities of a press with flywheel to a press with capacitor. Currently there are two options to store energy in servo presses. Further linear sensors can be used to measure the current position of slide (Figure 23).2. Figure 24 displays the scheme of an iterative learning control [65]. 7 . Thus additional digital control becomes necessary also for safety reasons. combining absolute slide position sensors. machine deformations or changes in load. 3. 3. Conventional presses usually employ a flywheel that is connected to the main gear via a clutch brake. Energy storage In generating a full press load by using servo motors. can be countervailed. that a large amount of energy is produced during the deceleration of the slide. angle sensors in the gear. Therefore the measured tilting is fed back into the controller [1]. Furthermore it is detected. Therefore an additional external control loop is employed [97].

The more reliable and longerlasting method is a motor/generator. inventory and vendor information as well as engineering specifications are processed in a manufacturing information system [125]. press feeder and the arrangement of multiple presses. Internal connections are located inside the system boundary defined around the press itself. This leads to a reduction in time and effort for the setup from prototyping to high volume production (Figure 27). the excess energy is stored in an energystorage device during deceleration and is drawn upon when the press requires more than 175 kW. Up to three capacitor banks can be connected to increase the storage capacity. Currently capacitor banks with a capacity of 132F are used for presses of the mid-range engine-power class. The possibility to exchange information between different Figure 28: Schematic of servo drive die cushion [9]. but on-going developments in capacitor capabilities will likely make capacitors the preferred storage option of the future [111]. Material and personnel data. 8 . Two available methods to save the energy generated resulting from the deceleration of the slide are capacitor storage or motor/generator connected to a rotating mass. 3. Using this control possibility the conventional evaluation method of different machine parameters is simplified. The application of capacitors is also possible for already existing presses by retrofitting them. External connections are referred to elements outside of the system boundary such as handling system. The servo-motor underneath the working Figure26: Power storage and output in a servo mechanical press system [111]. This information is defined as an intangible object. Operating with two main motors.5. plant design and inventory management [125]. Because the stored energy is used during peak power requirements. Figure 27: Effect of visualisation and exchange of machine data [36]. each with a maximum output of 175 kW. Therefore. In Figure 28 the schematic configuration of a servo die cushion is shown [9]. the load on the facility network remains at approximately 50 kW. The knowledge of experienced operators is combined in the manufacturing information system and is accessible to all operators in the company.4. departments or even production sites is one of the most important advantages of a manufacturing information system.production systems. Data can be transferred between different presses and production sites. which flows value-carrying through the product development process and the manufacturing sequence using software tools like CAD/CAM or data sheets [26]. Figure 25: Servo press with energy storage [59]. information from different sources is required and consolidated in this system. Manufacturing information system A manufacturing information system supports manufacturing functions such as production scheduling. The control system of a servo press represents a part of a manufacturing information system. Internal connections In the following the connections of servo presses with other elements of the production system are differentiated in internal and external connections. ejector and multi slide systems will be presented. Here applications of die cushions. Hereby a prototyping process can be easily reproduced and checked at different production sites even overseas. A servo-motor supplier [1] shows the possibility to apply the servo-motor drive principle to the design and control of a die cushion. 3. The example in Figure 26 illustrates power storage and output in a servo-mechanical press system over the course of a cycle.

To move the work pieces from one forming operation to the following no external transfer system is required. In a transfer press line one transfer is employed for the part‟s handling between all presses. With this Figure 31: Connection of tandem press lines with presses [129]. The control system for a servo multiple slide press is less complex than for a multiple slide hydraulic press [117]. As described in [16] a number of slides is driven independent from each other by single servo-motors. In comparison with known multi slide presses [28] the accuracy of the servo-driven press is increased because every slide is equipped with its own guidance and not linked to a common drive. Hence productivity is increased and problems regarding eccentric loads can be limited. Figure 29: Electro-mechanical die cushion for servo press [77].6. Due to the absence of a mechanical drive coupling wear and maintenance effort are reduced [49].128].1 Servo feeders To allow transfer systems to be synchronized to the press motion servo feeders are used. Figure 29 shows the NC control hydraulic die cushion attached to a servo press [77]. By powering the motor and turning the screw the movement of the die cushion is realised. Figure 30: Schematic design of a multiple slide servo press [28]. The servo-motors in the press are staggered to each other which minimises the distance between the different slides. avoiding collision with the slide during the feeding motion [19]. Hence the feeder can be easily matched to the press movement (Figure 31) [96. The application area of this cushion is similar to hydraulic cushions. Further the correct gripping can be monitored by the position and force information of the servo system. 3. Furthermore employing a phase shift allows smoothening peaks in energy consumption. design. For die cushions for deep drawing air and hydraulic ones have been used. The pressure sensor between the elements of the die cushion controls the position of the assembly. These allow carrying out changes in their opening and closing movement as well as traverse movement without mechanical adjustment. Another example of an internal connection is a multiple slide press. which is necessary for a conventional press line. Especially. To optimize cycle times of press lines a phase shift between the motions of successive presses is employed (Figure 32). efficiency of hydraulic drives is lower because of their high energy consumption. Hereby the servo-motor act as a generator which recuperates the energy back into the system and provides it for the next stroke. for forging applications servo-motor actuated transfer fingers are applied. The most important advantage of the servo die cushion is the possibility to regenerate energy when it is pushed down by the upper die. Hence no additional sensors become necessary [49]. External connections 3.6. 3. Besides. The feeding function can be integrated into the press control. 9 . a servo motor controlled hydraulic die cushion was developed. between the die and the blank holder multiple point die cushions are required. In a tandem line each press is fed from an external device. It is reported that the die cushion can reduce the impact loading at the time of contact and 70% of the energy used for die cushion is recovered. and the response of hydraulic die cushion with a servo valve is slow.space is linked to a screw by a timing belt. Therefore the influence of the transport time on the cycle time is limited. multiple servo presses are combined with press lines. shown in Figure 30.6. To optimize the metal flow in the flange. With the shown servo-motor an enlarged number of cushion pins can be implemented. which are used in conventional mechanical and hydraulic presses. Since the die holding force of the air die cushion cannot be controlled.2 Connection of presses For the production of more complex parts. every slide can provide a unique path-time diagram for the different forming operations in the work space. Based on this fact the servo driven multi press is characterised by its high productivity.

