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THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

BY

SHELDON

CHENEY

NEW

YORK

MITCHELL

KENNERLEY
MCMXVIII

COPYRIGHT MITCHELL

IQiS
KENNERLEY

BY

9 I c]

PRINTED

IN

AMERICA

PREFACE

MY
in every
a

object

in

writing
first,

this
to

volume

has
for that is the

been

three-fold:

offer,

creasing in-

large

public

which
of

ested inter-

significant development
view
to

drama,
ment move-

comprehensive
with
relation

of both
current

the the

open-air
historical

theatre

background
to

and

the the

remarkable architect about

revival;
first-aid modern

second,

vide pro-

with

compendium open-air
if it has

of

formatio in-

old

and

theatres,
existed
at

bringing
all in

together
has

material been

which,

print,
and

scattered articles
;

through
and

hundred
those view

books

magazine
with

third,
a

to

give

concerned of and the drama

open-air
of the
open
to

production
in all them
ages
to

birdseye
and
an

all

lands,

by comparison,
of the of

help

ing understand-

peculiar production
of
treat
are

characteristics out-of-doors. is limited. of

and

particular

problems
The is made

scope
to

the of in

volume
theatres the

No

attempt

the

half-enclosed
architectural There volume is
as

type,
theatre
no

which with

effect

ordinary
roof

the

auditorium
to

lifted. the

intention,

moreover,

put

forth

PREFACE
an

exhaustive

treatise.

Doubtless
not
come so

there
to

are

many

theatres open-air

that have

the writer's

notice,and
that

certain others

offer

little of interest

would merely be tedious. But it descriptions portant imis thought that every playhouse which is really for its unique either for its productions or structural form, has been described. I have worked full realization that this firstbook
must
as a on

with

ject the sub-

be

than hardly more preliminary essay in


new

a a

sketch. field which

It is offered I

hope
will

will

attract

students, and
the

which

doubtless

find its exhaustive If I indoor

historian in due
to

time.

refer continually

artificialities of the

stage, it is
theatre.

not

because
my

I disbelieve in the indoor

Indeed,

faith in the ultimate

generation re-

of that over-commercialized very

institution is

strong.

But I believe that there has been much


so-called in the tists" "ar-

the following of false gods among of the regular playhouse;and theatre I


see one

open-air

of the finest correctives for its over-

and artificiality. sophistication aid in the people have given generous compilationof this book, that it is impossibleto
many

So

make

detailed

acknowledgment.
about

To

the many

who

have

provided information
or

their

tres, privatethea-

about

the theatres of institutions with which cordial thanks.

I extend again theyare affiliated, my

vi

PREFACE A

owing to Professor Thomas of Wisconsin, not of the University Dickinson about the playhouseat Madison for information
debt special is for material

H.

only
but
on

gleaned from

his admirable

essay

open-airtheatres in The Playbook of June, 1913. Sam Goble and to Mr. Mr. To Leroy Truman for material about open-air I am Hume grateful duction prohave esin Europe, which otherwise would caped
me.

To for

Miss

Mabel aid The

Lincoln

Edwards

owe

thanks American
are

similar

in connection

with

certain

theatres. based
; but
on

chapterson
drawn from

historic theatres
a

material

multitude be made
Attic atre. The-

of
to

sources

acknowledgment must special


The

A.

E.

Haigh's exhaustive volume,


information about

For I Vincent the


am

tres the Italian villa thea-

indebted to Professor Henry especially and plans in Hubbard, whose descriptions


1914,

January,
have of

number

of

Landscape
upon.

ture Architec-

been the

freely drawn
Italian theatres and
to

For

graphs photoare

thanks special Mrs.

due

to

H.

Inigo Triggs
for

Aubrey

Le-

Blond; and
Professor

of the pictures Allen Marquand.

classic theatres,to The

introductory

chapterwas

zine, publishedin part in Craftsman Magaand the chapter on garden theatres originally The editors appeared in Country Life in America. have kindlygiven permission to reprint.
vii

PREFACE The
year

book

was

written
was

almost

1915,

and

announced

entirely duringthe for publication in the

But following year. photographs,

difficultiesin the way of obtaining and other delays,have vented preI have taken

earlier appearance.
of this circumstance

theatres which of the


text

were

advantage of several to add descriptions completed after the main portion


written. S. C.

had

been

Vlll

CONTENTS

CHAPTER
.

PAGE

I.

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

MOVEMENT

II.

THE

OLD

GREEK

AND

ROMAN

THEATRES

13

III.

THE

MODERN

GREEK

THEATRES

30

IV.

THE

MEDIEVAL

RELIGIOUS

THEATRE

AND

ITS

SURVIVALS

51 THEATRE

V.

THE

NATURE

64
87
OPEN

VI.

THE

GARDEN

THEATRE

VII.

THE

DRAMA

OF

THE

in

APPENDIX

I.

THE

PLANNING
AIR

AND

CONSTRUCTION

OF

OPEN-

THEATRES

135

II.

VlTRUVIUS

ON

THE

CONSTRUCTION THEATRES

OF

GREEK

AND

ROMAN

INDEX

185

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

1.

CORNER

OF

THE OF

ARENA GORDON

GOLDONI

Frontispiece
PAGE

(BY
2.

COURTESY

CRAIG)
THEATRE

THE THE

CRANBROOK
BOHEMIAN

GREEK GROVE
BY

6
8

3.

THEATRE

(PHOTOGRAPH
4.

GABRIEL
AT

MOULIN)
VILLA The

THE

GARDEN

THEATRE
INIGO

GORI
Art

10

(FROM Design
5.

H. in

TRIGGS'

of Garden

Italy)
OF BY

THE

THEATRE

DIONYSUS

AT

ATHENS

14

(PHOTOGRAPH
6.

ALINARI)
THE

RESTORATION

OF

GREEK

THEATRE

AT

EGESTA
7.

18

THE

GREEK

THEATRE
OF

AT

EPIDAURUS

20

(BY
8.

COURTESY

PROFESSOR
AT

ALLEN
SYRACUSE

MARQUAND)
22

RUINS

OF

THE

THEATRE
BY

(PHOTOGRAPH
9.

ALINARI)
GREEK
AND

SKETCH

PLANS

OF

ROMAN

TRES THEA23

10.

RUINS

OF

THE

ROMAN
BY

THEATRE

AT

TAORMINA
24

(PHOTOGRAPH
11.
a.

ALINARI)
OF THE

RESTORATION

ROMAN

THEATRE

AT

ORANGE

26
OF

(BY

COURTESY

RlCHARD

SlLVESTER)

xi

LIST
b. THE

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE

ROMAN STATE

THEATRE

AT

ORANGE,

PRESENT

(Bv
12.

COURTESY

OF

Fogue)
AT

THE

SMALLER

THEATRE
BY

POMPEII

28

(PHOTOGRAPH
13.
a.

ALINARI)
THEATRE
FOR AT

THE

HEARST

GREEK DRAWING

BERKELEY

32

b. ARCHITECT'S

HEARST

GREEK

THEATRE

(BY COURTESY ARCHITECT)


14. THE

OF

JOHN GALEN
POINT
BY

HOWARD,

GREEK

THEATRE

AT

LOMA KATHERINE

36

(PHOTOGRAPHS TINGLEY)
15. THE 16.
a.

COPYRIGHT

CRANBROOK THE
POMONA

GREEK GREEK
BY

THEATRE
THEATRE PIERCE
AND

38
42

(PHOTOGRAPH
b. THE BAKERSFIELD
COURTESY

WILLARD)
CHITECT) HoBART, AR-

GREEK
OF

THEATRE
P.

(BY
17. PLAN

LEWIS

OF

THE

ARENA
OF

GOLDONI GORDON
AS

44

(BY
1

COURTESY

CRAIG)
SEEN
FROM THE

8. THE

ARENA
STAGE

GOLDONI

46
OF

(BY
19. THE
20.

COURTESY

GORDON
AT

CRAIG)
48
CIENNES VALEN1-4

GREEK

THEATRE
PLAY

BRADFIELD
AT

THE

PASSION

THEATRE

(FROM CHARLES of
the

H.

CAFFIN'S

The

tion Apprecia-

Drama)
xii

THE

ROSEMARY

THEATRE,
NEW

AT

HUNTINGTON,
YORK.

LONG

ISLAND,

LIST
21.

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE

CONTEMPORARY THEATRE

SKETCH

OF

AN

ELIZABETHAN

58
H. CAFFIN'S
The

(FROM CHARLES of the Drama)


22.

tion AppreciaOBER-AM6O

THE

PASSION
MERGAU

PLAY

THEATRE

AT

23. THE
24.

HARZ NATURE

MOUNTAIN THEATRE

THEATRE
AT

66

THE

HERTENSTEIN THEATRE

68
70

25. THE 26. THE

KLAMPENBORG
VASSAR
COURTESY

WOODS

COLLEGE
OF

THEATRE LoRING

74

(BY
27. THE
28.

UNDERWOOD,

CHITECT) AR-

DELL NATURE

THEATRE THEATRE
OF AT

76
MACOMB
P.

THE

78

(BY
29.

COURTESY

WALTER

MORGAN)
80

THE
a.

PETERBOROUGH THE
BANKSIDE
COURTESY

PAGEANT
THEATRE
OF

THEATRE

30.

84
FREDERICK

(BY
H. b. THE

PROFESSOR

KOCH)
MOUNT TAMALPAIS
BY AT OF AT OF

THEATRE

(PHOTOGRAPH
31. GARDEN

GABRIEL MONTECITO
HENRY VILLA E.

MOULIN)
90

THEATRE
COURTESY

(BY
32. GARDEN

BoTHIN)
94

THEATRE

MARLIA VlNCENT HUB-

(BY COURTESY BARD)


33.
a.

HENRY

THE

WATER

THEATRE
IN

AT

VERSAILLES
THE

96
DENS GAR-

b. THE

AMPHITHEATRE

BOBOLI

"""

Xlll

LIST
THE TREILLAGE

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE

34.

THEATRE
BY

AT

MANNHEIM

98

(PHOTOGRAPH
35.
a.

B.

TILLMANN-MATTER)
102

THE

BROOKSIDE

THEATRE
BY

(PHOTOGRAPH SERVICE)
b. THE

NEW

YORK

HERALD

GARDEN
COURTESY
IN THE

TERRACE
OF

THEATRE
DR. G. H.

(BY 36. THEATRE

DURAND)
SAW WAR104

LAZIENSKI

GARDENS,

37. THE

ROSEMARY
COURTESY

THEATRE
OF

106 R.

(BY
38. GARDEN (BY

ROLAND
AT

CoNKLIN)
no

THEATRE
COURTESY

MONTECITO
MRS.

OF

WlLLIAM

MlLLER

GRAHAM)
39. A

PRODUCTION THEATRE

IN

THE

BOHEMIAN

GROVE
122

(PHOTOGRAPH
40. A

BY

GABRIEL
THE

MOULIN)
LOMA

PRODUCTION

AT

POINT

GREEK
128

THEATRE

(PHOTOGRAPH TINGLE Y)
41.

COPYRIGHT

BY

KATHERINE

RUINS

OF

THE

THEATRE
BY

AT

FIESOLE

138

(PHOTOGRAPH
42.

ALINARI)
BETWEEN

DIAGRAM
AND

OF

RELATIONS

AUDITORIUM
140

STAGE
OF THE COURTESY

43.

PLAN

HEARST
OF

GREEK

THEATRE GALEN

142

(BY

JOHN
xiv

HOWARD,

ARCHITECT)

LIST
PLAN

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE

44.

OF

THE

CRANBROOK
OF

GREEK

THEATRE

144

(Bv
45. PLAN

COURTESY
OF

Modern

Building)
MEMORIAL A. WAUGH,

THE

BUTTERICK
OF

THEATRE
TECT) ARCHI-

146

(BY

COURTESY

FRANK

46. THE THEATRE (BY COURTESY


QUAND)
47. COMPARATIVE THEATRES

AT

PRIENE
OF

152 ALLEN MAR-

PROFESSOR

PLANS

OF

ITALIAN

GARDEN

156
IN THE

48. CHAIRS

OF

HONOR

THEATRE

OF

SUS DIONY160

(PHOTOGRAPH
49.

BY

ENGLISH

PHOTO

COMPANY)
164

DESIGN

FOR COURTESY OF THE

PAGEANT
OF

STAGE

(BY
50. PLAN

HERMANN THEATRE

RoSSE)
ACCORDING TO

ROMAN

VITRUVIUS

174
OF THE

(BY COURTESY PRESS)


51. PLAN
OF THE

HARVARD

UNIVERSITY

GREEK

THEATRE

ACCORDING

TO

VITRUVIUS

180
OF THE

(BY COURTESY PRESS)

HARVARD

UNIVERSITY

XV

THE

OPEN-AIR of the
art

THEATRE is

renaissance

of the theatre, and

waiting
their
pressed ex-

artists who for the new expectantly the as characteristically as age


theirs
a

will express
Greeks

have
may

and

Shakespeare his, one


the
recent

read interest

new

meaning
al

into

revival
not

of

in the

fresco drama.
been

For

since the theatre


was

of the late Elizabethan have and


so

decadence

roofed
the

over

there
many

so

many

productions in
as

open

outdoor
average

theatres

there

are

to-day.
of the

For outdoor

the

theatregoer, who

thinks

dramatic
comes as

production
a

as

an

extra-normal
open-

it affair, air

to surprise
more

find that the than


two

theatre

has

existed
the

thousand

years,

whereas of
a

history of the indoor


three
or

playhouse
deed, Inof
clusively ex-

is

matter

mere

four

centuries. art, and


eras,

the

story of the birth of dramatic

that

art's

growth through its greatest


the drama
born

is

the In Greece
an

story of the open-air theatre.


was

in the dances of

about

altar, during the


grew
on

festivals in honor the


or

the
at

god
the

Dionysus; it
side of the the
a

platforms erected
later
at

"orchestra,"

at first in dancing-circle,

market-place perhaps, and


formed
of
a

the

foot

of

hillside that
art

natural and

auditorium; and

the finally

^Eschylus
in
at

Sophocles
and then

and

Euripides
theatres

flowered

the

beautiful

architectural de-

of Athens,

first of wood,

THE

MOVEMENT size and The

in velopinginto stone bowls, immense in proportionand in decoration.

tiful beau-

Romans,
matters

stumbling
certain

on

the heels of the Greeks

in all

of art, solidified -the classic theatre


a sense

building,gaining
of the

of

thing perhaps,but losingsomeintimacy,

of the open Greek the


As
structures
;

beauty and
and

natural

grace

they took
when the Middle

the first step toward roofed the settled the


;

indoor the

playhouse
of
art

they

stage.
over

darkness dramatic

Ages

Europe,

became

merely

degraded

bands of actors playthingof travelling because their vulgar and often obscene could
not

and

perhaps
great

performances
the and the classic lasted
to

stand

the

clear

light of day,
"

open-airtheatres lapsed into decay


type of

playhouse fell
drama

into

disuse which

the present renaissance. The


was

reborn

in the tenth
as soon

and
as

eleventh it became

centuries within the church, but


more

than

mere

incident out-of-doors.
on

of

religiousservice it
At

again sought the Plays were


the
wont to

firstthe

Mystery
then
on

acted the

the church

steps, and
Then the

platforms in

churchyard.
on

veloped guilds dehad been

pageant-cars,

which

they

present tableaus

in the

religious processions,

into elaborate

platform stages on which the more elaborate Miracle acted, with realistic Plays were of Hell, Paradise, and other Biblical representations

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

localities. and of the

Finallythe platform in an inn courtyard popular "bear-ring" established the type

period,and playhouse for the early Elizabethan somed, and Shakespeare blosthe genius of Marlowe when to the theatre stage and pit still were open
the
were sky, though the galleries

roofed. house
was

In the
pletely com-

later

Elizabethan covered
over

decadence and the

the

drama
most

entered

upon

that
most

period

in which

it became

polished but
the

artificial and

farthest removed centuries of the Italian


came

from

people.
was

For

nearly three
notable
estates

following there
nobles into of the

only one
On the

revival of the

open-airplayhouse.
late
den gar-

Renaissance

period,there
with

being the

little bits of formal theatres, exquisite in

design,

perfectaccord
ideal that time; and in the

the noble the

villa

gardens, and

forming
of
made

for settings from

pastoraldrama lovely these certain copies were


and the Holland Italian and "teatro

gardens of France
as interesting

Germany.
di verdura"

But
may

be, it

was

far less revival of

than significant the drama of

is the present the open;

world-wide
men

for the drama

and

women are

who

to-day are

taking

the

out-of-doors

inspired with

that brought forth the classic somethingof the spirit open-airtheatre and the pre-Elizabethanreligious

theatre; and

the

present

age

must

take inevitably

THE
its

MOVEMENT
three

place as

one

of the world's

great

periods

of outdoor
The

dramatic

production.
is
a

current

revival
one

spontaneous
a

on arising

the

hand

from
as
a

growth, rediscoveryof the


to
an overa

value of the out-of-doors citified and


new

corrective
on

artificial life,and dramatic

the

other, from
and

spiritof

experiment,

protest

This indoor against the over-sophisticated stage. has brought into being countless dramatic movement festivals and in the number So

pageants,
of al

and

remarkable

increase

fresco theatres
ruins, that

of every
at

type.

to-dayone

finds the old Roman of


a

theatre famous

Orange,
Parisian

France, cleared
company may

annually revive
California
a

classic
new
as

plays there;
beautiful

and Greek

in

faraway

and
an

theatre

has been
to

built,not
very

cal archaeologifor California


a new

but curiosity, such


a
an

a satisfy

need pressing
same

open-airstructure.
theatre has in the
on

In that

unique forest

developed
of the

drama

form while

Grove

Plays

Bohemian the

Club,
borough Peter-

the other

side of the continent and the Meriden

Pageant Stage promise to


In

Theatre
create

Pageant

forms. equallyvital original

Europe, too, unique phases of dramatic art are being created at the "nature" theatres at Thale, at Hertenstein, and in the Klampenborg Woods near Copenhagen. And in many parts of the world the

THE

OPEN-AIR
is

THEATRE

garden theatre
to

its proper
a

again bringing the poetic drama settingof green trees and open sky.
now

It is

poor

month

that

does

not

bring to
of the

the

devotee

either

of news open-airdrama built,or planned or actually of of another annual value

another word

theatre

tablishmen es-

outdoor of In

The be
are

and significance in two

found

directions. dramatic
a or

play-festival. all this activity may the first place there


aspects.
In
acts

important
is
to

artistic in

generalthere
as an

distinct value

anythingthat
in the

antidote of

the artificialnarrowing and


art
as seen

typing stereo-

dramatic Because

"regular"
more

theatres. often
a an

the

open-airproduction is
new

experiment in
a

forms,

or

revival
set

of

than classic,

play that
a

conforms

to

the

indoor both

stage conventions, it has


the
actors

broadening effect on
In

and

the

audience. there have

the

open-air presented
from of

theatres dramas

of from

America

been

the Sanskrit, from from the

the

French, from
even

the German,
the

Norwegian,
have

and

Japanese; and
notable

there

been

revivals of

Mystery Plays and


every

Miracle

Plays
and
as a

and

plays by

English
Bernard

dramatist Shaw

from

Shakespeare
of the

and As

Jonson
an

to

Stephen Phillips.
corrective

educative

force, and
of

influence crystallizing these

the

commercial

theatre,
But

productions can

hardly be

overvalued.

THE

CRANBROOK

GREEK

THEATRE.

AN

EXAMPLE

OF

THE

FIRST,

OR

ARCHITECTURAL,

TYPE

OF

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE.

[MARCUS

R.

BURROWES,

ARCHITECT]

THE

OPEN-AIR
theatre. and

THEATRE As of fact it is,by artists

of the indoor
force
to

matter

of

example,

by training dramatic
of the
open,

the

and simplicity
drama and
to

directness rid

helping
have

the

indoor

itself of

those

deadening
that

conventions
so

those

artificial
art

trappings

long burdened
Eleanora

dramatic has
be

Duse
must

said:

"To

save

the

theatre,
and

the

theatre
must

destroyed; the plague.


. . .

actors

actresses

all die of the


art

They
We

poison
should
drama
ple peo-

the
return

air, they make


to

impossible.
the
open

the Greeks,

play in
and

air; the

dies

of

stalls and
come

boxes

evening dress, and


Madame

who

to
no

digesttheir dinner."
idea she drama she form of did

Duse
to

probably
open.

had

banishing all drama


see

the

Perhaps
sort

that be

very

vital

and

lovely
doors.

of

might
very

developed
was

out-ofthis:
be
tists ar-

But
no

what

certainlyfelt
dramatic
the

that

current

of

activitycan
stage
all the stage,

vital until the


and

playwrights,the

actors,

the audiences,

leaving behind
modern

eries trickgo
out

and
into

artificialities of the
open

the
and

and

learn

the

the simplicity,

ness, directder un-

the
sun

joyousness of
and
stars.

dramatic

production

the The

growth
as

of the

open-air theatre
in its social
as are

movement

is

quite

remarkable In the

in its dramatic

aspects.

first

place

there

what

may

be

FHE

BOHEMIAN

GROVE

THEATRE.

AN

"

EXAMPLE
TYPE.

OF

THE

NATURE

THEATRE"

[PHOTOGRAPH

BY

GABRIEL

MOULIN]

THE called the


movement

MOVEMENT economic effects of any Nature


masses

hygienicand
to

great

the out-of-doors.
mere

is the great of

and the revivifier,


away

callingof
taken dramatic
women

people

from Men

the roofed-in

placeshas

its

fect. salutaryefinto the


a

always
the
men

have

their sports

open; game,

and sends

outdoor

production,like
to

and
and

back

their cities

freshed re-

in mind

body.

Then

there
comes,

is the social first from


and

of solidifying association
less slightly in
so

the
a

community that
the

common

artistic purpose,
mere

only
in

from

fact of recreation

crowds. great

The

outdoor of

production usually brings


to

numbers

people
is

the stage, and


creates
no a

the

stant con-

association in rehearsal there of interest;


moreover
as

very

real bond

such

gulf between
indoor tre. thea-

players and
achieves

audience the

exists in the outdoor

Indeed,

present of that

production
communal
were

something
leaders

pervading
when the

which spirit

existed in Greece

actors

simply the
Ages when
audience in the and
reverence.

in the revels, speaking for their existed


were

followers; and

which

again in the Middle


the

the churchmen

playersand
spectator of

their ing feel-

the

congregation,actor
common

and
sense

production a Looking
masques

worship
series of
munities com-

back

at

the

long
in

pageants

and

produced by American decade, sometimes

in the

last

open-air

io

THE and

OPEN-AIR
sometimes if in

THEATRE

theatres
one

improvised woodland
have than
not

tings, setto
ever cial so-

wonders

they
sense

done

more

create

healthy civic
about

all the books Another be

written

the duties of the citizen.

aspect of the
the Here

open-airtheatre
is the
no

is

to

found

in

perfect equality of the


if

seating arrangements.
democratic

anywhere
are

purely
from

house, playexhibit

for there

boxes and

which
no

to

jewels and costly gowns,


orchestra,balcony and
And above all these
a

there is

division into

gallery.
others there is the

intangible
on cial so-

spiritual aspect,
each betterment.
as

subtle, almost

religiouseffect
make
so

which individual, For


sorts

must collectively
man

for
near are

is

never

else

God
vealed re-

when
to

certain him

of

dramatic

beauty

under

the open

sky.

For

convenience ancient and

of

all open-air theatres, discussion,


may

modern,

be

divided

roughly

into three

classes, according to their structural


First there
are

acteristic char-

the

theatres,usuallyof classic type,


structures, this group and of
are

purely architectural large stone or crete conbackgrounds.


Roman
In and

with massive

stage

all the old Greek

theatres,
as

modern

buildings such notable


at

examples

the Arena

Goldoni
at

Florence

and

the Hearst
to

Greek

Theatre

Berkeley. Closely allied

this type is

THE

THEATRE

AT

VILLA OR

GORI,
GARDEN

ITALY.

AN

EXAMPLE TYPE.

OF

THE

THIRD,

THEATRE,

12

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

while

the

theatres

at

Mannheim,
be

Germany,
as

and

Mt. ern mod-

Kisco,

New

York,

may

considered

typical

adaptations.
Each type
has its

distinctive which

virtues

and determine

its

tinctive disthe
ters mat-

limitations,
forms of of outdoor

really
As

production.
importance
the
to

these

are

prime
alike,
is made

theatre-designer
than

and

producer

type,
basis of

rather this

historic division old


not

quence, se-

the

book's
on

into Greek

chapters.
and
on

Thus

the theatres

chapter
is

the

Roman the

followed

by
"Modern less in
sort

that

mediaeval Theatres."
in the done

religious
The
of

theatre,
average

but

by

Greek

reader,
than certain of of

ested interwhat of

history
and is

theatre-building
done

can

be

being
find with

in

playhouse,
treated in

will
one

thus
group,

all
a

the

theatres

one

type

discussion structural achievement

each

house play-

from
and

the from

viewpoint
that of

of actual

tics, characterisin

matic dra-

production.

CHAPTER

II

THE

OLD

GREEK

AND

ROMAN

THEATRES

THE
it would such
a

Greeks drama
grew

did

not

designedly
it
was

take

their and

out-of-doors;
there

born drama

there
was

naturally.
with

The

timatel inand
take

interbound have communal


seemed

religious celebration,
of

little short

sacrilege to
the artificial From it
was

expression
of time

into

and

artificializing atmosphere
to

indoors.

ning beginmerely
wooden
stone
a

end,
circle
to

from

the

when

rude benches

surrounded time classic revellers of when

by
it
was

temporary
a

the the

magnificent
to

structure,

theatre
at

was

open

the

sky.

^When
permitted
songs

the
one

the

festivals

of

Dionysus
in the and

their
to

fellow-participants singled
chief
out
as

and

dances
to

be
the

leader,

allowed

him

take

part

in their became
upon
a

vised improliving
ficial sacrilers reveldied ban;

dialogues, thing.
At

the

Greek leader altar from


now

drama mounted around that became


13

first this

the

table, beside
had

the and

which*the

danced,
those

vantage-point
his "chorus"

with

who

and

i4

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE benches
to

the

mere

onlookers

brought
the
tent,

up

all round

the the

dancing-circle.As
actor

parts
or

be

played by
was

multiplied,a
at
one

"skene,"

built for
could and retire

him
to

side

of the

circle,where

he

make

the necessary moved

changes
to

of costume;

then

his

platform was
the chorus

the
to

side of the tent, and dance about


away

while

continued
was

the
from

tral cenone

altar,the audience side, occupying


the
now

pushed

territoryabout
In this arrangement

only three-fourths, or the dancing-place.


may

less, of

be

seen

the

rough mould
theatre
was

into
cast.

which

every

later
most

Greek typically
was typical,

First, and
a

the of

"orchestra"

forming
the the

full circle, with


about

the

altar

Dionysus

in

centre,

which with
its of

the
rows

chorus
of
outer tent

danced;
seats

second,

auditorium

surrounding
of

perhaps
the third
for of
many

two-thirds

the

circumference
and

the orchestra; and

third, the
of

side, prototype
centuries
to

all the Not

platform on stage buildings


until the
Rome

follow. the

glory
did

Greece

faded

before

grandeur of

the orchestra
and

become

the half-circle of the later classic

the modern
cut

theatre; and
so

only then
was

was

the

auditorium
in

down
so

that
all the

it also

cular semi-cirfaced the

shape,

that the

spectators

stage rather In Athens,

than

orchestra./
true

always the

home

of Greek

drama,

THE

THEATRE

OF

DIONYSUS

AT

ATHENS.

THIS

IS

THE

MOST

IMPORTANT

OF

ALL

THEATRES

IN

HISTORY.

ON

THIS

SITE

DRAMATIC

ART

WAS

FIRST

DEVELOPED

OUT

OF

THE

GREEK

RELIGIOUS

FESTIVALS,
AND

AND

HERE

THE

GENIUS

OF

AESCHYLUS,
RUINS DATE

SOPHOCLES

EURIPIDES

FLOWERED.

THE

PRESENT

FROM

ONE

OF

THE

ROMAN

RECONSTRUCTIONS,
OF THE ORIGINAL GREEK

WHEN

THE

TRE THEA-

HAD

LOST

MANY

CHARACTERISTICS.

