CPF Progress on the Finite Element Simulation of the Hot Stamping Process

Ambi Naganathan, Dr. Partchapol Sartkulvanich, Deepak Ravindran, Norbert Pierschel, Dr. Taylan Altan

June 13-16, 2011 – Kassel, Germany 3rd International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel
Center for Precision Forming (CPF)

• Introduction



• Current work / Strategies & Case Studies
• Future Plans • Summary (Capabilities/Suggestions)

Center for Precision Forming (CPF)


Introduction/Technology Overview CPF .The heated blanks are formed and quenched in the press at a cooling rate higher than 27K/sec .Quenching changes the microstructure from austenite to martensite and the final part is hardened and has an ultimate tensile strength of around 1500 MPa Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 3 .These blanks are heated to austenitization temperature (~950°C) for 5 minutes .Manganese Boron steel (22MnB5) has ferritic pearlitic microstructure in as received condition .

Introduction/Direct Hot Stamping CPF Direct hot stamping process Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 4 .

Japan . Hannover. Padova. Munich.Supporting CPF/finite element simulations of hot stamping IMRA . Dortmund Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 5 . Erlangen. Graz.Partners/Supporters CPF National Science Foundation (NSF) .Providing geometry and experimental data on example hot stamped components (details are proprietary) International Cooperation with Various Universities: Lulea.data base of references and information in hot stamping POSCO (South Korea) and COSKUNOZ (Turkey) .

Marc. AUTOFORM for simulating the entire hot stamping process Our Strategy • Use PAMSTAMP and DEFORM 2D and 3D to predict -Temperature distribution -Thickness distribution -Metal flow -Elastic tool deflection -Cooling channel optimization • Simulate and compare results with example parts a) from literature b) provided by our partner companies Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 6 . ABAQUS.FE Simulation of Hot Stamping Status / Update CPF Various companies/research groups are using combination of different FE codes like LS-Dyna. PAMSTAMP. FORGE. MSC.

both for forming and quenching simulations (work on-going) Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 7 .Our Strategies 1) Using Pam-Stamp and DEFORM together: Blank Heating & Transfer DEFORM CPF Forming PAM-STAMP Interface Software Quenching DEFORM 2) Using Pam-Stamp 2011.

DEFORM for quenching simulations CPF 3D simulation with PAM-STAMP Generated new mesh for DEFORM 2D Section information: Coordinates.Our Strategies: 1 PAM-STAMP for forming. thickness and pressure distribution from PAM-STAMP Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 8 .

Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 9 . these have to be validated by Hardness from literature and sponsor companies.Our Strategies: 2 PAM-STAMP 2011 for both Stamping and Quenching Simulations CPF Preliminary quenching simulations are completed.

Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 10 . Forming force and temperature at a specified location are measured during the experiment. hot 22MnB5 blank at 827°C is formed with a tool at 26°C.Case Study-1/ Hat Shape Preliminary hot stamping simulations (Supported by NSF) CPF Hot stamping simulations are conducted using the FE code DEFORMTM Case Study-1 The hot stamping experiment conducted at Lulea University of Technology. In the experiment. Sweden is simulated (Reference: AKER06).

Case Study-1/ Hat Shape CPF *All dimensions are in m Experimental Tool (left) and Blank(right) geometry [AKER06] Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 11 .

Case Study-1/ Hat Shape CPF Initial and final step in the simulation (Half of Hat Shape sample is shown) Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 12 .

Case Study-1/ Hat Shape 35 Forming force (kN) 30 25 20 15 10 5 Experiment DEFORM 3D (FEA) CPF 0 0 1 2 3 Time (s) 4 5 6 Forming Force vs Time Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 13 .

Case Study-1/ Hat Shape Average Temperature(C) 840 820 800 780 760 740 720 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 CPF DEFORM 3D (FEA) Experiment Time (s) Average Temperature vs Time Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 14 .

Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 15 .Case Study-1 /Hat Shape Conclusions CPF -The forming force during the experiment and temperature calculated at a specified point are matching closely with the experiment -The commercial software package DEFORM 3D handles combined thermal and mechanical simulation well for simple geometries.

-2D section of the part is simulated using DEFORM 2D and the full model was handled by PAM-STAMP 2011. (3) potential defects.Case Study-2/ AUDI B-Pillar -Bench Mark problem-3 given in Numisheet-2008. CPF Tooling for hot stamping of B-Pillar Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 16 . -The objective is to predict in the formed part: (1) thickness distribution. (2) hardness distribution.

Case Study-2/ AUDI B-Pillar Input geometries for simulation CPF Die Punch Assembly Blank holder Blank Reference: Benchmark problem-3. Numisheet 2008 Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 17 .

Case Study-2/ AUDI B-Pillar Section – DEFORM 2D Top die (75 C) CPF 22 MnB5 Blank (810 C) Blank holder(75 C) Initial simulation setup Punch (75 C) Final simulation setup -A critical section of the B-Pillar is chosen for 2-dimensional simulation (DEFORM 2D /Variable mesh density) Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 18 .

No cooling channels (at this point). Heat transfer coefficient = f(P). Thermal/microstructural dilatation. Microstructure evolution.PAM-STAMP 2011 CPF • • • • • • Non-isothermal die and blank.Case Study-2/ AUDI B-Pillar Full model . 19 Center for Precision Forming (CPF) . Strain rate dependent material.

6 0 Numisheet PamStamp 11 15 30 45 60 75 Curvilinear Distance to P2 [mm] 90 105 Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 20 .9 1.85 1.95 CPF Thickness (t) [mm] 1.7 1.Case Study-2/ AUDI B-Pillar Section 2a 2 1.75 1.65 1.8 1.

.65 1.Thickness of sheet can be calculated accurately.Hardness calculation is under progress. Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 21 .9 1.85 1.6 0 Numisheet PamStamp 11 15 30 45 60 Curvilinear Distance to P2 [mm] 75 .Case Study-2/ AUDI B-Pillar Section 2b 2 1.7 1.95 CPF Thickness (t) [mm] 1.75 1.8 1.

Case study-3/ Cooling Channel Design CPF Section of B-pillar from Numisheet 2008 -Different combination of cooling channel configurations and examples from the literature are simulated to achieve uniform cooling and martensite microstructure Temperature distribution at the end of forming stage. DEFORM 2D Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 22 .

. heat transfer coefficient.Tools for hot stamping / Cooling channel optimization. resistance. . elastic properties). furnace). anisotropy coefficient.Blank heating methods (induction. formability and forming limit diagrams. coefficient of friction.Example finite element simulations (in cooperation with participating companies).Material properties of 22MnB5 (Flow stress data.Summary / Ongoing Work CPF . . Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 23 .Material models. phase transformation. .

• Elastic deflection of dies / effect on heat transfer between thinned sections and dies. • Correlation of microstructure to hardness. • Modification of die surface geometry.CPF Current and future work • Optimization / selection of cooling channels. Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 24 . • Novel quenching methods (quenching holes in the dies).

Questions CPF Non-proprietary information can be found at web sites: www.org www.ercnsm.edu).org Dr. Ph-614-292-5063 Center for Precision Forming (CPF) 25 .1@osu.cpforming. Taylan Altan (altan.