Figure 35 shows the servo press line in Suzuka plant of Honda [77]. are connected to each other without gaps as shown in Figure 34. The total press force is 42. Figure 33: Individual forming motions of presses in a transfer line [13]. Figure 32: Phase shift in motions of subsequent presses [129]. Honda (with Aida Engineering [132]) and BMW (with Schuler [115. Because of large freedom of slide motions and related equipment such as servo die cushion. While a mechanical transfer press usually provides a high productivity. Furthermore each press can be used independently from the others. Figure 36 shows a layout of a servo press line of the BMW factory in Leipzig [115]. 3. the height of the dies does not have to be matched [13]. large presses can be connected to transfer press lines for plate forging and sheet drawing of auto body panels.000kN. seven 6300 N forging presses.000kN. This tandem line is composed of 4 servo presses (23000kN drawing press force) and 4 servo feeders for conveying Figure 35: Servo press line for automobile panels (Honda-Aida) [77. the length of the press line is 34 m (total length is 98m).6. 123]). The gaps between the presses are set to be small only to accommodate the transfer devices and robots. Tandem servo press lines for draw-forming of automobile body panels have been built by Toyota (with Komatsu). explained in Figure 16. and the stroke per minute is 17. 10 . Since each press in a tandem line is fed by an individual device. 132].000kN [8]. The total press force is 103. process simulation is essential.panels from one process to the next. Tandem servo press lines are believed to increase the efficiency of small quantity production and to reduce the time for preparation of production and to stabilize the product quality and to increase the yield of material usage.3 Large press lines By extending the idea of connecting presses. allowing shortening the line or production on single presses as shown in Figure 33. Figure 36: Layout of servo press line in BMW Leipzig [115]. It is reported that more complicated shapes of body panels can be formed by this line with faster speeds than conventional press lines because the motions of die cushion and transferring equipment can be optimised for each product. a transfer press line provides a high flexibility. Figure 34: 42000kN servo press line with seven 6300kN presses for plate forging (Komatsu) [8]. the drawing press force is 25. For plate forging.

In bending of high strength steels. From the Figure 38b it is clear that spring-back is suppressed by re-striking. To improve the quality of the sheared surface. the stress state of the sheet becomes compressive in the height direction of the sheet and the stress gradient in the thickness direction.1 Deep drawing with various slide motions In deep drawing. But a large blank holding force increases the frictional force which tends to cause fracture of the sheet. Sheet metal forming is usually carried out at room temperature.2.2. In U-bending. Thus it is important to reduce the friction to achieve a successful deep drawing operation. which gives a small amount of excessive deformation at the bent corner. Application of servo press to sheet metal forming Press forming of sheet metal. the bent parts often undergo stretch flanging. and fracture tends to take place. At the final stage of the bottoming motion. but to form high strength steel sheets hot stamping began to be used in the last decade. Tamai et al. To decrease the amount of spring-back in V-bending of various steel parts. and the dimensional accuracy of the formed products deteriorates. the bent corner is indented by the punch tip and the stress state may be changed from pure bending to compression. the clearance between the punch and the die in shearing before the stretch flanging process was optimised. which causes large tensile stress. Suganuma [128] used the re-striking motion (Figure 37c) with a servo press by compressing the side wall to the height direction in the second strike as shown in Figure 38a. In bending of sheet metal. and the spring-back associated with the bending stress may be reduced. Bending To reduce the weight of car. [82.83] used a servo press and examined the slide motions: holding and bottoming shown in Figure 37a. which is the main reason of spring-back in bending. often called „stamping‟. improving the sheared surface of the blank and using forming a (a) Re-striking of bent channel without re-striking (b) Products with re-striking Figure38: Reduction in spring-back by re-striking in bending of channel shaped product [128]. and the sheared edge was smoothed with a conical punch. (a) Slide motions (b) Effect of slide motion and forming speed Figure 37: Reduction in spring-back by bottoming in V-bending of 980 MPa level ultra-high strength steel sheet [83]. Deep drawing 4. spring-back is extremely large. In the re-striking. 4. The angle of spring-back in the 980 MPa level ultrahigh strength steel sheet was considerably reduced by the bottoming motion. whereas spring-back was not improved by the holding motion without giving excessive deformation as shown in Figure 37b. Kaewtatip et al. Fracturing strain of the flange made in bending of an ultra-high strength steel sheet was increased by (a) Movement of tools (b) Products Figure 39: Improvement of deep drawability of high strength steel sheet by detachment of tools from the sheet during forming [130]. [130] tried to improve the formability of high strength steel parts in deep drawing by detaching the tools from the die cushion periodically from the sheet as shown in Figure 39a. 11 . It was found that the sheet was automatically re-lubricated when the tool was detached.4. A 590 MPa level high strength steel sheet was successfully dawn by using the detaching motion as Figure 39b. the occurrence of wrinkling is the most important defect that should be avoided and a blank holding force is applied to suppress the occurrence of wrinkling. 4. servo press [81]. [50] used the bottoming motion to reduce spring-back in U-bending of high strength steel sheets. may be reduced. The re-striking process was realised by installing a device to change the tool distance between the bottom surface and the flange surface after the first strike.1. high strength steel sheets are more and more employed as the material of body panels. stretching and shearing. includes bending. Mori et al. deep drawing.