OLD

GREEK

AND built
for

ROMAN

15
at

the temporary of the number

structures

annually
in 499

the time
a

Dionysia sufficed
of years. wooden
many

the

productions for
B.C., when

Perhaps

it was

the temporary death


and

benches

collapsed,bringing
audience, that the
Even
of then the

injuryto
stage

of the
was

first substantial
seats

theatre

begun.

and

buildings were

only
the

wood;

but
the

earthen

foundations
was

underlay
of the
more

benches, and
solid

"skene"
and

probably beauty
there than

construction
tions erec-

greater
had

yearly temporary
controversy
it
seems

been. still is the the


some

Although
established

among

over archaeologists

matter,

fairlywell
in which the

that

Athenian

theatre

genius of .^Eschylus, Sophocles and


in the
fifth century

ered Euripides flowof wooden


struction. con-

B.C.
the

was

Passing
which
the wooden

over

gradual

modifications

theatres

doubtless
so

underwent, in

this century

which
may

witnessed
more

many

changes
to

in the
stone

drama,

one

turn profitably

the
to

structures, of which the


basis

sufficient ruins remain


"

afford the the

of

reconstruction,

even

though
at

tragicdrama
time

had

declined alreadyperceptibly

they were
of

built. theatre in Athens


" "

The famous

first stone

and

the

most
on

all classic theatres

was

constructed

the site of its wooden

predecessors, in the enclosure

THE
to

OPEN-AIR
the

THEATRE the
a

dedicated
of the

god Dionysus,
orchestra
centre.

on

south

side

Acropolis. The
an

was

cle perfectcirthe

with
Greek earth

altar in the the


hard

During
floor
was

purely
of
ment pave-

period
tamped
which
here

orchestra

formed marble

and

smooth,
a

the

exists that

to-day being
the chorus

Roman and

addition.
sang,

It

was

danced

and here

therefore rather The

the interest of the spectators


on

centred

than

the

stage.
as

Athenian
was

auditorium,
in
a

usual
of
a

throughout
tre thea-

Greece,
case

shaped

hollow

in this hillside,
a

violatingthe well-recognizedrule that


should
never

face the

south.

This

auditorium

was

formed

of

tiers seventy-eight

of seats, of Peiraic the

limestone of the of
a

except

where

carved

from tiers
were

solid rock

Acropolis. The
semi-circle with
an

lower
its ends

in the in

shape

prolonged
as

straight
not

lines,like
theatre
was

inverted

U;

but
upper

the

outline of the
were

the irregular,
At

tiers

metrical. sym-

Athens,
seats

as

generally elsewhere,
of marble chairs

the
for

front

row

of

consisted

priestsand
central
one

other

the elaborately-carved dignitaries, for the Priest of


was

being reserved
main

sus. Dionydivided i

The

body of the auditorium


up

by fourteen
about

passage-ways

and of

teen down, making thirand

wedge-shaped
half way
up,

blocks

seats;

laterally,
or

by

wide

passage-way,

udi-|

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE
for lieves be-

was

merely
took

the action

of

high wall, forming a background he and players,all which chorus


the circular orchestra.
among

place in

His

view
ars. schol-

is

gradually finding wide acceptance The opposite theory is that a


constructed
at

stage

platform

was

between side

the wall

and

the orchestra,

terminated
or

each

by

the

side walls, projecting "lobeen

"paraskenia." This platform, called the is supposed to have geion," or speaking-place,


occupied by the
the chorus
actors,

who

thus

were

lifted above

in the

orchestra.

If this

theory
were

is

rect, cor-

doubtless
from

temporary

of flights
to

stairs

built
the
essary nec-

the

logeion to

the orchestra

permit
chorus. of this
to

action been
was

between
the

players
front

and

It has

suggested that panelled,with

wall

platform
the

doors

giving access
theatres
was

stage-

buildingfrom
In the

the orchestra.

Greek typically
at

the

high wall
later
two-

hind be-

the stage and


a

the ends,
a

ornamented

with
was or

single set

of

columns,
Romans
of

feature
into
an

which
elaborate

developed by
three-storied

the

system
In

columns, entablatures
Greek
and the

and

pediments.
types the
or rear

both

the

Roman

stage wall

was usually a

piercedby three
cated indi-

five

doorways ; and by
entrance

vention, congenerally-understood

from
actor
was

each
to

particular door
be

that

the

imagined

as

coming

CONJECTURAL
FORM OF

RESTORATION

OF

THE

GREEK

THEATRE

AT

EGESTA.

THE

THE

AUDITORIUM

IS

PROBABLY

CORRECT,
THE STAGE INGS BUILD-

BUT

THERE

IS

LITTLE

EVIDENCE

TO

INDICATE

THAT

ARE

AUTHENTIC.

[FROM

j.

H.

STRACK'S

"DAS

ALTGRIECHISCHE

THEATERGEBAUDE"]

OLD from stage


that certain

GREEK

AND

ROMAN
came figure"

19
on

place: when
door the
at

the

through the
he
came one

the

right,it

was

known

from

immediate

neighborhood,
at

whereas
was

coming through the door


traveller
arose

the
so

left
on.

clearlya
of

from from

distance,and
the

These theatre

conventions

situation of the
to

Dionysus with

relation

the

city,the

country features.
The

roads, the

harbor, and

other

topographic
in

proper

height
is

of

the

stage

platform
the

Greek

theatre
*

given by the
ten to

Roman

architect

Vitruvius
as

as

from But
at

twelve
no

feet,and

depth
in
gard re-

ten to

feet.
that

there

is

exact

evidence stages
vary

Athens, and

the

of

other

Greek
to

and

Greek-Roman

theatres
and

from

eight

thirteen

feet in

height
of

in depth. similarly
at

The
the

existingremains they
date

the

stage
no

Athens, with
the ject, sub-

sculpturedfront-wall,throw
as

lighton
of
one

from

the time

of the Roman

reconstructions.
In
were

the

Greek

theatre

the

auditorium

and
the

skene
space
to

in effect two
was

separate
as a

and buildings,

between
the

used
and

gateway,

giving
In

entrance

orchestra

auditorium. the

the later Greek influence


Greek
was

period, and
*

as especially

Roman
of

Vitruvius7
are

rules
in

for

the

construction
in
an

and

Roman

theatres

quoted

translation

appendix

of this volume.

20

THE

OPEN-AIR
was

THEATRE
to

the stage felt, and Roman

brought
became

nearer

the Then

auditorium,
in finally,

the gateways

doors.

times, the auditorium


each

wall and
the

the stage wall became


a

merged into
vaulted The ruins

other, and

entrance

passage-way. of the
more

theatre

at

Epidaurus
those

in

some

are particulars

than interesting The

of

the tact, in-

Athenian
and
as are

structure.

auditorium

is almost

the

orchestra

ring
of the

is

perfectlyindicated, -buildings.The
of
more

the foundations

stage

auditorium, unlike that of the Theatre


in resulting symmetrical, perfectly The general appearance. topmost is has
a a

Dionysus, graceful
of
seats

circle

diameter

of four hundred

and

fifteen feet,the
the
ditorium au-

total

seatingcapacityabout
at

equallingthat of
to

Athens.

In addition

the

row

of

seats
are

of honor
two
rows

at
on

the bottom

of the auditorium, there two-thirds

the level of the diazoma,


to

of

the distance While


the the

the top. known theatres


there the

other

followed
are row

closely
able notseats

type

already described,
At
as a

certain of

variations. honor
thrones
are

Priene

of five

is formed
set

continuous

bench, with

in at various
at

points;
of almost

and

similar thrones
At

found

the theatre

Oropus.

Priene

the
at

altar, which
the
exact

elsewhere of the

invariably stands
on

centre

orchestra, is instead

the

THE

THEATRE

AT

EPIDAURUS.

THIS

IS

THE

BEST

PRESERVED

OF

THE

GREEK

THEATRES.

IT

SHOWS

THE

COMPLETE

ORCHESTRA

CIRCLE,

AND

THE

STAGE

SET

BACK

FROM

THE

AUDITORIUM

IN

TYPICAL

GREEK

STYLE.

22

THE
But from

OPEN-AIR
after the the

THEATRE
first

formance. actor-leader

separation of
and

the

worshipping chorus,
less ceremonial

the drama
more

speedilydeveloped along
human had lines. been In 535

B.C., shortly after


and

tragedy
state

recognized officially
first dramatic
came

put under
was

authority,the
at

contest

instituted
the

Athens. in 472,

Soon and

winning ^Eschylus, following century


the

tory vic-

after him of the

Sophocles and Euripides.


drama
gone.

By
had The

the

middle

declined

again, and the golden period had

simple,straightforward, playsof this time were little or emotion-compelling dramas, which needed no background to help them hold the interest of the told that as early as the time of audience. We are
Sophocles
used
to
was

scenery

was

used
But

to

cover

up

the

bare
was was

architectural
at

stage-wall.
very

if

paintedscenery
the

all,it was

simple, and
There

only

aim

suggest
no

the proper
at

in other words setting;


realism.
was
never

there
any
ting set-

attempt
of
scene

change

in the

Greek
was

theatre, and
understood
to

the be

of the

action

always
the Roman

outwas

of-doors.
a

Until

period
and

there

never

stage curtain, entrances

exits all

being
the

made

in

full

sightof

the

audience.
to

In

addition
were

dramatic for

productions

Greek
at

theatres

used

religious exercises

the the

for political Dionysian festivals, meetings, for

RUINS

OF

THE

GREEK-ROMAN

THEATRE

AT

SYRACUSE.

NOTABLE

FOR

ITS

IMMENSE

SIZE.

OLD

GREEK

AND
and

ROMAN

23

dithyrambicchoral
and

contests,

by the rhapsodists cock-fight was performers


held
peared ap-

harp-players. The
all times.
even were

annual

here, and
at

sorts

of

vaudeville

In the Roman desecrated

theatre

was

period the Athenian by gladiatorialcontests,


certain of
at

which
Greeks
;

hotly protested by
is evidence

the
one

and

there

that indicating

/AUDITORIUM

Comparative

sketch

plans

of

Greek

and

Roman

theatres, showing
and

change

in relation

between

auditorium

stage.

time

the lower
in order
a

part of the theatre


that

was

made

tight, water-

the

orchestra

might

be

verted con-

into

lake

for mimic

sea-fights.
from the
no

The

Roman
in two

theatre

differed

Greek

mainly
was

particulars. As importance
down from than
a

the chorus the

longer
the
a chestra or-

of

greater
was

actors,
to

cut

full circle

circle, semiup

and

the

stage

buildings were
a

pushed

againstthe auditorium, forming


the whole

singlebuildingof
neces-

composition.

These

changes were

24

THE because

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE in the Greek tres thea-

sary

the spectators, who


away

often faced stage, and

from, rather than toward, the


content

still were

if

they could
the

see

the

chestra or-

now clearly,

must
was

face
to

stage,

to

which
ond sec-

all the action hereafter

be confined.

The

great change
which
was

was

in the

wall

behind

the stage,

greatly heightened and


rows

orated decelaborately above


the

with The
to
as

of columns,
at

one

other.

stage

platform was
on

first made

high, in order
tiers of
seats
was

give the spectators good


the
a so

the uppermost action


as

view
that

of the those
in

and possible,
at

it

narrow
see

looking up
greater
the

it

might always
to

actors

full;but later the desire

stage

gorgeous

made spectacles

depth

necessary,

with

consequent that
be

of lessening the
not

height.
the

Vitruvius in
a

recommends

height of
over

platform
The
to

Roman
of
on

theatre

five feet. Roman

invention be built
up

vaulting allowed
level spaces,
the

the

theatres

auditorium
and

bowl

being held
of

by series of walls

arches, instead
a

being
the

shaped in
The Theatre
times the

the hollow

of

hillside. theatre
so

only survivingclassic
of

in Rome,

Marcellus, has been


not
as

changed

in later

that it does type


as

illustrate the characteristics of


several

well

others.
at

Those

at

Orange,
Asia

in Southern
are

France, and

Aspendus,
the

in

Minor,

the

of best-preserved

typically

RUINS

OF

THE

ROMAN

THEATRE

AT

TAORMINA

26

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE invented
certain

Romans beyond belief. The huge awnings over stretching


to

means

of

of their theatres,

protect the audiences


the smaller
at
some

from
at

the hot
was

southern
nently perma-

sun;

and

theatre

Pompeii

roofed

time in its history, as


commemorates

is

proved
the

by a tablet recentlyfound, which giving of the roof by a wealthy Throughout the development
there
Greek is
a

citizen. of the
away

Roman

atre thethe and

noticeable and

tendency
The

from

openness

toward simplicity, of detail.


the

enclosure

toward

elaboration
very

change

sponds corre-

closelyto
successful
went on,
on

transformation Latin of
was

of

the

dramatic
at

production itself. The


were

dramatists

best
as

imitators
more

the put

Greeks.
on

Then
scenery

time and

stress

the

less

the

play, and
from

finally spectacle
when the
to

displaced drama people


were or

almost drawn

entirely. Then
away

not

the theatre and


tional sensa-

the circus

arena,

contests gladiatorial
were

vaudeville theatre stage


"

performances
the

brought
Greeks
a

to

the

making its degradation complete.


to

Closely related
Romans
structure
was

theatre
or near

of the

and

the

"Odeon"

"Odeum,"

smaller
even
are

which with
to

was usually

the theatre, or Odeons

connected

it

by
of

portico. The
as

referred
and

by classic writers

places for
doubtless

concerts

for rehearsals

plays,and

dramatic

ABOVE
AT

IS

MEASURED

RECONSTRUCTION

OF

THE

ROMAN

THEATRE

ORANGE,
ELABORATE
BELOW.

FRANCE,

SHOWING

THE

TYPICAL

ROOFED

STAGE,
ORNAMENT.

WITH

ITS

BACKGROUND
THE THEATRE AT

OF

ARCHITECTURAL

ORANOF

AS

TT

F.XTSTS

TODAV.

OLD

GREEK

AND

ROMAN in

27

productions were
Some

occasionally staged
insist that the Theatre Odeon of

them.

authorities

of Herodes

Atticus, adjoining the Athens,


in
case was

Dionysus

at

roofed, thus affordinga place of shelter

the

production at the
but others
a

theatre

itself the

was

rupted inter-

by rain;
of

point out
before roof
to

impossibility
times,

roofing such
writer

structure

Roman

suggesting that the


in all Roman Odeon and

cedar

mentioned

by

temporary con-

refers

the

stage-root common
that
may

theatres. allied forms

However
of

be, the
many

assembly-placeoffer
builder the of little Odeon
more

suggestionsfor the
Thus

modern of

atres. open-air theat

the
at

form

the the

Imperial Villa
modern drama

Pausilypon is
than
are

suited

to

of the open
tiers of
a

is that of the in

nearby

theatre.

The

seats

shape

ably considervery

less than

and the stage shows half-circle,

variations interesting This Odeon

from
also has
at

the
a

traditional

ment. arrange-

notable of

feature

in the

large imperial box


The littleto
to

the

top
at

the

auditorium.

little"Ekklesiasterion"
do

ing Priene, although hav-

with

dramatic
ancient

matters,

is of interest

the

student
is
not
a

of the

theatre, as
tier of
seats

the

torium audi-

circular,each
square.
common some

forming
Roman
the

three sides of Other

buildings
are

to
measure

Greek allied

or

which cities,

in

to

the-

28

THE
in

OPEN-AIR
the

THEATRE

atre

form,

are

stadion, the amphitheatre


Such
at

or

arena,

and the circus. Stadion

notable

examples as
the

the

Panathenaic

Athens,
and

Olympian
Maximus
as a

Stadion, and the Colosseum Rome,


are

Circus

at
flection re-

and architecturally interesting


tastes

of the life and

of the form

peoples;but they
of
the

had

little influence
art.

on

the

theatre

or

dramatic
was a

The

Panathenaic
at

Stadion least
one

recently
revival of

and rebuilt, magnificently classic

play

has

been

given there.
in and

there Similarly the half-ruined

have

been

modern

productions
Nimes and

amphitheatresat
After
abandoned

Aries, in France.
alike had been

the drama
to

the theatre
years

the
seems

vulgar, in the
not
to

of the Roman
to

decadence, it
that the

have

occurred

any

one

great

structures

might again
Felix in

be

utilized

until legitimately, Real

in

1869
The

Ripert and
the been had

Antony
Roman

planned classical productions


at
some

Theatre of ruins
and
to

Orange.
years

stage

cleared

enough
accommodate

of

the
an

by French originaltiers of
average
so

before

archaeologists,
seats

remained The lowed fol-

modern

audience. that others

first productions were


at

successful few
years

intervals
the

of

until 1899, due Frederic

in part leader France.

to

efforts of the poet, the


the

Mistral,
in

among

exponents

of

open-air drama
the Comedie

Since

latter date

Fran-

THE

SMALLER

THEATRE
DESIGNED AND

AT

POMPEII. MOST INTIMATE

THIS OF

IS

ONE ANCIENT

OF

THE THEATRES.

MOST

GRACEFULLY

CHAPTER

III

THE

MODERN

GREEK

THEATRES

OF
theatres,
forms. of

modern

open-air

theatres,

all

that

are

characterized
of
seats,
are

by rising semi-circular
raised stages
and

tiers
rear

with

high

stage-walls,

indiscriminately
modelled
to
on

termed
or on

"Greek"
Roman

whether
It is easy from

Greek

differentiate the
nature two

this

classic and

type the
ture's na-

structure

both for of the


trees

theatre
are

garden

theatre;

latter and

built
and

of

materials,
whereas
sense.

shrubs

hedges,
in
every

the

Greek

theatre

is architectural

It is curious theatres
that In is
on are

that
be

the found

majority
grouped
of the four

of
in

modern
a

Greek
state

to

single
from

the

opposite
there
are

side
are

world so-called
In

Greece. atres, the-

California
and

Greek
rest

others

building.
are

the

of
that

the
proach ap-

United

States the

there
and

only

two

structures

type,

in

Europe

practically
are

all of

the

modern theatre

open-air
type. The

playhouses
reason

of far

the
to

nature-

is
30

not

seek.

In

THE California

MODERN

GREEK

31
ture open-airstruc-

the climate the

is such that

an

affords roofless

maximum

of usefulness, so

that
a

playhouse is not considered or experimental matter, but


very

merely
rather
a

porary tem-

nent perma-

and
most

bit practical

of artistic
there and is
a

equipment.
rainless
or season

In

parts of California
at

of
more

least of

four

months,
are so

four

five months that the

each

year

generally fair
of
bred and
state

outdoor

producer
conditions.

is

assured practically So the has

perfect
a race

weather
of

outdoor
open

people, lovers
offers,and
it is

of
not
so

nature

all that

the have

surprisingthat
many
stars.

they

taken

their drama,
under the

like
sun

of their other

out activities,

and

The

most

notable

of the

purely architectural playhouses


Theatre
at

is the Hearst

Greek

the

sity Univeris
fect per-

of
not,
as

California, in Berkeley.
has
so

This

structure

often

been

said, an
On
and
to

example of
the

to fidelity
a

ancient

type.

contrary, forms.
to

it is It best there other

curious

mingling
of modern

of Greek

Roman conform
art,

is also very
traditions

wisely modified
modern

the

dramatic

although
or

is no

provision for
and

realistic scenery

ephemeral
Roman

inartistic

phases
of

of the

contemporary

staging. The
in that
more slightly

general
the
a

form

building is
forms

auditorium

outline

only

than

and semi-circle,

the

orchestra

32

THE

OPEN-AIR
down

THEATRE

circle is

cut

to

very

small

dimensions
are

and

the

low, wide
of such
at

steps

of Roman

the

lower
structures

auditorium
as

typical

purely

the

little theatre of the

Pompeii.
or

But

the

absolute

separation
the

"skene,"

stage-building,from
and with the
a

auditorium, is
in the stead in-

purely Greek;
Greek fashion of the
or

stage -wall

is decorated

single series
Roman

of

columns of

over-elaborate

system

double

triple rows.
The orchestra
and

circle it
on

is six the

feet

below

the side the


at

stage
are

level;
twelve
on

above

auditorium above

broad

steps, each
hundred Above

six inches chairs


are

other,
times

which

sixteen

placed
on

of the
a

performance.
stage
at

them, diazoma,

and
a

the

level

of

floor, is the
the from tiers

wide the

aisle

with
the
are

wall

back, which
the of
upper
seats

separates
auditorium. in the
to

"pit"
There

of

theatre nineteen
at
a

upper

portion, rising

sharp angle almost stage-wall.


The

the

height of the top of


is divided into It has
so

the
ten
a

upper

section

"wedges"

by eleven
of
on more

aisles

up-and-down.
four

seating capacity
with
those the chairs

than

thousand,
the the diazoma

that and

the often

steps below

which total of

are

placed
or

in
more

orchestra

circle,a
be

six thousand
At
ten

people

can

accommodated.

university assemblies

and

lectures

nearly

thousand

people

occasionally

THE

HEARST
is SEEN

GREEK

THEATRE
ITS PRESENT

AT

BERKELEY.

ABOVE,
BELOW is

THE

THEA-

JTRE
ITECT'S

IN

CONDITION. STRUCTURE
COMPLETED. AS IT

THE

ARCHI-

DRAWING

OF

THE

WILL

APPEAR

WHEN

[JOHN

GALEN

HOWARD,

ARCHITECT]

THE

MODERN
to

GREEK stand
at

33

gather,some
and

being allowed
the

the

entrances

above

highest tier of

seats, and

additional

chairs The
and At

being placed on
stage

the immense
a

stage. floor
one

has building

cement

hundred

feet long by twenty-eight feet deep. thirty-three


the

back

and

at

each

end

there

rises

massive

wall, more
beautiful

than

forty feet high, ornamented


columns and five is broken
and

with

design of Doric
wall

classic

nice. cor-

This

only by
The total

doorways,
at

for the actors'


and
one

entrances

three exits,

the back the

at

each its

side.

effect of almost

"skene," with

spaciousness and
is built

severe

beauty,is singularly impressive.


At and

present
cement.

the theatre
In

of entirely

concrete

time, however, the donor


in marble. The
a

plans to
architect's
ration decothe

finish
sketch

the

structure

of the finished of the

buildingshows
the sides of the

further

stage-wallwith bas-relief
at

statues,

addition and

of walls

stage

building,
Roman

the addition
"

of

porticoat
common

the

torium top of the audi-

feature The
so

in

the

finer
at

theatres.
and
seems

theatre

is

so

beautiful
one

present,
not
seen

complete, that
plan
And
never

who

has

the ultimate
not

guesses

that the

structure
a

is

finished.

yet the
and
a

plan

indicates
sense

subtler of grandeur

architectural

beauty

pervading

that will be notable

additions.

34

THE The Hearst

OPEN-AIR
Greek Theatre

THEATRE
not

was was

built

as

an

curiosity.It archaeological
a

the

outgrowth
before
been

of

very

definite need.
an

For
student

decade had

its

struction con-

annual

play

produced
ture struc-

in the
now

natural

amphitheatre which
all the student
at
a

the

classic

and fills, the

activities had
The theatre

grown outwas

facilities when

hand.

opened
was

in 1903,

three-days'dramatic
and

val festithe

held, with the dedicatory exercises


Greek
a

productionin
on

of

Aristophanes' "The
"Twelfth
on

Birds"

the

first

day,

production of
Greet "Phedre" there and has

Night"
the

under
a

the direction of Ben Racine's time

the

second, and
on

production of
Since

in French been
a

third. series
every

that

notable

of
season

professional adding appeared.


the
most to

amateur

productions,
actors

the list of
to

masterpieces that

have

been have

presented and

the list of noted

who

Perhaps
been

nearly perfect productionshave


of

the revivals and

by Margaret Anglin
uElectra." which
a

Sophocles'
of the umphed triof
formity con-

"Antigone"

Miss

Anglin accepted immensity

franklythe
stage
and

conventions the lack

the

of

curtain
to

imposed;

she

the play by fitting


to attempting futilely

the the

stage, instead

bring
Adams

setting into
considered

with

what

is

commonly

modern uAs You

stage

art.

When

Maude

produced

36
been also

THE

OPEN-AIR
number of French

THEATRE

and

German

plays,
tions produc-

dramatic

festivals,students'
amateur

class

plays, and

by outside

and the
range

panies. semi-professional com-

Altogether
has been

of material the the theatre

presented
tionately propormunity com-

remarkably wide,
valuable
and in

and

teaching
much
of

university
more

the
than

public how
the

there in the

is to
mercial com-

dramatic

art

types

play

seen

theatres. The
or

first of

the

California
was

theatres under in the

of the

the

Greek

architectural

type

built

direction of the Point tion tradi-

of Madame International

Katherine

Tingley

grounds
at

Theosophical

Headquarters
an

Loma,

in

1901. the
an

Following, perhaps,
Greek
over

old

that built
was
ocean.

ancient

theatres

were

purposely
auditorium the
open

with

outlook
out
are

the

sea,

the

hollowed There

of

hillside

facing

eleven

semi-circular

tiers of seats,

accommodating
from these of the its floor

twenty-five hundred
spectators
look
across

people,
the

and

stage, with
chaste little that

tessellated Greek

pavement,

to

temple
to

in pure

architecture, and
and the
at
a

beyond
waters

the

deep
The

blue

sky

deep
the

blue

of the
a

Pacific.
tous

stage

stands which

head

of

precipL.
ing allow-

canyon,

through
to

path winds
temple
does
unseen

up,

the

players

reach the

the

by

the

audience.

Although

theatre

not

conform

THE VIEW

GREEK SUGGESTS

THEATRE THE

AT BEAUTY

POINT OF

LOMA,
THE BY

CALIFORNIA. OUTLOOK OVER

THE THE

LOWER PACIFIC.

[PHOTOGRAPHS

COPYRIGHT

KATHERINE

TINGLEY!

THE
Greek ideas

MODERN of

GREEK

37
to

to

it achieves theatre-building, the

remarkable considered
Greece
ever

degree
Greek. had
a

beauty
no

that

is

customarily
in ancient
a more

Certainly
greater
As it
one

theatre

loveliness, or
comes

background. idyllic
above

to to

it

on

its like

pice precisome

the white

sea,

seems

nestle

gleaming

jewel

in

setting fashioned

with

perfect artistry.
The

plays by
the

at

the

theatre, too,

have
of

been the of

ated permeearliest

Greek
was

spirit.
the

One

dramas

presented
Madame

"Eumenides"
had earlier

^Eschyin

lus, which
New
less York.

Tingley
the
texts

revived

Recently
upon

productions have
of the Greek

been

dependent
in effect

the

authors,
with
up
a

being

modern

compositions informed
there
art

the antique
what is in

spirit. Indeed,
some sense a

has

grown

here

new
more

form,

sort

of
the

decorative visual and

drama of and

that

is

dependent

upon

beauty

costumes, upon

natural
incidental

setting,grouping
poetry,
than upon
sonally per-

dancing,

sustained

emotional directs the


out

appeal.

Madame in of the

Tingley

productions
her ideal

theatre; and
art at

she

is

carrying
the

dramatic and the


measure

by
the

clothing
same
so

action

in
the will

physical beauty, development


prove

time that the

shaping
whole

of

story
a

in

some

spiritual

revelation.

Several

critics have

testified

3 8

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE
and

to

the

symbolic effectiveness
"The the Aroma

unique decorative
the first

qualityof
at

of Athens,"

tion producAnd

which
one

general public was


been in the and

admitted. has

every
on

who

has

theatre

remarked

the
At

beauty idyllic
Cranbrook,
near

of the

stage

background.
of
one

the

country

estate

Mr. of

George
the
most

G.

Booth,

Detroit, Michigan,
modern is Greek theatres several from

beautiful
The

of

has
ways.

been The

built.

structure

unique in
well
back

low

auditorium
an

is

set

the The

stage,
raised

leaving
stage
may is be At ings buildtimes

unusually large by
two

orchestra.

flanked used the

temple-like structures,
or

which

for
rear

dressing-rooms
of the

for

the

musicians.
two

stage, the
three if the

wall wide

joining the
entrances.

is of

pierced by

At
an

performances,
the

play
are

demands curtained

intimate the ducer proare

atmosphere,
can

openings
obtain

and

then

those small

subtler

effects which stage.


and

characteristic

of the the

garden
can

theatre

At the

will, however,
audience
a

curtains

be the

removed,

then formal On
more

looks

through
to
a

openings,
stage

across

long
rear.

pool,
this

second

building
can

at

the

larger stage the

director
scenes,

duce pro-

the

extensive, pageant-like
upon

which of

depend
actors, When

for their effectiveness

moving

masses

changing colors, and


the

distant
was

processionals.
dedicated,
in

Cranbrook

Theatre

THE SHOWS

GREEK THE

THEATRE

AT INNER

CRANBROOK, STAGE,
WITH

MICHIGAN. ITS
POOL AND

THIS

VIEW LOGGIA.

