Herodotus: On the Scythians Author(s): Herodotus and Francis R. B.

Godolphin Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 32, No. 5, From the Lands of the Scythians: Ancient Treasures from the Museums of the U.S.S.R. 3000 B.C.-100 B.C. (1973 - 1974), pp. 129-149 Published by: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3269235 . Accessed: 15/09/2013 11:34
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Herodotus: On

The

Scythians

Herodotus,the "Fatherof History,"was bornin Halia town in Asia Minor, in the eighties of the carnassus,
fifth century B.C. He lived on Samos and in Athens (where he was admitted into the circle of Pericles and

becamefriends with Sophocles),and died in the Greek colonyof Thuriiin Italy around430 B.C. His grandiosehistoryof the decisiveeventof his century, the PersianWars,includesa rich varietyof information on the customs,cultures,and geographyof the ancientworld.As he collectedinformation for his book, his manytravelsled himto EgyptandLibya,the coastsof Asia Minor, Southern Syriaand Cyprus,Mesopotamia, the islands the and Sicily, Italy Aegean, Macedonia, of
Thrace, and the Black Sea. His account of the Scythians -who had humiliated the Persian army sent out to subdue them-was based in part on his voyage by ship along the shore of the Black Sea, and on first-hand information gathered in Olbia, the Greek settlement and trading post on the fringes of Scythian territory; he must also have made several excursions on land. The value of his narrative lies in his skillful combination of personal

with storiestold him by others,as well as observations
information already compiled by other historians and geographers whose works are now mostly lost. Incredible as some of his stories of Scythian customs may seem, many of them have been borne out by modern archaeology, and his account remains the basis for present-day knowledge of the Scythianpeople.

1. After the taking of Babylon, an expedition was led by Darius into Scythia.' Asia abounding in men, and vast sums flowing into the treasury,the desire seized him to exact vengeance from the Scyths, who had once in days gone by invaded Media, defeated those who met them in the field, and so begun the quarrel. During the space of twenty-eight years, as I have before mentioned, the Scyths continued lords of the whole of Upper Asia. They entered Asia in pursuit of the Cimmerians, and overthrew the empire of the Medes, who till they came possessed the sovereignty. On their return to their homes after the long absence of twenty-eight years, a task awaited them little less troublesome than their struggle with the Medes. They found an army of no small size prepared to oppose their entrance. For the Scythian women, when they saw that time went-on, and their husbands did not come back, had intermarriedwith their slaves. 2. Now the Scythiansblind all their slaves, to use them in preparing their milk. The plan they follow is to thrust tubes made of bone, not unlike our musical pipes, up the vulva of the mare, and then to blow into the tubes with their mouths, some milking while the others blow. They say that they do this because when the veins of the animal are full of air, the udder is forced down. The milk thus 1The date of Darius' campaignseems to be 512 B.C. Almain thoughchapters1-144 have little to do with Herodotus' subject,they are importantas the earlieststudywe possessof an uncivilisedpeople.

Wars (book IV) byHerodotus.From"TheGreekHistorians," Selections editedbyFrancis R. B. fromThe Persian
Godolphin. Copyright 1942 and renewed 1970 by Random House, Inc. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

129

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162. They Targitaus.. ~ . firstking. the gold took fire. nearGades. madeimpassable of the featherswhichareshed by reason abroadabundantly.arrivedin the regionwhich is now inhabitedby the Scyths. and carriedit to his home. they Scythians marched out and engaged them.The Royal Scythians guardthe sacredgold with most especialcare. and who was the youngestbornof the three. The Greekswho dwell aboutthe Pontustell a different story. And firstof all.but which was then a desert. 130 This content downloaded from 190.thus descended.butit is told nevertheless-of Zeus and a daughterof the Borysthenes. in an island called by the GreeksErytheia. and immediately away. Such is the accountwhich the Scythiansgive of themselves.His pay thereforeis as muchland as he canride roundon horseback in a day. Arpoxais.theyresolved the circumstances understood to opposethe armywhich was returningto Media. So long as they see us with armsin our hands. Many Cat. or Paralatae. ^^"What fighting our slaves. fromColaxais.the Royal Scythians. so he pickedup the gold. ran fight. -_^^~ ~gained them thus addressed the remainder.and suchwas the purposefor which he was now collectingan armyto invade them. Leipoxais.neitherless normore. and blazed.obtainedis pouredinto deep woodencasks. gether they kings: the Greeks. Scythians? We are ?y^_. after being for a time the lords of and to quit it by the Medes.one of whichwasof amplersize than the other two: in this the gold was preserved.202 on Sun.and madethe whole kingdomoverto the youngest born. and consideredthe bestpart. they cut off a tractof countryfrom the restof Scythiaby digging a broaddyke from the Tauric mountainsto the vast lake of the Maeotis. and let each manfetchhis horse-whip.all of gold. When therefore the children sprung from these slaves and the Scythianwomen. no. if the man who has the custodyof the gold should fall asleepin the open air.however. to the invasionof their countryby Darius. diminishing our own number when we fall.Suchwas the mode in which the Scythians. Suchis the reasonwhy the Scythians blindall thosewhom in it their not being tillersof take from arises war. grew to manhood. being and settledin theirown country.is a periodof 1. he is sure (the Scythians say) not to outlivethe year. as he came near. and the second coming forwardmade the attempt.{ but let them behold us with no other weaponbutthe whip.He thereforewent his way. but the samething happenedagain. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Thatwhich risesto the top is drawnoff.when the triedto forcean entrance.192.the underportionis of less account. and immediatelythe flameswere extinguished. and approached to pick them up.from Arpoxais. Above.and of theirbirth. a yoke.andthis it is whichprevents of view the region.which before his time was a desertwithoutinhabitants.While Colaxais. 6. they are the youngestof all nations.and of the countrywhich lies above them. the middle brother. thoseknownas the Catiari andTraspians. The earth and air are alike full of the eyefromobtaining them. themwhichthe Scythians to the account 5.As the extent of Scythiais very great.The gold reLastof all jectedboth the eldest and the secondbrother. they the ground. Geryon lived outside the Pontus.aboutwhich the blind slaves are placed.callthemScythians. the youngestbrotherapproached. Then the two elder agreed together. Afterwards. 7. they still ruled the land.Accordingto them. 3. to the northwardof the farthest dwellers in the country is saidto be concealed fromsight and Scythia. and then the milk is stirred round." 4. Their traditionis as follows.they imaginethemi~i B selves our equals in birth and bravery.000 years. Targitaus. begat three sons. the youngest. All toare named after one of their Scoloti. According selves give.Take my advice athey B r -lay spearand bow aside. He was a child-I do not believethe tale. 31) that the so-called feathers are snow-flakes. This inroadof theirsit was that Dariuswas anxiousto avenge. 69 battleswere fought. there fell from the sky four implements.buta pastoral race. Colaxaisgave each of his three sonsa separate kingdom.when he was carrying off the cows of Geryon.-a plough. and flee before us. and a drinking-cup.Now some 2 Herodotus explains (iv. A certainTargitauswas the first man who ever lived in their country. and the Scythians until at last one of no advantage. and the numberof thosethatbelongto us when fall by our hands. From Leipoxaissprang the Scythiansof the race called Auchatae.returned forced Asia. arewe doing. The Scythians followed this counthe that they forgotto and slaves were so astounded.3which is bethe of Pillars Heracles yond upon the Ocean. Suchis the account whichthe Scythians give of their add that from the time of their origin.2 any 8. sel. Heracles. andyearbyyearoffergreatsacrifices in its honour. The eldestof the brothers perceived them first. a battle-axe. 3 The modern Cadiz. andgo boldly up to them. andtheywill feel that they are our slaves.At this feast.

whichhe had loosedfrom his chariotto graze. quittedtheirhomes. and fought together.drewhis lion's skin abouthim. but nevertheless inquired. butneverwouldshe consentto give themback. send away. 12. they drew apartin two bodies.while all below was like a snake. he went in quest of them. on the otherhand.the natives.also a tractcalled Cimmeria.tookpossession land. choosehim to remainin the land. and that the general belief that the sea encompassed the land was a pure conjectureresting on no certain data. andGelonus. betweena maidenand a serpent. At last. Then he gave bothbow and belt into herhands.At this meetingopinionwas divided. 5 131 This content downloaded from 190. do thus. "Yes. and the people buriedthem near the river Tyras.saythatthe Oceanbeginsin the east.for I bearin my womb three sons of yours. Scythes.pouredinto Media.andthe woman. of the Cimmerians.severallytheir names." So Heracles. Araxes. resolvednot to flee. and a Cimmerian ferry.but they give no proof that this is really so. and.So afterhe had given themto her.his mares. country who heardhow numerousthe invadingarmywas. one Gelonus. Those who fail in the trial. and therewarredwith the Massagetae. and gird himself with this girdle thus. theytherefore Forthe land and enteredthe land of Cimmeria. Two of them.For the Cimmerians kept the line which led along the sea-shore. Now the belthad a goldengobletattached to its clasp.the son of Heracles.their the youngest.4 Heracles came from thence into the region now called Scythia.it was I who savedthemfor you.were descendedthe after of the goblet andfromthe circumstance kingsof Scythia. held a council. to this daywear whichhung from the belt. when she gave them up. "When yourmares hither.firstgave them. after wanderingover the whole country. On waking.or shall I send them to you?"Thus questioned. As neitherpartychose to give way. they fled appears into Asia to escapethe Scyths.whethershe had chancedto see his strayedmaresanywhere."Whenthe lads havegrownto manhood.the one as numerous as the other.and runsthe whole way roundthe world.Having thus decided. and. and they were now in her keeping.provingunequalto the taskenjoined.it is plain. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Then she remembered receivedfrom Heraces. and succeeded.and being overtakenby storm and frost. he went his way. thus and inland.where he found in a cave a strangebeing. Heraclesanswered.5 which is now inhabitedby the Scythswas formerlythe On theircoming. now to be related.It is that the wanderingScythians butwith in Asia.but afterwards the she since wished to keep him with mares. but the Scythsin their pursuitheld the Caucasus upon their right. and assuredlyyou will not err. She answeredhim. bythe Greekswho dwell around different another is also There 11.butthe Royaltribe advisedremainingand fighting for the soil to the last. remembering whichtheyhad enjoyedin theirhomes.192.when her childrengrew to manhood. This was the only thing which the motherof Scythesdid for him. and missing theirroad. andfell fast asleep.202 on Sun. in obedienceto his orders.This account proceeding is one which is commonboth to Greeksand barbarians." 10.6 and a Cimmerian Bosporus.to get his mares she put him off and delayed back.andboth theirown view.It likewise that the when Cimmerians. whatmustI do with them?Would youwish thatI should settle them here in this land. story.162.but the other.and the Scythians. the Scythians goblets at their girdles. Then the rest of the Cimmerians departed. pursuedthem.He. Hereuponhe strungone of his bows-up to that time he had carriedtwo-and showedher how to fasten the belt. Suchis the tale told the Pontus. she put her sons to the test. the crossed ill success.andpicturingto themselvesthe evils which they had to expect if they gave them up.in whichI am moreinclinedto put faith thanin once dwelt any other.they say.where their grave is still to be seen. Scythes. Agathyrsus 4 Herodotus considered that the eastern and northern boundaries of the earth were unknown. but ratherto die and at least be buriedin their fatherland.All of the Royal tribe were slain. Scythia still retains traces of the Cimmerians. she said to him.One she called Agathyrsus.Thus you will at once please yourself andobeyme. Watch them. whereof I am mistress. falling uponMedia.by somewonderfulchancedisappeared. 9. Tell me thereforewhen your sons grow up. and when you see one of them bend this bow as I now bend it.made a settlementin the peninsulawherethe Greekcityof Sinopewas afterwards built. butthe counsel maintained partiesstiffly of the Royaltribe was the braver.beforehe had intercourse with her. thereare Cimmerian walls. While he slept. 6 The Cimmerians have given their name to the Crimea.whose form from the buttocksupwards was like that of a woman.came at last to the districtcalled the Woodland. of a deserted on theircoming. the one determined to retire without a blow and yield their lands to the the good things invaders.He looked at her wonderingly.For the othersurged that the best thing to be done was to leave the country andavoida contestwith so vasta host. The Scyths. who was the youngest the instructions she had Scythes. It seems that the Araxes here representsthe Volga. and the other. From so he was allowed to remain. restoring her as long as possible.was only anxiousto securethem and to get away.agreed.now you strayed have paid a reward. mothersent them out of the land.