A similar effect for preventing the occurrence of wrinkling by the pulsating internal pressure was reported for hydroforming of tubes [85]. it is possible to vary the blank holder force (BHF) during a process. A sheet product. (a) Controlled motion (b) Crank motion (c) Controlled motion Figure 41: Prevention of rupture in stamping by controlled slide motion [95]. optimum BHF was searched for with a servo press by keeping the BHF at different constant levels [145]. Koyama et al. Although wrinkling would start with the low clamping force in the downward movement of the stepwise motion. Figure 43 shows a concept of determining BHF history by including logic of control in the finite element simulation [106]. The position controlling and force controlling can be switched during a process. Figure 43: Concept of determining optimum history of blank holding force [106]. some methods using the FEM simulation were carried out for a round cup [142] and a square cup [55]. the initiated small wrinkle may be suppressed or released by the clamping force during the upward movement of the main slide. (1)Preliminary Acceleration Press Slide Motion Maximum Stroke Die Cushion Stroke (5) Shock less Stop (a) Stepwise motion Forming Stroke (5) Returning to Waiting Position (3) Preparatory Lift Control Position Pressure Position (4) Position Locking (2)Pressure Change (b) Products Figure 40: Prevention of wrinkling in deep drawing by stepwise slide motion [58]. [58] reported a case where wrinkling in deep drawing was prevented by applying the stepwise drawing motion shown in Figure 40a on a servo press with a constant clamping force. optimized the process by combining FEM simulation and a data base [60]. To achieve large deformation in deep drawing by avoiding wrinkling and fracture. Since the optimum BHF varies during an operation. variable BHF began to be studied by Manabe et al. is successfully formed by optimizing the slide motion of a servo press as shown in Figure 41 [95]. Hagino et al. Since a complicated motion is used. No clear reason is given why wrinkling disappears by the stepwise motion. The blank holder force is changed to prevent wrinkling of flange while moving the cushion with the same speed as the slide. deep drawing of a stainless steel sheet was successfully carried out with a high productivity without causing rupture [122].Komatsu et al. Figure 42: Motion of servo die cushion used for blank holding in deep drawing [9]. and the slide movement is once reversed between the pre-forming stage of the top portion and the drawing stage of the rectangular portion. which ruptures with the conventional crank motion. the most influential motion for preventing fracture is not clear. [69] and many researches [100] have been carried out to determine the BHF history for drawing of deep cups without fracture and wrinkling. Since the BHF history cannot be decided easily with experiment. and the dimensional accuracy was improved by striking two times at the bottom dead centre [34]. By reducing the slide speed just before the contact of the punch and the work piece on a servo press. In this motion. the punch touches the sheet with a slow speed.2 Deep drawing with variable blank holder force By combining a servo press and a hydraulic or servo motor driven die cushions (see Figure 28). As shown in Figure 40b. low forming speed is desirable. Since rupture of stainless steel sheet in deep drawing tends to be caused by local temperature rise at a high stamping speed. showed that a stainless steel sheet was successfully stamped into a fuel cell separator with a servo press.2. 12 . 4. the occurrence of wrinkling was eliminated by applying a smaller (about 1/3) flange clamping force than the conventional motion with the stepwise motion. Figure 42 shows an example of the motion of a servo die cushion when applied to deep drawing [9]. as is done in the large servo press lines of automobile body panels.