UNIQUE

40

THE

OPEN-AIR
In the first

THEATRE

structural

detail.
of

place, it is built
out

on

the

flat,instead
was

being

hollowed and

of

hillside,as
and The

the

Greek
are

fashion;
in
a

the

"skene"

torium auditorium, audiis


set

joined
forms

single building.
a

too,

only
as

semi-circle, and
custom seats

close

to

the

stage,
The

was

the of

in the and the

Roman
terrace

theatres. above

three

tiers

accommodate
an

only

few

hundred

spectators,

although
The

upper

auditorium
a

could

easilybe added.
Roman

structure
an

is in effect almost

miniature

theatre,
modern
sense

occupying

unique position among


What
it loses it in the

open-air

structures.

of
sense

majesty, through
of

its smallness,
can

gains

in the
a

intimacy.

One

hardly

imagine
and
so

more

charming
for
too

setting for
amateur

poetic drama,
that

especially
often theatre
are

those

performances
the and
on

slight to
theatre
proper
a

dominate

large Greek
yet
a are

or

indoor their before the


to

stages,

very

effective stage

in

atmosphere

miniature The

and in

miniature
at

auditorium.

openings

stage-wall
be filled of

the
shrubs

back, designed by the


and

architect the

by
the

hedges,

form

only

drawback the
extent

theatre, interfering seriously with


The mistake is corrected
to
some

acoustics.

by hanging heavy
This

curtains

during
is

the

times

of

performance.

little theatre

owned

by

THE

MODERN

GREEK
musical

41

the

city,and
and

is used

by schools,
dramatic

tions, organiza-

amateur

societies. Pomona

The mont,

open-air

theatre
an

at

College,

Clarein

California, is
the auditorium

interestinghybrid
is of the classic of

form

which

architectural
nature

type, but type.


the
same

with
The

stage

background

the

atre theof the

auditorium

is modelled
at

after

that

Hearst

Greek

Theatre
of

Berkeley, having

arrangement for

sunken
on

orchestra-circle, low
the level of the

steps

chairs, diazoma
more

stage
above.

floor, and
The
are one

sharply rising tiers of


difference
under
arenas.

seats

noticeable

is that

tunnel

entrances

brought through
of the old
Roman

the

seats,

after stage the


rear

the

ner man-

The
floor is
no

front

is has

concrete

wall, but

for

the

ground

simply
The

been

levelled, and
is

there
a

stage-wall.

background
trees

simply

park-likelandscape with
pageants
and
masques
over

lawn,
the

and

shrubs.
of

For

advantages
one

this natural
at

background
Greek

the
are

architectural

the
more

Hearst

Theatre
sorts

evident; but
that
the and demand

for

the

dramatic
of

of

play,
for

concentration

attention, and exercises,


a

various
similar

lectures, academic
activities for
the

concerts,

which
structure

college theatre
at

is is

continually utilized,

Berkeley

incomparably
The Pomona

better. theatre

would

seem

to

be

perfectly

42

THE

OPEN-AIR
of

THEATRE which
icans Amer-

fitted

to

that

sort

dramatic

masque

like Thomas Goodman much


to

Wood

Stevens, Kenneth
Lindon that Smith

Sawyer
done
a so

and

Joseph
a

have

develop,
of

form

demands
to

flexible the is

background

great

natural
of

beauty,
the Greek

which
"skene"

rigid architectural totally unsuited.


drama,
to

wall
But

anything approaching
close of

sive inten-

and

anything demanding
and
sequence
on

attention

the

spoken word

incident, would
stage,
the
eye

lose

half

its effectiveness is
no sense

the

Pomona and

cause beis
to

there

of wander

intimacy,
from
at

continually invited
the beautiful of that both this
no

to

the the

fore-stage
A

bits of

landscape

back. the

study

theatre

greatly strengthens
can

impression
house

open-air playhouse
very

adequately
the

the

dramatic and

play

and

pageant,
the

both

Greek
must

tragedy
choose
and

American kind

masque;

builders
to

the then

general
build for

of

production

be

given,
For

that.*
a

Garfield

Park, Chicago,

theatre

has

been

planned
*

for specifically
this book
which
was

pageant-like productions,
I have
a seems

Since
St.

written

visited

Forest

Park
an

Theatre

at

Louis,

also
The

combines stage

nature

stage

with

tural architecpageant looked this:

auditorium.

well-equipped
But
me

for
as

and other production the at playhouse, the if


a

spectacular
truth in any that

entertainment.
struck
most

I
was

forcibly
a

theatre
prepare

is

to

be

degree
The

architectural,
at
or

real
Park

architect
appears

should
to

the
laid

have is
a

been

design. out by
and

auditorium

Forest

an

engineer
and

"

It

thing

of

concrete

steps

iron

architectural

beauty,

altogether

perhaps by a plumber. of piping utterly devoid disillusioning. Photographs


"

ABOVE,

THE

STAGE

OF

THE

GREEK

THEATRE

AT

POMONA,
ARCHITECTURAL

NIA. CALIFOR-

HERE

AN

AUDITORIUM

OF

THE

CLASSIC

TYPE

IS

COMBINED

WITH

NATURE-THEATRE

STAGE.

BELOW,
THIS IS A

JTHE
FREE

GREEK

THEATRE

AT

BAKERSFIELD,
ROMAN RATHER

CALIFORNIA.

ADAPTATION

OF

THAN

GREEK

FORMS.

[LEWIS

p.

HOBART,

ARCHITECT]

THE

MODERN
theatre

GREEK it is to

43

and

like the

Pomona here

have

no

rear

stage-wall. But
two pillars,
on

the

stage
a

is framed formal
on

by high
touch
centre

each

side, giving

and of

serving
the used

to

concentrate

sight

lines

the

stage.

These

pillars,too,
at

shield

lights to

be

during performances
theatre
to

night.
in pure classic
at

Another

of

great
in
one

size, but
of the

style, is

be

built

parks
for

Los

Angeles, California. building


of
an

The

plans

call

the

mediate imsand thoution addi-

auditorium

seating ten
an

spectators, with
to seat

provision for
more.

eventual The
Greek

thirty thousand
to

"skene" Theatre the

will be
and

similar

that

of the

Hearst Ionic

will be

decorated
two

with

columns, but
feet

stage
feet

floor will be

hundred

long

and

fifty

deep.
the modern in

Of

open-air theatres Europe, by far the


at

of
most

tectural purely archi-

design
is the Arena curious
arena

interesting
is
a

Goldoni

Florence, Italy. This


the
Roman

combination types. stage


It

of

theatre
an
arena

and

the
a

is like
the

half
seats.

of

with
is open

raised
at

opposite
but

The The
a

stage
floor

the

front,
the

is roofed.
itself in
at

level
narrower

below
is

the
of lack the
to

stage,
the of
pure

arena

sense,
indicate
a

open-air
decorative

theatre values.

Anoka,
If
a

Minnesota,
theatre is
to

similar all from

depart
be the

at

nature-theatre that
to

add

legitimate
endow all

type, attractiveness his creations.

the

designer
with

should which

competent architect is

supposed

44

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

A B
C D
E

ENTRANCE

HALL

M
N O P

PHOTOGR*
STA(3e

ROOM

ANTEROOM
ARENA

MECHANICS
CGYRTYARD

SHOP

SCALJNATA
LOGGIA GALLERY

Q
ROOMS ROOMS

PASSAGES

HOSTAGE
S T
U STVDIO

DOOR.

G
H I J

CARPENTERS WOODCARVERS OFFICE LIBRARY

COVRT PRINTING OTHER OVXJl

OFFICE

VWXY"
STORE BOOMS
"
""

ROOMS

^,

Plan

of

the

Arena and

Goldoni,
auditorium.
theatre

showing
This is combined

the is

stage, "arena,"
in which and
can
an
"

open-air

of arrangement buildings few of one with studios, workshops


unique

the

offices a type that study to advantage.

American

"experimental

theatre"

groups

46
ous

THE

OPEN-AIR
there
at

THEATRE well-founded of the


into the stories

than

for dignified,

are

of

official intervention
the Arena and

certain

gatherings.
hands of that

Recently
Gordon the

has his

passed

Craig
for

associates, and
of the and

it is here of he

School

the
so

Art

Theatre,
which

which

Craig
so

dreamed
has be

lovingly

planned
Nowhere

long,
there the

finally been
found of
an

established.
more

could for this

atmosphere

inspiring
than in

work

dramatic

experimenters
that of

charming
of

open-air
the

structure

still retains
convent

something
Similar

cloistered

silence the

days.
tury cen-

theatres

built
in

during

nineteenth
may

exist elsewhere
been them Goldoni the into is

Italy,but whatever
of of for dramatic them
art

have called
Arena

development being,
now
none

that

except

the

notable

its activities. theatre


at

The

only

modern

European
traditions the

that

follows in

closelythe England.
more

Greek Here
a

is that

Bradfield

auditorium
the

forms

considerably
pit is
after
a

than

and half-circle,
an

orchestra centre, is in
an

complete
Greek

circle with

altar in the stage

the

fashion. of

The
Greek in the

building
but

ingenious
form The that

arrangement has
no

motives,
classic

parallel
a

theatres.

stage

is in effect

covered

porch, with
and

the
exits.

conventional While the

five

doorways

for much

entrances

building loses

of

the

dignity and

spacious-

CORNER

OF

THE

ARENA

GOLDONI,
FROM
THE

AT

FLORENCE,

ITALY,

AS

SEEN

STAGE.

THE

MODERN

GREEK

47

ness

of the classic theatres, this recessed


serve

porch
to

would

doubtless
the
more

to

frame of the

the

action

and better

trate concen-

interest Greek

audience The

than is

the
rounded sur-

open

stage.
of of

whole

theatre
not

by
the

masses sense

foliage, which
but
add

only

crease inthe

shelter

greatly to
have who
in

beauty
The the

of

the

place. productions
at

finest

the

theatre

been has the

classic
the

revivals
way
to

by Granville
so

Barker,
innovations

pointed

many

English theatre.
field

Each

year

the

students

of

Bradone

College produce

in the

original tongue
;
a

of

the

masterpieces of Greek
of each,

drama

and week

the
in

five performances

given during
all parts

June,

are

attended

by people from
which
is of

of

England.
seats

The sand, thou-

auditorium,
but

concrete,

two

only

about

fourteen
the
"

hundred Tickets
that
may

spectators
are

have
sold

clear

view
poorer

of

stage.
a

not
mended com-

for the
to

seats

fact

be

the

usual

commercial The

managers

for is cause be-

thoughtful consideration.
sometimes it At
was

Bradfield

theatre

known

as

the
out

"Chalk-cliff of
an

Theatre,"

hollowed

old
is
a

chalk-pit.
"arenaatre the-

Beziers, in France, there

so-called
of the

theatre," built in imitation


and is

partly

Greek

partly

of

the

Roman

amphitheatre, which
out-door

larger than

any

other

modern

playhouse

48

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE the
is

(barring such
Louis

temporary

arrangements
But the
up
structure

as

St.

pageant
and

theatre).
it has been

only

of wood, and of
opera,

given
and

to chiefly spectacle

with

elaborate

atrocious

imitations

indoor-stage settings.
Of modern
structures

modelled

after

the

ancient there

stadion, circus
are

and
as

amphitheatre
the

(or arena), Spain


and

many,

such stadia have

bull-rings of
the do

the
these
art.

athletic

throughout
very

world;
with

but

buildings
At the

little to in

dramatic notable in of the the

Harvard have

Stadium

Cambridge
as

ductions pro-

been
the

staged,
of

well

as

Yale

Bowl of
were
are so

and

at

stadion

the the

College

City

New

York.

But acoustic
a

while

spectacular effects
of the
at

fine,the
poor
was an

properties
deal of

the
true

structures

that lost.
annual

great
In the

dramatic ington, Washbut


very

element

stadion

Tacoma,
is
a

dramatic is made

festival rather

held,

wisely the production


a

pageant

than

play.
Of the

contemporary
as

Italian

outdoor

theatres,

or

"arenas"
are

they

are

often

termed,

practically
as

all

negligible both
to

and architecturally

tributing con-

dramatic the

art.

Many
roofs

are

simply

indoor

theatres
that
are

with

auditorium
over

lifted,with

stages

given

to

every

sophisticated device
and

that

modern

"scenic

artists"

modern

chorus-

THE

ORCHESTRA
AT

AND

STAGE

OF

THE
ENGLAND.

GREEK

THEATRE

BRADFIELD,

5o

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

that of

is

built
here the

against
find

background
finest of

of

large

masses

actors,

their

expression.
form is

Because than

theatre

classic

thus of

better

fitted

any

other
finer

to

house
of

certain

sorts

drama,
hall

and has

because been

no

form

open-air
lectures

assembly
and
concerts

ever

invented

for
the

and

meetings,
will

doubtless

Greek

or

Roman

house playon

continue

to

increase

in

numbers

sity univerAmerica

campuses

and

in

public
world.

parks,

both

in

and

in

the

rest

of

the

CHAPTER

IV

THE

MEDIAEVAL

RELIGIOUS

THEATRE

AND

ITS

SURVIVALS

AFTER
of
of the the drama

the

decay
world for
many

of
was

the

Roman barren

theatre,
of The of
an

the

Western

dramatic
rebirth incident

activity
came

centuries. elaboration

in the

church century.
this but

service,
The

probably
middle of

in the

the

tenth

or

eleventh
saw

thirteenth in

tury cen-

activity

still

purely fifty

liturgical

acter; charthe

the
of

following
the

years

witnessed which
the
open;

development
made its
way

Mystery
the

Play,
into

quickly
and

out

of the

church

by

the of

middle
the
was

of

fourteenth

century
from
drama

the the
was

tion separa-

dramatic

production
and outdoor

church

service

complete,
as an

firmly religious

established

independent

expression

of

feeling.
The

first
on

productions
church steps.

out-of-doors

probably
the

were

given
was

the

Although might
have for

auditorium
no

not

all the

audience could
be

desired,

finer

outdoor

stage

imagined
5i

religious plays.

52

THE

OPEN-AIR
church

THEATRE

The

towering

fagade

as

background

less doubt-

intensified the
of the

dignity and
the

spiritualeffectiveness drifting
must out
to

production;
from the

music

the been the

audience

church
and he

itself

have
God
was

strangely appealing;
more

doubtless
came
on

convincing when
church
on

the the
as

stage
form
a

through
of this for in the
on

the

doors. the church later

Probably
steps that
erected the

it

was

stage
the
open

served

model
or

platforms
square,

against houses

with

people crowding

around

three The stories the

sides.

Mystery Play, following closelythe scriptural acceptable to


the

church,
crept the

soon

gave

way

to

Miracle stories

Play, into which


and

gradually
saints, and

phal apocry-

legends
more

of

which broad the steps


a

was

characterized

often

by

very

human time
to

feeling than
when
time there form the

by religiousfervor. Play
Miracle left

From

Mystery
the

the

church
became

the

when

stage

set

type,

is little direct of the


many

evidence

regarding

the

detailed it
went to

mediaeval

theatre.

Doubtless

through
have

changes, although always it


of

seems
a

been

wood,

and
to

usually built for


be
torn

single cycle of performances,


as

down is in
extant

as

soon

the

"season"
a

was

done.

There
at to

description of
had
an

theatre

built similar

Autun those

1516, by

which

auditorium

built

THE the
were

MEDIEVAL but for


doubt

RELIGIOUS
the writer remarks
that there his

53 there is
ments. statea

Romans;
seats

as

eighty thousand
as

people,
of
a

reasonable

to

the

accuracy of old

There

is

also

evidence
in the

sort

that

Mystery Bourges.
mediaeval Of
the
at on,

was

produced
But the is
on

amphitheatre
of

at

typical auditorium only


a

the

theatre

thing
the

of

conjecture.
were

stages
least

which the
end

Miracles

duced, protury cen-

from is
set
more

of the

fourteenth
In

there
took
a

knowledge.

France
a

these few

stages

form, usually being raised


at

feet, and
various

having

the
from

back

representations of the
the
were

"localities"
to

which

characters
to

were

supposed
the boxes
or

come,

or

which

they
these

occupy
were

ing durlike

action.

Generally

localities

booths, built
with

either

directly on
to

the

stage
the
case

floor,or
common

only a
or as

few
a

steps
second raised the

lift them story,


above

above

level;
actors

in which those Some


as on

the

in them full view

were

the the

stage Miracle

into

of

audience.
as

of

Plays called

for

many

twenty-four
the ities localto

localities.
were

In the late theatres

of this type the the

decorated

to
one
on.

indicate

characters

which
one

they belonged,
for
at

being for

Virgin Mary,
two

God,
the

and

so

Invariably the
Paradise of
a

ities local-

ends

represented
in the

and

Hell, the

latter

usuallybeing

shape

dragon's mouth.

54 The

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE
of

well-known

engraving
Valenciennes elaborate Hell

the

setting for
shows
a

the

Passion stage
curve

Play
with
at

at

in 1547 series of

raised in
a

an

localities

the

back.

is formed and

by
the

the

mouth

of
gatory Pur-

ferocious-looking dragon,
is

adjoining

emitting

very

realistic

flames.

Stage

of the

Passion

Play

theatre

at

Valenciennes,

154.7.

In in

England

the

system

of

presenting the Miracles


entrusted
use

cycles,each
or

guild being
led
to

with movable
the

certain instead

incident of

scene,

the
The "The

of

stationary stages.
the

guild of
Last
as

bakers,

appropriately presenting hardly


use
same

Supper," could
the
barbers
senting pre-

stage-car
of

"The
one

Baptism

Jesus."
do

And

although
fishmongers
"The be

stage their

arrangement
"Flood" the and

might
the

for the

with

shipwrights with
different

Building of

Ark,"

something

would

THE demanded
"The

MEDLEVAL

RELIGIOUS

55

by

the

cooks
"

who

were

entrusted

with in the each


own

Harrying
of

of Hell"

because

"they
fire."
to

were

habit

taking things
a

out

of the

Thus
suit the its

guild prepared appropriate part performance play


was

stage-on-wheels
of

the

cycle. When
open space

day

of the first
was

arrived, into the


be

where
the
or

to

presented
which
the

was

wheeled

"pageant-car,"on
performed;
next

first incident
one

act to

that

finished, car
car

went

on

the
so

"station," and
until
to

two

took of formed
cars

its

place,
"

and

on,

the

whole

series
had

(varying
the

from each

three
one

twenty-four)
the
cars

stage

at

of The

several varied
be
as

stations.

widely
elaborate

in form
as

and

appointments. stationary
stories, and
"

None

could
but of

the

French
two

stages,
many

often
them
a

they
showed

were

built in several

localities
now

"Hellbefore.
were

mouth"
Some
open

being
were

characteristic
and
on

feature

as

curtained

roofed,
sides.

while
At

others
some

at

the

top and

three
were

of the
an

stations middle
was

auxiliary stages
space

built, with
of the
were
cars

open

into

which

each

in

turn

drawn.

Similar

pageant-cars
had
wrote

utilized
use

in

Spain long after

they
Vega

gone

out

of

in

land. Eng-

Lope designed
for of

de

four

hundred

"scenes,"
the
cessions pro-

production out-of-doors
the

during
These

Bloody

Sacrament

produc-

56 tions
were

THE

OPEN-AIR forbidden
are

THEATRE

in

Spain in 1765.
of
the

But

even

to-day

there

survivals
and

pageant-car

play

in parts
as

of

Spain,
Holy
a

in such
at

religiousprocessions

that In

of the

Blood

Bruges.
of

Cornwall
in the form

special type
time of
a

open-air

theatre

developed
was

of

the

Miracle

Plays.

This

in the
our

low

amphitheatre, somewhat
fields,with
banks ruins of
a

like of

present-day
built "field"
on

athletic

few

tiers

seats

heaped-up earthen
or

ing surroundsuch atres, the-

the
or

"stage."
as

The

"rounds" several of the

they

are

sometimes the
at

called, are
best St.

found and
one

at

places in Cornwall,
best

known,

preserved, being
Norris, in "The
the 126
structure

Just, near
Cornish "It

Penwith.

Edwin describes
exact

Ancient
as

Drama,"
was
an

follows:
the
area

circle of
of the

feet diameter; from the

dicular perpen-

height
now seven

bank,
the feet

within,
bottom
more.

feet; but without,


consist foot
ten

height from
at

the

of

the The and

ditch
seats
one

present,

formerly
inches
of

of

six steps,
one on

fourteen the top feet

wide

high, with
is of about

all,where
The
. . .

the

rampart
are

seven

wide.
of

benches and

stone."

Of

the the there

methods Miracle is
no

tion producwere

the
to

when settings,

Plays
authentic

brought

the

"rounds,"

dence. evi-

It

was

not

far

jump

from

the

pageant-car

to

the

Contemporary diagram of
Dutch

sketch
the Swan

of

an

Elizabethan in

theatre.

This
was

is made

Theatre

London,

and

rough by a
trates, illusspeare's Shake-

second-hand scholar, probably from nevertheless, the typical form of the time.

evidence.

It

playhouse

in

THE

MEDIEVAL

RELIGIOUS

59 is uncertain.
no

period
But

of

Shakespearian "first nights"


the

before

great

poet-dramatist's death,
had of
most

doubt, the

typical playhouse
of the

of

the

acteristic charvery

indoor
and

stage
freedom from

to-day, and
and the
openness

little of the theretofore


Greeks. and

airiness had

that of the
"

persisted

time

Already

everything
death the

pointed
breath

indoors of

with

Shakespeare's
went out

the

out-

of-doors

of

English

drama.

Among
no.

the of

open-air theatres
the modern either
no

of
or

to-day there

is

survival The
demand

Elizabethan drama four close of be

Renaissance

house. playence audi-

and

the

modern

walls

carefully roofed
and
no

over,

so

that

nuance

meaning

subtle

facial
"

expression may
there the is
no

lost, or
the

else all out-of-doors intermediate theatre there


one:

and

place for
or

type.
is
one

But
very

of

Mystery

Miracle
a

close

parallel, and
Passion

very

notable

the

Ober-Ammergau
Most
Passion of the

Play Theatre.
about it is the
not
a a

writers

Ober-Ammergau
survival of the

Play

insist that

mediaeval
and

religious drama,
that

but the

separate
series the

growth;
of
ductions pro-

it is well-known
goes

current

back

only

to

1633, when
from
a

people
vowed
year.

of the
to

village,for
the

deliverance of
to

plague,
tenth

present

Passion claim

Jesus
have

every

Others, however,

found

evidence

of

60 earlier need
not

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE
this

dramatic
be

activity of
But
one

sort.

The
studied

point
the

debated. need

who
the

has

mediaeval
theatre
or

stage
to

only

see

Ober-Ammergau
it is survival

be

convinced

that, whether

reversion, it is unmistakably of the


The existence of the

Miracle

Play
is

type.
the most

several

"localities" features.

strikingof
one

the characteristic

For

here
a

on

side

of the

stage
on

are

Annas'

palace and
side
a

street

in

Jerusalem,
house,

and

the
the

other
centre

street
tained cur-

and

Pilate's

while
arch

in behind

is the the

proscenium
are

which

tableaus

presented.
a

The

general
above
the

form

of the and

stage, too, with


the like

raised curved that of

few

feet

ground,
is

architectural the

background,

remarkably

typical mediaeval
necessary
to

stage.
the every
to

It is not fame has

describe
out

play here.
corner

Its
the tion relaOne

already
But

gone

to

of
the

world.

it is worth

while
the

consider

between
wonders
so

the

play
this that

and

outdoor that
a

setting.
so

whether

drama is such of

is

simple and
sion expres-

and spiritual, of the

spontaneous
the

religious faith
on a

people, could
The the

be

adequately given
spirit of
and the it is
so

roofed-in the the

stage.

whole

much
and
a

spirit of
mountains

open-air,

sky
are

overhead
so

in the background

much
any

part

of the

atmosphere
be
not

of the

action, that

other

setting would

only

THE

STAGE

OF

THE

PASSION

PLAY

THEATRE

AT

OBER-AMMERGAU.

THE

MEDIEVAL

RELIGIOUS
the entire

61

unnatural, but actuallydestructive


of the suffuses the
of the
"

to

tiveness effecthat

play.

The

spiritof

reverence

whole

production, the
solemn be lost

unaffected
sense

ness earnest-

the villagers,

of

religious
were

worship
taken

all these

would
modern

if the

stage

indoors
to

in the

fashion.

Unthinking
that
was

visitors rained
no

Ober-Ammergau,
the

complaining
and that

it

during
"

performance play
were

there

shelter,
them
"

as

if the

designed primarily

for

brought
the

about

the

roofing
of 1900.

of

the
It

torium audi-

for
one

performance
how

compels
theatre its first exists forces

to

realize
the

utterly the contemporary pleasing


concern.

makes and

outward

of

the

audience
that

dominating
art
or

The
the other such
an

drama

for of

religion or

great

moving

life survives
as

only in
this
one

simple, spontaneous out-of-the-way


a

productions

in

tain moun-

village.
was

And

even

here

partial
seats
"

concession it

made,
to

in the

covering of the
the

although

is

be

hoped

that

villagerswill always cling to

their

open

stage.
at

The

theatre

Ober-Ammergau
feet

is
140

comparatively
wide;
the the

large, being
total
are

250

long by
about

feet and

seating capacity is
of wood. At

4500,

benches is the

The
ends
next to

extreme

stage stage
streets

depth
are

sixty
two

feet.

the

of

the

"palaces,"and

these the

of

Jerusalem;

62

THE

OPEN-AIR
is the

THEATRE

and the

in the tableaus

centre
are

curtained The

inner

stage

where

presented.
in these

realistic form the


one

painted
ern mod-

back-drops
note

used

tableaus

in the other that

staging.
modern
at
or

Of notable the
ones

the
as

Passion

Plays
as

none

is

so

Ober-Ammergau,
the theatre. The

regards
most

either

production
are

important

found

in the That
to

villages of

Southern
a

Germany
bruck InnsOberThe

and

the

Tyrol.

given
a

at

village near
of
as

is said

be

worthy
and is

rival

the old. is
a

Ammergau
Passion

production, Play
at

quite

Selzach, in Switzerland,
is
not

modern the plicity sim-

imitation, and
and
to

yet

characterized tradition

by
has

reverence

which

imparted

the

Ober-Ammergau
might
go

villagers.
afield and in the find

One
the

farther

parallelsto
tivals fes-

mediaeval of other

religious drama
Christian that

devotional

countries, and
are

especiallyin
and there

the

nativity plays
the

acted

here In

throughout

Western
are

world.

non-Christian dramatic old and of


are

countries, too, there

processionals and
like those The of the

episodes
modern

that

are

strangely
church.
ceremonial But

Christian and the

religious drama
of of

Thibet,

drama
most

Japan
these

typical examples.
find their
little
to

although

ities activis for

natural about

setting out-of-doors,

there

record

open-air

theatres

built

CHAPTER

THE

NATURE

THEATRE

OF
It is the in
to

all
nature

the

types

of
is

open-air
the
one

theatre,
that has

the the

theatre of
to

maximum
closest

openness

and of the

natural

beauty.
and

the

heart her

out-of-doors,
most

it the

Nature aid of the

brings
art.

loveliness

effectively

Unlike theatre

Greek has
no

and
masonry

Roman bowl

theatres,
or

the

ture na-

architectural
it has
no

stage.
or

Unlike

the

garden

theatre,

golas, per-

clipped
While

hedge
it

"wings"
is

or

walled
to

stage

platform.
of theatre

usually
cleared

shaped
stage
and

semblance

form,
man's

with

torium, rising audias

manipulation
Nature the is
one uses

still

is

disguised
and The

far

as

possible.
to

is of
trees

trained dramatic
and

subtly
art.

spicuously incon-

usual
some

background
of

of

shrubs,
stages

though

the

most

inspiring
sea

nature

have

vistas

of

mountain,
brooks and

and lakes

valley;

and form

sometimes

rivers,
the

actually

part

of

stage

equipment.
64

THE Of
most

NATURE

THEATRE
theatres the

65
one

the

European

nature

that
one

is

important
most

in dramatic

achievement, and
the Harz
at

of

the

is interestingstructurally,

tain MounThale built in in

Theatre in the 1903 the Harz

(Das

Harzer

Bergtheater) Germany.
one

Mountains,
Ernst

It

was

by

Dr.