as you a Graeco-Scythic Callippidae. still further. the Euxine.is quite bareof trees.8 does not agree in his accountof this region with the Scythians. Northwardsof the 7 Proconnesus is the island now called Marmora. 20. pressing upon the who dwelt on the shoresof the Southern Cimmerians. garlic. resideScythian lentils.not a single tribe.and in partto the riverTanais. is uninhabited.who. dwelt the Arimaspi.7 says poem. Thus even Aristeas forced them sea. Its countryreacheson the south to Taurica. and the Scyths. all these nations. North calledthe Cliffs. hearsay. which has been hitherto excellent. the countrybecomesan utter desert. we comeuponthe wandering of the Husbandmen. the mart upon Lake Maeotis. whose territoryis thicklywoodedwith treesof everykind.They extendtowardsthe east a distanceof fourteendays' journey. and within the limits of the same region.one is no longerin the first regionon crossingis that of the SauroScythia.202 on Sun. afteryou the firstcountry 18. I shall proceedto mentionall that I have learntof thesepartsby the most exactinquirieswhich I havebeen them.Beyondthe Alazonians their own not for who grow corn.162.the gold-guardinggriffins. Above this dwell the who the Greeksliving near the ScythianHusbandmen. eastward andproceeding 19.except Woodlands.Above them. the Hyperboreans.on the east to the trench dug by the sons of the blind slaves. who are Abovethis desolateregiondwell the Cannibals.Adjoiningthem. son of Caystrobius.the firstpeople who inhabitthe land are the race. 11 Now the Don. 21.westof the Borysthenes. were continually encroachingupon their neighbours. them Above a people apart. beginningat the upperend of LakeMaeotis. Neuri the continent.sevendays'journeyacross. Henceit cameto passthatthe Arimaspidrovethe Issedonians from their country.192. in the of course his connesus.who extendedto the sea. so far as we know. Aristeasalso.and plough the the whole of this region.much unlike the Scythians. called dwell the go inland. possessingthe second region. Acrossthe Borysthenes. to leave theirland. On the oppositeside of the Gerrhusis the Royal district.as far as it is known to us. are the people who bear the 10 Here the description of Herodotus. inhabitsit. which looks upon all the other tribes in the light of slaves. sale. of the Borysthenes to Scythian husbandmen. as one goes northward. Hypanis a disextendeastward Olbiopolites. leave the coast is the Woodland. the traveller of whom I latelyspoke. afterwhich. Crossingthe Panticapes. but sow and eat corn. stretch northwarda distance of fifteen days' journey. Above the trading-portof the Borysthenites. butfor cultivators. Exceptthe Hyperboreans. Beyondthe Budini. nor who neither ians. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . use.Next to them. whetherwild or cultivated. people in in the two nations other respectsresemble Scythians their usages. Its extent is indicated in Herodotus by his assignment of the whole country west.occupyinga tractwhich reaches to the riverGerrhus.9Still higher up are the Neuri. matae.while the Issedoniansdispossessed the Scyths. 16.men with one eye.being the account yond is. and a portion of that east. dwell the Budini. 9 The corn-tradeof the Scythians appears to have been chiefly with the Greeks. Howwhichthe Issedonians gave him of thosecountries. Abovethem by Phoebus. in contradistinction from the Northern Sea.These are the nationsalong the courseof the riverHypanis. whichis situatedin the verycentreof the whole sea-coast of Scythia. With regard to the regions which lie above the countrywhereof this portion of my history treats. on the shores of which dwelt the Hyperboreans. Beyondthem lie marshesand a regionwithoutinso far as our knowledgereaches. ableto makeconcerning 17. and beyond these.thereis no one who possesses anyexactknowledge. ther inland there is a vast tract which is uninhabited. country. according to Aristeas.does not claim-and thanthe he is writingpoetry-to havereached anyfarther the regionsbeWhat he relatesconcerning Issedonians. Not a single person can I find who professesto be acEvenAristeas.a people of a quite differentracefrom the Scythians. also onions.andmillet. These the Alazonians. quite and living by the chase.a nativeof Pro13. beginning with the Arimaspi. which gives its modern appellation to the Sea of Marmora. ever. he mere confesses. ScythTheir sow.11 of the countryof the Royal Scythiansare the Blackcloaks. 8 That is.the Thyssagetae if one inclinessomewhat nation distinct from a numerous reached. 132 This content downloaded from 190.10 Fureleven days'sail up the courseof the Borysthenes. habitants. quaintedwith themby actualobservation.as it is called:heredwellsthe largestandbravest of the Scythiantribes. begins to fail. while they call themselves call Borysthenites. inhabiting a countrywhich is entirely bare of trees. first 22.These Husbandmen tanceof three days'journeyto a riverbearingthe name is theirsfor the country while northward of Panticapes. thereis a desert. who raised corn only for sale. that inspired he went as far as the Issedones. anyother. When one crossesthe Tanais. are to the east.

in Scythia thereis scarely anyrainworthmentioning. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . into cakes. and even in the four the climateis still cool.arimabeing the Scythicword for one.who aresaidto be all-both men andwomen-bald from their birth. Theylive on the fruit of a certain the name which is Ponticum. and migratedinto theseparts. The Issedoniansare said to have the following customs.barfurtherprogress. a little to the east.162. and whenone fliesto themfor refuge.nameof Iyrcae. 23.and eat them insteadof meat. Up to this point the territoryof which we are speakingis verycompletely explored. and even drivetheirwaggonsacrossto the country of the Sindians. These stories are received by the Scythiansfrom the andby thempassedon to us Greeks:whence Issedonians. Theyarecalledthe Argippaeans.andis calledbythe natives"aschy. but take off the coveringin the summer-time. his dog following hard all the while. When the fruit is ripe. Thunderin the wintertime 133 This content downloaded from 190. afterwards mixedtogether. As far as their country. they strainit throughcloths.The region east of the bald-headedmen is well known to be inhabitedby the Issedonians. The character of remaining the winterlikewise is unlike that of the same seasonin for at thattime.beyondyou enteron a regionwhich is ruggedand stony. just as the Greekskeeptheirfeast of the dead. and the Cimmerian is frozenover. in Scythiais unknownin that part of the year.This latterstatement appears to me quiteunworthy of credit. mountains. coverthe tree in winterwith a cloth of thickwhite felt.Suchis the intensityof the cold during eight months out of the twelve. the beast chase. who sleep duringone half of the year.and all the nations between the coast and the bald-headedmen are well known to us.and the whole is servedup at a banquet. you cometo a people dwellingat the foot of lofty mountains. andGreeksalsogo therefromthe trading-stations on the and from the other Borysthenes.they do not even possess any warlike weapons.The head of the dead man is treateddifferandset in gold. it arisesthatwe give the one-eyedracethe Scythian name of Arimaspi.for theyarelookeduponas sacred. The whole district whereof we have here discoursedhas winters of exceedingrigour. when the rainsought anyothercountry. of theirown. It then ently:it is strippedbare.and when he sees his thenmountinghis horse. The regionsbeyondareknown only from the accountsof the Issedonians.lets flyan arrow. give any Loftyandprecipitous which are never crossed. they makeup the quarrel.which are sacrificed.the whole country in wood.202 on Sun. a horse. No one harmsthesepeople.The bald men say.to have flat noses. 28. in whichthereis no good Each of them dwells under a tree.he is safefrom all hurt.During eight monthsthe frostis so intense. when it is very heavy. but the tractthat lies to the north of these two nationsis entirelyunknown. andis broughtout yearbyyearat the greatfestivalwhich sons keep in honourof their fathers'death. by the accounts 26." They this with their and also mix it milk with tongues. flesh cut in pieces.except which they give of it.cleansed. and spufor the eye. which are solid. and they pasturage. of tree.who revoltedonce from the RoyalScythians.butit doesnot seemto me credible.In otherrespects the Issedonians are reputedto be observers of justice:and it is to be remarked thattheirwomenhaveequalauthority with the men. Thus far thereforethe land is known.The Scythians who make this journeycommunicatewith the inhabitants by meansof seven interand seven preters languages.and ple who live in thesemountains that after passing them you find anotherrace of men.andit bearsa fruit like a bean.with a stone inside.he gives game. and verylong chins.the tractof land whereof I have been speakingis all a smoothplain. but if a fire be lighted on it mud is produced. in size it is aboutequalto ourfig-tree.thatthepeohavefeet like goats.which elsewhereis frequentthen.while they make the lees.At thatseasonthe Scythians who Bosporus dwell inside the trenchmake warlikeexpeditionsupon the ice. while in summerit never gives over raining.trainedto lie downuponits belly. of whominquirymayeasilybe made. and the soil deep.comingonly in summer. and theresets himself in ambush.The sea freezes. becomesan ornamenton which they pride themselves. for they have butfew sheepin theircountry. Beyondthesepeople. lap up for a drink.andthusmake itself low.dwells a distinct tribeof Scyths.while at the sametime the deadbody The two sortsof flesh are undergoesthe like treatment.Passingover a greatextentof this roughcountry. climbsa tree. 25. For some of the Scythians are accustomed to penetrate as far. all the nearrelatives and their bring sheep to the house.When their neighbours fall out.but beyond the bald-headed men lies a region of which no one can exact account. the hunterkeepswatch. butthe dress Thesepeoplespeaka language whichtheywearis the sameas the Scythian. byhunting. bywhomthe storiesaretold of the one-eyedraceof men and the gold-guarding griffins.the juice which runsoff is blackandthick. and abounding he has a dog at hand. to fall.When a man'sfatherdies.and thunder. 24.thatwaterpoureduponthe grounddoes not form mud.192. 27. Thusourknowledgeextendsas far as this nation. they alsosupportthemselves The hunter whichtheypractice in the following manner. trading-stations along the Euxine.