Kaya et al. i. 4. Junlapen et al. it is not (b) Noise level Figure 47: Reduce in noise of shearing by two-step punch motion on servo press [113]. and the horizontal vibration is restricted during intermediate stopping by holding the punch in the half-made hole. differently from the conventional mechanical press. a larger reduction in thickness was attained with the vibratory ironing method. [113] proposed a slide motion to reduce the noise in shearing by calling it “variable punch speed”. 94] proposed a “progressive stair die” in which shearing of a sheet is done at multiple slide strokes by using a punches with different lengths as shown in Figure 46. Since the available press force is not changed by the slide position in the case of the ball screw type servo press. the maximum shearing force is kept low. Figure 46a. The noise level is lowered especially when the punch is stopped at the late stage of shearing because the load before breakthrough is reduced. the low sharing force leads to accurate shearing of products with complicated shape such as Figure 46b. As shown in Figure 47a. [93. Shearing Murata et al. The numbers given in the lower part of the figure denote the stages of the process [52]. Figure 47b shows the change of noise level by the stopping position in the variable punch speed motion.3. the sheet was sandwiched between the die and the blank-holder having inside heaters just before drawing operation as shown in Figure 44. To avoid cooling of the heated Mg blank by contacting with the cold tools before deep drawing starts. necessary to carry out shearing near the bottom dead centre. [114] adjusted the contacting time of the blank with the heated tools. (b) Slide movement Figure 44: Warm deep drawing of magnesium alloy sheet with heated dies. [52] included a heating process in the slide motion of a servo press. By shearing at different slide positions. [47] also examined the reduction in blanking noise with various motions. heated tools are used. Otsu et al.e.2. Oyamada et al.3 Deep drawing with heated tool Magnesium alloy sheets exhibit poor ductility at room temperature but when they are heated to a temperature between 200 and 300 ºC. (a) Punch motion (a) No stepwise (b) Stepwise Figure 45: Large reduction in thickness in ironing of aluminium cup by stepwise motion [56]. they become ductile and deep drawing is possible. Together with the good parallelism of slide of the servo press. 4.4. by calling this “vibratory ironing”. the punch is stopped midway during shearing and then accelerated to finish shearing. Conventional press Servo press (a) Progressive stair die working (b) Product (a) Apparatus with heater in die Figure 46: Shearing by progressive stair die [94].4. As shown in Figure 45. [56] applied a stepwise motion to the ironing of cups. Ironing Koga et al. 13 .

not only the punching load decreases but also the shiny burnished surface increases. 14 .6. and the sheet is stamped after only 0. the steel sheets are heated in a furnace and oxidation of the formed sheets is unavoidable.5GPa are obtained with a low forming load. the forming load is lowered. as in the general cases employed in sheet metal forming. As the heating temperature increases. By heating the sheets. In addition. The resistance heating equipment is synchronised with a servo press. (a) Progressive and transfer dies (b) One shot Figure 49: One shot stamping process having some slides for controlling motion in one press [92]. Sheet forming with multiple driving axes In the progressive and transfer dies mounted on a press.In the shearing of plates and sheets. To prevent oxidation in hot stamping. 4. Hot stamping Hot stamping of quenchable steel sheets is effective in solving the problems encountered in forming of the high strength steel sheets. [48] used a servo press to realize this process and showed that burr-free shearing was possible if the working condition is carefully chosen. To attain the slide motion for die quenching process. Julapen et al. It is reported that oxidation is considerably reduced by stamping the sheet on a servo press just after heating by the resistance heating process. which holds the dies at the bottom dead centre for a while by sandwiching the sheet.5. and ultra- Figure 51: Hot punching of 980 MPa level ultra-high strength steel sheet using resistance heating [88]. a product is completed by changing the dies as Figure 49a. The resistance heating equipment is synchronised with the servo press. In addition. A warm and hot punching method [88] was developed by combining the resistance heating method with a servo press to reduce the punching load of ultra-high strength steel sheets as shown in Figure 51. In conventional hot stamping. To complete a product without transferring the forming position. the process design and die structure are critically important but they are not disclosed for this case. [86] developed a heating process using rapid resistance heating as shown in Figure 50. a one shot stamping process with a servo press having some driving slides was proposed by HSK as shown in Figure 49b [92]. it is known that burr formation is prevented if the shearing direction is reversed twice as shown in Figure 48 [66]. Mori et al. Figure 50: Hot stamping process using rapid resistance heating [86]. 4. servo presses are suitable [84]. the hot stamped parts can be hardened by contacting with the cold dies just after forming (die quenching).2s of the end of heating. spring-back is prevented and formability is greatly improved. (a) Slide motion high strength steel parts having a tensile strength of approximately 1. (b) Sheared surfaces Figure 48: Burr-free shearing of aluminium alloy sheet [48]. The process is composed of several stages which are realised by using multiple slides on a servo press explained in Figure 10. a high slide speed of the mechanical servo press is advantageous to prevent temperature drop during stamping although the hydraulic presses having a slow slide speed are mainly employed in the present hot stamping operation. For the one shot stamping.