Wachler,
movement

of the
in of

pioneers

open-air
turned
not

theatre
to to

Europe.
drama

Dr. out-of-

Wachler
doors

the
escape

production
the

only
of

artificial

trapperies and
the definite of
a

trickeries intention German

the

indoor

theatre, but with


the

of

contributing to
drama. had and

development
than
the
a

national

More
out

century

fore, be-

Klopstock
such than
a

pointed
Goethe

of possibilities showed
more

venture,

in his time idea.


see
a

passing

interest

in the
to

But

it remained

for the theatre


season,

twentieth

century
an

German
of

open-air plays
each

offering
with the

extended avowed

series
purpose
a

of

expressing

national
art.

ideals and

contributing to

purely national

The of

Germans
French drama

long have
and and Italian in the The

chafed
ideals

under in the

the

tion dominacepted ac-

world's
of

accepted form
Southern
ideal

theatre

"

and
art
was

with
of

reason.

in dramatic and

highly polished, over-decorated,


of

entirelysophisticated sort
itself

play,

that

would

lend

easily to

combination

with

"social"

functions;

66

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

and

the

Italian-French
divided the

theatre, with
house into for the

its horse-shoe of

shape
and

that

sections

good

bad

seats,

with
with
was

its boxes its

tocracy, be-jewelled arisand

and

be-gilded
a

be-spangled
house
Professor of the

ornamentation,
art

all that In the

democratic decade and of

of

should

not

be.

last

Littmann, Germans,
based

Professor

Kaufmann,
a

others
theatre

have
on

developed
the Greek

form

ing, build-

semi-circular

pattern,
which is
an

out within its infinite


;
a

boxes, and

dignified in decoration,
and
on

simple beauty improvement


Wachler
way

perfect fitness
the

to

use

French-Italian

type
in

and lar simithing some-

and
to

his associates old and

have

attempted

displace the

artificial drama
beautiful.
an

by
The

similarly simple
Mountain of

Harz number
to
a

Theatre

has

presented

unusual

plays by contemporary
extent

dramatists,

dealing
and

great

with
more

Teutonic than

mythology
five hundred
way
to

German

life; and
have
a

the least

performances development
The of

at

pointed the
and

the drama.

new

sort

of national

folk
and

Greek

classics Greeks and

have
were

been
the

revived great
works
masters

studied, since
of outdoor Sachs

the

drama;
have
been have the

naturally the
to

of

Hans German

brought back
had
new

life; and

the

classics these the and

their

place.
dramas

But, important
may

as

folk

have

been

from

German

TWO

VIEWS

OF

THE

HARZ

MOUNTAIN

THEATRE.

THE

NATURE
is

THEATRE that
Dream" theatre's

67
speare's Shakehas
ductions. pro-

standpoint,
"A

it

interesting to

note

Midsummer
most

Night's
of all the

proved

the

popular

The is
on a

auditorium
mountain

of

the

Harz
an

Mountain

Theatre
over

side, with
ranges

inspiringoutlook
hills. The
stone seats

wooded wooden About

valleys and
benches
one on

of

are

roughly shaped
spectators
is
can

terraces.
dated. accommo-

thousand stage

be

The

merely
at
one

large levelled
end, and
the
a

space,

with
trees

jagged boulders
here and there.

few
is
actors
a

small rustic from

All

along
to

back

fence, serving presumably

prevent
over

the the

taking

too

realistic

plunge

precipitous

cliffbelow.
The

open-air

theatre stands the in 1909

at
next

Hertenstein,
in

near

Lucerne,
that It
was

Switzerland,
among

importance
of

to

at

Thale,

nature

theatres Rudolf

Europe.
who
duction pro-

established had

by

Lorenz,
dramatic three the

already had

long experience with


open,

in the outdoor have

and

with
At

two

or

vised improtions producas

theatres. less

Hertenstein less

been

original,and
of
a

important

the growth influencing than the the those


at

body
Mountain

of national Theatre.

drama,
But In

the the

Harz

revivals first
two

of

classics have
of

been

far

finer.

years

the

theatre's

existence

noted

68

THE

OPEN-AIR
in old in Greek

THEATRE

actors

appeared
and

dramas,

in and

plays by
even

Goethe the work

Hebbel,

Shakespeare,
as

in

of such

moderns

Ibsen

and the

Hauptmann.
achievement
but
"

Discerning critics have


of the theatre the
venture to
a

pronounced
artistic
a

distinct has

success;

cially finanmore,
a

proved

failure

due
to

perhaps,
of

its

comparative
drama.

isolation

than

lack

interest

in serious

Structurallythe interesting. The


with

Hertenstein
auditorium is

theatre

is

especially

comparatively large,
seats
ranged ar-

rising tiers of strongly built wooden


in the the form

of

wide
is
a

arc.

Between
bank
a

the

stage

and

auditorium

sloping

that

fectual ef-

increases break world hundred

illusion

by

making
and is

distinct
the
over

between
of the feet

the

plane of
The

action

real
one

spectators.

stage

wide, and
On the

its greatest three

depth is nearly
structed con-

eighty feet.
to

stage
proper
not

buildings were
and the exits

provide

entrances

for
ting: set-

those

plays which
in the

would
a

fit into
or

natural

centre,

temple,
at

palace-front, in
a

massive
tower
trees ;

classic and
at

style;
a

the

right

three-storied

the left

porch-like structure.
attractiveness
trees

Large
the

add the

greatly to background
the has whole
many

the is of

of

stage,

and

and

shrubs.
is
set

Although
wood,
and

composition
of the

in

natural
of the

characteristics

THE theatre stage

NATURE the
a

THEATRE

69
of

nature
on

type,

existence

the
with

buildings
the
scientiously con-

the

challenges
natural

comparison
nature

American

theatres.

In and

the

playhouses
and
a

at

Peterborough,
the Bohemian of

and

Meriden,

Madison,
there and is

in

Grove the lines

Theatre,

careful

avoidance

artificial touch, of man-made the


as

especially of
in the

the

formal

structures

stage

background.
been
to

In America
the

prime
wild the
as

consideration

has
a

keep

theatre
use

possible,with
of nature.

consequent

maximum because made

of

beauties in the

Perhaps
theatre the has

long

ing trainan

traditional divorce from


or

impossible
of

absolute indoor

artificial elements because

the
to

stage,

perhaps beauty
to

they prefer
in
to

sacrifice natural
the

convenience
have failed

tion, presentatake vantage ad-

European
of
nature

directors
to

the

full.

Practically all their


to

outdoor of
scenery

playhouses show
indoor
art
"

concessions
even

the

dards stan-

incongruous
its way into

painted
the
open.

occasionally finding
nature

At

the

theatre is
even

at

Potsdam,
more

Germany,
than

the
at

artificial element

pronounced

Hertenstein,
most

large permanent
background.
pure
nature

building forming
The theatre de la is the
most

of the of

stage the
is the

satisfying
on

example
Continent

type

the
at

"Theatre

Nature,"

Cauterets

in France.

Not

only

construction

7o

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

of natural entirely

elements, but the staging has been


of indoor

wholesomely
In the

independent
in the

stage

accessories.
near

theatre the of but here

Klampenborg
have been

Woods made the

Copenhagen,
a

productions
artificial
the hand of the

with ground; backevident

minimum

"scenery"
of
man

in

is

only too
The the

in the

construction about

stage

itself.

stage level

floor is raised of the

eight feet
and
a

above

lowest

auditorium,
it
at

wooden
In
to

retaining wall
wall
are

bounds

the

front.

this the

several
rooms

windows,
that feet
a

which
been the

give light
constructed

dressing
stage.

have

under solid

the board
can

few

before

wall
the

is

fence, leaving
be hidden. At

space

in which of the

orchestra

each

side

stage-front is

massive

pedestal, by
an

perhaps

seven

feet in
of thus
a

height, surmounted
The
two
over

mense im-

statue

bird. stand
a

vigorously
the touch

carved
one

figuresthat
either

guard

stage,
to

at
position, com-

hand, add
and

very
a

decorative finished
one

the that

afford

appearance

most
a

nature

theatres in

lack; but
the theatre the the

who
well
statues

has

not

seen

production
the

may

speculate
dwarfing
of

upon

possibilityof
and
upon

huge

the
any

action,
such union The

seeming
in is
a

incongruity
a

artificial of
art

feature
nature

place where

perfect

and

designed
is

to

be

effected.

Klampenborg

theatre

unusually large,

THE

KLAMPENBORG

WOODS

THEATRE,
DENMARK.

NEAR

COPENHAGEN,

THE

NATURE

THEATRE
than is
one

71 three

easily accommodating
spectators.
been
more

more

thousand

Perhaps
successful With
the

this

reason

why
other

it has
nature

than financially
most

any

theatre. dramatic
season,

able

members

of the

the first

profession
in the than the
summer

in Denmark of 1910,

employed,

yielded a
dollars.

net

profit plays
summer Mid-

of

more

five

thousand
were

The "A

given during

season

only
and
a

two:

Night's
drama.

Dream"

Danish

national

Perhaps
nature

the

most

remarkable the

of

the in
a

American redwood

theatres, and
near

oldest, is that

grove

Monte Club of

Rio,
San

California, owned
Francisco. it is In the

by

the

Bohemian

natural
among

beauty of its stage background


the
forest theatres of the

unequalled
The
a

world. with
a

stage

is

steep
of

hillside,which

is covered where

dense

growth
up,
now

underbrush,
now

except

trail winds

open,

half-hidden, and
At the bottom

finallylost
is
a

in the
open
at

trees

and and

shrubs.
several the

wide stand

space,

smaller

platforms
above
may

intervals masked

along

trail,one
the

the be

other, each

by
one

plants; and
of

actors
ones

grouped along
the

on

any

these,
is

or

by

and

twos

trail.

The trees,

stage whose

framed

by

two

towering

redwood until

naked

trunks
mass

stretch

upward
far

they

are

lost in the

of

foliage

overhead.

Other

72

THE

OPEN-AIR and
at

THEATRE

redwoods,
out

two

three

hundred

feet
a

high, rise
succession
a

of the

hillside

intervals, forming frames,


to

of

diminishing
sense

inner distance is
a

and

giving

able remark-

of

the

setting.

Immediately
the

before screened
rows

the

stage
a

sunken of

pit

for

orchestra,
of this the

by

thicket

ferns; and
from

back

of the

seats,

fashioned the
trees.

redwood
is

logs, begin.
surrounded

Like immense In

stage,
redwood

auditorium

by

this theatre

the

Bohemian since

Club 1902, that is

has

presented
a

its annual
new

"grove play"
of musical
art.

developing
unique in
evolved

form

masque

the

field of

dramatic the

The

play
has

has

ually gradtion, celebramined deter-

from
or

club's

old-time its form features


as

midsummer

"jinks," but by
the

really been
of the

physical
as

theatre, the

strict

limitations of the
as

well

the

magnificent possibilities
stage

almost

vertical
as

shaping
of
a

the the close

spectacular
production.

well
The

the
as

poetic features
now

type
old-time

it

stands but

offers

parallel to emphasis

the

masque,

with
the is

greater story
a

upon

musical

accompaniment;
out, and
as

is

always poeticallyworked
reliance the
upon

there

frank

the

purely visual
elements. of upon the

distinguishedfrom
Masque-like
in its
opera

subtly emotional dependence

poetic presentation
in its

story, approaching
and

music,

pageant-likein

74 in

THE Of

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

staging.

the

local
most
a

authors notable

whose is
to

work

has

been Of of

presented, the
late there has

Mary
widen
the
were

Austin. the

been

tendency
some

field

the

theatre's

activity,and
of William

of Yeats

little-acted

poetic dramas

Butler

recently

produced

very

successfully.^
with
of
at

Comparable
in the wildness

the
its

Bohemian

Grove theatre

Theatre
of the

setting is the
New

Outdoor Two

Players
trees

Peterborough,
a

Hampshire.
but

large

frame

comparatively level,
both thick sides there
are

boulder-strewn,
trees,
at

stage.

On and

pine
and little

maples, hemlocks,
is
a

undergrowth,
The the bed of
a

the back

wooded the
very

hillside.

brook which dense


summer

separates
also is
a

stage
small the and

from

auditorium,
the midst in used have of the of the for been

clearing in
first

woods. of but 1914,


now

During
chairs

"season,"
were

benches
terraces

seats;

semi-circular
rock. The
a

built of the

native
seats

smallness hundred

torium, audiand
a

which
the
sense

only
on

few

people,
to
rare

thick

foliage

all sides, combine

create

of seclusion The

and

intimacy

that

is the

in nature
are

playhouses.
notable air
as

activities
extent

of of far

theatre

indicating the
in America.

interest

in openbeen

drama
to

So

they

have

limited

productions by the
a

Outdoor

Players, who
those

constitute

school

for the

training of

who

de-

THE

NATURE

THEATRE

AT

VASSAR

COLLEGE.

THE

SUNKEN

PATHWAY

DIVIDES

THE

SLOPING

AUDITORIUM

(AT
A

THE

LEFT)
FOR

FROM

THE

STAGE,

AND

ALSO

SERVES

AS

HIDDEN

RECESS

THE

ORCHESTRA.

[LORING

UNDERWOOD,

ARCHITECT]

THE

NATURE
outdoor drama. of

THEATRE

75 student-actors and
are

sire
are

to

produce
from in

The the

drawn

all parts

country,

instructed and

composition, staging, costuming, acting


such well-known Ware
was

dancing, by
Platt and

leaders

as

ston Livingthe

Marie of 1914

Laughton.
Poliziano's

Among

productions
"Orfeo." The less
nature

masque

theatre

at

Vassar lines and

College

is

of been

rugged

type.

The

clearly have
natural reflection is
a

shaped by
has
nature

human been

hands,

yet the
But the

phere atmos-

preserved.

is of

in her
more

gentler aspect.
artificial bounds

There theatre

suggestion
hemlock

of the

garden
the
on

in the
at

hedge
and

which

auditorium the

the

front,

again

in the

pool

stage.

Of

particular
tween beas a

interest

structurally is
auditorium and the
no

the

sunken

passageway
serves

stage,
orchestra

which
at

pit

in which

to

hide
are

times

of

ance. perform-

There

permanent

seats,

folding chairs
needed. the

being placed
At of the

on

the

sloping lawn
Theatre

when
on

beautiful
Hill

little Dell

grounds
a

the

School,
is added the

Pottstown,

Pennsylvania,
at
as

formal of the bit of nine

touch

by

the

planting

each
a

side

stage, while

background
The have
not

is left

pretty
seat

tangled
hundred but the

woodland.

terraces,

which

people,

been

shaped

cally, concentrito

slope

is

great

enough

make

76
chairs

THE

OPEN-AIR
The

THEATRE

unnecessary.

theatre but the

is used

in

tion connec-

with
events

class-work;
have uThe the been Heart

really important
of

there

the

productions
of Youth" and
one

Hermann

Hagedorn's
One of

"Victory."
the
most

simplest

and

yet

of the

satisfyingof
air theatre

nature

stages

is that

of

little openThe
a

at

Meriden,
a

New
of

Hampshire.

background pleasing
additional
been
sense

is

solid

mass

foliage, affording
stage
is

of

enclosure.
appearance

The

given
that

an

"finished"

by
In
as

log

has
that and

placed along
two

its front. of

productions
one

demand
one

"planes
the

action,"
to

celestial the
one

mortal,

log

is used

separate
never

from
mitted per-

the

other, the
to

earthly
on

characters inner

being
of

intrude theatre

the

stage

the

spirits.
bird

In

this

Percy
was

Mackaye's
first that

beautiful
The
was

masque
was

"Sanctuary"
so

staged.
masque

tion producadded
never

successful of the

the

to

the

repertory
a more

Coburn
ideal

Players; settingthan

but

will it find
one

nearly

its initial

at

Meriden.

It is

largely due
nature

to

the

Coburn
has

Players, perhaps,
taken of

that
at

the

theatre and
a

idea

strong
the

hold

the

colleges
At
or

normal dozen outdoor of

schools these

Middle have the

West.
built

least

institutions

planned
purpose of

playhouses, with

primary

providing adequate settingsfor

THE

DELL OF

THEATRE,
THE
NATURE

AT

POTTSTOWN,
THEATRE AND

PENNSYLVANIA. GARDEN

BINATION COMTYPES.

THEATRE

78

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE that

Normal,
is less District started of the

Illinois,is similar
elaborate Normal the and School less
at

to

at

Macomb,
The

but
First

permanent.

Kirksville, Missouri, has


a

construction

of

playhouse
the

that

is
or

partly
tectural archithe

nature

type
A front. the

and

partly of
concrete

Greek

type. stage
at

massive The

wall

bounds is sunk it the

the

orchestra back

pit
of

four
tiers
ing seat-

feet below
of chairs
space
are

stage

floor, and
form.

rise is

in horseshoe

Additional
"bleachers" the athletic

provided by movable
in
on runners

which
fields.

brought
stage
is

from wide and

The and

forty

feet

thirty feet deep,


to

slopes

up

slightlyfrom
is the

front

back. that of

An is

interestingfeature
erected
over

temporary
and from Macomb

awning
at

auditorium

stage
sun

times rain.

formance, per-

giving Very
connected Maine.
more

shelter
to

and

similar

the

Theatre
at

is that

with
The

the

Building

of Arts, is

Bar

Harbor,
and

stage,

however,

more

open,

indefinite, with

large

trees

scattered

here

and

there. and for of


an

It is, therefore, better


not
so

fitted for
a

pageants

dances, but

satisfying as
within
a a

background
hundred feet the
tered scatan

plays.
indoor
of the

Its existence theatre

few

suggests
In
a

wise

foresight on
that

part

builders.
every

climate of

brings

rainstorms

month

the

year,

such

THE

NATURE

THEATRE

AT

MACOMB,

ILLINOIS.

THE

NATURE

THEATRE

79 and

arrangement stages
A theatre of The
more

of
seem

adjoining
to

outdoor

indoor

would

be be

imperative.
made between for the the
nature

distinction that is

may

designed primarily
the theatre for

production
and dances. and
to

plays, and
pageant
or

pageants
has the that

theatre

seldom

enclosed is essential
sweeps

less intimate sort; behind it is


more

atmosphere
open,

the

other

with

wide
of

of and

landscape

the

stage,

sometimes and

river

lake, sometimes
of lawns and

of mountains, woods.

sometimes
most

merely perfect
of
a

Perhaps
in America, with

the

the pageant certain is that


sense

stages
of

because breadth

it combines of

enclosure

outlook,
the
sented. pre-

at

Peterborough, New
Memorial A

Hampshire,
have
a

where
been solid

MacDowell

Pageants

fringe of woodland foliage


eye
out

affords
a

ground backabove est, forThe


tacular spec-

of carries the

for
to

the
a

action, but
of

vista
hill and

panorama

with stage
is

Mount

Monadnock

in the

distance.

unusually large, permitting extensive


effects
and

processions.
spectators. which
is
a

The

auditorium

seats

two

thousand musical

The

pageant
theatre

has

developed
and notable of

at

the

Peterborough
Under

new

type.

the

inspiration of
and

the able

memory

Edward
dramatic and

MacDowell,
leaders
as

with

the

aid

of

such

Professor

George

Pierce

Baker

8o

THE

OPEN-AIR
the have

THEATRE artists and


created
to
a

Hermann

Hagedorn, colony
is The

art-lovers
form Bohemian of

of the

MacDowell
that

tion producGrove
is

comparable Peterborough

the

Plays.

production, however,
rather the than of the dramatic of

of the pageant distinctly


masque

type.

It has and

not

unity

action and
as a

the

Grove
more

Plays,

it utilizes It may
as a

dancing
described

spectacle
musical
opera.

expansively.
rather
first of than

be

festival As had the

musical

masque

or

its kind, the


on

MacDowell

pageant
of

has

great

influence

the

growth

pageantry

throughout the country.


A theatre from
on

of

the

open
at

pageant

type, but
has

differing
been of
structed con-

widely

that the

Peterborough,
of the

grounds

University
of
trees

consin, Wisthe

at

Madison.

Groups
stage
almost
at

frame
at

wooden back

platform
there is The and
a an

both unbroken

sides, but
view pretty
of

the

Lake
sition, compo-

Mendota.

whole
more

forms

very

satisfying background
could is
not not

for The

pageant-like productions
theatre in the in its present
nature at

be

desired.

form

permanent,
Those

being

of the

an

experiment.
of

interested under the took

in drama

University

Wisconsin,
H.

leadershipof
up

Professor of

Thomas

Dickinson,
with

the

question

open-air
and

theatres

able commenddid
not

thoroughness

conservatism.

They

THE

PETERBOROUGH

PAGEANT
NEW

THEATRE,
HAMPSHIRE.

AT

PETERBOROUGH,

[COPYRIGHT

BY

THE

MACDOWELL

MEMORIAL

ASSOCIATION]

82

THE

OPEN-AIR the
time

THEATRE

in be

feeling
very

at

same

preserved;
a

but

one

can

certain
at
more

that

when

permanent

theatre

is and

constructed local In needs

Madison

it will fit local could

conditions
any

perfectly than
breadth
at

other. the
porary tem-

point

of size and theatre

of

conception
Park

pageant
was

Forest

in St. Louis in the

the

most

notable

ever

constructed retained of
an

country.

The

immense

auditorium in the

almost and

its natural

form, being

shape

arc,

sloping just
every tion. por-

enough

to

from give perfect sight-lines the

At and

production
of Saint

of

the

ambitious
were

Pageant
seats

Masque

Louis,

there and

for that

forty-fivethousand
between thousand
one

spectators,
and
one one

it is said and

hundred

hundred of the

fifty

people witnessed
was

performances.
as

The
front

stage
was

built less

on

scale

quite

large.
feet, and

Its its

no

than The

one

thousand
actors

depth
numbered
was

two

hundred.
seven

in the

production
The

thousand from the in the

five hundred.
auditorium

stage

separated
was

by
and

lagoon,
for

which

utilized
entrances

pageant
boat. task his To

masque

spectacular
an

by
is
a

dominate dramatic

such

immense

theatre

for

giant;

but and

Percy Mackaye,
Thomas held

with

"Masque
with
his

of St. Louis,"

Wood
the

Stevens audiences

accompanying
proved
scale.

pageant, the

spell-bound, and
on a

of production feasibility

community

THE

NATURE
edition

THEATRE

83
pageant
sity Univerabout
a

Like theatre of fifteen

miniature
is the

of the
Theatre Here

St. Louis
at
a

Bankside Dakota.

the
stream

North feet

wide,

curving in the
and

shape

of

circle, semi-

separates
is

stage
one

auditorium.
feet

The
the

stage

approximately

hundred

along
the

curving
edge

front, and
to
a

slopes up
of low of the

slightlyfrom
trees at

water's
The
are

grove
seats

the

back.

present
to

wooden

sloping auditorium
terraces. to

be

placed re-

by rising concrete
is the

When

the

tre thea-

completed according

the three

plan

now

in hand The

seating capacity will be


was

thousand. "A

theatre of the of As

dedicated
West" H.
was

in

1914,

when

Pageant
the
tion direc-

North-

produced

under

Frederick

Koch. for

the

only
is
to
are

reason

taking
of

drama

to

the

tain-tops moun-

gain breadth

outlook, the
type. The
much
to

tain moun-

theatres

all of the pageant be


pure
sure,

Harzer

Bergtheater,
a

to

has

done but

develop plays
of

new

form

of

drama;

when

the been

concentrated

dramatic been found

interest
necessary

have
to

produced
up
out

there, it has
of wide the
on

build

grounds backthe

buildings and
the mountains

foliage, blotting
and theatre

vista
most

over

valleys. Perhaps
in America, that

notable

mountain
near

Mount
way

Tamalpais,
is
too

San

Francisco, in the

same

open

for

successful

production of

84
intimate tala"
was

THE
drama.

OPEN-AIR the of

THEATRE

When
most

Sanskrit the

play "Shakun-

produced,
charm of the
was

poetic subtlety and


and
most
rying car-

intimate obvious
to

lost, only the broadest


and The best of

humorous

pathetic situations
things
were

the

audience.

that

the

average

spectator
the

remembered virtues
a

quite

aside
groups

from
of

characteristic

the

play:
across

the

horsemen
away

galloping up
the
a

glade,
the

the stage, and


Hindoo the in

through
on

trees;

yellow-robed against
tones

standing

rock,

silhouetted in the

sky, ing keep-

chanting
with
of

Sanskrit

prologue
of

quite

the

strangeness

setting; the
trees
;

groups

gaily-dresseddancers
wonderful
the

against the

and

above

all, the

view

beyond, with
seen

the
two

wooded
shoulders blue

valleys and
of the
on one

foothills and the the

between
down

mountain,
side and
on

still farther

the

bay
from

white
other.

fog-banks driftingin
In such
most
a

the

ocean

theatre

surely
forts ef-

the

only production
will
not

in which

of the

actors'
nature

be

wasted

is that

in which
mass

and
It
was

man

collaborate

spectacularlyin

effects.

the the

experience with producers


to
van

"Shakuntala,"
more

perhaps,

that

led
ductions pro-

choose Winkle"

wisely for
and

later

"Rip
At

"William
the

Tell."
auditorium

the
not

Mount been

Tamalpais shaped,
for
an

Theatre

has

irregular hollow
seven
or

affording

seating

space

perhaps

eight thousand

.BOVE,
"AKOTA.

THE

BANKSIDE

THEATRE,
A

AT

THE

UNIVERSITY

OF

NORTH

BELOW,
TAMALPAIS

PORTION

OF

THE

STAGE

OF

THE

MOUNT

THEATRE,

NEAR

MILL

VALLEY,

CALIFORNIA.

[PHOTOGRAPH

BY

GABRIEL

MOULIN]

THE

NATURE had
been The

THEATRE

85

people.
to centre

The
the

stage
interest.

changed
theatre

only slightly by
the and
duce pro-

is owned

Mountain

Play Association,
and

group

of

amateur

semi-professionalactors
one

drama-lovers, who
On Mountain and

play annually.
from climb become calendar.
to
a

Play day ing neighboralready the


munity's com-

thousands literally communities

San

Francisco

the theatre, and

occasion

has
art

red-letter

day in the

Some outdoor

of the

places that have


not

become

famous
the
name

for

productions really do
at

deserve

"theatre" other
known in
a

all.

Thus
at

the

Tree

Day

festivals which

and
are

productions throughout
wooded

Wellesley College,
country,
bears

the that

have
very

been

produced
to

glade
Of

little likeness

playhouse.
few
are

the

long

list of American

pageants
atres. open-air thethese
ductions pro-

very

associated
of the been demand

with

permanent

Some have

stages

improvised for

but being ephemeral, interesting,

they hardly
structures.

description with

the

nent perma-

It

only remains
theatres."
more

to

say

word the

about
actual

the

so-called
may

"water

In
a

these
narrow

stage

be
a

nothing
mass

than

river

bank
water

against

of trees,

with

broad
at

sheet

of

in front. is

The
a

well-known

theatre The

Tiefurt

in

Germany

typical example.

St. Louis

pageant

theatre

86

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

might
the

be

cited

as

an

American
incidental

example,
feature

except
than

that
the

lagoon
of the

is

rather

an

centre

composition.
the
water

The

effects

that

can

be

obtained in

on

theatre

stage
that

are

so

unique,
type
will

and

their

way

so

beautiful,
here

the

doubtless

find

its

adherents

as

in

Europe.

88

THE

OPEN-AIR
the other

THEATRE

forest of the

theatre,
latter

on

hand, in that the stage


an

is
an

usually only

open

space

in

the the

woods,

with

natural idyllic

background, while
a

garden stage usually is formally shaped with


of

ground backrangement ar-

clipped hedges,
of
trees

or

other

conventional
But

and

shrubs. is that

perhaps

the

most

noticeable

difference
is very

the

garden
the

theatre
or

almost

always

small. and
or more

While
nature

Greek

architectural
four
or

theatres

the

theatres
more
a

seat

five thousand

people, the
to

est mod-

garden theatre
hundred. Each

is content

accommodate

few
its

type

of

open-air playhouse
this very

has

distinctive virtues, and


the does chief
a

perhaps

littleness
as

is it

one

of

the
sense

garden theatre, bringing


of

charming
of cloistered

intimacy,
/

and

an

phere atmos-

seclusion.