and pour their waters into it.and from the heights of Haemusdescendwith a the Atlas. less.is there accounteda prodigy. the Borysthenes.For the land is level.shownthemselves wiser than any nationupon the face of the earth. are frost-bitten.rising in the countryof the Celts19(the most westerlyof all the nations of Europe. cold as it is.It never varies in height.Anothertributary Crobyzian Paeonia. and carryingtheir dwellings one with themwherevertheygo. the Hypacyris. The Ararus.with feathersbecause. the Noes. the Maris. of the Danube.the Auras.and go to swell the current of the Ister.how can they fail of being unand unassailable even? conquerable. the Gerof thesestreams I shall rhus.which all pass throughthe countryof the is furnishedby Thracians. which has a coursefrom south to north. of which he had heard the Umbrians tell as running northwards from the Alps above their country. continentwhereofanyaccount 46. whereasin other countriesmules and assesare found to endurethe cold. and to preventpersonsfrom the Scythians penetratinginto the remoterparts of the continent. there is not within Anacharsis this region a single nationwhich can be put forwardas having any claimsto wisdom.or even having any view of those regions. From the countryof the Agathyrsicomes down anotherriver.this river. his knowledge is less and less exact. I have now relatedwhat is said of the most distantpartsof this is given. the Panticapes. 48. For. to be identical with the great tributarieswhereof the dwellers on the middle Danube spoke. living not but on their cattle.the Ararus. 31. with the one exmore unpolishedthan those of ceptionof the Scythians.are uninhabitable by reason of the severityof the winter.is the contrivance wherebythey make it impossiblefor the enemywho invadesthem to escape while they themselvesare entirelyout of his destruction. Having neither cities nor forts.the Tyras. that we know of. has nationsdwelling aroundit.and afterwateringthe Triballianplain. or which has produceda indeed single personof any high repute. to the west. but acquainted continues at the samelevel summer andwinter. the Ister.Horses bear the winterwell.192. accustomed. 49.in the summerthan in the wintertime. butmulesandassesarequite unableto bearit.The first-mentioned is a great stream. as also are earthquakes. The nature of their country. while horses.greatlyfavour this mode of resisting attacks.and by the Greeks Pyretus.forces its way throughthe chain of Haemus. of the likenesswhich they bearto them. He knows that the Danube receives two great tributaries from the south in the upper part of its course. northern and the Tibisis. The Euxinesea.the Hypanis. which Now the tributaries swell its flood are the following: first.as every one is awarewho has seen it come down close to him.the Naparis.and that the verymost important all thosethatfall underman'scontrol. 134 This content downloaded from 190.Now snow when it falls looks like feathers. of course.and is the easternmost of the The Tiarantusis of less volume. and the Artanes.The Scythians of have in one respect. my opinion is. The length of the Nile is 4. but he conceives the rivers.rising nearMount Rhodope.whereDariusnow went to war.if they standstill. With respectto the featherswhich are said by to fill the air. augmented sides all these.The one thing customs of which I speak. on the side of Scythia. falls into the Brongus. that it receivesthe watersof severaltributaries.The courses now proceedto describe.call the snow-flakes I think. the Ister receivesalso the watersof the Carpisand the Alpis. setting aside other region any and the Scythianpeople.the Tiarantus. Thrace gives it three tributaries. 1.both considerable. well-watered.while the riverswhich traverse Of of in are almost equal numberto the canals Egypt.For the Ister flows throughthe whole extent of Europe. two rivers running in a northly directionfrom the countryabovethe Umbrians. moreover.theirwaggonsthe only by husbandry housesthat they possess.namelythe Scius. and the Scythians. All the above-mentioned are genuine Scythianrivers. They are. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and the Ordessus.which falls into the Ister. and 19As Herodotus plunges deeper into the European continent. From Illyria comes another stream.the Athrys.unless it pleasethem to engagewith him.these five-the streamcalled by the Scythians Porata.to shootfrom horseback. these I shall only mention the most famous and such as arenavigableto somedistancefrom the sea. their neighbours.Counting from the west it is the firstof the Scythian rivers. excepting the Cynetians).the Angrus. whetherthey happenin winter or summer.Naparis.therefore.162. coursethreelargestreams. 47.202 on Sun. So the Ister is Beby these two streams.and the rivers by which it is intersected. These northernregions. which empties itself into the same.760 miles. and more tributaries.whichhas five mouths. reach. and so reachesthe Ister. and and all of them. The Ister is of all the riverswith which we are the mightiest.and it aboundingin pasture.andthe reasonof its being the greatestis. that in the countriesaboveScythiait alwayssnows.000 miles.and Ordessus fall into the Ister between these two.Their otherwisearenot suchas I admire.andthe Tanais.

192. the Borysthenes beforeit reaches is joinedby the which its waters the into samelake. whichhas. The Ister remainsat the same level both summerand winter-owing to the following reasons. Thus the variousstreams whichgo to form the Ister. 51. a distance of not less than 1. 53. This riveron its passagetowards the seadivides 20 The salt of Kinburn is still of the greatest importance to Russia.but in the whole world. it is the greatestof them all. The seventh river is the Gerrhus. 50. to and flowsinto the Ister. When summer comes. which are heavy and frequentat that part of the year.During the winterit runsat its natural in those countries height.but afterwards separate. like the Borysthenes.are in than in winter. This. The fourth of the Scythianrivers is the Borysthenes.then. whereofit washesthe flanks.This streamrises withinthe limits of Scythia. in my judgment. its streamis limpid. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .it containsabundance of the lent pasturages most deliciousfish. the Isterremains whereby always at the samelevel.whichis of greatdepth. while all the otherriversnearit are muddy. their country.andgood for pickling. The source of this bitter spring is on the bordersof the ScythianHusbandmen. 56. a course from north to south. thence. forty days'voyage from the sea. a riverrising from a lake.whichis swelled melt.withoutanypricklybones.21 is fromnorthto south. and just so much summer higher as the are greater.till it reaches the continent thencerunningacross Scythia.a narrow point like the beak of a ship.the richestharvestsspring up along its course.which is a branch thrownout by the Borysthenes at the pointwhere the courseof that streamfirst begins to be known.202 on Sun. we must give the preferenceto the river. add their watersto swell the flood of the Ister. Next in successioncomes the fifth river. the Motherof the Hypanis. and opposite the temple upon the of the Borysthenites. 52.the next to it is the Tyras.but abovethis no andits direction one has tracedit. Next to the Ister. springitself bearsthe samename. which is a of four days. and wherethe groundis not sown.for undoubtif the stream of the Nile with the single we edly compare streamof the Ister.Not long the sea. begins at thatseason.rising here.nor even rivulet. the leaving Woodlandand the Race-course of Achillesto the right. excepting only the Nile. the heaviestcropsof grass.andemptiesitself into the Borysthenes. Scythic tongueExampaeus.is calledCapeHippolaus. Gerrhus. called the Panticapes. althoughit is but a tiny rivulet.its wateris mostpleasantto the taste.while salt forms in great plenty aboutits mouth withouthumanaid. where they adjoinupon the Alazonians. It falls into the sea nearthe city of Carcinitis. of which no tributary ments the volume. The Hypanis. It has upon its banksthe loveliestand most excelfor cattle. and rises from a lake.and the water sweet and pure.500 miles.not merely in Scythia. properlyenough. aroundwhich wild white horses graze. But Hypanisis the dwelling-place has been said of these streams.augNile. The sixth streamis the Hypacyris. and. The lake is called. whichis a largestreamamongthoseof the secondorder. The third riveris the Hypanis. enough 54.Hereis a templededicated to Demeter. All these streams. so as to say throughwhat countriesit of the Scythian flows. or a verylittle higher.it nevertheless taints the entire Hypanis. as they are also (I believe) to all the other Greeks.20 and largefish aretakenin it of the sortcalledsturgeon. because there is scarcelyany rain in winter.to the sea. which thus increased becomesthe mightiestof rivers. the region called by the same name as the stream itself.It entersthe territory Husbandmen after runningfor some time acrossa desertregion. and continuesfor ten days' navigationto pass throughthe land which they inhabit.it is exceedingly distance bitter.who are calledTyritae. and runs separating with a southerlycourseto the sea.the Panticapes flows throughthe Woodland. the Sacred The Ways.this snow.and the place whereit risesis called in the whichmeansin ourlanguage.not only by this causebutalso by the rains.so sun's higher power and attraction thatthesetwo causescounteract eachother. then. 135 This content downloaded from 190. but constantsnow. 55. andhas its sourcein another vast lake.This change is causedby its receivinginto it at that point a brook the watersof which are so bitterthat. as I believe.it is the mostproductive river. The Tyrasand the Hypanisapproach each other in the and countryof the Alazonians. is one of the greatScythian rivers.which is distant its courseis known. The Hypanis. leavea wide spacebetweentheir streams.Nor are these the whole of its marvels. which rises from a great lake Scythiafrom the land of the Neuri. and many others.however.It is the only riverbesidesthe Nile the sourcesof which are unknownto me. The space betweenthis riverand the Borysthenes is occupiedby the who are in After watering Scythians engaged husbandry.andthe effect is to producea balance. and runningdirectlythroughthe middleof the NomadicScythians.162. Greeksdwell at the mouthof the river.As far inland as the place namedGerrhus. pours landthatlies betweenthem. 21The Dnieper is navigable for barges all the way from Smolensk to its mouth. with which no streamcan possiblycompare. duringthe distanceof five days'navigationis a shallow stream.

Celestial Aphrodite. Then the other victims are slain.Zeus and Earth. Such are the observances use to sacrifice.is utterlybarren for boilingthe flesh. while the fourthslopesso thatmen maywalk up it.162. butthe rites to are In Ares different. then. In the Scythic tongue Hestia is called Tabiti. It is a pile of brushwood.and the pauncheasily containsall the flesh when it is stripped from the bones. and Poseidon Aphrodite Artimpasa. directly pouring work and then sets to the sacrificer is strangled flayshim. but most horses. every paid a there stands of this government. and morevictims are offeredthus than to all the restof theirgods.in a lake of vast size. Suchthen are the riversof chief note in Scythia. since he is thus entitled to a share of the booty.and carriesthem to the king. Theyworshiponly the followinggods. After flayingthe beasts. In what concernswar. and. and tossed on high into the air. wherebythe countryof the Royal ScyThe thians is divided from that of the Sauromatae.so thatby this plan the ox is madeto boil himself. madeof a vastquantity of faggots.yearlysacrifices of cattleand of horsesare madeto it. however. whereto This content downloaded from 190. altars. not howeverwith same rites as the cattle. As Scythia. the cauldronsof the Lesbians.afterwhichtheyareslaughtered the is then vessel the carried to the of vessel. or temples.Libationsof wine are first poured overa upon theirheads. twists it round. up top pile. When aretakenin war. 61. are the Scythians 59. placingthe bonesof the animals beneaththe cauldron. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .in lengthandbreadth 600 yards. to boil the flesh. and therebythrowsthe animaldown. andthe bloodpoureduponthe scimitar. havinga square platform upon the top. but in his worshipthey do use them.Zeus (very properly. The mannerof their sacrifices in every case the same. Apollo Oetosyrus.whomtheyreverence beyondall the rest.takinghis stationbehindthe victim.192. but with different. Thus abundantly proTheirmanners necessaries. a streamwhich 57. and othervictimsalso to do the like. They sacrificeall sorts of cattle.andthe personwho is aboutto offer. the right hands and arms of the slaughtered prisonersare cut off.after which he puts a noose roundthe animal'sneck. which sinks continuallyby reasonof the rains.gives the rope a pull. by the side of the temple. separate.in height somewhat less. as it falls he invokesthe god to whom he is offering. that the beast but of out drink-offerings. and those who have offeredthe sacrifice depart.which a planhashadto be contrived is the following. The eighth river is the Tanais. The grass which the land producesis more apt to generategall in the beaststhatfeed on it thananyothergrass which is knownto us. If they do not happento possess a cauldron. they makethe animal'spaunchhold the flesh. They use no images. Heracles. whereof temple the following is a description. of the Scythianswith 63. and (if they possess such gear) put the whichareverylike fleshinto boilersmadein the country. 64.Whatevernumber manhe overthrows he cuts off all their heads.EarthApia. their customsare the folsoldierdrinksthe bloodof the first lowing. 58. and pouring in at the sametime a little water.It runsinto the Hypacyris. 22 The modern Don. of firewood.lay the bonesunder and light them. Sucharethe victimsofferedto the othergods.out of everyhundred menthey prisoners sacrificeone. No fire is lighted.the sacrificer offers a portionof the flesh and of the entrails. Each year 150 waggon-loadsof brushwoodare added to the pile. never swinefor the purpose. and Ares. and is everywhere 60. andwhichemptiesitself into another still largerlake.Hestia. as plainly appears on the opening of theircarcases.called the Hyrgis. except in the worshipof Ares.202 on Sun. namely. The Scythian he slays. Thamimasadas. and suchis the modein whichtheyaresacrificed. in battle.leaving the hands and arms chance where they may to have fallen. While this takes place at the top of the mound.the countryof the Nomadic from that of the Royal Scyths.below. the victim stands with its two fore-feetboundtogetherby a cord. three sides of which areprecipitous. by casting it on the ground before him.in my judgCelestial ment) Papaeus.they set them alight.and servesas the imageof Ares.the Palus Maeotis.they take out all the bones. up the country. at the seatof district.An antiqueiron sword is plantedon the top of everysuch mound. videdwith the mostimportant andcustoms comenowto be described. and afterthese Apollo. god. Tanais receivesthe watersof a tributary stream. When the meat is all cooked. thereis no consecration.exceptthat they are of a muchlargersize.whom they consider to be the wife of Zeus. and the bodies also. and so strangles and no him. They respect nor indeed is it their wont to breedthem in any part of their country. and so boil the meat. commonly 62. inserting a small stick. These gods are woroffer shipped by the whole nation: the Royal Scythians sacrificelikewise to Poseidon.22 far has its source. The bones burn beautifully.