the temperature of the side wall is uniformly distributed and this helps to form the can with gear drum easily. Recent development of strong servo motors enabled construction of large servo press for hot forging of large product size [104]. Since the crosssectional area of the side wall of the ironed cup is uniform in the electrification direction. Figure 55b illustrates the load-stroke curve in upsetting of an aluminium plate of 2 mm in thickness and 20 mm in diameter. Maeno et al. the strength distribution is controlled by limiting the contacting area with the tools to the portions requiring a high strength as shown in Figure 54. (a) Resistance heating (b) Holding at bottom dead centre Figure 54: Tailor die quenching in hot stamping for producing ultra high strength steel formed parts having strength distribution [87]. the periphery of the work-piece leaves from the tool surfaces as shown in Figure 55a and liquid lubricant is sucked into the gaps reducing the friction in the next loading stage. A servo press was employed to control the holding time at the bottom dead centre. (b) Load stroke curve in forging with and without oscillation Figure 55: Mechanism of lubrication in upsetting with oscillating load and change of load in upsetting of thin plate [68]. 15 . By the oscillating motion. but the forming pressure in upsetting of thin plate is extremely high due to the restriction by friction.When a sheet heated at 900 ºC is drawn at a low slide speed. Figure 52: Improvement of formability in hot stamping by increase in slide speed in deep drawing at 900 ºC [84]. At first a sheet is drawn into a deep cup. The contacting parts were locally quenched by the grooved tools when the slide is kept at the bottom dead centre for a given time. Application of servo press to bulk metal forming Since the early servo presses had low loading capacities.12]. The formability in the hot stamping is improved by increasing the slide speed as demonstrated in Figure 52. (a) 26mm/s (b) 149mm/s 5. The combination of servo press and resistance heating was also applied to hot spline forming of high strength gear drums used in automobile transmissions [136]. (a) Resistance heating of cup (a) (b) Cold stamping (c) Hot stamping Elastic deformation of tool during loading and unloading Figure 53: Hot spline forming having resistance heating of side wall of 980MPa level high strength steel cup [136]. Since the quenchable sheets are not hardened by air cooling. 5. they were employed mainly for cold forging that requires low forging force due to the small product size [10. the load is lowered especially at large reductions. In free forging. the sheet is ruptured due to local temperature drop. while the non-contact portions were left without quenching. A die quenching method for producing ultra-high strength steel parts having strength distributions was developed [87]. and then a spline is formed on the side wall of the cup by a gear drum die.1. and has been used in incremental bulk forming because various shapes could be flexibly formed with a small number of tools [29]. As shown in Figure 53. the side wall of the cup was heated by resistance heating to decrease the forming load and to increase the formability. applied the oscillating or pulsating motion of a servo press to plate upsetting [68]. deformation is not strongly restricted by the tool shape and the forming pressure is low. Free forging Free forging is frequently carried out as the first process of die forging under the name of “upsetting”. In the unloading stage of the oscillating motion.

Since the servo press can detect the working load and stop the slide motion before the bottom dead centre in case of excessive loading. 5. By using heated dies. The Mg plate is sandwiched between the high temperature dies for a while.75]. coining of a thrust bearing shown in Figure 59a which has shallow grooves formed by the hammering motion in which the tool hit the work-piece repeatedly without changing the slide position [20].2. (b) Product Figure 56: Free forging with robot and servo-press [141]. This method can be successfully applied when the compressive pushing stress is lower than the yield stress and the elastic buckling limit of the rod. In closed die forging. Forward extrusion Figure 57: Forging of Mg alloy with heated tools [73].Traditionally incremental forging has been performed as hammer forging. To carry out heating and forming of a Mg plate with heated tools. By applying a back pressure to the central Free extrusion is a method used to reduce the cross-sectional area of rod shaped work-piece by pushing through the die hole without restricting by container. Manipulators are combined with the presses to handle large work-pieces. it is advantageous for close die forging. Closed die forging Die forging is used to change the shape of a bulk metal to the shape of die cavity by compressing between the upper and lower dies.300 ºC to deform it without causing brittle fracture [98]. 16 . Wang et al. When the hammering pressure is high (392kN) as shown in Figure 59b. it is necessary to heat the plate up to 200 . For this movement of the upper die in this process. it is desirable to deform the work-piece without restriction at the beginning of forming until the flow stress drops sufficiently [70. the process shown in Figure 57 [73] was developed. By using a servo press. By combining a servo-press with a robot. very high pressures are necessary. Because the work piece is thin. Coining is a die forging method in which a thin plate is compressed between closed dies with shallow cavities at room temperature. Since the Mg alloy exhibits significant work softening at 200 . and then forming is carried out with the same dies [74].200MN. For close die forging of a magnesium plate. but the groove depth is incomplete when the pressure is not high enough.3. (a) Work piece and product (b) Cross-section of rib (a) Equipment Figure 58: Forging of magnesium cover with rib and flange [124]. and the pressure tends to be increased excessively. (a) Hydrodynamic thrust bearing (b) Effect of number of hammering on groove depth Figure 59: Coining of thrust bearing by hammering motion [20]. [124] proposed a plate forging method for magnesium covers with ribs and flanges as shown in Figure 58a. the grooves are completely shaped. part of the work-piece on a servo press. the servo press was effectively used. Shiraishi et al.300 ºC. but the heated plate is easily cooled down during transferring from the furnace to the die. 5. the ribs are formed successfully without contraction defect as shown in Figure 58b. the product shape is the same as the shape of die cavity. this process may be used as an efficient method for small batch production of smaller parts by using robots to handle the work-piece in positioning and posturing. [141] demonstrated the case of the robot in combination with a servo press for incremental forging as shown in Figure 56. and is used now to forge very large products such as rotors of electric generators by using large hydraulic presses with capacities of 50MN .