Because Roman

only

the greater have

monuments

of Greek the the

and of

architecture
no one can

survived

vicissitudes

time,

say

certainlythat delight
that of the

garden
and

tre theamans. Ro-

existed

for
it
to

the
seems

Greeks

But
was so

in those of men,

days when
and

drama
so

close
was were

the

hearts

when

much when
every

of

art

developed
wont
to

under

patronage,
their friends and

and

nobles
sort

entertain and

with

of

recitation the

musical

dramatic
must

duction, prohad
to

private open-air
one

theatre back
to

have

its

place. When

thinks

Sappho

and

GARDEN that been

THEATRE

89
a

Anacreon

it

seems

no

place but

garden playhouse
to

would
And

have

perfectly suited
one

their

tations. reciof

indeed
a

has

in

the

paintings

Alma-Tadema
Greek
a

very

suggestive picture of what


may

the
much

garden
of

theatre and

have

been: and

not

so

matter

shrubs of the line

lawns

trees,

but

rather all the

miniature

larger public theatre, with


and And all the
may

perfection
the time

of

exquisite richness
not

of
his

Greek
have

temple.
built
a

Maecenas
on

in

private playhouse

his
or

estate,

where

Horace Roman

might
dramatist

recite his latest ode,

the budding

produce

his

newest

comedy
known could Is
not

before
that boast

select audience famous


a

of friends? of and Hadrian


a

It is well
near

the

Villa Greek the


more

Tivoli theatre. did

both

Roman

it clude in-

probable
also

that the

dramatic

equipment
less
are

intimate, but

permanent,

garden

theatre? but

These,
case

indeed,

only conjectures; proof


of
a

in

one

there
to

is authentic

very times. the

real At

approach
the
Roman

the

garden

theatre
at

in classic

Imperial
was

Villa

Pausilypon
as

private theatre, which


go,

very

small

ancient

playhouses

had

no

stage

building.
looked

Instead, the
across

archaeologistssay,
stage
Of
to
a

the

audience

the

formal

garden.
theatres that the have
most

the times

garden
to

survived
famous and

from
the

other

the

present

9o
most

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

are interesting

those

of the

Italian of

villas.
and that

The four
flected re-

broad

estates

of
were

that

magic

Italy

three

centuries the

ago

rich

in outdoor

theatres of the al the

peculiarlyfinished beauty
and

ing surround-

gardens

palaces.
more

These than

fresco playhouses

usually served
of
was
a

singlepurpose
the

place
an

for

dramatic of
an

performances;
elaborate
to

theatre

integral part
a

formal the

design,
the
chitectural ar-

having

very

definite the

relation

house,
other

walks, the

terraces,

fountains,
Thus the

and

the

features.
an

stage often
a

usually
statue
to

minated terwas

important axis, and


centre

placed

in the

of
to
a

the

rear

stage -wall,
from

give

just the right


in the

finish

vista

other

openings

garden.
architectural
most
no

'Purely

elements

were

rigidly

cluded ex-

from there
were

of

the

Italian
or

garden

theatres;
frame the The The the
an

pergolas,

pillars,to
or

stage, type

and
was

no

built-up wings
the

backgrounds.
di verdura."

perfectly
formal

"teatro
was

necessary

character
to

obtained

by

use
casional oc-

of

hedges clipped

conventional
or

lines, with
stairs
to

retaining wall
the
set

flightof

complete type,*
of

design.
the theatres

The
at

most

characteristic

which
*

the Villa

Gori, the Villa Marvilla theatres will be found-

Sketch-plans
the

of four

representative
of

among

illustrations

Appendix

I.

GARDEN

THEATRE CALIFORNIA.

ON

THE
A

ESTATE COPY TYPE. OF

OF

MR.

HENRY ITALIAN

E. VILLA

BOTHIN THEATRE

AT

MONTECITO,

THE

GARDEN

THEATRE

91 flat

lia,and

the Villa

Collodi

are

examples, showed gravel


or
a

auditorium
chairs
or

floor, usually of
benches
two

lawn,

where level
press cy-

could
or

be

placed, and
feet the above

nearly

stage

raised
or

three formed

this for

floor;
the
or

ilex

hedges
and shrubs The

wings

ers' play-

entrances

exits, and
surrounded
green

other the turf

hedges
stage
the
one

masses

of the and

trees

and

and

often floor

auditorium. the
green

of in

stage

hedges, harmonizing
a

soft background, action. is

produced
The that
at most

perfect setting for


of
near

the

famous Villa

the

Italian Siena. and Their

villa theatres Edith

the book the

Gori,

Wharton,
scribes denel tun-

in her

"Italian

Villas
to

Gardens,"
a

approach

the

theatre, through
and continues is and
a

of
way:

interwoven "The

ilex of

hedges,

in this

pit

this
a

theatre
wall

semi-circular seat, which is

opening, bounded
backed
out

by
ilex

low

by
an

high

hedge.
broderie

The of

parterre
turf about in
a

is laid

in

elaborate the the that


seen

and

gravel,
feet.

above The

which

stage
are

is raised enclosed
may

three
double

pit and

stage
the

hedge

of ilex, so

actors

reach but

the the

out wings with-

being

by
of
rows

the of

audience;

stage
each

ting set-

consists
a

clipped
the
one

cypresses,

vancing adthat of sin-

few
a

feet

beyond

before
up
to

it, so
the back of
a

they
the

form

perspective running
terminated

stage,

and

by

the

tall shaft

92

THE

OPEN-AIR which
of the
can

THEATRE

gle
exact

cypress
centre

towers

high

into No

the
mere

blue

in

the

background.
convey

tion descripof this the


quisiteex-

of

its

plan

the

charm

little dark sunshine and of the


or

theatre, approached
of the

through

terious mys-

long pleached alley,and


under its roof of blue

lying in
sky, in
must

silence

its

walls

unchanging
stage
the

verdure. the

Imagination sylvan figures


must

people
'Aminta'

with

of
on

the the

'Pastor
a

Fido,' and
of
nobil

place
in

encircling seats
and habit

company

donne

pearls

satin, with
and

their

cavaliers collar

in the Van

black

Spanish
has

fallinglace
in of his this the

which

Dyke
and
new

mortaliz immembrance re-

Genoese

portraits;
will lend

the

leafy stage
Italian the

life to

the

reading

of

pastorals, and
woodland

throw

brighter sunlight Shakespeare."


The called theatre Villa
at

over

comedies

of

the

Villa from
at

Collodi the

(sometimes
at

Garzoni,
to

family name),
Villa Gori of

Pescia,

is similar there form

that

the
same

in stage

arrangement,

being

the but

series

clipped
of of
press. cya

hedges

to

the

wings,
is

of

ilex instead
a

The

auditorium The

merely
is rather

widening
low
on

garden
into An
a

path.

stage

and three box

is cut

hillside,with

retaining walls
is the

sides.
at

interestingfeature

prompter's

the

94

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

The

garden of

theatre

at

Villa the
sort.

Marlia. details
The

Vincent
theatre

Hubbard,

shows

the simpler sloping stage, the simple and "wings" background


are

by Henry drawing, Italian of a typical garden and fiat auditorium slightly

This

arrangement
and the

of cypress hedges to form a of intimacy, general atmosphere

characteristic

of the

type.

GARDEN

THEATRE

95 each

stage,

are

screened the

by
so

box

hedges,
the is
a

kept

at

the

height
Behind

of

wall,

that

masonry

is invisible. ilex

the with
three

upper

terrace

carefully clipped
on

hedge,

four

openings
are

each and

side
one

equally
a

spaced,
giving
of

of which
to
a

windows
ante-room

door,
shade stage
as

access

sort

of

under

the The

great

ilexes

behind
cypress

the

auditorium.
screens,
case more

is enframed

with
the

behind

which,
than

usual,
the tall There

are

wings,

in this

ample
the

in
a

other
ilex
are

instances, surrounded

on

outside

by
trees.
one

hedge
three

and
statues

shaded
at

by
the

overhanging
of the
two

back

stage,

in the

central

axis

and of

the the

other
two
rear

symmetrically
cypress
screens.

disposed in front
There is
a

prompter's shelter,
stage, stage which
were
as

made

of

clipped box, along


box

in front the

of the
of

at

Collodi.
row

Running
little be

front

the

is

of

clipped

bushes, behind

lights could

placed when

performances
One
of the

given by night."
and the is

smallest is
at

simplest
Villa

of

the

Italian
near

garden

theatres Here the with


is

Serraglio,

ena. Si-

stage
yew

rectangular, with
for and

gravel
torium audi-

floor

and

hedges

wings.
lies four

The feet
a

also the

rectangular,
An

below
of of

stage
stone

level.
seats,

unusual

feature
two,
at

is

group
centre

eight
the

arranged by

the

auditorium.

96
An

THE

OPEN-AIR
of
at

THEATRE
theatre
on

example
is that
as

the

Italian

of the Lake

decadent

period
known is

Isola

Bella,
of

Maggiore,
structure

the

Theatre for

Hercules. rather

The
than

clearlydesigned
uses,

decorative

tic drama-

although
there. its

dramatic The
ornate

productions

doubtless ground, backand

were

given
with

architectural of Hercules
sense

overlarge

statue

its many

minor is such

lacks figures,
a

all that

of repose
of the

which

pleasing accompaniment

clipped hedge type.


The Italian

largest
Villas is

of
at

the

true

garden
near

theatres Palermo. Villa in

of

the The

Castelnuovo,
to

general design
here There but
a

is similar
are

that

at

Gori, but
detail.

the

dimensions usual feature

greater
of
stucco

every

is the

arrangement
exists in Painted
a

cypress

wings;
used
as a

unique

wall
was

stage

background.
this

scenery

introduced fitness
one

against
of the

wall.

Reflecting on

the

perfect

restful this

hedge

backgrounds
would

elsewhere,
appear
a

feels
note.

that

artificial touch

false

Of
among

very

different

type

"

and

to
a

be

included
tension ex-

the

garden
term at
on
"

theatres is the Florence. each

only by
outdoor Here of
a

generous

of the Boboli
stone

playhouse
several

in the

Gardens
seats

tiers of

rise

side

large level plat,


part
in dances

where

hundreds

of

players could

take

ABOVE, BELOW,

THE

WATER

THEATRE IN

AT THE
BOBOLI

VERSAILLES, GARDENS,

FRANCE.

THE

AMPHITHEATRE

FLORENCE,

ITALY.

GARDEN and
statues

THEATRE
Above the

97
seats
are

masques

and

pageants.

in

niches, against high laurel


forms the
open
a

hedges.
an

The
orate elabing ris-

whole

composition
fountain
at

horse-shoe, with end, with


sort

the

palace

directly behind
is of formal
more

it.

This

of

amphitheatre
as

interest

and architecturally,

part

of

garden design, than


suited
to

dramatically.
pageants,
but

It is perfectly it is

festivals forms

and of

hardly

fitted for

those

drama

in which

tion concentra-

of attention

is necessary. theatres in the of


more

The time

clipped hedge

Italy were
northern
may

at

one

extensively copied
countries, and
a

pean Eurostill be in

few

examples
The is
an

found
a

in France
at

and

Germany.
in

playhouse
almost

park

Rheinsberg,
of
in the is
a

Germany,
Goethe's
of the

fect per-

survival theatre
near

the

type.

tle interestinglit-

gardens

Belvidere

Palace
the

Weimar
is the

miniature feet wide

example.
and

Here

stage
and

only

fifteen

twenty-fivedeep, high.
more

hedge wings only


could accommodate

six feet

The

tiny
a

auditorium
score

hardly

than

of

spectators.
most

Perhaps the
in Italian

famous
at
at

of

the

French
is
a now

theatres

style,that
there
or

St. Cloud, Versailles

entirely
of

gone.

But
d'eau
at

is

survival
was

the
very
a

theatre

"fountain time.
In

theatre," which
structures

popular

one

of

this type

98
wide

THE

OPEN-AIR
for dances

THEATRE
and

used circle,

spectacles, was
round side
was

rounded sur-

perhaps two-thirds
terraces
a

of the way
the of third terraces,

by low
structed con-

of

seats.

On section
a more

higher
to

appearing
of

at
ditorium. au-

first

glance

be

elaborate

part

the

In formed

however, reality,
a

these

decorated and
a

races ter-

series

of

fountains;

when

the

flow
series with

of

water

started, the whole

became

dazzling
in form,

of miniature the

water-falls, semi-circular
varied here and there

composition jets.
used The
to

by tall
to

slender

term
name

"theatre
not

d'eau"
the

seems

have
built from

been

only

structures

thus
of
seats

in theatre which
and

form,

but

any

arrangement watch
common

spectators

could
were

the

groups

of

fountains of the An

jets that

in the

gardens

time.

adaptation
the colder

of

the

Italian

type, and
better

one

that the

suited

northern

countries the the of

than

clipped hedge variety, was


work" formed the theatre. In this

treillage or

"trelliswas

stage

background
and Arms

by

combination in elaborate

hedges design.

trellises,
of the

latter work In

often

trellis also.

occasionally
Holland

encircled

the

auditorium
was

especiallythe
of

treillage type

popular

in the

golden period
The
most

garden-making
the

and
amples ex-

garden-theatres.
now

interesting of
is at

existing,however,

Mannheim,

in

GARDEN

THEATRE

99 this

Germany.
is here

The

photograph
shows
a

of

theatre

which

reproduced

dramatic William

performance
and and his party. well the
ranged, ar-

being given before


The
structure

Emperor
well
well

is
may

proportioned
prove

and of

suggestive to

ers build-

garden

theatres

in America. of the

H.

Inigo Triggs, writing


and

gardens
:

of

land, Holden "GarThat

especiallyof treillage-work,says
were

theatres
at

frequently to
was

be

met

with. with
a

Westerwyck
of

quite elaborate,
arranged
sat
as a

scenium pro-

hornbeam the the orchestra

big arch,
oval of
to
was
a arena

hind be-

which

in

sunken
were

adjoining

stage.
and

The formed

wings

hedges
series
a

closelytrimmed
of leaden
statues.

backgrounds
of the

The

back

stage

manent per-

architectural

[trellis-work] composition.
often
so

These but

theatres

were
none

constructed
are

of in

treillage,

naturally
American

made that
on

now

existence." closest
to

The the
E.

theatre is that

approaches
estate

Italian
Bothin

type
at

the

of This

Mr.

Henry house play-

Montecito,
one

California. the
most

little of

is,indeed,

of

beautiful
are

all the It

examples
is

in which

clipped hedge wings


that
at

used.

clearlyinspiredby
same

Villa and

Gori, and

achieves sign. declosed enare

something of the fAn unusual


"boxes"

purity

simplicityof
half-circle
These of

feature the

is the

around

auditorium.

ioo

THE

OPEN-AIR each

THEATRE

six in number,

one

seating nine people.


is
room

On

the tators. spec-

auditorium

floor there

for

one

hundred

Another
Villa Mrs.

American
is that
at

theatre

modelled the

after the
estate

one

at

Gori

"Ragdale,"
at

of

Mr.

and

Howard
as

Shaw,

Lake

Forest, Illinois.
the
and
same

Ragdale Ring,
arrangement
But
in make very

it is called,

originallyhad wings
of

of

clipped hedge
several
years
owners

ground. back-

after

actual

ence experito

producing plays, the changes.


of the

found

it wise

considerable
similar and
to

The

auditorium

is still

that

Italian

cular theatre, being cirand


one

surrounded is

by hedges;
a

of

the

proaches ap-

through
that

pleached thorn
at

less alley,doubt-

suggested by
has been have of

Villa

Gori. The

But

the

stage

entirely remodelled. given


deciduous
rear

clipped hedge
ments arrange-

wings

way

to

more

informal trees, and

shrubs has been

and

the

ventional con-

wall
a

taken In

out,

opening
the

up

vista

into has

sloping glade.
enlarged from
to
a

this way the

stage

depth
has

been

quate original inadethus the theatre for

thirty feet
been made

ninety feet;
much
more

and

fittingsetting
dances. of The

pageant-like plays,spectaclesand
is
to
more

house playthan

suited intimate
at
a

to

this

sort

production
it
was

literaryor

drama,
spot
too

because

tunately unforfrom

placed

little sheltered

GARDEN

THEATRE

101

the and The

winds,
the
sense

the

acoustics of

thus
to

being interfered
some

with,

intimacy
at

degree destroyed.

stage is framed
Electric
on

the

front

by

two
set

twelve-foot
in these col-i

columns.
umns,

lights have
side, and

been

the

stage

other

lightsare
from
a

reflected
board switchof the the

from

the

wings,

all

being regulated
The
to
a

in the

auditorium.
has
some

effectiveness

productions
and lighting,

depended
very

large
and

extent

upon

unusual

beautiful

effects
At the

have
times
are

been of
set

created

with

vari-colored

lights.
colored

performances
in the
are

sixteen wall

gaily

masts

in sockets

surrounding gonfalons
floor

the and

torium, audinese Chitwo

and

on

these
The feet

hoisted

lanterns. and feet

auditorium below
the

is sunk

one-half

stage

level, is seventy
to

in diameter,

and

seats

from

three

four

dred hun-

people^/ /Perhaps
the

finest

example
the the York. into

of

an

open-air

tre theaof
at

perfectly suited
American Mount

to

unconventional
Brookside Here

type

garden
Kisco,
has
a

is

Theatre,
Miss little Martia

New

Leonard
that drama.

brought
very

being

playhouse
the

affords The

beautiful

setting for

poetic by
the of

stage is of turf, and


of
a

is framed the

projecting arms
most

pergola.
one

Unlike
can

stages

outdoor

theatres, this
stretch

be of

curtained
the

by

hangings which

between

two

pergola

102

THE

OPEN-AIR six

THEATRE

columns. seats, lawn in

There

are

rising tiers of rough


and the The and the
a

stone

semi-circular further

form,

surrounding
total
ing seat-

affords

seating room.
three hundred

capacity is perhaps
theatre either lies in
a

The fifty. hills of


on

narrow
as

valley,and
walls,
to

high
sense

side, serving
that is

create

macy inti-

impossible
thus

obtain have been

in

most

outdoor here

playhouses;

and

there

presented

successfully several
which greater
Miss of

"intimate" lost all their the


average

modern

comedies,
in

would

have

effectiveness

thg7

spaciousness of
Leonard
most

open-air theatre.
sions ver-

has of the

adapted prepared specially plays presented,


of and The "The has

rected di-

all the
was

details

production.

theatre son Treanon-

opened with
and Death

John Jay Chapman's


of Benedict have hand dramatic Arnold." varied
to

The

dramatic

productions
the
one

greatly,

from
on

cock-fightson
the

aesthetic

dancing
have

other;

and

the

productions
the

cluded inof

Euripides' uElectra," Aristophanes,


Rostand's "The and

"Lysistrata"

Romanesque,"
"The

speare's Shakeof the

"Twelfth

Night"

Taming
and of

Shrew,"
sette."

and The which

Maeterlinck's value
so

"Aglavaine presentation
seen on

Selythese

of seldom be has

the
are

dramas,

the

cial commer-

stage, Brookside

cannot

doubted. been

Altogether

the

Theatre

remarkably

successful

ABOVE,
AN

THE

BROOKSIDE OF OF THE

THEATRE,
DECORATIVE GARDEN TERRACE

AT USE

MT. OF

KISCO,
PERGOLAS. AT

NEW

YORK.

EXAMPLE STAGE

BELOW, YANKTON,

THE

THE

THEATRE,

SOUTH

DAKOTA.

io4

THE

OPEN-AIR
in specialist theatre

THEATRE

of

Minneapolis,
The
. . .

that

particularfield

of

design.
of

enclosure, which
140x200

consists

hedge
seat

and
2500

garden

wall, is

feet, and
and

will

spectators stage.
on

within
terrace,

perfect view
or

hearing
is 30 of for
x

of
60

the

The

stage

proper

feet, but
an

occasion 50
x

the

entire
may

stage
be The

end used atre the-

the
a

garden,
dramatic

area

140

feet,

scene

or

pageant

spectacle.
and

is

provided with complete


for electric

permanent
and

ment equip-

stage
is

lighting

illumination.
which

The
are

seating provided
removed

light folding chairs

when

not

in use, lawn.

leaving the seating area


A
one

beautiful of

sloping
the

fountain
of the
seats

at

the

rear

centre

stage
there

will be
will be

ornamental of
stone
or

features, and
marble
carry

garden

and
out

other

ornamental the

objects of sculpture to
Italian

the

style of

formal
at

garden."
Poland,
is

In the
a

Lazienski

Gardens,

Warsaw,
at

unique open-air theatre, which


garden
on or

least has

approaches
been of
structed con-

the

park type.
island, with

The
a

stage

an

background
trees.

ficial artithe

classic front

ruins

against high
and the
on

Between there
swans

stage
channel

wall
of

auditorium

is
may

row nar-

water,

which
The of

the

sail

in from is formed there is

the

adjoining

lake.
rows

lower
seats,

auditorium while
above

by straight
a

semi-circular

opening

in the

with hillside,

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

AT POLAND.

LAZIENSKI

GARDENS,

WARSAW,

GARDEN

THEATRE
benches. with is
more

105 all is

additional
masonry

wooden

Surrounding
statues
at

wall
The

adorned

regular
for its

vals. inter-

structure

notable

unique

form

than
similar
a

for

its dramatic of the

activities.^
several of water be

"K
and and

blending

types

of

theatre,

similar

arrangement
are

separating stage
in the

auditorium,
which
on

to

found
R.

Rosemary
has
structed con-

Theatre,

Mr.
estate

Roland
at
rows

Conklin

his

Huntington,
of the
seats

Long

Island.
the is of of

Here Greek the

the concentric
theatre
nature

clearly follow background


formal
at
use

system;

but

stage
the

theatre cedar
or

type;
frame formal
to

while
the

groups

of

to

stage

the

sides, and
the
among
"

the

more

less
seem

planting

around

torium, audithe least


"

would

justify inclusion

garden
four

theatres.

The

seating capacity
can

at

thousand of
a

spectators

be

accommodated the
structure

is that

public playhouse, though


Mr. Conklin

is

on

private grounds.
the

has

kindly

plied sup-

following complete description:


stage
both is

uThe
a

separated
of

from
are

the

auditorium

by
trees

lagoon,

ends This

which

hidden
to

by

and

shrubbery.
the
water to

lagoon

is fifteen
over a

thirty feet
The the

wide, and
terrace

goes
water

into it is

cascade. than
are

next

the
for and

slightlylower
There and

stage
small

and
terraces

is

the

musicians.

four
each

four

large

ones,

they

are

io6

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE
the been

built from

boulders

gathered
boulders of
or

on

farm.

In

the

interstices of these

have

planted
and rock

from

sixtyto seventy varieties arranged


stage
is about back in groups
one

perennial
colonies feet of

ers, flowThe

colors.

hundred
or
are

in feet

width
in the

and
est forbut

stretches

three There

four
no

hundred

beyond.
I have

proscenium columns,
a

planted for
close
to

each

proscenium
about

group

of three feet
any

tall cedars, I have

together,
out

twenty

high.
mal foris

tried

work

everything without
even

architectural made from cobble

additions, and
stones

the

entrance

in

the

form

of

court, feet
dience, au-

paved with
above

flagging.
and

The
at

theatre least

is about of

125 the

Oyster Bay,
when

one-third
over

seated,
shores

can

look of

out

Long
fifteen

Island miles

Sound
away.

to

the

Connecticut

Water with

pipes

extend

around
that the

each

terrace, the
water

ted fitis

irrigationjets,so
to water

when

turned of the

on

the of

grass,

appearance

is

given
have
col\

fountains

Peterhoff.
of

Electric the

wires

been ored

laid

for

lighting each
in the the

terraces

by
are

globes

hidden

foliage.

There

three

spot
for

lights from
several

auditorium
the
to

and

arrangements
The also
a

spot
are

lights on
such
as

stage. include
on or

electrical
dimmer

arrangements
so

that

the the

lights can
appearance

be of

turned

off
There

gradually
are

to

give

twilight.

out-

GARDEN

THEATRE thousand electric

107

lets, arranged for

over

two

lights.'^/
on

Although structurallythe Rosemary


account

Theatre,
the
most

of

its

unique form,

is

one

of

terestin in-

of American tested for the fitness


to

playhouses, it has seldom


purpose.
was

been

Before

its construction,
a

natural
of "As

site

utilized

successfullyfor
the 1914, been
structure

production
was

You

Like
the

It," but
of

not

completed until
of

summer

and

up

to

the time

writing, no

productions

had

given
appear

in the

theatre. sake

Professional of

companies will
the theatre

only for the widely


A

charity,but
and

will be

utilized

for

amateur

social
some

affairsv?
the

garden

theatre

in which
been

of

natural

beauties

of the

site have of Mrs.

preserved

exists in the Graham oaks and

lovely playhouse
at

William
Here

Miller

Montecito,
more or

California.

the

old

the

less natural
a

stage
be

background would
in the

give

the

theatre But

claim the

to

included

"nature" steps, of
the

group.

conventional
that the
so row

stage-wall and
centres

the marble
the

bench

well

the

interest
at

spectator, and
are

of slender the

cypresses

back, all
the and

earmarks is
a

of little

garden type.

Behind

stage close

there

hedged-in "green room,"


are an

by,

in the
a

garden, grill.

al

fresco

Italian

dining-room
At

and

Tarrytown,
has built
a

New
little

York,

Mrs.

Charles

Judson
a

Gould

playhouse that shows

curi-

io8

THE of

OPEN-AIR
Greek theatre
a

THEATRE
and

ous

mingling

garden
theatre that

theatre
there is

motives. little Greek.

Although
the
are

called

Greek

is

beside There of

seat

arrangement
rows
on

truly

four

of the

seats,

structed solidlycon-

stone

quarried

spot, in the

typical
ditorium au-

classic

form

of

rising semi-circular
hold
more

rings. This

will several meadow


hundred
at
a

about
can

one

hundred

people, but
on

find

places
is
no

the

sloping

the

back.

There

raised
the
a

stage, but

merely

rectangular extension
on

of

"orchestra" low
masonry

floor, surrounded wall, with


the
it is three woods

three

sides

by
at

massive make
erect
a

columns

the

back.

hind, Bebut

charming background;
the

possible to
The drama

"scenery" against
drawback of the

columns
as

if desired.

chief is the
to

theatre

settingfor
is

paucity of
the

entrances.

There

only

one

entrance

stage

"

which

will

hardly

meet

the

demands is
so an

of

the

usual

dramatic

production.
and
at

The and

structure

ideal used

place for music


times; and

lectures,
least
one

has has be

been been

many

play
would

presented
to

quite successfully. But


the type, if
as a one

it

unwise

copy

had end.

the production

of

plays
many

in mind

primary
in which

There
can

are

gardens

stage

and

torium audi-

be

improvised and
the

passable productions
of

given without

actual

construction

anything
archi-

worthy

the

name

of theatre.

Sloping lawns,

io

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

dramatic
and
a

readings
new

"

they

all would

gain
from

new

beauty
roundings sur-

significance
to

if carried theatre. outdoor


mere

the

usual

the

garden
of than of the

/The

spreading
goes

dramatic
matter

ment move-

deeper
the
a

the
a

of

ment; amuse-

and
more

owner

garden
The

theatre of

possesses

than

pleasing
is
a

toy.
real

growth
of the of desire The
are

the

open-

air

playhouse against
and
an

very

part

nation-wide
the for
amateur

protest

the

commercialization
of
a

regular
sounder and
more

theatre,
and less

indication dramatic

artificial

fare.)

semi-professional discriminating
take theatres many
come
"

performances
for in the the

training
art

audiences

true

that

will

evitably in-

larger

place

future

professional
the

; moreover
a

they
playwright
work
very

are

moulding
and
actor

talents
years

of
to

native

of

the

for

if the

in

play
here
to

be

wide
and

enough
there
an

and
teur ama-

sincere

enough,
artist

surely

will

graduate
theatre
for

the
may,
not

wider

dramatic become
a

world.
very

The

garden
force

indeed,

significant
but

good,
and

only

for

few
in

individuals,

for

society

for

dramatic

art

general.

GARDEN

THEATRE

ON

THE AT

ESTATE

OF

MRS.
CALIFORNIA.