66. they treat as follows. laying hold of the scalp.proteststhat of the he has swornno false oath.and theirmouths gagged.but if he is rich. finallythe woodis set alight. because such or such a person. on the contrary. of have a right to drinkby whom foes which all Scythians havebeen slain. 76 137 This content downloaded from 190. Wheneverthe Scythianking falls sick. they acquit and againothers. Scythiahas an abundanceof soothsayers. and. to him. try the case.who foretell the future by means of a numberof willow wands. No greatershamethanthis can happento them. A large bundle of these wands is broughtand laid on the ground.The Enarees.and. othersoothsayers.then they who firstaccused forfeit their lives.carry theyride. like the of these of our peasants.and the oxen escapewith a scorching.Generallythey say that the king is ill. and have vanquished whom they deem of ence of the king. have an- othermethod.this is all that he does. The tell him that by their art it is clear he has soothsayers sworna false oathby the royalhearth.theycoverthe outsidewith leather. call in them-are burnt the way -lying diviners. their handsboundbehindtheirbacks.192. by sewinga quantity sheepskins dead of their the arms Others right flay scalpstogether. no.This modeof divination is of homegrowth in Scythia. is off which make of the and skin. 67. The soothsayer unties the bundle. Having sawn off the portion below the eyebrows. then with the rib of an ox he scrapesthe scalp cleanof flesh. Theytake it into three a pieceof thisbark.keep and their about the untwining fingers.he takes carenot to let any of his sons survive:all the male offspring are slain with the father.only the femalesbeing allowedto live.splitting strips. bing betweenthe hands. When strangers any accountcome to visit them. andplaceseachwand by itself. stripped with the nailshangingto it. have two cups insteadof one.at a set place in his own province. but of those whom they most detest.while theywho haveslain no enemyare not allowedto tasteof the bowl. Once a yearthe governorof eachdistrict. customswith respect arethe Scythian 65.which they say Aphroditetaughtthem. It is done with the innerbarkof the linden-tree.Suchas have slain a very large numberof foes.Then the man accusedof having forsworn himself is arrestedand broughtbefore the king.has sworn falsely by the royalhearth. that a man can show.162. The mode of their executionis the following: a waggon is loaded with brushwood. and how that he got the betterof them.Such to scalpsandskins. enemies. and drinkfrom both. Some even flay the entire body of their enemy.he also lines the insidewith gold: in eithercasethe skull is used as a drinkingcup.shakesthe skullout. It often happens that the oxen and the soothsayers are both consumed the pole of the waggonis burnt together. the soothsayers. They do the samewith the skullsof theirown kith and kin if they have been at them in the presfeud with them. and loudlycomplains for the sends six to him. and the host tells how that these were his relations who madewar upon him. solemnity. Many make themselvescloaks.he forfeits all claim if he does not producea head.aresent for. beingstartled. and makesthem up once more intoa bundle.Shouldthe greaternumberdecidein favour him of the man'sinnocence.andhangsthemfrom the greaterthe numberof such napkins his bridle-rein.for other causesbesidesthe one here spoken of.straitway guilty they is beheaded him. In orderto strip the skull of its covering.but sometimes Diviners through. he the man the find of too offence.202 on Sun. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . twining strips while them.mentioninghis name. while he is still speaking. the more highly is he esteemed among them.uses it thenceforth The Scythis proudof thesescalps.not indeedof all. with theirfeet tied together. When the king puts one of them to death. Cat. all this being looked upon as proof of bravery.This is the usualoath among when they wish to swearwith very great the Scythians.or womanlikemen. 69.who for the threesoothsayers come and maketrial of their art in the mode abovedescribed. at the sametime uttering his prophecy:then.andthe oxen.and cleanedoutthe inside.and oxen are harnessedto it. are madeto rushoff with the waggon.and so causedthe illness of the king-he denies the charge. wrong done king Upon this If who try the matterby soothsaying. and.andwouldin whiteness surpassalmost all other hides. these skulls are handed round. theyprophesy.mingles a bowl of wine. The skullsof theirenemies. he sends of mostrenownat the time. are thrust into the midst of the brushwood. a coveringfor theirquivers. When a man is poor. 68. they described. butsit aloof in disgrace. stretchingit upon a it aboutwith themwherever frame.Now the skinof a manis thickandglossy. new soothsayers.he makes a cut roundthe head above the ears.he gathers the rods togetheragain. andhis goods by thosewho firstaccused are partedamongthem: if. and softening it by rubas a napkin.

repeating each a draughtfrom the bowl. and this vapour servesthem insteadof a waterbath. creeping under the felt coverings. imitates the example which is first set by the everyman chops off a piece of his ear. When it is ready.andthen addsomehemp-seed.andfastenedto a peg. Firsttheywell soapandwashtheirheads.spears are fixed in the groundon eitherside of the corpse. messenger.then.made in the stake that runs lengthwise down the horse. filled full of chaff.which is squarein shape. 71. the two lastly contracting partiesdrink prayers. cup-bearer. and. vapour-bath the Scyths. and if he has. Royal Scythians.all of them vying with eachotherand seekingto makeit as tall as possible. into whichtheyput a number of red-hotstones. In the open spacearoundthe bodyof firstkilling her the king theyburyone of his concubines. when anyone dies. only that it is a much coarserand taller plant: some grows wild aboutthe country. and the cavity cleaned. so. then. while that behind sustainsthe belly and quarters.all the while tar. and sewn up again. delighted.their bowels aretaken out.which they do in the following way. take 72. his his his lackey. he will not know of which materialthey are. hair his close. anise-seed. as do also the chief men amongtheirfollowers.for theyuse neithersilvernor brass.afterwhich they sew up the opening.This done. as I said. The tombs of their kings are in the land of the is Gerrhi. Then they who have the careof the corpse carryit with them to anotherof the tribes which are under the Scythianrule. which they arrangeso as to fit as close as possible: inside the bootha dish is placedupon the ground.parsley-seed. the lower end of which projectsfrom the body. dropsomeof theirblood into the wine.162. then strongstakesarerunlengthways throughthe bodies of the horses from tail to neck.who dwell at the point wherethe Borysthenes first navigable. when the king dies.throw it it smokes. 73.23 for they never by chance wash their with bodies Their women water.the legs dangling in midair. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . groom.some is producedby cultivation: the Thracians makegarments of it whichcloselyresemble so much that if a personhas neverseen linen. and cleaned out the inside.On this procession corpse. After the burial. and the partiesto the oath. seed. tiful horses. shout for joy.and so left.When they are dead. his nearest of kin lay him upon a waggonand takehim roundto all his friendsin succession: eachreceivesthem in turnand entertainsthem with a banquet.somearrows.whereatthe dead man is servedwith a portionof all thatis set beforethe others.immediately out sucha vapouras no Grecian canexceed.all nativeScythians-for. and thrusts an arrow throughhis left hand.frankincavity with a preparation and cense. each horse is furnishedwith a bit and bridle. wood. and. Here. to wait on them-fifty of with fiftyof the mostbeauthesearetakenandstrangled. hemp he is sure to think they are linen.a battle-axe. they dig a grave. firstlingsof all his other possessions. as boughtslaves known in the country.those engagedin it have to purify themselves.and some golden cups.and of greatsize.with the 70. any makea mixtureof cypress.at the end of which time the burialtakesplace.his cook. his and also by strangling. unlesshe is veryexperienced in suchmatters.After this they set to work.they find themselvesin the countryof the Gerrhi. stretchedupon a mattress. and frankincense cedar. furtherceremonies are late attendants of the the best of king's place. This content downloaded from 190. then theyplunge into the mixturea scimiand a javelin. in orderto cleansetheirbodies. The fifty riders are thus rangedin a circleroundthe tomb. woundingthemselves slightlywith a knife or an awl. makesa cut all roundhis arm.they act as follows: they makea boothby fixingin the groundthreesticksinclined towardsone another. enclosethe bodyin wax.192. and so they come to the tombs of the kings. a number of posts straightway aredriveninto the ground.in sets of two pairseach. fill the of chopped cypress. Oathsamongthe Scythsareaccompanied with a earthen bowl is filled ceremonies: large following wine. and raisea vast mound abovethe grave. placingit on a waggon. indeed. which latteris stretched out in front of the horse.when it receivesthe tribes. having opened the belly.the Scythian kings chooseany of their subjectsthat they like.lacercrops ates his forehead and his nose.who are the most remoteof all. take someof this hemp75. The Scythians. Hemp grows in Scythia:it is very like flax.202 on Sun. followed by those whom they firstvisited.To effect this. they take the king's corpse. is the mode in which the kings are buried:as for the people. There the body of the dead king is laid in the grave preparedfor it.and beamsstretched acrossabove it to form a roof. On completingthe circuitof all the tribesunder their sway. and they are mounted upon the fellies. Fifty are untaken. so that the felly in front supportsthe shouldersof the horse. Such. When a yearis gone by.and on everypairhalf the felly of a wheel is placedarchwise.and stretchingaroundthem woollen felts. and.andgives uponthe red-hotstones. The fifty strangled on youthsarethen mountedseverally the fifty horses. and is fixed into a socket. carryit about through all the different eachtribe. which is coveredwith a thatchingof twigs. 74. this is done for forty days.some of his horses. a secondstake is passed throughtheirbodiesalong the courseof the spine to the neck.

which is told by the Peloponnesians: they say.and in this attire to walk about the marketplace.192. which is of a thick consistency. a buildingof extent and erected at a vast round whichthere great cost.when a moststrange to him.except pied the Lacedaemonians.he arrived in Scythia.The former. that no Scythian Borysthenites kept see the thus might king apparelled. this. as the Anacharsis.When. With this substance.he by bringing up. the stewardof Ariapeithes. 139 This content downloaded from 190.and was on the point of obtainingadmission to the rites.whereby to that he wouldgive hera backsafe andsound his home. and indulgence in the vapour-bath. on accountof his attachment whichhe held with the Greeks.and even offeredsacrifices to the gods accordingto the Grecianrites. 23 77.and. being the son of who was the son of and the grandsonof Gnurus.in the city of the Borysthenites.Scylas.and marriedone of his father's succeeded wives. and on make acquaintance that the Greekswere all occuhis returnhome reported.as he sailed throughthe Hellesponton his returnto Scythia. While thus employed.he was noticedby one of the who went and told king Sauliuswhat he had Scythians. Spargapeithes. and when they takeoff the is therebyimparted plaster on the day following. A sweet odour to them. which lies opposite the Race-course Achilles. and the imagestied to with the tambourine him. Scylas. their skin is clean and glossy. to leave the armybefore the city. after which he would clothe himself againin his Scythian dress. the son of Ariapeithes. the occasionof his ruin was the following. in the of pursuit everykind of knowledge.he betookhimself to the districtcalled of the Woodland. He wantedto be initiatedin the ritesof the Bacchic Dionysus. In this way he would pass a month.wheneverhe came with his to who. his to the mannersof the Greeks. I haveheard. Borysthenes. it must have been by his own brotherthat he was slain. with the Borysthenites. in all respectslike those festival and a night-procession which he had seen in Cyzicus. or more. Ariapeithes.Some acquaintance time afterwards. made it his usual practice. their own account. To this day.24and was himself inducedto he engaged. marrieda wife therewho was a nativeof the place. 24 Cybele or Rhea.meanwhile. which the Greeks There is no doubt have inventedfor their amusement! that Anacharsis suffereddeath in the mode alreadyreto foreign customs.of Scylas. to exchangehis Scythian dress for Greciangarments. 79. if you ask the ScythsaboutAnacharsis. adding a little water to it. among them this Scylas. Spargapeithes.The watch at the gates.have fully shown. particularly of instances the Greeks. he shot at him with an arrowand killed him.from Tymnes. Lycus If Anacharsis were really of this house.-he made it his practice. who. that Anacharsis was sent by the king of the Scythsto with Greece-that he went. intoxication from the fumes of hemp-seed or hashish.as I mentioneda short time back.which they pound into a paste upon a rough piece of stone. The Scythians of thosein use among of all foreigncustoms. and was attached. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . lived exactlyas the Greeks. however. and displayedwhereverhe went manyproofs of wisdom. as he dislikedthe Scythic modeof life.another tale. not of a nativeScyth. a womannamedOpoea.I say.however.and so takehis departure. prodigyoccurred The house which he possessed. and is coveredwith treesof all mannerof different kinds. Herodotus appears in this instance to have confounded together two things in reality quite distinct. and. likewise.but of a womanof Istria.who was the child.met with almostthe very samefate. had severalsons.are colonists of the Milesians. whereuponScylas to the throne.I learnt.Now when Scylas found himselfking of Scythia. having enteredwithin the walls by himself. But when the time came that was ordainedto bringhim woe. without guardsor retinue. they pretendignoranceof him. lated.This Opoeawas a Scythian by birth. havean extremehatred 76. Scylasgained an with the Greeklanguageand letters. slain by Ariapeitheswas treacherously of the king Agathyrsi. for Idanthyrsus was a son of the Sauliuswho put Anacharsisto death. A silly tale.afterhe had travelledover a greatportionof the world. and indeed their whole bodies.202 on Sun.Bred up by her.verydifferent from this. they plastertheir faces all over. and the intercourse 78. whose worship passed from the Phrygians to the Ionian Greeks.162. therefore. and carefullyclosed the gates. thatAnacharsis was paternal uncle to the Scythian king Idanthyrsus.Therehe found the inhabitants a festival to bratingwith much pomp and magnificence the Motherof the gods. Then king Sauliuscame in person. This he did repeatand even built himself a house in and edly. according armyto the town of the Borysthenites. becauseof his Greciantravelsand adoptionof the customsof foreigners.if he got makea vow to the goddess. and therewent throughall the sacredrites in his hand. the Scythianking. more lately.many yearslater.aloneknew how to conversesensibly. celetouchedat Cyzicus.however. and had broughtAriapeithesa son called Oricus. seen. and when he perceivedwhat Anacharsiswas about.