an enclosed die forging operation consists of: (a) supplying of a billet into the cavity. . By using the oscillating motion. As shown in Figure 63. When the pressure in the die cavity exceeds a certain limit. the die or the billet is oscillated during extrusion.4. and then it is squeezed out by the upper and lower punches sideways. One of the problems of this process is that the extrusion pressure becomes too high when the extrusion ratio is large.5. the die or the billet moves forward about 2 mm and then back 1 mm in each step (Figure 60a). causes different amounts of heat contraction in cooling after forming. the upper die floats up to relief the pressure. An important technical problem of this process is that the temperature of the deforming area gradually changes as extrusion progresses and the dimensional error of the teeth is varied along the axis as shown in Figure 61. (b) closing of the upper and lower dies. To realize this process. the oscillation mode can be realised by a servo press. multi-axial hydraulic servo press was developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 1970s [79]. and is often combined with forward extrusion for making backward cup and forward cup. Cold forging with multiple driving axes 5. The accuracy of an extruded product is influenced by the history of deformation speed during forming because different final temperature distributions. Although this result was obtained with the specially designed machine. strikes caused the minimum diametric error because the heat contraction balanced with the elastic spring-back. or backward cup and forward rod. examined the punch motions shown in Figure 62a in backward extrusion and investigated the variation of outer diameter of the extruded cup [45]. The work-piece is re-lubricated with liquid lubricant when the tool retreats. Pinion gear shown in Figure 61a is often manufactured by forward extrusion. 5. 17 . (a) Pinion gear (b) Distribution of dimensional error of teeth Figure 61: Dimensional error of helical gear extruded with mechanical and servo-presses under different forming speeds [11]. the forming load does not increase sharply. 5. i. a high-speed stroke condition without multiple (a) Billet supply (b) Die closing (c) Forging Figure 63: Method of enclosed die forging process and product.1 Enclosed die forging In enclosed die forging.e. Because the contacting areas of the punches do not change during an operation.In “FM forming” or “Axial Forming” patented by Felss [25]. which is affected by the speed history. differently from die forging with flash formation. the billet is enclosed in the die cavity between the upper and lower dies. and (c) pushing of punches to fill the billet material in the cavity. (a) Slide motions (a) Slide motion (b) Load history Figure 60: FM Forming with oscillating motion [101].5. Backward extrusion Backward extrusion is used to produce cup shaped products. As shown in Figure 62b. the forming load in free extrusion of a spline shaft was reduced by about 40% as shown in Figure 60b [101]. Ishiguro et al. (b) Variation of outer diameter to height direction Figure 62: Variation of outer diameter of extruded product by slide motion [45]. Ando showed that it was possible to keep the error to a minimum extent in the whole length by varying the extrusion speed during an extrusion process on a servo-press [11]. and the load drop extended the forming limit set by buckling of the shaft.

This method was applied to forming of an outer spline and gear. 5. The frictional force between the work-piece and the container helps to push the material into the corners with the movement of the container. In this process. The punch pressure is raised extremely when the flow is changed to one side extrusion. 18 . the product corners cannot be filled well. where the extruded cup is elongated by ironing [139]. (b) Motions of main and sub slides Figure 67: Apparatus and slide motions for piercing against independently driven counter punch to cause back pressure [99]. and then only the other wall is extruded. It was reported that the die life was extended by 3 times and the energy consumption decreased to a half [5] by substituting a hydraulic press to a mechanical servo press. the counter pressure is applied to the slug and the deformation mode is changed from simple shear to extrusion of a forward barbackward cup. Nishiyama et al. and the punch pressure to fill the cavity is reduced almost to a half when the oscillation mode is used as shown in Figure 65b. an AC servo-motor driven mechanical press was used for cold enclosed forging of bevel gears as shown in Figure 64.Recently.2 Cold forging with axially driven container In many closed die forging processes. (a) Motion of container (a) Piercing method (b) Punch pressure Figure 65: Closed die forging with container driving [107]. By the slide motions of a servo press shown in Figure 67b. and the extrusion pressure is kept low during the whole process [108].3 Piercing against counter pressure Piercing is often employed to make a hole in the ring shaped billet for cold forging. 5. [110.109]. the frictional force over the teeth of gear or spline is changed from the radial direction to the axial direction. and the length of the slug is shortened. In extrusion of a double cup product with the usual fixed container. (a) Before deformation (b) After deformation Figure 66: Forward-backward combined extrusion with container driving [109].5. To fill the corners in closed die forging with a straight cylindrical container. When a long billet is pierced.140]. a method to drive the container in parallel to the punch as shown in Figure 65a was proposed [108. the volume of the discarded slab cannot be neglected and the surface quality of the pierced surface is poor.5. one of the cup walls reaches the objective length first and is stopped by the stopper tool. Figure 64: Cold forging process of bevel gear on mechanical servo press [5]. the extruding velocities to both sides can be controlled in such a way that both walls reach the objective lengths at the same time. When the container is moved to the axial direction as Figure 66. By moving the container to the axial direction. This idea was extended to using a moving container with tapered inside surface. [99] applied a counter pressure from the die exit to the slug (part to be thrown away) as shown in Figure 67a. the second slide drives the container while the main slide compresses the billet. and this brings about lower filling pressure and more uniform deformation of the teeth.