WILLIAM

MILLER

GRAHAM,

MONTECITO,

CHAPTER

VII

THE

DRAMA

OF

THE

OPEN

THE
only
that true, those

casual
to

commentator

is

only

too

likely
tion producnot

describe
as

one

specific type
characteristic,
drama.

of

the
of

most

if

the finds

form

outdoor

Thus

one

who

have

directed
at

productions
consider
a

in

the

Hearst
almost

Greek
austere

Theatre

Berkeley

simple,
the of the
door out-

play
of of

the the the

most

typical form,
East and the

while
group

pageant-masters

masque-writers

Middle

West the

consider
truest

spectacular,
drama

pageant-like
;
a

production
the
owner

and
very

then

comes

of born

garden ence, experithat alone The standing underopen-

theatre

with
that

deep
of

conviction,
forms the is

of

neither

these
and

typical,
drama

and

the
are

poetic, the

romantic for

literary
in the the

perfectly suited
of that

production
from

open.

difference

opinion
there each
are

arises

lack

of of

several
its

distinct

types

air

theatre,

with

individual
of the drama

limitations of that the


no

and
open
one

advantages.
should be

Every prefaced

study by
the
in

statement

ii2

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE than
and
to

open-air theatre
of

can

adequately house
types
of

more

one

several of

distinct

production;
will do

the

builders

open-air playhouses
type
of

well
be

study

carefullythe probable
deciding
upon

play

to

fore given, beto

the

style of

theatre

be

structed. con-

Certain
tain
to

general characteristics,nevertheless, productions


more

per*
one

all

out-of-doors.
any

If there

is

quality that,
drama

than from

other, distinguishesthe
indoor outdoor
must must

of the open In the

the

drama,

it is genuineness. the

successful
the

production
above be

play, the
be
a

setting and
and sincere.

acting

all else lit


up

simple
certain

The
in

whole

by
a

joyousness

life, and
of the
can

interpreted with
openness

sympathetic understanding
of
nature. sort

and

dom free-

The of drama the and

producer
that
can

take the

out-of-doors clear

only the
light
of

stand

white

day;

"white-slave"
the intimate

play,

the

tic bombas-

melodrama

"society" comedy
open

show

forth
of

only

too

clearlyin the

air their certain

ments ele-

Moreover, artificiality.
of the indoor

really
their macy intiest, inter-

vital

developments
in the

drama the

lose lack of

effectiveness

open

through

there; the
the
upon

play of sustained depends growth


and for and its

emotional

play

that

appeal primarily
tension,

climactic

story
absolute

emotional

fails because

continued

concentration

THE is

DRAMA

OF

THE

OPEN

113

of attention

impossible fresco
than

in the

open-air. The
is

ically typ-

effective al
and

drama

simple, decorative
or

poetic,

rather

intricate, realistic

tensely in-

emotional.

Beyond

this

general division
distinct
:

line, one

can

easily
in the
pact com-

identify three open-air group


action the the Greek and

sorts

of

production

the simple, statelyplay of first, broad

of which spiritual significance, the finest

tragedies are
that line

examples; second,
upon

play

depends primarily
and
mass

the

sensuous

beauty

of

and of

color, the
the
more

drama dramatic

of

decorative forms the


an

movement,

which
are

of

pageant

and

dance

typical;and
the

third,

drama

rich in beautiful

poetry,

play

in which of

imaginative story
and three

is embroidered
verse

with

beauty

language
The

incidental

and thus

fantasy of thought. suggested, the


ple sim-

primary
of

elements

stateliness
movement

action, the
the
some

decorative

beauty of
of guage lan-

and and

color, and
are

poetic richness
measure

thought,

in

mingled in
on

all successful
or

productions.
elements

But
may

the be

emphasis
made dramatic

one

another
a

of these

the basis types,


three Greek

of

distinction in turn

between

the
very

three

which

correspond
of
course

closely to the
theatre. The
to

general

types
of

open-air
are

tragedies
on

perfectly suited

tion producof

the

massive, severely beautiful

stage

the

ii4

THE

OPEN-AIR
the

THEATRE

classic

theatre;
and

pageant-likeplay, in which
and

ment moveare

dancing

beautiful

costuming
of

of

more

importance

than

plot

or

richness of the

language,
theatre,
or

is

the characteristically its wide and the

play
of of is

nature
or

with
water,

background
its auditorium

trees

meadow
openness;

maximum

whereas
intimate and

poetic play

typicallythe play
every every

of

the
tone

garden theatre,
facial

in which

subtle
nuance

delicate and

expression, and

of

thought
More
on

feeling,has
one

its full effect.


a

than

producer with
has
to

glittering tion reputahe

Broadway
his "art" the

failed

dismally when
of
a

brought
The is

the

stage
Greek the

Greek

theatre.

history of replete with

Hearst
of

Theatre

especially
efforts of the
fects ef-

records

unsuccessful
to

professional stage-managers they


In have the achieved old
to
so

"put

over"

cunningly within
of
course

doors.
are

staging

Greek the

plays, which
of
means

perfectlyfitted
greatest
The

limitations of

the

theatre,

the

possible

economy

is necessary. become to, the almost

subterfuges of
and The

the

professional stage
from, rather
than add the be

transparent

detract

production.
severe

sustained of the

nobility and
must

loveliness
certain

tragedies
and breadth be
on

reflected and

in

stateliness

of

staging
out

acting. Everything
mass,
or

must

carried

in

large
At

the

play

is lost

the immense

stage.

n6

THE
in

OPEN-AIR with this


the

THEATRE of Reinhardtian

trouble

working

sort

spectacular simplicityis
the interest
"

of difficulty let-down theatre

sustaining
the

for At

moment's

is fatal to the this

total

effect. that
most
was

the

Berkeley

tion producLittle from in spectacular


a

successfullyachieved
the Other the Sanskrit drama have been

visual

fective ef-

"The saved

Clay

Cart."

plays

merely boring
scenes,

audiences
a

by being framed procession here,


tableau
to

with
a

"mob
a

scene"

there, and
at

gorgeous

leave

vivid

impression
In suited

the

end.
a

entering upon
to

discussion in the the

of the
nature

type of drama
theatre the
one

production

plunges immediately
values
from of the

into

question of
Considered

relative

play

and

pageant.
of

entirely
art, the

standpoint
pure

permanent
more

dramatic

play, the
pageant.

drama,
the

is far

important than the


perpetuated
stage
for in book

For
be

play

text,
on

form,

may

reproduced
of

the

the

ure pleas-

and

inspiration
the

succeeding
for
passes
statue

generations,
when the In ing last-

whereas
end this of
sense

pageant
final

is gone

all time off the

the

procession
the

stage.
or

the

play is like
be

in marble is like
a

bronze, whereas
in world

the pageant

elled figuremodlost
to

sand,
the

to

washed
of the

away
next

and tide.

the

with
of

coming

But
is

in the

direction

civic betterment

the

pageant

by

far

THE

DRAMA

OF

THE

OPEN

117

the of

more

important form.
into and
a

It draws artistic

large numbers
in its

people

common

pursuit, and
it tends
as

symbolism
civic

historic

allusions

to

awaken the
pression ex-

consciousness.
is

Considered but
one

art
a

alone

pageant

usually ephemeral, inspiration it


is

as

communal the
most

and

of life.

nifica sig-

developments of
It is
not

modern
scope

within
recent

the

of

this volume
of the
out

to

scribe de-

the in America

remarkable

growth
or

pageant
the
eral sev-

and

elsewhere,
in its form. the
to

to

point

variations
pause
to

But

it is worth is

while

to

enquire why production


the
sort

pageant
the

typically the
theatre, and
a

form

of

suited

nature

to especially
on a

of theatre of lake
or

that
sea or

has

stage

ing open-

wide

vista the

meadow.
a

The tached of detional emo-

story-thread of

pageant

is at best
any

series
or

fragments, without
and continuity,

dramatic

the

spectator'sinterest
So

is held adds

primarily by
to
over

the

spectacle.

anything

that

the
a

visual

beauty, whether
mountain

it is the
or
an

clouds

floating
bit of

distant

peak,
or a

unusual
sweep

woodland framed

lightand
in trees,

shade,

broad

of water from the

is

just so

much
As the

clear
lover that the

gain
of

producer's standpoint.
turns

pageants
out most

his mind
most

back, the

things

stand
groups

vividlyand

satisfyingly are
that

of

gaily
and

caparisoned horsemen

sweep

into

sight

n8

THE the

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE
the

across

stage

so

or impressively,

picturesque
across a

galleons floating in
lake,
or

to

the

stage

landing
meadows
are

the

dances of the

in leaf-strewn
trees.

before

stately groves impossible in


but if

Not theatre

only
and

these

things

Greek be

the

tre, garden theaturb dis-

they

could

staged there
the theatre in the definite of

they would

rather For in the dramatic

than

increase

total

effectiveness.
there nite is defitre theain

typical Greek unity, and


is
at

play

typical garden

play

there

least

poetic unity; and


the
not
so

either, the
be
a

striking "episode" interruption.


the
very

pageant
in the

would
nature

ruinous
"

But

theatre

for

openness

of the the The


success

stage, and

the

diversity of
concentration

background,
of attention.

and

vistas, preclude
whole
interest is

necessarilyepisodic; and depends largely


beauties
nature

the

of the
to

episodes
the So

upon

the
nature

extent
are

which utilized.

acteristic charthe the

of

theatre
and

alone for

affords "drama

perfect settingfor
of

pageant,

the

decorative
and

ment," move-

for the
and than Of and its
course

drama of

wherein
nature,

dancing,
are

ing, costum-

the

effects

of

more

tance impor-

dramatic
no

story
nature

and

poetry.
are

two

theatres that

exactly alike,
may lose half

the type

of

production
when
nature

fits one in that

effectiveness
are even

staged
theatres

another demand

nearby. specific

There

THE

DRAMA that

OF

THE be

OPEN

119

types of drama
;
a

never

would

where satisfyingelse-

the

Bohemian

Grove
of of the

Plays,
narrow
one

for

instance,

are

direct

outgrowth
advantages

limitations
In

and

unusual
the

the

theatre.
the
nature

ing discuss-

typicalproduction
of and maximum St.

of

theatre, the
as

playhouse

openness,

such

the

borough Peterthe

Louis

pageant
have

theatres been of

and

Tamalpais
as

Mountain

Theatre,
But

considered the
as
or

the

truest

examples.
the
more

certain

nature

theatres

approach
small and

garden theatre
or

type,

when when

they

are

less
or

enclosed,
less Most

they
for

have

stages

shaped

more

architecturally
of the

formal
nature

exits and theatres

entrances.

pean Eurotures fearopean Eufrom icans Amer-

have stage,

certain

characteristic
because
away

of

the

garden

probably
to

the

producer
the traditions have

finds the
at

it harder indoor

break
as

of

theatre

the in

done

Peterborough,
on

and

the

hemian BoIn

Grove,
America the of

and

Mount
at

Tamalpais.
Carmel is

Forest

Theatre

really an
tre" Thea-

example
at

the mixed

type, like the


and the
at

"Nature

Hertenstein
and the

Klampenborg
Meriden

Woods
is itations limthan

Theatre;
so

stage
trees

the its

Theatre and

far

enclosed
are

by

that

advantages
theatre

those
nature

of

the

garden

rather

of the

true

theatre. and the

It is the

highly imaginative

subtly poetic

120

THE
that
:

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

drama theatre tale

is most

perfectly suited
the

to

the
of
a

garden
pretty
and is
a

the

play with
embroidered In

primary appeal
with fanciful theatre

richly

conceits there

literary beauty. feeling


of

the from
a

garden
the and

seclusion
creates

vulgarities of
delicious No

the

world, which

new

tween intimacy beof

players
no

and of

spectators.

change

tion, posi-

shade

meaning,
is lost.

no

physical expression, Every whimsical


turn

no

half-spoken word, expression, every lyricpoem,


action in the the of the

of

symbolic suggestion, every


has its full value. And

dental incithe

here

slow bores

loosely joined play, which playhouse, enough


becomes and the
sense

only
if ciful fan-

indoor

tolerable

only

poetry

is rich The

fantasy
of of

enough.
doors and and the

intoxicating

out-ofand

caressing atmosphere creeping


into the

lawns
and

flowers
make

trees, the

heart of

mind,

possible
and of

comprehension
that vanish

elusive

poetic
the

thoughts larger
The intimate
sorts

feelings

entirely in
theatre of the and

playhouse.
for the

ideal
sort

plays
of

garden
are

the of

nature

theatre comedies "As idyllic

type

Shakespeare's

fantastic

and You

Maeterlinck's Like

poetic tragedies. The


the
never

It," and
which

fanciful

UA

Midsummer in

Night's Dream,"
the

satisfy completely
the indoor

incongruous setting
here their natural

of

"stage artist," find

THE

DRAMA

OF

THE

OPEN

121

accompaniment
winds the
necessary

of

sunshine

and and

shadow,
at

of
same

pering whistime

and

singing birds,

the And

intimate
a

atmosphere.
charm and

"Twelfth
when is for

Night" staged

gains
under

new

effectiveness "Comus"
a

the

open

sky.

Milton's

typicallyan
the
extensive

outdoor
sort

play,
of

and

yet

not

play

open-air
are

theatre.

linck's Maetermost

richly poetic adapted


Melisande" in
a

dramas

for

the

part
and
peal ap-

to

presentation out-of-doors: surely would


have than of the
a
on more

"Pelleas

pathetic
usual acted found Those and

garden

theatre
some

the seldom have

tawdry plays,
their

artificial stage ; and like

"Aglavaine

and

Selysette"
the

loveliest

interpretationin beauty
slow
be
to

open.

literary
whose
tion ac-

plays whose
is too

is too make in
a

reflective
them

effective

indoors,
the

might well
several

revived of

garden
and of

playhouse:

dramas dramatic

Tennyson,
and

Browning's

derful won-

poems;

contemporary
and Alfred be

work,

the

plays
of

of

Stephen

Phillips

Noyes.

Many

these and

compositions
cut, but

must

judiciously
sulting re-

adapted,

usually
version

nearly always the


forth beauties

outdoor in the work

brings
the

pected unex-

reading

of
a

original. Carrying
further,
and
many

the the

of

adaptation
of

step

of

longer

poems

Browning,
of the

Keats,
can

and be

low, Longfelvery
ac-

and

others

great

poets,

122

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

ceptably dramatized
sense." The

by

amateurs

with

the

"dramatic
seems

idyllic garden
to

theatre

somehow
of such of
are

perfectly

fitted

the also

presentation
to

poetic
those

adaptations, and

the

production
so

plays by
in

amateur

dramatists, that

often

slight

thought
of
an

and the

lacking
indoor

in

the

powerful
drama,
and

emotional and

climaxes

intensive

which

yet have
charm

occasional
are

lyricbeauty
real and
"

imaginative
"

that

very

out-of-doors

very

appealing.

Returning
as a

to
one

the
may

consideration

of al

fresco

drama

whole,

well

enquire into the

peculiar acting

qualities necessary
of the drama

in the

actual

mounting

and

out-of-doors. the the

The
all be be

settingof simple, and


Whether wall

open-air production must "properties" background


Greek
open
on

above
must

the is the
or

stage

few.

the
of
a

beautiful the
nature
mass

architectural
of
trees

Theatre

and

shrubs

or

vista

of

the

or
can

garden
add
to

theatre, there
make that
can

is little that

man's
"

hand

the be

setting more
added false

deed, insatisfying little,

without

making
of

the

whole
tail de-

ridiculous. and

All

the

perfection
of
canvas

realistic

all the

extravagance
marked
recent

and

paint and

tinsel that

have

indoor of illusion

staging, prove
out-of-doors.

doubly futile

in the

creation

THE

DRAMA of

OF

THE

OPEN than

123 other
true
derstands un-

In

the

drama

the

open,

more

in any

sort,

suggestion
can

is the be

only

method

by
of

which

artistic illusion

achieved.

If the

director
his
on

perfectly the manipulation


a

als, materia

curtain
a

stretched

between

two

poles
it, can
than

lawn,
made bored laa

with
more

single massive
suggestive of
efforts of the
a

chair

before

be
most

throne-room indoor

the

stage

designer.
or a

Thus

single bit "property"


a

of

plastic background,
in its
own

single stage
and
not
as

seen

embodiment evoke in the

painted semblance,
the
exact

may

spectator's
action;
scenes

mind whereas

atmosphere
collection

required by the
of

the

usual

painted
at

canvas

and
the

make-believe hard

properties can
a

best

imitate its subtle


as

only

reality of
The

place, and

never

mosphere. attificial ar-

outdoor be

insofar setting,

it is

at

all, must
of

simple
"

rather

than

involved,
sense.

plasticinstead
In the nature

pictured
there

genuine
has
as

in every
a

theatres Nature

been
a

wholesome and of
terials, ma-

tendency
even

to

leave

alone

background,

to

make

natural Of may

beauties

compelling part
of

the

total

effect. of what

this utilization

Nature's

be

called

the

collaboration Thomas

of

Nature

in stage has

production, Professor
:

H.

Dickinson "The
of

written

discovery
nature

of the

dramatic

values

of the

tures fea-

is

a distinctly

modern

thing. These

124

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

are

now

recognized
of

not

only

as

expedients for the


as

securing
when

but primitive effects,

mediums,
and
most

which,
are

handled of
some

with
of

understanding
the richest of
art.
are

cunning,
elusive

capable

and The the within

fects ef-

in all the
nature

domain

phenomena
most

of

and and

natural

objects
mediums

adaptable,
of man's in
act ex-

rich hand.

suggestive
In of

reach

and versatility,

yet
and
or

in

to fidelity type, to
an

variety

responsiveness
no

amenability
line
nature

requirement
hand of
man can

color

provided
if she trees,

by

the

compete
The color

with

is properly and

schooled.

values

of

lake,

meadow,
the
trees

the

shadows
moon

thrown
stars,

by
the

trees

and

clouds,
of

light of
and of

and
as seen

varying

outline

hills

through the changing palpabilities provide


Nature
infinite makes
to

atmosphere
director. she

material
no

for

the

stage

mistakes. action.
wrong

Chameleon-like
would be in and chosen for

adapts
for
a

herself

the

It

impossible
'As You

bird
It.'

to

sing

in the

place

Like voices

The

interspersed
are

lences si-

insect their it may

of

the

night

both

fitly

parts."
be
"

Nature,

added,
and

is sometimes

an

pected unex-

collaborator incidents

curiously enough
as

the

expected un-

usually fit in
released them

perfectly as through
notes

if the

stage

director

had

his electric that

switchboard.

Professor

Dickinson

"even

THE

DRAMA

OF

THE

OPEN

125 and

the
one

fallingstars easily recalls


voice
the
moment
sun

seem

to

be

timed" exquisitely distant


a

times
to

when
of

thunder
actor;

added and
at at
menced com-

its effective least


once

that

tragic

has

become the

properly

clouded

just

the

when
dance.

twilight nymphs

their It has been

hotly
be

debated

whether
in the There the is
one

the

open-air
or

theatre

should

utilized

only

daytime,
can

at
no

night with
doubt that
amount

artificial the

lighting.

be
a

lightingeffects

entail that

loss of

tain cer-

of the naturalness
most

of the that of

door out-

drama's smack

and pleasing qualities,

they

strongly
On

of the other

hackneyed
hand of

elements is
a

indoor

staging. gain play


of

the

there

ing compensatdecorative achieved in


seem

in the

richness shade of the


to

coloring
cannot

and be

light and
Some

that

daylight.

typicallyoutdoor
a

plays
and

uncompromisingly
as lights,

demand

night sky Night's only

ficial artiand
sort

UA
can

Midsummer be has concluded

Dream" each

"Comus." of

It

that

performance
the of

its distinctive

virtues, and
achieve
a

that mum maxi-

while

afternoon
open,
out

production beauty,
decorative

may

natural
more

the

night production
more

may

bring

and

colorful

effects. Like
must

the be

play

and

the the

setting,the

outdoor the

actor

free

from

of artificiality

indoor

126

THE

OPEN-AIR
be sincere the and

THEATRE

stage

; must

genuine

in the

best

sense.

Freedom is
carry
actor
on

from

indoor the

mannerisms

and

tions convennever

imperative;
the outdoor

"society manner"
In
a

will

stage.

peculiar sense
must

the

must

"live" with

his part, and


a

he

have

perfect
of of the
true

sympathy

and

subtle

understanding
For the
actor
a

open-air stage
artistic

atmosphere.
there

perception
the

is, moreover,
the
open

very

deep
a

inspirationin
of exhilaration
gave

settingunder
and

sky,

sort

of soul
to

body.

Margaret

Anglin
after

expression

this

inspirational feeling
in the Hearst of

she

played "Antigone"
She said: theatre mental
"

Greek

tre. Theain that

"The in

experience
California that
an

playing

wonderful greatest For


never

is, I believe, the


actor
can

intoxicant I have
to

feel. I have
formance perwas
so

myself
known

and

played equal
years

many

parts

"

anything

the

thrill of the The the air


stars

at
so

Berkeley
so

three

ago.

still and and

heavy with
near

perfume,
one

and

bright

so

the

earth, with

radiant it
was
no

planet
great
beneath know
pany. com-

hanging just
task Attic
to

above

the

altar, that
and believe

span

the

centuries this
same

oneself

skies; and
else
to
name

exaltation
to

(I
the

don't

how

it) seemed

seize

whole

The
was

usual

'first-night' hysterical excitement


and in its

utterlyabsent,
calm

place

came

an

dinary extraor-

which

seemed

almost

religious. When

THE it
ever

DRAMA
I believe in my

OF

THE

OPEN

127 than I had

was

all over, been

was

happier

before
the
pure

work."
of
a

Just
in the

as

poetry

play

may

be

enjoyed
the

open-air, although
indoors,
so

it may

only

bore

ence audiof

the

actors'

beautiful
for and its the
are

intonation sake

the

lines

may

be

enjoyed

own

out-oftion enuncia-

doors.

The

slurring voice

careless

of many
to

professional actors
ear

doubly offensive
haps Perof the

the

trained

in

an

open-air production.
emotional attention of tension

it is because indoor drama of

the greater

holds
mere

the

beyond speech;

the
or

membrance re-

carelessness out-of-doors and


or

haps per-

it is because
are

the
to

spectator's perceptions
note

keener

quicker
rise
to

any

lapse

to

commonplaceness certainly beautiful


careless

any

new

beauties; but

intonation offensive
too,

is

more

pleasing
than
on

and

speech

more

here

the

nary ordi-

stage. which
dramatic in the has

It seems, done
so

that
to

the

"star

system,"
sincere

much is

discourage

effort in America,
open.

peculiarly out
the the that the is
so

of

place

One her

reason

is that
upon

"star"

usually

depends
of
a

for

popularity

interpretation
sort

climactic is not The it


seems

emotional

part,

and of

of of

part
the

usually
open.

characteristic

drama

system,

moreover,

undemocratic

that

entirely out
forms
of

of

keeping with
art

the

more

democratic

dramatic

128

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE
abilities have

The
the

special sympathies and


actor

required
led
to

in

successful
of

out-of-doors
of

the

formation each
year

companies
from the

open-air players, which


to

travel

community
permanent

community

senting pre-

plays in
or

few

open-air theatres,
and this in
sort

in

improvised settingson
The
was

lawns, in woods
company

gardens.
in America has

first that in

important

of

organized by
of of the the

Ben

Greet, who
and

pioneered

many

really valuable
theatre.
bands of

progressive
The
actors

movements

best is that

known

of

the

present

open-air
Coburn. Coburn Middle

organized by Charles
to

Douville
year

From

April

August through

of the

each

the and

Players
Western
and

travel

Eastern
at

States, appearing
clubs. Their

universities, schools
teen sixuAs "The

country
of

repertoire includes
and

Shakespeare's comedies
It," of
course,

tragedies
"

You

Like

'Twelfth

Night,"
"Romeo
several "Electra"

Merry

Wives

of Windsor," and

"Hamlet,"

and of
the and

Juliet," "Othello,"
Greek classics
"

others; and

notably Euripides'

"Iphigenia
three
of

in Tauris."

Recently they have plays


to

added

Percy Mackaye's
"The

the

list, "Jeanne
and

d'Arc,"
masque

Canterbury Pilgrims"
and

the

bird

"Sanctuary,"
"The Yellow
The

they

have G. C.

played
Hazelton

fully success-

Jacket," by
company
was

and the

Benrimo.

organized with

THE declared the


star

DRAMA
of the

OF

THE

OPEN

129

intention

doing

away

with

the

evils of
for the

system,

play being presented

play's sake, with adequate interpretationbut without over-emphasis


chosen
on

any

one

part.
of

The the

plays

were

with

the
more

intention
than the

making

productions
Mr. and ing seek-

something
Coburn

mere

entertainments.

realized

tremendous in the he has

educational

inspirationalforce latent
audiences intelligent
the ideal

drama,
been

and
to

by

able

achieve
tainment entermunities com-

of the

higher types of
forward of the
the

dramatic

art:

plus spiritual satisfaction.


look
to

Many
the

visit of

Coburn

Players

as

one

artistic events done


more

of the year than


as a

and
other

this company
to

perhaps has
the
outdoor

any

establish of

production

permanent

part

dramatic

life in America.

The the
open

very and of

definite relation
national

between
be
seen

the

drama

of great

life of

can

in the

number

pageants

civic communities
and in the

presented
interest the
open.

during the last decade


in
more

communal

dramatic strictly
that significant

productions in Mackaye,
"civic

It is

Percy
of
for the
an

the

leading
turns to

American the

exponent
theatre

drama,"

open-air

adequate

setting for
alone
makes

his
operation co-

communal

productions, finding there


of artists and

the

people

that

possible

130 the
more

THE
finest than of
a

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE
drama. has Mr.

interpretation of
any

Mackaye
the

other

writer

shown

sibility imposin the has


mercial com-

truly national
as

drama

developing

indoor

theatre
out

at

present
theatre

constituted, and
escape

pointed

that

the

must

from
can

speculativelimitations
as a

before the

it

develop

vital

expression

of

the

life of the

people.
of the
open

The
are

civic

of possibilities

drama
sees

unlimited. indoor
work

Already
theatre
to

one

that
take

while

the

commercial off their the

exists to
rest

men's

minds

and

afford
not

in idle
rest

amusement, but The lates stimu-

open-air theatre
men

only
and in
new
a

affords

to

new

effort theatre than

ideals.
more

world
and

needs
more

the

indoor

wholesome
it
now

vital form

that

in which

exists ; and

in two be the boxes

particularsthe form
after the

doubtless of the

will

gradually
:

changed

pattern
more

open-air theatre
without
drama But the of the

building will
and with

become

democratic,
for

good

seats to

all; and

the

presented will
there drama the
many

be close

the life of the this is

people.
that the
art

always will remain


of the

difference:

indoor

stage

unavoidably

few

"

although designed, perhaps,


"

to

stir drama In

emotionally

whereas

the and

outdoor national.

is the

distinctlysocial,
one

communal

particularof community absolutely fails


to

participance,the
meet

indoor theatre

theatre

the

outdoor

THE
and

DRAMA

OF

THE

OPEN
the

131

"

the

of inspirational possibilities It is

latter
that union

are

infinite. American drama Passion

hardly

to

be

expected
the sober in the

any

community
and

will rise to is
seen

of

religion which
of the is
a

outdoor

Play
indeed

the

villagers of Ober-Ammergau,
to

where

desire
very

be

part of the decennial


to
see
a

productions
and clean

potent
but the
one

incentive
may

clean

living
the

thinking;

therein

of making possibilities in the

drama who

force significant the

life of

every

citizen

retains

primal

religiousand
At is the

dramatic

instincts.
at

present
of

time,

least,the "regular" theatre


outside the

by

force of

circumstances life.

flowing
it
was

rent cur-

human

Perhaps
a

because

long
cause be-

ago

pushed
men

aside
were

by

jealous church, perhaps


too

simply
affairs
to

busy with

governmental

and the

economic

remember

it, very
the has

certainly
bounds and
to

indoor

theatre

has

passed
It

outside

of is
at

community
now

responsibility.
and

long
as

been

in

private hands,
true

insofar

it has
to

do

all with
art

dramatic

art, It

it exists is

exploit that

for

private gain.

distinctlycommercial.
as

The

open-air theatre, however,

it is free

from in

this
some

speculative limitation, already approaches


measure

the
was

conditions of
an

of
state

that

time

when

Greek

drama

part
and

the

administration of the

of

munal com-

affairs

expression

people's reli-

32

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

gion,

and

of

that

other

time

when ritual.
the

the

church
The

veloped de-

drama

as

part
drama

of

its

open-air
hands
as

theatre

is

returning
force,
of their

to

people's
a

religious

and

is

becoming
life.

medium

of

expression

spiritual

APPENDIX

(This

appendix

contains

material

which

is

signed de-

to

be

of
use

to

architects

and

others

who
be may-

charged

with

the

actual

creation

of
an

open-air

playhouse.