I witnessedwith my own eyes.urgingon him the greatdiffiGood. solved to form into a memorialthat might go down to posterity. all of whom were to accompany the army.which Suchas have set up.and thus severelydo theypunish such as adoptforeign usages. and I will give brother.othersto supplyships.Thus much. times as big as that at the entranceof the Euxine. and one thing besides.Scylas. on pain of death. Pausanias. They put at their head Octamasadas. marchedafter him. but threefeet in length.after leaving Borysthebrokeout nes. phorae. dedicated the numberof the Scythians. So neither you nor I will risk our armies. He therefore ceasedhis reasonings.raving like the rest. therefore.Scylas. The country has no marvels except its rivers.400 gallons. They show a footmarkof Heracles.Sitalto this effect. but Octamasadas mainScylasuponthe spot.othersmade their numbers but scantyfor such a nation as the Scyths. six river undrinkable. Sitalces took his brother exchange beheaded with him and withdrew. was aboutreturninghome. where I spoke of the bitter streamwhich rising there flows into the Hypanis. 26 Sitalces was contemporarywith Herodotus. and This was all thatI couldlearn it at Exampaeus.26 the son of Cleombrotus.stood a numberof sphinxesand griffinscarvedin white marble. andreceived nevertheless. and rendersthe water of that Here then standsa brazenbowl. orderedthem all to bring him. Hystaspesand brotherof Darius. concerning 82."You we ravewhen the Scythslaugh at us.was Scylasinitiated in the Bacchicmysteriesthan one of the Borysthenites went and carriedthe news to the Scythians.when his preparations were complete. "Why sent a messageto Octamasadas ces25 should there be trial of arms betweenus? You are my own sister's son."The chiefs of the Scythians went with the man accordingly. who raveslike us. These. When.and came and told the armywhat they had witnessed. I returnto the subject on which I originallyproposedto discourse.Accordinglyhe made of them this bowl. One of their kings.Now the Scythiansare wont to reproach the Greekswith their Bacchanal rage.and he colwhich he relected therebya vast heap of arrow-heads. I was not able to learn with certainty. PresentlyScylaspassed by with the band of revellers. There is a tract and the Hybetweenthe Borysthenes called Exampaeus panis.Then Scylas. grandson (on the mother'sside) of Teres. Thusrigidlydo the Scythians tain their own customs."Sitalcessent this messageto Octamasadas by a of Sitalwhom a brother with and Octamasadas.Having described this. to furnishtroops. 140 This content downloaded from 190.which I am about to mention. discoveringwhitherhe had fled. He died 424 B." he said. and I will show him to you. It is in the neighbourhood of the Tyras. it failed to persuadeDarius. the point off one of their arrows. If you think I do not tell you true. conductingthem into the city. wereaboutto engage. The preparations on has beendispatched had begun. Thrace. of Darius againstthe 83.was struckby lightningfrom on high. come with me. and had reachedthe Ister.when he The two armies was met by the forces of the Thracians. and was seen by the watchers. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . impressedon a rock. wenton. the father of three sons.and Darius.messengers Scythians somebeing required all sideswith the king'scommands.202 on Sun. are worthyof note. 84.when Artabanus. 27 About 5. I made some mention of it in a former place. in shape like the print of a man's foot.wishing to know the numberof his subjects.They obeyed. othersagainto son of bridge the ThracianBosporus.I heard from some that they were very numerousindeed.C.Surrender Scylasback to you.however.Octamasadas. and the vastnessof the great plain.Regardingthe matteras a very great misfortune.therefore.asthe adviceof Scythia. It was then that a certain Persian.162. entreatedthe king to desistfrom his expedition. 81.192. and you have in your keeping my him into my hands. What the populationof Scythiais.C.butbeforetheyjoinedbattle. came and prayed the king that he would Pausanias set up this bowl at the time that he was besieging Byzantium.No sooner. and burnt to the ground. He his own uncle to Sitalces. ces had formerlytaken refuge. herald. acceptedthe terms. by name Ariantas. and is maddenedby the influence. the initiation. by name Oeobazus.when he learned the danger with which he was threatened.the accountswhich I received varied from one another. 80. But now our god has seized upon your king. made his escape to and the reasonof the disturbance. 25 however. me betterif I say neverseen that vessel may understand that the Scythianbowl holds with ease six hundredamand is of the thicknessof six fingers'breadth. they instantlydeparted.and obtainedin surrendered his brotherScylas. and to say that it is not reasonable to imagine there is a god who impels men to madness. placed them secretlyon one of the towers. led his army forth from Susa.27 The nativesgave me the following accountof the manner in which it was made.and the Borysthenite. 477 B. "because god seizes us. the Scythians into revolt. cultyof attacking Artabanus was. which are largerand more numerousthan those of any other land.

sailed for him backto the bridge.which is the extremelength of this sea. on the river Thermodon.162. It will be noted that Herodotus regularly overestimates ships' speeds. includingcavalry.29 reachingfrom the Euxine to the Propontis. which. Darius. The watersof this lake much inferiorto itself in size.Sometime afterwards thesepillarsto theirown city.on the otherin Assyrian was drawnfrom all the nationsunderhis sway. on his marchfrom Susa.Suchis the plan on which I andthe Hellesthe Pontus. which is about sixteen miles. Mandrocles. 141 This content downloaded from 190. The mode in which these distanceshave been measuredis the following.thathe would allowthem was overjoyed. is a sail of threedaysand two nights. after rewardingMandrocles.was 700. Darius.31The Hellespontopens into the wide sea calledthe Aegean.One blockremained behind: it lay near the temple of Dionysus at and was coveredwith Assyrian writing. not very 28 These measurements are extremely incorrect. and sail to the mouth of the Ister.allow one of his sons to remainwith him. whereuponhe inscribedthe names of all the nations which formed his army-on the one pillar in characters. 32These figures are given in miles in the preceding chapter.000 fathoms. marble.threading the Cyanean Isles. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .280 miles.100 furlongs.Aeolians. Thus they were of life.300 furlongs. I thinkbut spotwhereDariusbridgedthe Bosporus the city I speakonly from conjecture. Ionians Europe.000 fathoms. the length of which is fifty miles. and such is the accountwhich I have to give of them.whichis indeedwell worthyof and surveyed Thereis not in the world anyothersea so consideration. Now his army Greek.There he badethem throw a bridge acrossthe streamand awaithis coming. When Darius.is fourteenmiles in length.28 breadth. wonderful: it extends in length 1.and.The fleet consistedof removed the Byzantines 600 ships. the distance across from the Thermodon to the Sindic peninsula is about 270 miles.to Hera'sfane Bosporus Did Mandrocles thisproudmemorial bring. In a long day a vessel genabout70. since the Sea of Azov is not now much more than one-twelfth of the size of the Euxine. him all the bestowed only customary presents.the Bosporus.called the Bosporus. passedinto while he ordered the to enter the Pontus. Again. of Calchedon the territory wherethe bridgehad beenmade.The Propontisis sixty miles across.attaching to it the inscription following: The fish-fraught bridged.30Its waters flow into the Hellespont.He likewisesurveyed by Mandrocles of two shores its and erected pillars white upon porus. all left behind.000 men.000.The Byzantium. with painted King Darius sitting in a seat of honour. reached on the shoresof the Bosporus.33 runinto the Pontus. 33It is commonly supposed that Herodotus fell here into a very gross mistake. from Sindicato Themiscyra where the Pontusis wider than at any other place.in the night erally accomplishes 60. from these a pictureto be firstfruits caused ing presents. and the width no morethan 1.once floated.without reckoningthe navalforces.He took his seatalso in the temple the Pontus. Herodotus' width is correct.butnot till theyhad beendeprived 85.as if he regarded had urgeda moderate request. but it is possible that Lake Maeotis may have been very greatly larger in the time of Herodotus than it is at present.is 380 miles. and its The mouthis at the widestpart. andusedthemfor an altar which they erectedto OrthosianArtemis.Oeobazus expectingthatall his childrenwould be excused from serving. 89.32 Again.and 160 miles long. Now from the mouthof the Pontusto the river Phasis.or 11.and also the motherof the Pontus. ForSamos the GreatKing.which had been constructed the Bosa Samian.he took ship andsailed thence to the Cyaneanislands. havemeasured pont. The Ionians. praise.202 on Sun. 87. between half-way and the temple at the mouthof the strait.400 yards.or 3. and acrosswhich the bridge of Dariushad been thrown. 86. The distance from the mouth of the Bosporus to the Phasis is little more than 630 miles. accordingto the Greeks. but one-half mile wide. was.it is calledthe Maeotis. of Byzantium 88. after he had finished his survey. Darius was so pleased with the bridge thrown that he not acrossthe straitby the SamianMandrocles.000 fathoms. 30 The is nearer forty-three miles across and 110 Propontis miles long.The Pontushas alsoa lakebelongingto it.110. When for himselfa crownhe'dskillto gain. 31 The length is about forty miles.contenting Suchwas the memorial of his workwhichwas left bythe architect of the bridge. -allto remain. Dariusmade him in the light of a friendwho answer.So the fleet. 29 This is under the true length.whichmakes330. is a voyage of nine daysand eight nights. and his army engaged in the passage.This painting he dedicatedin the templeof Hera at Samos. mountingthe riverto the point where its channels a distance of two days'voyagefrom separate. and this strait. whole of which showed the the bridge. proceeded straight to the Ister. which makesthe distance 1.and the whole amount.the king takethe threesonsof Oeobhoweverbadehis attendants azus and forthwithput them to death.but upon by wayof offergave him ten of everykind.192.and Hellespontians were the nations which furnishedthe chief strengthof his navy.