the rear cavity may be suppressed and the front surface may be flattened. the rear cavity disappears when the pressure is about 0. proposed an extrusion method of a forward rod and a backward cup by driving the two punches using a double axis servo press [112]. the shape defects shown in Figure 69a tend to occur. As shown in Figure 72. 5. (a) Extrusion method against pressure supported tool Figure 68: Effect of pressure on smooth shear surface and slug length in piercing of Mg alloy against counter pressure [72]. By applying a counter pressure. When the billet height is short. Hot die forging In hot die forging. Maeno et al.Matsumoto et al.5. applied this method to piercing of a magnesium alloy at room temperature [72] with a servo press. and the front end becomes completely flat when the counter pressure exceeds the flow stress [35. reversed slide extrusion shown in Figure 71 was proposed. and the length of the slug is shortened as shown in Figure 68. it is possible to obtain the same extruded lengths as shown in Figure 70 [103]. it is known that the flow stress is strain rate sensitive at high temperatures. By using a counter tool supported by a proper pressure. If a counter force is applied to the extruded end by a retreating counter punch driven by a servo cushion as Figure 69b. examined the effect of the slide speed in spike forging by using a servo press for an aluminium alloy. In forward extrusion.4 Extrusion against counter pressure Because a servo press can be operated with synchronization of air and hydraulic cylinders. When a work-piece is extruded through multiple exit holes. By employing this motion after combined extrusion. As shown in Figure 69c. Thus the appropriate forging speed may be determined by the temperature and heat conductivity of the dies. the extruded lengths are different from each other. 19 . the dimensional accuracy and the flatness of the front end were improved. it is convenient to use it for the processes that apply a force to the tools during forming. (b) Extruded products Figure 70: Forward extrusion against pressure supported tool [103]. Otsu et al.6. As an extension of this method. it is generally believed that high slide speed is desirable to avoid cooling of the billet and heating of the dies due to the direct contact of the hot billet and the cold dies. the cavity defect is caused on the rear surface of the product. and moving the secondary slide axis with a controlled force. brittle fracture is prevented and a long smooth shear surface is obtained. The speed of the counter punch was controlled to form the length of the forward rod accurately. in which the extruded forward rod is pushed back while the main punch was kept at the final position. and a low speed deformation brings about a low forming force as is utilised in isothermal forging with the dies kept at a high temperature. 5.3 times as high as the flow stress. the spike height is the largest for v = 15 mm/s becomes the largest because the (c) Effect of counter pressure on defect formation Figure 69: Prevention of extrusion defects by using pressure supported punch [105]. (a) Initial (a)Shape defect (b) Pressure supported counter punch (b) Extrusion (c) Reverse motion Figure 71: Extrusion with reversed slide motion [112]. On the other hand.105]. It was found that the extruded lengths could be equalised with an average counter pressure less than 5 % of the flow stress.

various servo press designs and their applications are introduced. modification. As shown in Figure 74b. Slide motion (A) was the natural motion of the link type servo press (Komatsu) without speed 20 . servo presses may be used at an optimum speed depending on the balance of cooling by the dies and heat generation by plastic deformation. the energy consumption in forming is reduced. 6. enhance the productivity. 5. and thus the flow into the spikeportion becomes small [67]. (3) Due to the reduction of friction loss by clutch and brake. and improve the product accuracy.1 Advantages of mechanical servo press In this review. Concluding remarks (a) Joining method by i\\\\\\\\\ndenting cold bar into hot disc 6. In this way. Combination of forging and joining The new plastic joining method for fixing a cold bar with a hot forged plate shown in Figure 73a was studied by using a servo-press. By utilizing the function of the servo-press that the forming velocity can be freely changed.8. and motion (C) decelerated the strain rate. The optimised motion can extend the forming limits. are done only by the servo-motor. During indentation of the cold bar into the hot plate. The apparent advantages of the servo press can be summarised as follows: (1) Because all the press motions such as starting. the mechanical servo press has a simple drive chain without a flywheel.equivalent stresses near the corner of the spike portion for v = 6 and 75 mm/s are larger than those in the flash portion. 5. reuse of the stored kinetic energy during deceleration and the optimised slide motion. [137]. (b) Effect of indentation velocity Figure 73: Effect of indentation velocity on forming pressure and bonding stress in joining of cold bar with hot forged plate [71]. The deformation mode was plotted on the map of temperature and strain rate and the optimum temperature and strain rate avoiding instable deformation was found for commercially pure titanium.7. (a) Strain rate change in upsetting on servo press Figure 72: Effect of slide speed on spike height for spike forging obtained from experiment with Al-Si alloy [67]. Motion (B) accelerated the speed at a reduction of 20%. velocity change and stopping. (4) A servo press with multiple driving axes enables to incorporate in-die operations that can reduce the number of forming steps and to form more complex and accurate parts in one press. the effect of the strain rate change during an operation shown in Figure 74a was studied. Improvement of workability in forging In upsetting tests of a magnesium alloy AZ31B at 473K. the best working condition to give a large working limit was searched for Ti by Venugopal et al. it was found that slide motion (C) caused a higher ductility than (A) and (B) by about 30% [76]. clutch and brake that are essential for a conventional mechanical press. (b) Effect of strain rate on ductility Figure 74: Effect of strain rate change on ductility of AZ31B at 200 ºC [76]. a high speed movement of the bar prevented cooling of the hot plate and resulted in a low indentation pressure and high bonding strength as shown in Figure 73b [71]. (2) The flexible slide movement enables the most suitable motion for each forming method or product.