As

it

includes

repetitions,

in
more

tailed de-

form,

of

much

that

has

been

described

briefly

in

earlier

chapters,

the

general

reader

will

be

wise

to

skip

it.

The

architect,

however,

will,

it

is

hoped,

find

it

of

practical

assistance

in

determining

the

details

of

his

design.)

136

THE

OPEN-AIR
abandon
of money

THEATRE type

find it wise unless

to

the classic bowl


is
no

entirely,
are

saving
two

object. There
of stage

in and

general

possible arrangements
first,a bowl;
low stage
a

auditorium: auditorium
or

with

sharply sloping
flat the

and

second,

high stage with


The
latter

saucer-shaped auditorium.
arrangement
site is for flat

is

natural If the the known face


a

ground.
is
a

flat, or

if there

choice of hollows,
this

architect
to

should

keep
and

in

mind

principle,
:

the Greeks
to

voiced

by Vitruvius
As

Never

theatre

the

south.
occurs

the
in

modern

time day-

performance
the the theatre should in the
a

usually
not

the
as

afternoon,
a

face

the

west,

rule, for
with
the
a

glare

spectators'eyes
theatre
eyes

interferes
east

illusion; and
similar

facing
of

would

permit
The

glare
for
an

in the

the

actors.

ideal States north.

facing
is to That

open-air structure
or a

in the
to

United
east

the

north,

little

the

of of

arrangement
to

provides
and be
actor.

the

maximum
In
cases

fort com-

spectator

where

the

ideal

facing cannot
may

obtained, much
the

of the
of

fort discom-

be

prevented by
at

planting

quick-

growing
shadow

tall trees,
across

points where
in the
a

they will throw


afternoon.
is determined

the

theatre site of

Occasionallythe
some

theatre

by
the

unusual

bit of

natural

beauty.
the

Thus audience

at

Peterborough

Pageant

Theatre

looks

PLANNING

AND

CONSTRUCTION
Mt. of Monadnock in the theatre

137 tance, disfaces Point in


out

out

beyond
the

the

stage

to

'University
and
rear

Wisconsin Greek

Lake Loma order

Mendota,
the that
an

in the

Theatre
been may and been
to

at

usual
a

stage-wall has
little

omitted stand

chaste

temple
of
ocean

against

inspiring sweep
in America of
or

sky.
take

The

tendency
advantage

of

late has

full

every
sea,
some

attractive and
some

vista
set

of

mountain,

lake, woods,
with
bit of this

to

the

stage

entirely
or

relation

to

such is to

individual
serve

local
uses,

beauty.

If the theatre of
nature

certain the
not

utilization
a

is wise;

but does

custom

offers

to pitfall

the

architect
kinds
on

who

stand underand
sence es-

fullythe
their

several
demands

of the
a

outdoor
theatre.

drama

distinctive
of the matter

The

is this: in

theatre

designed
every every

for

pageants

or

for

spectacular masques,
should
the be
sum

possible
added

beauty

of

nature

utilized,as
total
of

loveliness But
vista
prove

increases

effectiveness.

in

theatre
the

designed chieflyfor
trees
or across a

pure

drama,
is

through
an

lake
and

likelyto
more

interruption of the action,


and the
more

the the

appealing
is,the
wander
more

comprehensive
is to

outlook

likelythe spectator
from other the

let his attention is

away

stage

and

what
theatre

happening designed profit-

there. for

In

words,

if the

is

extensive, episodic drama,

the

stage may

138

THE
be

OPEN-AIR
and the vistas

THEATRE
behind
are

ably
as

as

open

it

as

appealing
be

possible; but

if the

productions
and the

to

chiefly
in
closed en-

plays, in which
the action
as

cumulative

sustained
should be

interest be
as

is necessary,

stage

possible and
bits To the
to

especiallyshould

free from
distant
owner

compelling background.
must

of

landscape beauty
have
the of theatre

in the

right,the
and the

choose
must

sort

production,
type
said be of that

tect archi-

plan
often

fit that been

production.
whenever
as a

Very
a

it has

possible
of the

lake

or

stream
an

should

utilized
The

part

stage
meant

of but

open-air
be

theatre.

advice before

is well
tance. accep-

it should

well

considered
remember

The

architect who

should
it
are

that

here
one

again those
direction
masque.

give

interested
in the
or

in

only

of A

outdoor

production,
that is half
or

pageant
a

and
to

stage
can

lake,
sail
some on

stage

which
may

the afford

actors

canoe

real the
can

river,
most

the

opportunity for
and
a

of that

beautiful

entrances
;

tableaus

be

imagined
as a

but

such
true

stage
dramatic

will

probably

fail

entirely
fact

settingfor
it is
so

action. concentration the

The
of

very

that In

open

precludes

interest.

general arrangement
vary
are

open-air
are

theatres short
very

of
and

all types

extraordinarily: some long


with and

fat,

some

thin,

some

are

much

up-and-down,

almost

vertical stage backgrounds

REMAINS

OF

THE

ANCIENT

THEATRE

AT

FIESOLE,
OF THE

ITALY.

THE

PHOTOGRAPH

CLEARLY

ILLUSTRATES

MANY

STRUCTURAL

FEATURES

OF

THE

ROMAN

THEATRE.

THE

ARRANGEMENT

OF

LOW

STEPS

BELOW

THE

DIAZOMA

IS

TYPICAL

OF

THEATRES

OF

THE

LATE

ROMAN

PERIOD.

PLANNING

AND

CONSTRUCTION of seats,
and

139 almost dictates

or

very

steep
But

terraces
one

some

are

flat. the
every

in all

primary

consideration
must

arrangement

the

sight lines

be
every

clear

from

portion of the auditorium


stage.

to

portion of

the

Of

the

two

typical systems,
and

the

low

stage

with

sharply sloping auditorium,


stage
former

the

high

narrow

with
was

flat

or

saucer-shaped auditorium,
used

the their

always
The took
was

by
was

the

Greeks
necessary

in

theatres.
the usual

steep

slope
in the

because The the

action

place
about

orchestra

circle.

slope

thirty degrees.
to

When

Romans
the

carried

the action

the

stage,
the

they pushed
orchestra and its

auditorium

forward,

cutting
a

old

circle,or
that

dancing place, to
seats.

half-circle

filling
steep
that
now

with

The had

auditorium
to

kept

slope, but
the
sat actors

the

stage
be

be

raised

in order those

might

clearly seen
So the Roman the

by

who

in the

orchestra.

theatres
one

usually
and the

have

the

steep
of

auditorium
the other. the

of

type,
best of

high stage
example
the of

Perhaps the
Greek

modern

to fidelity at

system

levels
Here

is

theatre

Point floor

Loma,
is used the
a

California. for floor

the action

wide
and

orchestra for

part
of

of

the small the

dancing, while
raised

the At

stage

building is

only

few

steps.

modern

140

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

FIRST
LOW
STAGE
-

TYPE
STEEP

SECOND
HIGH
STAGE
"

TYPE
FLAT Oft SHALLOW

AUDITORIUM

AUD.

Tvf

JCAL

EARLY

GREEK

USUAL

GARDEN

THEATRE

TYPE

rn-n
Orchestra

TYPICAL

ROMAN

SHAPED

VARIATION

COMBINED
A*

TYPES
~4 "*

HILLSIDE
Bohemian

STAGE
6rove Theatre

Type

"t lV.mp.JJ

Diagram

showing

variations

of

the and

two

typical relations

between

auditorium

stage.

142

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

structure

becomes suited for

not

true

open-air
drama,
but

theatre

cially espean

outdoor the the be

merely
lifted

indoor

theatre

with
of

auditorium

roof
as

off.
to

Typical examples
garden
the and the theatres

arrangement
found
at

applied

may

Villa

Gori, where
about three

auditorium one-half main

floor feet

is flat and and is


at

the

stage

high,

Villa

Marlia,

where
the

auditorium four feet theatres

floor

perfectly level, and

stage
of
to

floor

higher. slope

Very often the stages


up
out

the back of

garden
"

slightlyfrom
the

front

method

of

helping
the

difficult will do
an

lem probto

sight lines, which


At theatre of the the

architect

well

remember.

"Ragdale
modelled after

Ring,"
that
two at

American

garden
front above and of

Villa

Gori, the
feet of
one

stage

is

only

and

one-half
a

level

auditorium
more

floor, but
the

rise

one-half the

feet makes

between

front

and

rear

stage

the total
is found
cases

height sufficient.
in

The

flat auditorium

floor in many
on

nearly

all

garden by
one

theatres, but
or

it is surrounded levels. the and In level the the

two at

terraces

higher

little theatre
space
are

Mannheim,
to

Germany,
the the

central best
seats

is contracted
at

minimum,
second the

the

front
on

of

terrace,

which of

is practically the
most

the

level of

stage.

One is the

interesting stage
Grove Theatre.

arrangements
Here

Bohemian
a

the main

stage

is

few

feet

THE

GREEK

THEATRE

PLAN

OF

THE GALEN

HEARST

GREEK

THEATRE.

[JOHN

HOWARD,

ARCHITECT]

PLANNING

AND

CONSTRUCTION
and behind it

143 trail ascends trail smaller

above
a

the

auditorium,

very

steep

hillside; and
have
so

along
erected action

that
at

platform stages
above several the levels.
now

been that

intervals, one
take

other,

may

place

on

Turning they
affect

from

the

matter

of of
a

as sight-lines

the

relative
while the

levels
to

stage
moment

and
to

torium, audisider con-

it is worth

pause

how
One
sense

they affect
would
lead

general shape
the

of

the
common

atre. the-

think him the


to

that

architect's the and side

would

determine

lines

of

the auditorium stage


"

by

depth, width
is

shape

of the and

but

continuallyone
where
half the

findingboth

indoor

outdoor
seats
common can

theatres
see

spectators stage.
insure

in the

outmost

but

the
to

There

are

three

arrangements

perfect sight-lines facing


a

laterally:first,a
very

semi-circular

auditorium

wide

and

shallow
a

stage;

second,

fan-shaped
;

auditorium
a

facing

wedge-shaped facing
a

stage

and

third,

rectangular
same

auditorium

rectangular stage
all In had the
more

of the The

width.
and Roman theatres

Greek of

toriums audi-

the

semi-circular
the
rows

type.

early
than
curve
times some-

Greek
a

structures

of seats

formed ends
a

sometimes half-circle,
on

having

the

of the and

prolonged

tangents,
a

forming

"U,"
of
a

making

perfect two-thirds

circle.

But

PLANNING
the be

AND

CONSTRUCTION left the


to

145

as

soon

as

action

orchestra

or

dancing

circle, to
was

confined
to

the

stage,

the

auditorium of the
to

shortened

the The

conventional modern risk his the At of

half-circle architect

Roman the

theatre.* type

returns

Greek

only

at
to

adding

number the

of
Cranto

unsatisfactoryseats
brook the the Greek Theatre semi-circle. of the

structure.

At

auditorium the
are

is limited Greek Theatre

exact

Hearst

ends
a

semi-circle
not

extended
to

along

gents tan-

few

feet, but

enough

interfere
for
a

in the theatre

least with for form


a

the

sight-lines. In the plan


Park,
a

Garfield almost

Chicago,

the of
a

auditorium
a

terraces

full two-thirds in that

but circle,

there

is

certain

compensation
the

fore-stageis pushed
into the could
as

out

between
but for

proscenium

columns

tra; orches-

still the
more

sight-lines never
half be the

be

tory satisfac-

than

audience,
or

the immense hidden

rear-stage

would
at

partly
end
a

wholly
the if

from
It the
a

large
may

sections

each
as

of

auditorium.
one

be

put

down

rule
one

that
must

adopts

semi-circular stage
rows

auditorium,
as

also

plan for
outmost
a

almost of
seats.

wide The

as

the

diameter

of the

wide of the

shallow

stage
classic is

is

sary neces-

accompaniment
form.
used The

large

auditorium

semi-circular

auditorium because

successfully
the

in

garden
*

theatres,

there
II.

stage

See

comparative

plans in Appendix

146
almost
Of

THE

OPEN-AIR
is

THEATRE wide
the

invariably
the second and and

as

as

auditorium.
are common

third

types, which

in

nature

garden theatres,

little need

be

said.

Plan
An

of

the

Butterick

Memorial

Theatre,
auditorium.

Sterling,
Frank

Massachusetts.
A.

example

of

the

fan-shaped

Waugh,

Architect.

It is obvious auditorium
take and
must

that

if the

stage

is

wedge-shaped, along
of

the

will

naturally widen
from the

out

lines that the

their if the be

direction stage
is

side-lines

stage; width
The

rectangular,the auditorium
to

limited

almost

that

of

the

stage.

rectangular auditorium

permits

the

largest possible

148

THE
in

OPEN-AIR different

THEATRE

the audience that


than of the

plane

or

atmosphere from
in

action

is better the

understood in this

Europe
too

in America,

architect

country

often

crowding
At

the the bank

auditorium

directlyagainst
Theatre,
to

the

stage-front.
a

little Brookside of
was

ever, howat

sloping

turf,

similar

that

the nite defi-

Hertenstein intention Louis of


water

Theatre,
of

constructed
a

with
and
at
a

the the

creating

break,

St.

Pageant
serves

Theatre,
the
same

and

elsewhere,

channel

purpose.

The far

matter
a

of

acoustics in

is far

less

puzzle
than

and

less

gamble

open-air
that In

theatres
an

within
theatre of

doors.

It is very in this

seldom

outdoor

suffers
nature

particular.
and

the
open

construction

theatres the

the

more

types

of of

garden
the site

theatre,
settle

natural

acoustic If

properties
are

the

matter.
to

they

bad,

the
are

architect

will do
chances

well
are

go

elsewhere;

if

they
be

good, by

the the

that and

they will planting

not

changed
in the sites
seem

slightgrading
of

entailed

shaping
to

stage

and

auditorium.
for

Certain

be

perfectlyshaped
waves.

the proper

distribution
Theatre

of sound
every
to

At
can

the be

Brookside heard

Garden

whisper

due distinctly, hills


on

probably
side, which
and the

the also

conformation
create
a

of the

either

charming Ring,

sense

of
the

intimacy
hand,

seclusion. unfortu-

At

Ragdale

on

other

PLANNING

AND

CONSTRUCTION
in

149

nate

placing of
question
and of of

the theatre

an

exposed spot leaves


upon

the

hearing dependent
conditions. noted in

changing only
other

winds
case

atmospheric
acoustics the
very

The
American

bad is at

open-air
atre" Thebecause instead
is
so

theatres
at

attractive

little "Greek

Bakersfield, California.
of the

Perhaps
colonnade

the of the
a

rear

stage
or

is

an

open

solid sound

wall,
waves

because

the

auditorium The of and

low,

diffuse
formal

badly.

architect
trees

nally origishrubs rim of


At

planned
behind the the

planting openings
this may
cannot

and the

colonnade and

about the

auditorium,
the

correct

fault.

present
without the

theatre

be

satisfactorilyused
the
a

heavy hangings
it is to of be this It is the

between

columns. broken

On

whole

doubted
sort

whether will
ever

stage

background

prove

adequate
the

acoustically.
like

undoubtedly
theatre of

true

that

bowl-

shape
the

of

classic

has
seats

tages, special advanand

semicircular

rings
the

the

high
back

stage
no

wall

holding in

sound

and
ten

yet

giving

echo.
into of them

Occasionally nearly
the
can

thousand
and

people
every

crowd
one

Hearst hear
on

Greek

Theatre,

words

spoken

in

ordinary conversational
for the

tones

the stage. instructions

Vitruvius
of
to

gives elaborate

ing plac-

bronze

sounding vessels in open-air theatres,


and
more

accentuate

perfectlyto

distribute

the

150

THE

OPEN-AIR But
in the

THEATRE
absence the

sound-waves.

of

any

definite
sence ab-

proofs

of

the

of efficacy

device, and

in the
may

of modern
hesitate
to

experiments with it,one


it.

well

recommend
to
no

Turning
said
been
masonry

the
more

matter

of stage

details,it

may

be
ever

that

satisfyingbackground
for real its drama than of it
was

has

invented

the columns.

Greek
In
to

wall, with
Greek this
at

single row
theatres

both

and

Roman

customary

have stage
end

long wall
the

running
and

the

full

length

of

the

back,

extending forward
There is
a

at

each

of the

stage

platform.
among

very

spirited
as

controversy whether
the
on
a

raging
action raised

archaeologists
Greek theatre
or

to

in

took

place
the that

partly
level
the
as a

platform stage
floor.
up

entirelyon

of

the

orchestra

But
the

it is certain orchestra

Romans,

entirelygiving
for

circle
and the the

place
the

action, constructed
drama has it is
no

high stages;
counterpart
natural Roman of the nine of that

since Greek modern and

modern

dancing chorus,
architect raised

only
the

should stages. varied Theatre


The

follow
The from the

system stages
feet. in At

build

height
five
to

Roman

theatres Greek

the Hearst
the

stage

is six feet
rear

above

orchestra

circle.
more

height of the height

stage

wall

depends

upon

the

of the auditorium

PLANNING bowl
set
on

AND the size that

CONSTRUCTION
of the the

151

than it down the of

upon
as

stage.
of the

Vitruvius wall
or

law
of the

top

must

be the
as a

level the of

highest

tier of

seats, At

of

top
matter

surrounding portico.
fact, the
feet

Orange,

stage

wall, rising one


orchestra
; at

hundred

and

eighteen
than

above

the

floor, is much
the

higher
the

the

auditorium
the

Aspendus

top

of

wall

is flush with the

top

of the

colonnade

which

surrounds The
are
so

auditorium.

stage
far in

buildings decay
that

of

the-

truly Greek
to

theatres estimate At the

it is of the

impossible
stage
is

reasonably
Hearst

the

heights
Theatre

walls.

Greek the

the

wall

slightlyhigher
feet above is
no

than

auditorium,
In

rising forty-two
the wall

the

stage-floor.
that the Greek

decorating
architect of
a

there better of

doubt follow
than of
two

modern

will

do

to

the
to
or

system
the
rows

single row
Roman and

columns system

adopt
three other.

over-elaborate
of In

columns
Greek

one pilasters,

above
a sense

the of

the
a

system

there

is

dignity and
action. absurd

quiet impressive beauty


every

which
serious
cept ex-

should dramatic
an

characterize
But

background
all, there convention,
prevent
of

of

after
to

is

nothing
and
a

slavery

total archi-

lack

of

artistic initiative,to
rules be found for in the

American
and

Vitruvius' will

construction II.

Greek

Roman

theatres

Appendix

152
tects

THE
from

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE forms of

inventing entirelynew
for the
in the in

design

and

decoration The
entrances

stage

wall.
were

classic theatres
the wall
at

usually
back,
and

five: three
one

doorways
end. of the To

the

at
a

each

provide
size

less than be

this number

in
are

theatre

large
Hearst
small

would

unwise.
and
even

There the
has

five

at

Greek stage

Theatre,
at

comparatively
as

building
is
an

Bradfield
at

many.

At

Cranbrook
of

there the

entrance

each

side,
to

and

three-fifths the
to

rear-wall

is left open
matter

show

pool
stages

and
on

rear

stage.

The

of

entrances
mere

which

the stage
a

buildings are
At the Point

colonnades,
there is

is
one

always
way

puzzle. reaching

Loma without

only
seen

of

stage
up

being
the

by the

audience:
at

by coming
the back be the of

through temple.
if the
canyon.

precipitous gulch
that
were

the

Even

entrance not

would
at

impossible
head is of
a

theatre
In

situated
an

of

general

such

arrangement

ous seri-

handicap except
and

in the

production
entrances

pageants
exits
are

festivals,where

formal

and

unnecessary.

The
vary

sizes

of the stages
At

of theatres
the

of classic type
is
over

greatly.
feet of the
and

Orange
and

stage

two

hundred stage

wide
Greek

forty-two feet deep.


at

The
one

Theatre

Berkeley

is

hundred

by twenty-eightfeet. thirty-three

That

TWO

VIEWS

OF

THE

GREEK-ROMAN STRUCTURAL

THEATRE FEATURES.

AT

PRIENE,

SHOWING

UNIQUE

154
not

THE less than

OPEN-AIR feet
feet

THEATRE

twenty

deep.
on

A the

stage
other

more

than
or a

thirty-five or
more

forty

wide,

hand,
in

than

forty deep, will

prove

unwieldy
theatre

garden
The

theatre.

background

of

the

garden

stage The

nearly always
arrangement

is formed and
on

by clipped hedges.
of these

proportions
each
an

hedges,

usually placed
rows,

side of

the

stage

in converging

afford
The

interestingproblem
Villa theatres show

for

the

signer. dequisite ex-

Italian
can

what

effects
this sort. of

be

gained with
are

backgrounds
set

of

Usually the hedges foliage,though


character
trees

against masses
Villa Gori the

less formal

at

the

conventional the

is

maintained
the
at

throughout, clipped wings


exact two
on

only
three

showing

above
one

being
the of

tall cypresses,
at

the

centre

of axis

hedge
the

the

back

and

the At
one

other time

the

front
very

stage-wall. popular
trellises The of in

treillage-work design, the


the

became

garden

theatre

vari-formed
formal

with combining beautifully

hedges.
is
one

garden
the finest

theatre

at

Mannheim,

Germany,
this type.

existingexamples of
that
are

The

combinations

possible with
the tect archi-

treillage-work and
who
can

hedges
upon
to

are

and infinite,
a

is called the

design

garden playhouse

study
used

type

with

advantage.
in

Pergolas
the
same

have
way,

been

very

successfully

PLANNING

AND

CONSTRUCTION
informal

155
masses

although usually with


and shrubs. framed
at

more

of trees of atre Thea

The

finest
a

example
is
at

in

America

stage

by
Kisco.

pergola

the

Brookside

Mt.

^)
to

The

entrances

the

stage
than

are

more

easily arranged
other

in The the series


more

garden
of

theatre form

in any

type.
and in

hedges

natural it is easy and

"wings,"
to

informal the
groups

sorts

leave

gaps

between The theatres

of

shrubs of

trees.

accompanying
show
the

plans

representativegarden
A

usual

arrangement.

point that
there
from

is sometimes
must

forgotten by the architect


of The
access

is that hidden Villa

be

ways

to

the

wings,
at

the

audience. hidden

arrangement
run

the

Gori,

by which
from

passages

between
to

high hedges wings,


is very
ists ex-

the back and the


a

of the auditorium similar

the

good;
at

but

less

simple arrangement
there side is also very of the

Villa

Marlia, where
at

come welAt
sage pas-

working-space
the Villa
to actors

either other
across

stage.
is
no

Collodi,
the

on

the

hand, there
the front

wings except
been its

stage, the

the
dience au-

having
took

obliged

to

gather
enter

before in full

place, or

else to

sight of

the

spectators.

Although
stage theatre
is

the

floor of

of
stone

the
or

architectural
cement,
a

theatre's

usually
more

the

garden

may

appropriately have

floor of sod,

Palace
I

VILLA

3ERRAGLIO

VILLA

SERGARDI

COMPARATIVE

PLANS

OF

ITALIAN

GARDEN

THEATRES

VILLA

MARLIA:

Stage

main auditorium cypress; terraces level, with two and stage. VILLA ilex

floor of turf, slightly sloping; wings of flat,of turf, about four feet below stage
at

hedge
GORI:

back; all; surrounding

yew

hedge prompter's

behind shelter

auditorium,
at

front of

cypress,
with ilex

Stage floor of gravel, slightly sloping; wings of feet high; auditorium 3^2 feet below stage level, and "broderie" elaborate turf gravel; twelve-foot of pattern with Hex behind auditorium, fifteen-foot hedge surrounding hedge
twelve

all;

entrance

through

ilex

tunnel.

PLANNING

AND

CONSTRUCTION

157

closelyclipped. Earth proved


turf

or

gravel tamped
cases,

hard the
with

has
green

satisfactory in
fits in
more

some

but

usually
the

harmoniously

the

general composition.
Of

stage be

detail

of

the
the
so

nature

theatre

very

little need
are so

said. and

Indeed,

stage arrangements

various,

depend
that There

largely upon
cardinal

the

isting ex-

background
can

nothing approaching
is
one

rules

be

formulated.

principle,
in the mind: ground. back-

however,
never

which
a

the

architect
to

must

keep
into
nature

allow The

building
first virtue
or

intrude
of the

theatre

is

the
a

naturalness,

even

wildness

of

its

setting,and
distant

building, even
strikes
a

if

only glimpsed through


note.

trees, In of

discordant with

connection
rooms

stage
must

construction be considered. the

the

matter

dressing

In is

the

purely architectural
solved,
wishes
as

theatres
may

problem

easily
he the side.

the

architect the

build

whatever

behind
of

stage
theatre

wall, without
from the

marring
audience's

appearance
VILLA

the

foot feet

tenfloor of gravel; wings of yew; auditorium and wings; four hedge surrounding stage yew below level, of gravel, with eight stone seats; stage prompt' er's box at front of stage. VILLA SERGARDI: walk, gravel floor of turf within Stage slightly sloping ; wings of ilex, eighteen feet high, joining at top tunnels with for entrances; forming surrounding twenty-foot hedge, auditorium with formed topiary work; hedges decorated level. by court four feet below stage

SERRAGLIO:

Stage

158
Some of

THE
the

OPEN-AIR
old Greek of and

THEATRE
Roman

theatres
space

had
under
some

elaborate
the

systems

dressing-rooms, the
for this
purpose

stage

being
In

utilized

in

examples.
also the
or

the

garden
the

theatre

the

problem

is

relatively simple, as
space
more

entire stage
available But

is enclosed,

outside

the

wings being
structures.

for

tents

permanent with
the

in nature

atres, the-

maximum
is very in offers
a

openness

in all

directions,
a

the
tent

question often
may
a

puzzling. clump
of

Sometimes
and
times some-

be

hidden

trees, At the

creek-bed

shelter.

large

atre the-

in the the the form

Klampenborg
are

Woods,
under the

near

Copenhagen,
but

dressing-rooms
wooden
a

the

stage;

here

stage-front,and
note

necessary

windows,
should have

false

in

structure
as

which
as

kept its natural


waits
while

character
go
sort
to

far

possible. Long
costumes
are

actors

change

their and

disastrous
to
some

in any

of

production,
close
to

it is proper
even

build

dressing-rooms
other the

the

stage
the

at

sacrifice in
not

directions; but

sacrifice into

should
the

entail

bringing

of

false

notes

composition.
Of other well

stage

accessories, the
consideration. this

prompter's
In
was
on

box
den gar-

may

claim of
a

serious

the
common.

theatres

Italy
rounded

feature
open

Usually

it

was

shelter,

the

stagestage-

side, built of hedge directly against the front

PLANNING

AND

CONSTRUCTION
to

159 sit in

wall,

and

just large enough for


Such
a

man

fortably. com-

shelter the

may

be

constructed often

very

unobtrusively, from
to

auditorium of the the

appearing
that masks
any

be

merely

an

enlargement
In

hedge

the

stage

retaining-wall.
is

Greek
and

theatres
in the the side
a

such
theatre in
a

construction it

impossible,
to

nature

usually
of

is necessary
or

place
one

shelter
of the

clump
But
the
a

trees

shrubs

at

stage.

wherever
director

practicable
of

it is

valuable

help
As

to to

productions.
the

hidden

position for
has There is

orchestra, no
been

factory satisfor in life

arrangement Greek
the theatres.

yet

invented ridiculous
for
a

something

sight
a

of

musicians feet
is the
a

fiddling away
the
centre

dear

within

few

of

of

stage
at

where

pathetic action performances


is very

taking place. glare


from

Moreover musicians'

night lights

the
in

often well

weighty
be of that the

factor
a recess

destroying
could be

illusion.