93. takeit. Coes son of Erxander. mayhap. 92.but my resolveis. which runsinto the Agrianes.which are thirty-eightin number.the scabeitherin man or beast. Here then.The Hebrusemptiesitself into the sea nearthe city of Aenus. in parthot. addressed him in the words following.ForI haveno fearlest the Scythians defeat us in battle. my to you concerning formercommands the bridgearenow withdrawn.pitchedhis campand madea stay of threedays. the king took a leathernthong. that they are the noblest as well as the notwithstanding mostjustof all the Thracian tribes. to follow you.Theywereaboutto obeyhis command. which flows through the countryof the Odrysians. who had crossed the Bosporusby the bridge over it. from each. By so doing you will oblige me greatly. to the king to havingfirstaskedwhetherit was agreeable listen to one who wished to speak his mind.lies Thrace. marched through Thrace.MeantimeDarius. Keep this bridge. 81 attack a country no part of which is cultivated.he set out on his marchwith all speed." 98.andthat into the Hebrus.Here he fixed upon a certain spot. reachedthe Ister.and after all were gone over gave ordersto the Ionians to breakthe bridge. with an inscriptionto the following effect.and of the whole continent. but in truth I have no other design than to recommend the coursewhich seemsto me the best.the Isterfalling into the sea at this point with its fromthe IsterI shallnow mouthfacingthe east.192.understand solve is changed. and then Scythia begins.The land here makesa sweep.who believein theirimmortality. and tying sixty knots in it.and sail to that my reyour severalhomes.See. Darius continuedhis march.Meanwhile. and happening upon the sourcesof the Tearus. Sire.be sureto cometo me. that he causeda pillar to be erectedin this placealso. Now the Tearusis said by those who dwell near it. When his orderswere obeyed. and with good deedswill I recompense yourgood words of today.on the sea coast."The adviceof CoespleasedDarius highly. yokedthe neckof the stream.no. This river. The Thraciansof Salmydessus. and observemy to it.asthey arecalled-gave themScyrmiadae selvesup to Dariuswithouta struggle. we mayreturn by will this route.a two days'jourPerinthus.but the Getaeobwereforthwithenslaved. The river charmedhim so. "The fountains of the Tearusafford the best and most beautiful waterof all rivers:they were visited. king of the Persians. son of Hystaspes. Before you cometo Scythia. Fromthe time thatI leaveyou biddingwith respect untieeverydayone of the to marchforwardinto Scythia. 90. on the banks of the Tearus. to be the most healthful of all streams.when I am safe home againin my palace.the sea. 91. and leave those who built it. to Cat. amongotherdiseases. and sufferloss while we wanderabouttheir territory. "Men of Ionia.and to cure. Having so said.nor will I consent to be amongthose left behind. where every one of his soldiers should throw a stone as he passed by. when the generalof the Mytilenaeans. Marching thence. then.and follow him with the whole navalforcein his landmarch. Theylie at an equal distancefrom the town of Heraeumnear andApolloniaon the Euxine. with his land forces.butmy dreadis lest we be unableto discover them. describethe measurements 142 This content downloaded from 190. called together the Ionian tyrants. 99.and that you are to guard the bridge with all care.it will be said I adviseyou thus in the hope of being myself allowed to remainbehind. to watch over it."Suchwas the inscriptionwhich he set up at thisplace. When Darius. Darius stopped and pitched his camp.and watchover its safetyand preservation.he cameto a secondriver. stinatelydefendingthemselves. 97. in any case. as it is. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .called the Artiscus.162. here is a thong.by the best and most beautifulof men. then leave your station.arein partcold.is a tributary of ney the Contadesdus.or if we fail of findingthem. "You are about.202 on Sun.the firstpeoplewhom he subduedwere the Getae.the Tearus. Beforearrivingat the Ister.leaving behindhim greathills formed of the stonescastby his troops. he made his troopscrossthe stream. Darius."When Darius had thus spoken.Starting of the sea-shoreof Scythia. who thus repliedto him: "DearLesbian. If I do not returnbeforethe last day to whichthe knots will hold out. and wherein there is not a single inhabitedcity.and spoke thus to them. our retreat still be secure.And now. So if we come up with the Scythians and succeedagainstthemas we couldwish. knots. all flowing from the samerock.Its sources. on his marchinto Scythia.and those who dwelt abovethe citiesof Apolloniaand Mesembria-the andNipsaeans.

They. as also of the whole district bordering andLakeMaeotis.Suffering number. The Agathyrsi area raceof men veryluxurious. kings upon the advanceof so vast a host. grievously theyquittedtheirhomes. It is as if in Iapygia tica. as far as which runs out what is called the Rugged Chersonese. sentenvoysto the neighbouring nations. which is squarein shape.162. Immediately and continuesas far as the citycalledCarcinitis. may not have madethe voyageroundthesepartsof Atin anotherway. therelies a mountainous into projecting the Pontus.37 family. v. 35 This passage was evidently written for the benefitof readers in Magna Graecia. they headwith a club. he would never have thought of such an illustration. and the transverse sides at right angles to these are also of the samelength. The Scythians. Such.wherethe shapeof the land closelyresembles thatof Taurica. Budini. as of members one and. the Neuri.When they take prisonersin war they treatthem in the following way. which is inhabitedby the Tauri. Beyondthis tract. 100. thenthe Man-eaters.The reason that the heads are set up so high. the Black-cloaks. As for the inland boundaries of if we startfrom the Ister. 102. I reckonthe day's journeyat twenty-fivemiles.and those by far the greater camein fromthe desertson the north. Writing from Ionia.who.and has two of its sides reachingdown to the sea. extendsinland to the same distance that it stretches along the coast. the Man-eaters. which he elevatesabove his house.whichgives the full size of Scythia.192. who dwell aboveScythia. Thus the two sides which run straightinland are 500 miles each.the Agathyrsi.Old Scythia begins.while others. 143 This content downloaded from 190.the the Black-cloaks.In other respectstheir customs approach nearlyto thoseof the Thracians.at the end 36 The virgin goddess of the Tauri was more generally identified by the Greeks with their own Artemis. or even from Greece Proper. a line were drawnfrom Port Brundusium and a people differentfrom the Iapygiansinhabitedthe Thesetwo instances maysuggesta number promontory. and took refuge with the Budini. The man who has taken a captivecuts off his head. beneath this scourge.most commonly overthe chimney. And the Taurioccupya positionin Scythia like thatwhicha peoplewouldhold in Attica. and carryingit to his home. fixes it upon a tall pole. it is buried. as is also the case with Attica.Here upon the tract34 samesea. and the Sauromatae. It seems that these people are conjurers:for both the Scythiansand the Greeks who dwell in Scythiasay. on their situation. Of these some were producedin their own country.Then.should inhabitthe highland of Sunium.) is curious. 104.firstthe Agathyrsi. The Neuriancustomsarelike the Scythian. as it were. 34The mountains lie only along the southern coast of the Crimea. 103. is the Tauricterritory. they say. but denythatthe bodyis thrown down the cliff-on the contrary. furtherthan it does.to compare greatthings with For the sake of those who small.perreflecting ceived that they were not strong enough by themselves to contendwith the armyof Dariusin open fight. The Tauri have the following customs. lying westof the Cimmerian Bosporus as far as the riverTanais. fronting towardsthe south wind and the midday.35 of others.For the boundaries extend on two sides to two differentseas.They offer in sacrifice to the virgin goddess all shipwrecked and all Greeks persons. they hurl the trunk from the precipicewhereonthe temple stands. brothers. 105.They have intercourse that so they may be all promiscuously.thatthe Isteris crossed. 101. All the rest of the peninsula belongs to the steppes.we find the Scythians againin of the Tauri and the above the country parts possession on the easternsea. the following tribes. and is equaleveryway.we find it enclosedby Scythia. according to someaccounts. Othersgrant that the head is treatedin this way. Now they who had come togetherwerethe kings of the Tauri. of Scythia into the sea upon the east. These people live entirelyby war and plundering.The mode of sacrifice the preparatory strike victim on the the ceremonies. from Thoricus to the township of if this tractprojected into the seasomewhat Anaphlystus.whose therefore. Scythiathen. I will illustrate to Tarentum.202 on Sun. one upon the south.and the othertowardsthe east. 37 This anticipationof the theory of Plato (Rep. After by stressof weather. compelledto put into theirports is this.which emptiesitself into that lake at its upper end. may neither envy nor hate one another. that every Neurian once a yearbecomesa wolf38for a few days. being foreignersand not Athenians.The goddessto whom these sacrifices areoffered the Taurithemselves to be Iphigenia36 declare the daughter of Agamemnon.and nail the head to a cross.is a journeyof twentydays. One generationbeforethe attackof Dariusthey were driven from their land by a huge multitudeof serpentswhich invaded them. next the Neuri. and ten more from the Borysthenesto LakeMaeotiswhile the distancefrom the coast inland to the countryof the Black-cloaks. the Geloni. andlastof all. is (it is said) in order that the whole house may be under their protection. and very fond of wearinggold on their persons. 38 This is the earliest reference to the widespread superstition as to werewolves. had and were in consultation alreadymet. For it is a ten days'journeyfrom the Ister to the Borysthenes. Herodotus at Thurii would have Iapygia before his eyes. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

and adornedafter the Greek fashion with images. Some of the bodies of the the slain fell into their hands.blackcloaks.162. With the skinsof this last the nativesborder theirleathercloaks:and theirtesticlesprovidea remedy. He did so. the waveslisted.that they were all men of about the same age. I say.and massacred howeverthey were quite strangeto ships. gardens. went ashore. fight-when they halted.Imagining. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 108. but to send againstthem a detachment of their youngestmen. and brightred hair. wherethe winds and carried. All the housesin the place and all the templesare of the samematerial. and their dress is Scythian. As up againstthe crews. as nearas they couldguess equal to the women in number. 111. the language. the young men were to approachand pitch their camp near the of their campof the enemy. they went out against them. but theyconstantly affirm it to be true. and shrines. when the Amazonsadvanced againstthem. patafor to slay-it is reported. altars.they were afterthe deathof the men.both parties led the same life. aremoresavage 106.of which time he is restoredto his propershape. 109. The Budini. and fought a battle. Thermodon.which is surroundedwith a lofty wall. neither having anythingbut their arms and horses. called Gelonus.but the language which they speakis peculiarto themselves. 113. one of them attackedan Amazon who was alone. At last they reachedthe shoresof Lake Maeotisand cameto a place calledCremnior the Cliffs. otters are Here caught. on the contrary. And now day after day the camps approachednearer to one another. For the fact is that the Geloni were anciently Greeks.Theystill speaka languagehalf Greek. The Amazonssoon found out that they had not come to do them any harm. and did not know how to use eitherrudder.The Greeks call these latterGeloni. for diseases 110.with ordersto encamp and do as they saw them doin their neighbourhood. and less trustworthy. kill no moreof them.all of them. however. they were to a avoid and retire.192. all in wood. of the womb.40The Geloni. that the Greeks after gaining the battle of the 39 As Herodotus recedes from the sea his accounts become more mythic. held everythird year. The Black-cloaks wear. that when the Greeksfought with the Amazons. built entirelyof wood.Oior for and being Scythic man. The Budini are a large and powerful nation: they have all deep blue eyes.Theyneitherobserve justice. she did not resist but let him have his way.202 on Sun.All this they did on account a race. The Scythscould not tell what to make of the attackupon them-the dress. There is even a festival. takingwith themon boardthree of their vessels all the Amazonswhom they had made prisoners. ground growing and beavers. four miles each way. or oars. bread. So the youth departed.they eat lice. are nomads.and obeyed the orders which they had been given. who. do not speak the same language as the Geloni.they had intercourse with the other Amazons.fledto the Budiniandtookup their abodewith them. was a marvel. at which the natives fall into the Bacchicfury.Here aretemplesbuilt in honour of the Greciangods.sails. There is a city in their territory.surrounded bymarshy with reeds on it. It is reportedof the Sauromatae.Unlike anyother nation in theseparts.they arecannibals.and that these women upon the voyage rose them to a man. and the womankept her word.however. In the very woodiestpartis a broaddeeplake.wandering noticed this and did likewise. 144 This content downloaded from 190. from so notable children desire to obtain strong 112. put to sea.the firstherd of horseswhich they fell in with they seized. but it is a misnotwithstanding take to give them the name. are tillers of the in eat have and both soil.and mountingupon theirbacks. The Amazons scatteredby ones and twos at The Scythians off to relievethemselves.39 Not that I believethis. When the restof the youthsheardwhat had takenplace. nor is their mode of life the same. werealikeunknown-whencethe enemyhadcome even. noon. Here they which is in the countryof the free Scythians.whom the Scythians or man-slayers.They arethe aboriginal and people of the country. The mannersof the Man-eaters thanthoseof anyotherrace. Their customsare Scythic. and are even readyto backtheir assertionwith an oath.with anothersort of animal which has a squareface.in honour of Dionysus.unlike any of the neighbouringraces. and so they on their part ceased to offer the Scythiansany molestation. Their countryis thickly planted with trees of all mannerof kinds. They are nomads. Then she badehim by signs (for they did eachother'slanguage) to bringa friend not understand the next day to the spot wherethey had met-promising on her part to bring with her anotherwoman.Hereuponthey deliberated. wherebythey discovered and made a resolveto truth. the nation itself. being driven out of the tradingportsalongthe coast. nor are governed by any laws. call Oiorpata as it maybe rendered. so that they were forced to supportthemselves by hunting and pillage. 40 Photius defines the same word as fir-cone. 107. shapeandcomplexion are quite differentfrom the Budini.fell to plunderingthe Scythian territory. and from this derive the name which they bear. half Scythian. and proceeded by land towards the inhabitedregions.