2010.. Tekkaya (Technical University of Dortmund).de/felssEnglish/siteStart. many servo presses can be connected by driving with different motions in order to maximize the production efficiency..co. more than three thousands of servo presses with relatively small capacities. R. Press Machine for Plate Forging... Dewulf. 2006. Scheitza. Stamping Journal.. 40/6: 22-25. 49/565: 100-104. R. 2nd International Conference on Accuracy in Forming Technology (ICAFT2006). Groche. Y. J. 2009. Development of Press Machine and Introduction of Examples by Servo Press. Lane. Method and Apparatus for Controlling and Regulation of the Ram Movement on Servo-Electric Presses. Azpilgain.html Fujimoto. Innovation of Press Working by Servo Press.. Boerger. Applicant: Aida Engineering Limited. majority of the present presses will be replaced by servo presses.co. 97/10: 760-765.jp/en/index. University of Cambridge). (3) Similarly to the cutting machine tools.). 2007. 47/12: 27-31. 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Some auto makers have built tandem press lines for stamping of automobile bodies to attain greater formability and better productivity. the followings are the present prospects of the authors: (1) New and innovative forming methods will be developed by using the flexible slide motion and multiple driving axes. Allwood. Mr. 2005. A Patent. Komatsu Technical Report. H.html EP 1917564 B1.. Trans. B... Applicant: Müller Weingarten AG. Production of Servo Presses and their Merits. 2006. 1997.. HP. (in Japanese) Ando. G. Willems. Z. A. 6. (in Japanese) Ando. Dr. 2007. Vollertsen (BIAS) and Prof. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture. M. (2) To optimize the complicated slide motion of servo presses.. 2004. (in Japanese) Amino.E... (4) Servo presses will be used on the same floor as the cutting machine tools to make smooth production lines because they do not cause strong vibration and impact noise. Umformtechnisches Kolloqium Darmstadt. 2009. 311-316.co.pdf Felss GmbH HP: http://www. F.enomt.2 Industrial trend At present. J.html Ando.jp/ja/profile/booklet/pdf/ corporateprofile200810. Neugebauer. Y. Trends of Servo-Driven Press and Application to Forging. Kinoshita. 2007. 6.).. (in Japanese) Ando.. 37/1: 45-59. servo presses will be integrated into the large scale manufacturing systems. Incremental Bulk Metal Forming. W. (3) It can be expected that the application of servo presses will increase rapidly since these presses realize higher productivity as well as quality improvements. They offer considerably larger stroking rate than the conventional transfer presses for stamping of large body components. H. Amada Co. Mr.. the servo presses are used mainly in the fields of sheet metal forming to extend the productivity and the forming limit. T. Endou (Kanagawa Inst.fanuc.. J.G. Servo Presse mit drei Stößelfreiheitsgraden. J. Journal of the Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity. http://www.felss. Bloom.. CIRP Annals . Du. Müller Weingarten Fanuc Corp. Prof. 45/526: 877-882. Matsumoto (Osaka University). T.. K. Design of an ElectroHydraulic CNC Press Brake. A. Ebneter. (in Japanese) Ando. Altintas. 55th JSTP Hokuriku Branch Seminar. T. 51/161: 44-48. References [1] [2] Altan. 2003. HP: http://www. (presentation) GB 2317362.. Development Passage of Servo Press and Introduction of Servo Press. The Evolution of a Manufacturing System at Toyota. 2006. Innovation of Forging Technology by Servo Press.jp/index. Prof. J.. Proceedings of the 14th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering. 2008. Ishikawa (Nagoya Univ. Allwood. presentation prepared by Schuler– Weingarten. G. H.. J. 10. Application of Servo System in Recent Press Machines.. Acknowledgements The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to: Prof. Hirt. up to 400 ton. G. D. H. Introduction of High-Speed Linear Servo PressLine (HLS) Product. H. Press Working. Ortubay. D. and the number of driving axes of each servo press will be increased.M. H. Journal of the Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity. H.(5) Due to the computer control of servo-motors. A. R. 283rd JSTP Symposium. wt Werkstattstechnik. (in German) [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] 21 . Fritsche. 1999. H.. 2008. 56/2: 635-666. Shiraishi (Kinki University). Groseclose. 2008 DE 10 2006 019 207 A1 Patent. HP: http://www. Features of Komatsu Servo Press. A. Verl (ISW. of ASME. Prof. 33th JSTP Forging Research Committee Seminar. (in Japanese) Enomoto Machine Co.amada. Prof. H. 2009. 73-79. H. Duflou... C. 1998. Servo-Drive Presses for the Next Generation Press Shop. Jeswiet (Queen's University) for giving advice during preparation of the manuscript.amino. Journal of Mechanical Design. P. (in Japanese) Ando. computer simulation of forming processes will become essentially important. Press Working.).Z. 2nd International Conference on Accuracy in Forming Technology (ICAFT2006). Journal of the Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity. The industrial trends of mechanical servodrive presses indicate as follows: (1) In the last decade. 2008.. Guo.3 Future prospect Due to the rapid changes in information technology and progress of global production.. T. Deprez.R. M. (in Japanese) Enomae.. Drive System of a Multiple Ram Forming Press. Tekkaya E. (6) Servo presses will be preferably used for global production because the same slide motions can be realised irrespective of the location of production without depending on the skill of the operators.Manufacturing Technology.jp/english/ Amino. A.. 2006. 46/10: 42-46. (5) Servo presses will form integration platforms for the combination of several different manufacturing processes. W.. 2004. (2) Several press lines with large straight side sheet metal forming presses up to 3000 ton capacity have been built and used in automotive production. 45/526: 882-886. Kanada. Servo Technology Meets Mechanical Presses. Although the future prediction may be easily differed by various factors. 47-52. and also to improve the dimensional accuracy of the products. 9-16. Stuttgart) for providing with information related to the servo presses technology. T.. (in Japanese) Amino Corp.Ltd.. R. P. Press Working. and Dr. W.

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