and to waron us only." Againthe youthscomplied." But the Amazonssaid.let us thereforegive up this mode of life. andeitherquit ourcountry. having never been able in her whole lifetimeto fulfil the condition. and would conductyourselves with strict justice towards us. or to do anything.on being introduced into the presenceof the kings of these nations. As you like us for wives. but the Agathyrsianand Neurian princes. The youthsapproved it.after subduingthe whole of the other continent. but have nevertalkedit correctly. We can bring strongproof of what we here advance.andwe promiseyouto haveno others. The two campswere then joined in one. and wearthe same dress as the men.he has subjugated withoutexnation that in his All the tribes lay ceptionevery path.192.sometimes horseback hunting even unaccompanied. on our part. "If you had not been the first to wrong the Persians.andgo anddwell beyondthe Tanais. and took up their abodein it. Letus leavethis country together. We. The envoys of the Scythians. or make termswith the invaders. till we see this come to pass.and begin the war. who were assembledto deliberate. deliberated.and live with them. "Standnot aloof then from this contest. but the women soon caught up the tongueof the men. and the sovereignsof the Man-eaters.andfollowed 115. Tauri. engaged in things. were of accord.but we have done great damageto Scythiaby our ravages. ing bridge being to bringunder his sway all Europealso. If they invade our land. independently of us.At the end opinion was divided-the kings of the Geloni.and pledged Budini.without molestinganynationby the way. however.the Scythsaddressedthe Amazons in these words. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .202 on Sun. "We could not live with your women-our customsare quite differentfrom theirs. The Sauromatae speakthe languageof Scythia. When they couldthus understand one another. 116. of the 119. and begin aggressionsupon us. Had the Persianleaderindeedcometo avengethe wrongswhich he sufferedat ourhandswhen we enslavedhis people. to leave you in peace. we shouldhave thoughtthe requestyou makejust." of the advice.and properties.The Persian comesagainstyouno less thanagainst us: and will not be content.had thrown a bridge over the straitof the Bosporus.to bestridethe horse. if youraid be withheldfrom us? The blow. They went and got the portion of goods which fell with it. The men were unable to learn intercourse the tongue of the women. For we believethatthe Persiansarenot 145 This content downloaded from 190. Crossingthe Tanaisthey journeyedeastwarda distance of three days' march from that stream. who to them.114. that no girl shall wed till she has killed a man in battle. we will not sufferthem.You shall be ourwives there no less thanhere.If you refuse. of the Thracians have been broughtunderhis sway. and was now maka over the aim his Ister. becausethe Amazons learned it imperfectlyat the first.To drawthe bow. and let us and you live togetherby ourselves. and Sauromatae themselvesto give assistanceto the Scythians. lorded it over them: raisedup now by the same God. to hurl the javelin. 118. together with the the Black-cloaks. go you home to your parents.For what else is left for us to do. womanishtasks. in war takingthe field.Yourwomen. grantthe requestwe makeof you.made it known to them. We shouldneveragreetogether. returned then addressed themin these wordsfollowing. be sure.and then comebackto us. frequently present. at in their but home stay waggons. andtogetherlet us meetthe enemy.and so long as God gave you the power. that Scythiaalone was aimed at.Then it wouldhave been plain to all. wherehe had reduced the Thracians. But now. and again northwarda distanceof three days' marchfrom LakeMaeotis. he would have been boundto marchstraightupon Scythia." amongthem even our next neighbours.after we are conquered. The women of the Sauromatae have continued from that day to the to observe their ancient customs.But if you truly wish to keep us as yourwives. we should then have compliedwith your wishes. ing very 117. what has his conductbeen? From the momentof his entrance into Europe. each Scythianhaving the Amazon with whom he first had as his wife.and the Getae. The assembled nations. these are our arts-of womanlyemployments we know do none of these nothing.Not only have we stolen you from yourfathers.and nevergo out to hunt.on the contrary. and rejoinedtheirwives. they are come to do to you the like. invadedthe land of the Persians. "look not on tamely while we are perishing-but make commoncausewith us. Their marriage-law lays it down. that the Persian. and joined our arms with yours. did no wrong to these men in the formerwar. replied to their requestas follows. on with their husbands. "We are and afraidto live in the country wherewe now ashamed.162. the case standsthus-you. Now. but.Here they cameto the country wherethey now live.and crossedinto the continentof Europe. are.afterhearprinces all that the to ing Scythianshad say. and returnto our nation. we will remainat home. and will not be the first to commitwrong now. "We have parents.Sometimes it happensthat a womandies unmarried at an advancedage."they went on to say. will not light on you more gently upon this account.we mustyieldto the pressure.bid them give you your inheritance.

the Tanais.theyreached country through and extendsa distance desert.one of forage.In this way they passedthroughthe countryof the Sauromatae. When Dariusreached his halted his pursuit. the Budini. the of the the entire Budini. except such a numberas was wantedfor food. seeing nothingmore of them. it was and if the agreed should be joined by the Sauromatae.Herehe built eight large forts. namely that commandedby Scopasis. and all their cattle. The two other divisions.which has no inhabitants.weremade to precedethem in their retreat.did not wait for the Scythsto invade them.andthen of the Persians. 123. at an equal distancefrom one the ruins of another. 125.eight miles apart or thereabouts. chokingup all the wells and springsas they retreated.to the north. still in pursuit. if they would not of their own free will engage in the contest. As long as the marchof the Persianarmylay and Sauromatae. solved.They dividedthemselves which. they might by these means be it was agreedthattheyshould forcedinto it. left his forts half finished.the land of but on enteringthe territories being wasteandbarren. andenteredthatof the Budini.162.they should at once pursue and harassthem. while if the Persiansretired. in the directionof the Tanais. He now quickened his march.encamping destroying that grew on the ground. was causedamong this people by the invadisturbance sion of the Scythsfirst. 122.At first.and.come to attackus. and entering Scythia. they renationsrefusedtheiralliance. went out to meet the armyof Darius. the Scythians with the sameresult wayinto the land of the Man-eaters.where their coming likewise spreaddismayamongthe inhabibut the Agathyrsi.and to forewarnthem.asthe neighbouring thatthey would not openlyventureon anypitchedbattle with the enemy. they led following day'smarch. by its inhabitants This to the of burnt quite empty everything. place they ground. yond four great streams flow.41During the time whomhe hadbeen the Scythians thathe was so occupied. like the others.the Oarus. and returnedtowardsthe west. The pursuit of the Persianswas directedtowardsthe single division of the Scythianarmy. The scouts of the Scythiansfound the Persian threedays'marchfrom the Ister.and leaving the whole countrybare of into threebands. and following. enemyretiredbeforethem. throughthe countriesof the Scythians there was nothing which they could damage.and armyuponthe Oarus. their On re-enteredScythia. and Great first of all into the countryof the Black-cloaks. and." 120. they came upon the wooden fortressabove andleft whichwas deserted mentioned. When these measureshad been determined on.they advanced. These rivers all traversethe countryof the Maeotians.and fall into Lake Maeotis.should Persiansadvanced retreatalong the shoresof Lake Maeotisand make for that river. retireinto their own land. the a circuit made by higher regions. that. Herodotus would hear of them from the Greek traders. and the third. and the Syrgis.fell in with the two combineddivisionsof the army.he pausedfrom 124. tants. joined by the detachments and Budini. again pressedforwardon the trackof the retreating till.and instantlygave them chase. the principalone under the commandof Idanthyrsus. but sent a herald to forbid them to cross their borders. in still were which remaining my day. on ing Their waggons. Beof seven days'journeyabovethe Budinianterritory. land out of whose the dwell this desert Thyssagetae.202 on Sun. He imagined that the Scythianswhom he had seen were the entire nation. Their names are the Lycus. and. When this reply reachedthe Scythians.into the territories him. if they made the The conjecture is probable that these supposed "forts" were ruined barrows.Theykept Scythian of a beforehim at the distance to theirplan of retreating them he still hotly.and departed. as had beenpreviously the nationsthat had refusedto becometheir allies.join battlewith the enemy. of settled. march. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .falling backas they and doing the sameas the others. Darius.sendthe Scythians in front as scoutsthe fleetestof their horsemen.192. were to unite of the Geloni in one.So. having passed Scythians.withoutchangeof course.to keep at the distance of a day'smarchfrom the Persians. the desert. were. which had witnessedthe flight and terrorof their neighbours.and having so done. driving off their herds.andthe Persiansafterthem. shouldit on deliberation to themexpedient. The Scyths crossed the river.whereintheirwomenand theirchildren lived. His words do not necessarily imply that he had himself seen them. of which Taxaciswas king. but would retirebefore them. as before. Afterwards.and imhost advanced of a day's the lead of them at the distance took mediately all and from time to time. appear 121.Still retreating they approached this people.The Persiansno soonercaught horsethantheypursuedupon their sight of the Scythian while the track. were to take the directionof the nationswhich had refused to join the alliance. but to punishthose who areguilty of firstinjuringthem. which theykept with them.andthencepassedonwardsinto Neuris.with orders to keep marching. havled the ing harassedthem after this sort.andthattheyhad fled in that direction. 41 146 This content downloaded from 190.andwereto drawthe warupon them: that so. complete disappearance.and thus their line of marchwas eastwardtowards the Tanais.

For. to bothland andwater. Darius gave it as his opinion. the Scythsand when of instead defending themselves. and then did as they had determined. when the asses brayed.and led the Persiansbackfrom the Neuriandistrictinto theirown land. it would be resisted by force of arms. As for lords. let us engage in battle. driventhe horse in.attempt.you must needs come to blows with us speedily.fell back upontheirfoot.by reasonof the cold. Earthand water. If the Persians were wise.the Scythian do you keep on flying before me. tions. We Scythians nor cultivatedlands. they would find out the meaning for themselves. they held a councilto considerthe matter. There is nothing new or strangein what I do. however. Meanwhilethe Scythians hind resolvedno longer to lead the Persianshither and but to fall upon themwhenthitherabouttheircountry. who neverfailed to affordthemsupport. be sure we shall not join battle. If. in nor do I so times from them. while they themselvesmoved awayto a distance: the Persianswould make a foray.in these assaultson the Persiancamp. "Strangeman. but you shall soon receivemoresuitablegifts.into his hands. to defend their countryagainstthe invaders.andshowingastonishment. Therewas one very strangething whichgreatly aided the Persians. the bearer to tell them what thesegifts might mean. When the Scythiankings heard the name of slaverythey were filled with rage.a mouse. retiredagain. I sayto you.This was of the assesandthe appearance the braying of the mules. and despatchedthe were division under Scopasisto which the Sauromatae conference a should seek that with orders they joined. 126. the tributeyou ask. mademanysimilarattacks. he added. I acknowledgeonly Zeus my ancestor. To effectthis.when routed. inhabitant 147 This content downloaded from 190. and take the beasts. The Scythians. or men Persian. becausethe mouse is an of the earth. and seemedso interminable. This had gone on so long. evertheyshouldbe at theirmeals. I do not send.So theywaitedtill such times. This is my answerto the challenge to fight. and to come at once to a conference. The Agathyrsi then proceeded to the frontier. have not done fly past.of the animalbefore:and it wasnot without somelittle influence on the progress of the war. This was owing to theirhavingneverheardthe noise.) So the heralddeparted. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . they would leave someof theircattleexposedwith the herdsmen. andfivearrows. Till you do this.202 on Sun.and eats the samefood as man. By nighttoo the Scythians 129.and often. and attemptto meddle with them-then youshallsee whetheror no we will fight with you.however. would take fright and wheel round.So when they heard this. king. 130.162. this bearing messageto Darius. 'Gohowl. for fear of the foot. there are our fathers'tombs-seek them out.to be in any hurry to fight with you. in the middle of a charge.in the hope. I now fly from you.or seenthe form. which might induce us.and was of equal disserviceto the Scyths. that Darius at last sent a horsemanto Idanking. and containsno single specimen of eitheranimal. The Scythians.prickingup theirears. 132. if of inflictingon themthegreater injury. So. through fear of their being takenor ravaged.took signs steps to inducethem not to quit Scythia. I never fear "This is my way. the Man-eaters. 128.ceaseyourwanderings and come. why when therearetwo thingsyou might do so easily?If you deemyourselfableto resistmy arms. This they did severaltimes. as soon as they had while the Scythians.Now I will tell you why I do not at once have neithertowns join battle with you.undera heraldto the matters how stood. Or if you are thatmy strengthis greaterthanyours-even so conscious youshouldceaseto runaway-you havebutto bringyour lord earth and water.As for the other naand the Neuri.but he made answerthat he had no ordersexceptto deliver them. look you now.a frog. despatched standing Persiancampwith presentsfor the king: these were.theselast. I only follow my commonmode of life in peacefulyears. they forgot their threats. Lastof all. hereonthe Scythian princes.and Hestia. until at last Darius was at his wits' end.This he conceived be the meaning of the gifts. replied. theywouldbe highlyelated. thyrsus. To this messageIdanthyrsus.refrained.192.when theystayed.when they perceived the that Persianswere becoming alarmed. and fled awayin confusionto the desertslying towards the north. as I observedbefore. their suppliesshould altogetherfail.' " (This is what men mean by the Scythian mode of speech.the horses. a asked The Persians bird. in returnfor callingyourselfmy lord. with the Ionians. the Scythian 127.In these the Scythian horsealwaysput to flightthe horse combats of the enemy. with the following message. on their side.hearingthe noise made by the asses. that the Scyths intended a surrenderof themselvesand their country. and returnagain with all speed.unlessit pleasesus.who had been left at the Isterto guard who remainedbethe bridge.when the Agathyrsiforbade them to enter their country. the Black-cloaks.the land of the Scythians producesneitherass nor mule.they frightenedthe Scythiancavalry. whereupon 131. the Scythian queen. Persiansoverrantheir lands.

Havingthus declaredhis plans to the men whom he was deserting. It is scarcely possible that they really possessed any such force.that. and had no knowledgeof the routes. rushedoff in pursuit. and at the end go your ways. wherebywe may secureourselvesa safe returnto our homes.and leavingbehindus on somepretext that portionof our armywhich is weak and unequalto hardship.it chancedthat a hare startedup between them and the Persians. and was told that the Scythians were all engaged in huntinga hare. When day dawned. After the sendingof the gifts to Darius. the entertained no doubtof hearing sound. we light ourfiresas we do at othertimes. opposed anotherwhich was as follows. if he did not appear. 133. Darius followed his counsel. and the Geloni. stretchedout their hands towards the Scythians.we understand. the accompaniedby all their allies.the part of the Scythian to the Ister. and bothportionsof the Scythian army-alike thatwhich consistedof a single division. The single division of the Scyths. Tarryhere the appointedtime. 42 Persians. no. andsaid.or makeyourselves fens. mine likewise. then.and set to running. My adviceis.On this he turnedto thosewith whom he waswont to converse. the Sauromatae. and that they meanwhilewereto guardhis campfor him. especially now that I see them makinggame of us. Darius might have compelled them to a general engagement. it is time we form some wise plan."Suchwere the meaningswhich the Persians assignedto the gifts.addressed them.Gobryas. 71 while the frog passeshis life in the water." "Sire. So Gobryas advised. "I was almost sure. reaching bridge.which are not cut out in Scythia. the Persians still in the sameplace.hearingthe noise. than they quicklyjoined all their troops in one.and spoke as befittedtheir situation.alike in his sight. and when night came. marched away."Havingsaidthis.you were to returnhome. however.the Persianarmywas chieflyfoot. that this was an impracticable racesinceourcomingI amyetmoreconvinced of it. To the explathe surrender signify one of the sevenconspirators nationof Darius.you can turn into birds and fly up into the sky. therefore. therefore. only bringyoufreedom.The asseswereleft thattheirnoisemightbe heard: the men. brayed louderthanever. words.which in the earlypart of the war had been appointedto keep guard aboutLakeMaeotis. Now. perceivingthat they were betrayedby Darius. 134.192. Budini. set off in pursuit. If they had had a force of foot-soldiers.162. and marchedhastilytowardsthe Ister. or becomemice and burrowunderthe frogs.Persians. and those whose loss would be of least account. andreceiveda promisefromthe Ionians to do as they desired.As." anyresolution 135.the men who had been left behind. "Unless. you Darius.before our foes marchforwardto the Isterand destroythe bridge. with the asses also tetheredabout the camp.while the Scythswere all 148 This content downloaded from 190.when immediatelyall the Scythswho saw it.andhad now beensentto get speech of the Ioniansstationedat the Ister. The asses.Darius. But as they stood in battle array. you will nevermakeescapefrom this land. therefore. and in ours.and that made up of two. but die piercedby our arrows.with greatconfusion.and the Scythians. and the arrowsmight a great resemblance of all their power.the birdbears to the horse. will do as we if recommend.andloud cries and shouts.taking care also to leave our asses tethered.act so as to be free from blame. As.aware of the departure of the host.Dariusset forth.Cat. retreatfrom Scythia. against the Magus. and leaving his sick soldiers.202 on Sun. on we "Men of in these the Ionia. the Scythianshastened backwith all possiblespeed. beforeI camehere. enjoinedyou to keep yourguard here at this bridge just sixty days.or the Ionianscome to whichmayleadto ourruin. and takerefugein the ground.when night falls. really becausethey were sick and useless.The enemy no sooner heard.and seemed aboutto come to an engagement. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .whichhadnot marched drew out in battle arrayhorse and foot42against the We now hear for the first time of the Scythians having infantry. andhavingcausedthe firesto be lighted.that he was aboutto fall upon the Scythianswith the flower of his troops. but under the pretense. being 136."Gobryasrejoined. inquiredthe cause of it. army. "Thesemen do indeed us I see that Gobryas and now was right despise utterly: aboutthe Scythian his opinionis now gifts. and made straightfor the Ister.

such speed. to visit themwith the vengeance whichtheyso well deserve. was great. 137.by way of reproach. Scythia. believe us. and.kept strictly from it. Milesian Histiaeus the to But and restorefreedom Ionia. ing a passageacrossthe Isterby the bridge. 43 44 to the distance of a bowshotfromthe riverbank.they mostdastardly of all mankind-butif they be considered as underservitude. that he will neveragainmake so to handle. and on this tracksought their thattheytoo wouldretreat adversaries. 141. for our sakes. if be looked as are the and basest they upon free-men. whentheyfoundthe bridge theyarrived.the Greekleadersfurtherdetermined to be act as follows. and filled in all the wells. 15 Sep 2013 11:34:59 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . he said. resolution andthen Histiaeushimselfstood forth and made answerto the Scythsin the nameof all the Greeks. and thankingfor it Yourformerlord andmaster the gods andthe Scythians. and even march.Theytook plannedwereexactly a routewhere water was to be found and fodder could be got for their horses. and you do wrong to remain. while the catalogue of the Hellespontine cities is tolerably complete. 138."that opposedthis advice. we undertake waruponanyone.But. as it easilyfound the Persians turnedout. they arethe faithfulestof slaves. Aeaces of Samos.This personwas bid by Dariusto stand at the water'sedge. By these meansthe Persiansescapedfrom Scythia. The Ioniansnow held a council. of Parium. and to assurethe Scythians. that. while the Scythssought for them in vain. manin the world. spoke.44 Aristagoras 139. and thus. all menwho stoodhigh in the esteemof the Persian king: the tyrants of the Hellespont-Daphnis of Abydos.The fellow did as he was bid. do to pleasurethem.hoping to fall in with the Persians.Suchwerethe additions madeto the of Histiaeus. Againthe Scyths of the put faith in the promises Ionianchiefs.the Ionian princes-Strattisof Chios. expecting through where these were to be obtained.And hence the Scythians tomedto say of the Ionians.andoureffortsshallnot be wantingto advance cause.changedtheir minds.broughtthe fleetto assistin conveying the armyacross.Forthereis not one of themwhichwill not to kingly rule. Scythians.for they thoughtthat perhapsthe Ionianshaddeserted them.with the shortestway.you doubtless may safely breakthe bridge.Meantime. who." 140. to wit. 149 This content downloaded from 190.they resolved to break up the part of the bridge which abuttedon Concerningthis sovereignty of Miltiades see Book vi."Itis throughDarius.MeHerophantus Hippoclusof Lampsacus.were aboutto vote with Miltiades. however.noryou be overturned. and declaredin favour of the lastspeaker.They missed.43 mendedthe othergeneralsto do as the Scythians wished.If his power I cannotcontinuelordof Miletus. who were aboard their ships. recomand their commander Hellespont. again are accusmissing their track.an Egyptian. brokenup. however. thatthe two armies so happened came the Scythians. "Menof Ionia. and hasten back to your homes.their own former acts being to blamefor it. however. in these words. Miltiadesthe Athenianwho was king of the Chersonesites upon the at the Ister. One cannot but suspect that the list of Herodotus is imperfect. there being no important omission but that of Calchedon.neverfor a momentdeparting so gained the bridgewith difficulty. Now therewas in the armyof Dariusa certain who had a loudervoicethananyother man.192. and Histiaeusof Miletus. and that more contingents were present than he names. and retraced their steps. In orderto appearto the Scythians in when fact were they doing something. Only one Aeolian of note was present.Aristagorasof Cyzicus. and Histiaeus.hearinghim at the veryfirstsummons.162. most probably). Had they not ravagedall the pasturages of that region. werenot yet firstto the bridge.while we labour hereat ourtask.and themostfondlyattached to theirlords. Laodamasof Phocaea." we enjoy our thronesin our severalstates. the enemy's whole line of march. the measures whichseemedto themso wisely whatcaused theirfailure. only those Ionian and Aeolian leaders who were of particularrepute obtained any mention. It may be conjectured that the list came from a Hellespontine source (from the family of Miltiades.Findingthatthe Persians arrived.202 on Sun. the number of your days is out." Then the other capprefer democracy till Histiaeus tains.Yourown eyessee thatwe areengagedin breaking the bridge.and Ariston of Byzantium. trodorusof Proconnesus.be it yourbusiness to seekthemout. and call Histiaeusthe Milesian. of Cyme. of yourcities. gettingfar aheadof theiradversaries."Goodis the advicewhichyou havebrought and well haveyou done to comeherewith us.and once more made good the bridge. The regions things to the line their of former Persians. The following were the voterson this occasion. when found. 34-36. it horsemenand well acquainted and missedone another. they would have wheneverthey chose. 142.while the demolitionwas thattherewas nothingwhichtheywouldnot proceeding. Your effortshave now put us into the right your path.they addressedthe Ionians. we will work zealouslyto procureour own freedom. doing nothing and likewiseto preventthemfrom forcof consequence. and. It was night when andtheirterror. the man who had opposedMiltiades. Having resolvedto follow the adviceof Histito speakand aeus. rejoicingthat you are free.Fear has kept you herehitherto:now.as well as yourown.

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