It

might
the

hollowed
the
chestra or-

under

front
be the

wherein stage-floor,

could
not

hidden effect of
an

by

grating
music.

that In

still would the be


or,

destroy

the

garden
left for

theatre the

design,

enclosed
one

recess

should stage,
as a

musicians

at

side that

of

the

failing

that, behind Here,


of and

the
course,

hedge

serves

"back-drop."
is from all of
any

since the

the

construction

hedges

trees,

sound

will carry

160

THE
the

OPEN-AIR
the

THEATRE auditorium.
can

point
the
any

near

stage
in
a

to

Similarly
be hidden the

orchestra
convenient the

nature

theatre and

by

clump
at
a

of trees,

often from

placing
stage

of and the

musicians

little distance to, rather than


a

the

audience

will add
In
a

detract

from,

effect.

theatre

with
be the

comparatively flat
for the orchestra This

auditorium

floor, a pit can


in

sunk

immediately
arrangement Grove
covered existence

front
been

of

stage
at

platform.
the

has

adopted
a

Bohemian
bank

Theatre,
with from for ferns

where
hides

slightly sloping
the A in the

even

fact

of

the
recess

pit's
is
at

the the

audience.

similar
nature

provided
Vassar In

orchestra

theatre

College.
the
matter

of detail has If
to

of

auditorium
little
to

construction
the

the
of
are

architect the
seats.

consider these of
are

beyond
of choose

shape
there

be
to

wood,
from.

numerous

types

benches be of

If
a

the

construction

is to

concrete, best. the

probably
But

straight step arrangement


seats
are

will be
stone,

if the

to to

be

of permanent back Some


as

architect

will

do for

well

go

to

the of

Greek

and

Roman
are

theatres
ally unusu-

models.

the
as

arrangements
The
to

graceful
of each
terrace

well
of

practical.
was

usual

rise

seats

sixteen

eighteen
to

inches, while

the

"tread"

was

twenty-four
a

thirty

inches, this combination

giving

slope satisfactory

PLANNING the whole


the

AND

CONSTRUCTION
At the

161

to

auditorium.
rise is between

Hearst
and

Greek

Theatre

seventeen

eighteen
below
the

inches, and

the where

tread

thirty inches, except


risers
are

diazoma,
and the

the

only
As

six inches latter

high

tread

thirty-six deep.
is below the

the

portion
the
such In
row

of the

auditorium step
is

level of the
of

stage

six-inch
a

adequate

"

although
the
use was

course,

small

rise makes Greek


of the

necessary

of chairs.

the

ancient "chairs
at

theatres

there

usually
carved

of

honor/'
outer

elaborately
the of of the the

from circle.
the

marble,
The

edge of
the
seats
some

orchestra

photograph
at

of

priests in
finest of is the has

theatre chairs.
modern

Athens,

shows

these

The

Hearst in

Greek

Theatre this of

only
been been

structure

which
seats

feature

copied, eight

marble
at

honor of

having
the

placed already
The
a

the of

front the

edge

diazoma. is

auditorium

garden theatre
which
An Villa At is
an

usually
are

pit with
at

turf
times

or

gravel floor, on
of

chairs

placed
among

performances.
theatres
stone

exception Serraglio,
the Villa

the there the

Italian
are

is

at

where
Gori

eight
of the

benches.

floor

auditorium
and
narrow

elaborate

"broderie"

design
each

of turf
seat

gravel walks.
to

Ordinarily
width
of

is considered and

occupy
a

twenty-six to thirty inches thirty-sixinches


"

depth
an

of

thirty-threeto

although

even

62

THE

OPEN-AIR of space

THEATRE
is wise in the

larger allotment
At the smaller

out-of-doors.
occupy

figures, each Starting


an

seat

will

six signer determine de-

square

feet.
can

with

these

figures,the
calculation

by
the

easy

mathematical
any

of seating-capacity

given plot of

ground.
The

problem

of

lightingan
is
one

open-air
most

theatre

for
of

night performances
all that the of

of the
must

perplexing
In the

architect

meet.

large
is is in

structures

the

architectural
out
a

type,

it especially, that

difficult to

work

stage-lightingsystem
a

adequate without
the
eyes

creating
of the the

disillusioning glare
At the

of
at

part

audience.

Greek quate inadefeature

Theatre

Berkeley
and

system
Here

has the
a

proved
set

time is
a

again.

only

row

of

masked the

footlights in
This

shallow

sion depresplemented sup-

along

stage-front.
a

is sometimes
on

by

masked string of lights, above from the the the

the and of

torium audi-

side, suspended

stage,
centre

by
the
are

"spot-lights"
diazoma. noticeable But from

thrown

always
certain sit close

suspended
and

lamps

seats,
to

invariably

the

spectators
are

who

the

spot-lightmachines
the

disturbed

by
the

the

sputtering of
the

lamps,
are

and

by

the

glare
their

of

lightswhen
screens.

operators

ing shiftvery

colored of the

Moreover
are

the

movements

operators

an

interruption and

PLANNING

AND

CONSTRUCTION

163
will be
is the which with
manently per-

an

annoyance.

The

only

solution
a

that

satisfactoryin
of

such
or

theatre shelters

ing build-

temporary

hoods and for the

will
holes The

entirely cover only


on

machines

operators,
streams

the of

stage
a
new

side

of Greek

light.
or

designer

theatre

of

the

tectural archi-

type
of

might

well

consider for

the the

advisability

settingin permanent
the
centre

boxes

light-machines,
at

under of the

of

the

auditorium

the

height

stage.
the
more

In
the of
one

flexible

nature

and much masked

garden

theatres A
row

lightingproblem footlights can


case,
or

becomes be

simpler. by
a

always
a

log
the

in the other. almost of the


fusion pro-

by
be

miniature

hedge
moreover,

in

Side
any

lights can point


in

thrown,

from
or

the
to

wings,
hide

the

hedges
actual
Grove

clumps
from the

shrubs audience.

serving
At
trees

the

lamps
Theatre

the and

Bohemian shrubs
at

of stage
has rich

the

sides

of the of

narrow

made and of

possible the
subtle the

achievement effects.
at
were

ably remarkthe

light

Similarly Ragdale quick


to

deep stage
In
not
cover

garden
the

theatre

offered
grasp.

opportunities which
this theatre
to
source
use

owners

is made the

of

proscenium columns, decoratively, but


The
to

alone the

frame of

stage

certain

lights.

utilityof
a

such

columns

in

distributingthe

lights, is

large

64
in

THE

OPEN-AIR
the

THEATRE

factor in nature in which

determining
and the

adoption
; not

of

this feature
theatres the
any

garden
architect

theatres does

and

in those
to

wish

disturb
of each

natural such
of

look

by

the

permanent
can

introduction be the

formal

feature, sockets

left

at

side the

the

stage-front,into which
can

columns the

with
times Hermann

lightingequipment night
Rosse
an

be The

fitted

just at

of

performances.
for the stage of

design open-air
of

by

an

theatre
to

shows

interestingarrangement
the

pylons

mask

light-

sources.

In is to front

general,
make and is to

architect's
for

duty

to

the

producer
from
the the ence audithat

provision
from
see

ample lightsboth
his

the that

sides; and
these
can
so

duty
so

to

lights are
seen

masked

not
"

single lamp nothing else

be

from

the

auditorium illusion
as a

for

quickly destroys
of

glare.
The
very

drainage systems simple affairs.


so

open-air
stage
and

theatres

are

If the
nature

slopes, as garden

it does
a

in slightly small

many
at

theatres,

gutter
away

the
excess

front

may

prevent

damage
when
of the
a

by
the
rounding sur-

carrying
auditorium

water.

Always
the
to

pit

is sunk

below

level

ground,
outlet from

it is necessary

provide
The

age drainHearst of the

the
has
a

lowest gutter

point.
on

Greek

Theatre

the

level

DESIGN ROSSE.

FOR HERE

THE THE

STAGE COLUMNS

OF

PAGEANT

THEATRE,
SHELTER
FOR

BY

HERMANN

OFFER

LIGHT-SOURCES.

66

THE

OPEN-AIR the distinctive


three

THEATRE

amiss

to

outline
of

advantages and
It would
to
a

tations limibe
as
a

each
for of the

of the
a

types.
association

ridiculous
structure to

pageant

build

rigid Greek
open
nature
must

type,

as

for
or

university

build

very

theatre

tiny garden carefully probable


must

theatre. kind of mind

The

designer
to

weigh
the he

the size in
or

of drama the

be

presented and
of
course

audiences;
whether
the

and

keep public

gatherings will

be

private.
A theatre is the seated of the
one

Greek in which

or

purely
very

architectural
can

type
be

only
and

large crowds
The

all hear

perfectly.
at

only large

modern
seats

Greek

theatre, that

Berkeley, ordinarily
and words be

sixty-four hundred
in the
tones

people,
at

there

is

no

point

auditorium
from the

which

spoken
heard Greek

in

ordinary

stage
of the

cannot

tinctly. disand

The Roman the theatres

acoustics
are

ancient
as

described
were

perfect, although
immense;
for
ample, ex-

seating capacities often


the theatre
at

Athens

accommodated
20,000,

about

17,000

people,
and The the

Megalopolis
Theatre of

Epidaurus
at

18,000,
20,500. like

Marcellus

Rome

partially

enclosed the

form,

the

bowlfrom

shape,

doubtless do

prevents
in the
more

sound-waves
nature

diffusingas they
The
sense

open

theatre.
to

of

enclosure,

moreover,

affords

the

PLANNING audience
the

AND

CONSTRUCTION
close
a

167
the of action
on

that
or

feelingof being
even

to

stage,

of

being
in

part

the the

action,
illusion

which
of of

is such

large factor
indoor

preserving
The

drama

in the

theatre.

Greek
any

type
other of
side out-

open-air playhouse production


and its of

is better-fitted than
any

for the

of

the

ordinary forms

drama,

atmosphere

of

protection from

interruptions makes
concerts

possible the
sorts

enjoyment
demand

of

and

all other

of

that activity
one

concentration

of
of

attention.

Its

limitation
Its

is in

the

direction
and

pageant-producing.
do
not

ground rigid back-

inflexible stage

lend

themselves
and
tacles. spec-

well

as

setting for
Greek

pageants,
theatre is

masques

The excellence

the
most

theatre of
the

par matic drathan

for

universities,where
are

productions
pageants,
are course

likelyto
concerts,

be

plays

rather and

and

where

meetings,

lectures
of

to

be

included

in the for

theatre's
any

activities;and
that

it is the

type

community widely.
series been

desires

to to

utilize
note

its structure that

thus the

It is

interesting
at

although
Theatre

of

plays

the

Hearst
ways,

Greek

has

remarkable

in many totalled

the

purely
one-fourth

dramatic of

activities have
exercises of the

less than The

all the

there. theatre
a

distinctive

advantages
and

nature

type

lie in its openness

It affords flexibility. and


masques

perfect setting for

pageants

and

for

68

THE

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE

aesthetic lectures.
concerts

dancing,
At have demands is the been

but

not

for

plays

or

meetings
Theatre

or

Peterborough given
more

Pageant
but
as

successfully,

rule
the

music architect should those

intimate for

atmosphere. pageant-association,
the
nature

If

building
means

he
and in in

by
cities

all

turn

to

type;
constructed

where

theatres
for

are

to

be of

public

parks

chiefly
for folk
this

the

use

the

playground
festivals,
and

departments,
similar

dances,
is

flower
best of the

activities,
characteristic

the

type.

The

virtues from its and the

garden
It the of of the and

theatre has the

are

derived
of but

chiefly

smallness.

same

sense

enclosure
has also the of

protection atmosphere
limited size

as

Greek

theatre,
that and is the

it

intimacy
the

results the

from

very

stage
It

closeness

the

audience

to

stage.
dramatic

perfect
and it
amateur

type
for is the
most

for

poetic
amateur

plays

readings,
of and
course,

performances.
type
for

So,
estates,

perfect
societies.*

private

for

APPENDIX

II

VITRUVIUS

ON

THE

CONSTRUCTION

OF

GREEK

AND

ROMAN

THEATRES

(Vitruvius
Augustan Age.

was

Latin

writer,
he
wrote

probably
without
on

of

the

Although
"Ten
a

literary

distinction, his work,


is
very

Books

Architecture,"
source

important
about the and here and
are

as

contemporary
and of four

of

edge knowlof the The of this the

architecture
some

building
the Greeks.

Romans,
extracts

to

extent

printed

form

chapters

work,

reprinted,
Morris

by

permission, Morgan,

from

translation the

of

Hicky

published

by

Harvard

University

Press.)

THE

THEATRE:

ITS

SITE,

FOUNDATIONS,

AND

ACOUSTICS

After for
the

the
purpose

forum of
a

has

been

arranged,
or

next, of the

seeing
as

plays

festivals

immortal
be has

gods,
for

site

healthy
in

as

possible should
with
the

selected
been

the in

theatre,
the
first
169

accordance
on

what

written

book,

principles

179

THE healthfulness
are

OPEN-AIR

THEATRE
sites

of

in

the

of

cities.

For

when
and their pores If from

plays

given, the spectators, with


sit

their wives
and the
way.
or

children,

through
from

them

spellbound,
have

bodies, motionless
open,

enjoyment,
winds find

into which winds


come

blowing
from

their

these other noxious faults

marshy

districts

unwholesome
exhalations

quarters,
into the

they will
system.
site of

introduce

Hence,
the

such is

will be

avoided

if the

theatre

somewhat We
exposure.
must

carefully selected.
also beware the that
sun

it has shines

not

southern
upon up

When

full

the in the

rounded curved and burns

part
enclosure

of

it, the
and

air, being shut


to

unable and and these

circulate, stays there


hot
it the
are

becomes
up,

heated;
dries
out,

getting glowing impairs


reasons,
are

the

fluids of which

human

body.

For
in such selected.

sites
to

unwholesome

respects

be

avoided,

and

healthy
The

sites

foundation
on a

walls

will be
if

an

easier
to

matter

if
on
sured as-

they
a

are

hillside ; but
a

they

have

be

laid be

plain

or

in

marshy

place, soliditymust
built in accordance

and

substructures been

with
dations foun-

what

has

written

in the third Above seats,


stone

book,

on

the

of the
up,

temples.
rows

the

foundation the

walls,

ascending
should
be

of

from and

substructures

built of

marble

materials.

EXTRACTS The
curved

FROM
cross-aisles

VITRUVIUS
should
be constructed
to

in

proportionate relation,
of the the

it is

thought,

the

height
of

theatre, but
is broad. the

not

higher than
If and

the

footway
from

passage

they

are

loftier,they will
it away the of

throw
upper

back

voice thus

drive

portion,
from

preventing

the

case-endings meaning
seats
so

words
of

reaching with
are

distinct

the

ears

those

who

in the

uppermost
be the

above

the that

cross-aisles.
a

In from

short,
the and

it should
to

contrived
seat

line drawn

lowest

highest

will Thus

touch

the top will

edges
meet

angles
no

of all the

seats.

the voice The

with

obstruction.

different

entrances not

ought
connected

to

be

numerous

and

spacious,the
built in
the
not
a

upper

with
from

the

lower, but
of

continuous

straight line turnings, so

all parts

house, without
be
may

that

the

people
from

may

crowded have

together when
separate

let out

shows,
without

but

exits from

all parts

obstructions.

Particular be
not
can a

pains

must

also

be

taken

that

the

site the This

"deaf"
range

one,

but
the if
to
a

one

through

which

voice
can

with

greatest

clearness.

be
no

brought about
obstruction
is
a

site is selected echo. of


moves

where

there

is

due

Voice
the

flowing breath
contact.

air, perceptibleto
in
an

hearing by
of

It

endless in-

number

circular

rounds,

like the

innumerably

172

THE

OPEN-AIR which
water,

THEATRE

creasing circular
is thrown into

waves

appear

when which

stone
on

smooth

and
centre

keep

from spreading indefinitely

the
or

unless

rupted inter-

by
which
in due

narrow

limits,
such
waves

by

some

obstruction
their end

prevents
formation.

from

reaching
are

When
first waves,

they

interrupted by
break
up

obstructions, the
the formation In the
same

flowing back,
follow. voice
executes

of those
manner

which
the

its

ments move-

in concentric
water

circles; but

while
on

in the
a

case

of
face, sur-

the
the

circles voice

move

horizontally

plane

not

only proceeds horizontally, but


fore, Therein

also

ascends
as

verticallyby regular stages.


the
case

in
so

of the
case

the

waves

formed voice:
to

the first

water,
wave,

it is in there
up

of

the

the

when
not

is the the
an

no

obstruction
or

interrupt it,
waves,

does but

break

second
ears

the

following
and

they

all reach

of the lowest

highest

spectators
Hence

without
the

echo.

ancient nature,

architects, following
the

in
rows

the of
the

footsteps of
seats

perfected
from
their
means

ascending

in

theatres

investigations of
of and that the

ascending voice, and, by theory


of the

canonical
cians, musion

mathematicians
to

of the uttered
sweetness

endeavored stage the


ears
come

make

every

voice
and

the
to

with

greater

clearness For

of the audience.

just as

musical

instru-

PLAN

SECTION

Plan

and

section

(By

Vitruvius. Theatre to according of the Roman Harvard University Press.) of the courtesy

EXTRACTS The
of the

FROM
has be
our

VITRUVIUS
made

175 than
on

platform

to

deeper

that the
served re-

Greeks, because
while for the
the

all

artists contains

perform
the

stage,

orchestra
seats

places height

of be
not

senators.
more

The
than

of in be

this order able

platform
that
to
see

must

five

feet,
may

those the

who

sit in the of

orchestra
actors.

performances
for

all the in the

The should

sections be
run

(cunei)

spectators
the

theatre

so

divided,
about the

that

angles

of

the the

triangleswhich
circle may between

circumference

of

give
the

the

direction

for far
as

the
up

flightsof
to

steps

sections, as
Above

the

first curved
are

cross-aisle. be laid out,

this, the
between

upper

sections

to

midway

(the lower

sections),with

ing alternat-

passage-ways. The

angles
for the

at

the

bottom,

which be

give
seven

the

tions direc-

of steps, will flights

in number

(C, E, F, G, H,
determine the

I, D)

the of
to

other the

five
scene

angles will
:

arrangement

thus, the
door"

angle (K)

in the

middle
to

ought

have
to

the

"royal

opposite
will

it; the

angles

the

right and
the doors

left
for

(L,M)
guest

designate
and
to

the the

position of
two

chambers;
will
for

outermost

angles
The
are

(A,B)
steps

point

the

passages

in the

wings.
the and
seats
a

the

spectators'places, where
be
not

arranged,
in

should
more

less than
a

foot six

palm

height, nor

than

foot

and

fingers;their

176

THE

OPEN-AIR
be fixed at not
two

THEATRE

depth should
feet, nor
The of of the the

more

than

two

and

half

less than roof


rows

feet.
to

of of

the

colonnade

be

built

at

the the

top top
will the is

seats, for

should
the
reason

be

level that

with
the

"scaena,"
rise
rows

voice

then

with
of

equal
seats

power

until
roof.

it reaches
If the roof

highest
not
so

and

the
as

high, in proportion
at

it is lower, it will check the sound of first reaches. the lower


to
a

the

voice Take

the

point which
of the

one-sixth the
on

diameter

orchestra
seats at

between the that At ends

lowest
both
so

steps, and
sides
as

let the
away

be
to

cut

height

of

dimension the

leave

entrances occurs,

(O,P).
fix the will be

point where
the

this

cutting away
Thus their

soffits of

passages.

vaulting

sufficiently high.
The diameter

length
of

of the the

"scaena"

ought
The level

to

be

double of

the the

orchestra. from and the

height
of the

podium,

starting
corona

stage,

is,
of

including the
the the should diameter

cymatium,
Above

one-twelfth the
and the

of

the

orchestra. their

podium,
bases,
same

columns,
have and should
a

including height
the be of

capitals
of

one-quarter
and of
cyma

diameter,
columns

architraves one-fifth

ornaments

of

the

their and

height.
corona,

The
one-

parapet
half the

above, including its

is

height

of

the

parapet

below.

Let

the

EXTRACTS

FROM this

VITRUVIUS
be one-fourth and the less

77

columns

above than the

parapet

in

height
and

columns of these

below,
columns is be
to

architraves
of their

ornaments

one-fifth have the the and three

height.
let the

If

the

uscaena"

stories,
of the

uppermost
one,

parapet
the

half
at

height
top

intermediate less and


as

columns

one-fourth architraves

high
coronae

than

the

intermediate,
columns

the

of these

one-fifth

of their

height

before. It is not rules and


to

possible, however,
of

that

in all theatres
all tions condito
sider con-

these

symmetry
but he what the

should the
must extent

answer

purposes,

architect

ought
the be

what
and
nature

extent
to

follow
it may the

principleof
modified of the
to

symmetry,
suit the There

of

site
some

or

size

work.

are, must
a

of be

course,

things which, for utility's


same

sake,

made
one

of
:

the

size

in

small

atre thecross-

and

large

such

as

the

steps, curved

aisles, their
stages,
that
not

parapets,
any

the

passages,

stair-ways,
occur

tribunals, and
it necessary with of
or

other

things which
up

make
to

to

give

symmetry
if in the

so

as

interfere work
any

utility. Again,
the material else

course

of

the

fall short, such that is

as

marble, timber,
will
not

anything
to

provided,
or

it

be

amiss

make

slight reduction
without will be

tion, addi-

provided
but

that

it is done

going

too

far,
the

with

intelligence. This

possible,if

iy8
architect
not

THE

OPEN-AIR
of

THEATRE

is

man

practical experience and,


and

sides, be-

destitute

of cleverness

skill.

The

"scaena"
centre
are

itself

displays the following schema.


doors the decorated and like left
are
are

In the of
a

double
At

those
the

royal palace.
of the for

right

doors

guest

chambers.
"

Beyond
that

spaces

provided
call

decoration

places
in

the

Greeks
are

irepLCLKToi,

because
of

these which When


to

places

angular trieach is to

pieces having
be three

machinery
faces.

revolve,
the the

decorated
or

play

changed,
of

when

gods
of

enter

ment accompanimay

sudden
and

claps
a

thunder, these
face

be

volved re-

present

differently decorated. projecting wings which


one

Beyond
afford the

these
entrances

places
to

are

the

the

stage,

from

the

forum,

other

from
are

abroad. three
kinds

There

of

scenes,

one

called

the

tragic, second, the comic, third, the


decorations scheme.
are

satyric.
each

Their in

different
scenes are

and

unlike

other

Tragic

delineated

with

columns,
to

pediments,
comic and
manner scenes

statues, exhibit

and

other

objects suited

kings ;

private dwellings,with
rows

balconies

views
of

representing

of

windows,

after
scenes

the
are

ordinary dwellings; satyric


with
trees,
caverns,

decorated

mountains,

and

other

rustic

objects delineated

in

landscape style.

EXTRACTS

FROM

VITRUVIUS

79

GREEK

THEATRES

In the

theatres
are

of the
not at to

Greeks,
be

these

same

rules of

construction

followed
bottom has line

in all respects. the


squares

First, in
has their The and

the

circle

the

where
three of
to

Roman

four

the Greek triangles, the

with

angles touching
square
cuts

circumference.
the

whose
a

side

is nearest of the

"scaena,"

off the
to

segment limits
of

circle, determines

by

this

line

the

"proscaenium"
to

(A-B).
ference circumfixes the

Parallel

this line and

tangent
a

the

outer

of the
the
centre

segment, the

line

is drawn

which

front
of
*

of the

"scaena"
and
a

(C-D). parallelto

Through
the

orchestra

direction
centres to

of
are

the

'proscaenium"
where left the

line is laid the


the

off, and

marked and with

it cuts
at

circumference
of
at

the

right
Then,
is

(E,F)

ends

the

half-circle.
arc

compasses

fixed

the

right, an
at

described
to ;

from left

the hand the

horizontal side
centre

distance the

the

left

the

of

"proscaenium"
left end,
at
an

(F-G)
arc

again

with from

at

the

is described
to

the horizontal
side of the

distance

the

right

the

right

hand

"proscaenium"
the

(E-H).
As Greeks
a

result have
a

of

this

plan with

three

centres,
a

roomier

orchestra, and

"scaena"

THEATRE EPIDAVRV5

AT

THE

GREEK
TO

THEATRE
VJTRVVIV5

ACCORDING

THE

THEATRE
TO

PORTICO
VITRVVIV5

ACCORDING

Plan

cular cirsmall Theatre The according to Vitruvius. of the Greek actual 'variations ical diagrams represent two from the theoret"Die The is to Josef Durm's reference "from Durm" type. der Griechen" courtesy

Baukunst

(By

of the Harvard

University

Press.)

82

THE

OPEN-AIR which
the the

THEATRE

the

circumsonant,

with

them

are

named termed

again
and The

resonant, consonant,
are

which which
those

are

they places
up

call
in

dissonant uttered bodies


to

which
strikes

the

first sound

that

is carried

high,

against solid
as

above,
the

and, being driven


the rise of the

back, checks

it sinks

bottom

succeeding
The

sound.
are

circumsonant all round, it and

those then

in

which
into

the the
are

voice
dle, midnot

spreads

is forced

where

dissolves; the
away

case-endings
in sounds those

heard,

and

it dies The

there
are

of indistinct
it
comes

meaning.
into
contact

resonant
some

in which and the


consonant

with
an

solid and

substance

recoils,
tions terminaare

thus

producing
of
cases

echo,

making
The from
ears

sound it is and

double.

those
as

in which
up,

supported
reaches the

below,

increases

it goes distinct

in words

which
has

are

and

clear

in tone. in the

Hence,
selection

if there of the

been the be

careful effect of

attention
the voice
to

site,

will, through this precaution,


the purposes of be
a

perfectly suited
The

theatre.

drawings of
each other

the this
are

plans

may

distinguished
theatres signed de-

from

by

difference,that
meant to

from while Roman

squares

be

used from

by Greeks, equilateral

theatres

are

designed

EXTRACTS

FROM

VITRUVIUS

83

triangles.

Whoever be
able

is
to

willing
construct

to

follow

these
correct

rections di-

will theatres.

perfectly

THE

END

INDEX

Acoustics,

148,
125

171,

179

Booth, Bothin,

George Henry

G., E.,

38 99 53

Acting, Adams,

Maude,
22,
Roman 37

34

Bourges
Bradfield

Amphitheatre,
Greek

^Eschylus,
Amman,

Theatre,

46,

theatre
28

at,

25

141

Amphitheatres, Anglin,
Anoka Arena

Brookside

Theatre,
Mawr

101,

141,

148

Margaret, Open-air
Goldoni,
Roman

34,

115,
43

126

Bryn
147

Open-air

Theatre,

Theatre,
43

Burrowes,
theatre

Marcus Memorial

R.,

39

Aspendus,
24,
Athens
"

at,

Butterick 146

Theatre,

151

See

Dionysus,

Theatre

of

Autun,

Religious

theatre

at,

52

Castelnuovo

Garden
Nature

Theatre,
theatre

96

Cauterets, Baker,
Bakersfield

at,

George

Pierce,
Greek

79

69

Theatre,

39,

Chicago

"

Garfield
145

Park

tre, Thea-

149,

153

42,

Balbus,
Bankside
Bar

Theatre

of,

25 83

Coburn

Players,
of the

76,

128 of

Theatre,
Nature

College
78

City
48

New

Harbor

Theatre,
47

York

Stadium, Drama,
Roland

Barker,

Granville,
"

Community
Greek

8, R.,
105

116,

129

Berkeley
Theatre

See

Hearst

Conklin,
Construction,

135,
29

169

Bernhardt,
B6ziers
Boboli 96 Bohemian Arena

Sarah,

29,

35 47

Coquelin,
Cornish
Cost of

Theatre,

"rounds,"

56

Gardens

Amphitheatre,

open-air
Gordon,
Greek
252
46

theatres,

165

Craig,
Grove

Theatre,
163

5,

71,

Cranbrook

Theatre,

38,

119,

142,

160,

145, 185

186
Dell

INDEX
Theatre,
75 55

Hagedorn,
Harvard

Hermann, Stadium,
48

76,

80

DeVega,
Dickinson,

Lope,
Thomas

-H., 80,
of,
13

123

Harz 147

Mountain

Theatre,

65,

Dionysus, Dionysus, Dorp


f eld,

Festivals Theatre

of, 14, 161


17 164

Hearst

Greek

Theatre,

31,

41,

Wilhelm, systems,
8

115, 141, 145, 151, 161, 166


Hertenstein
Nature

Drainage
Duse,

Theatre,

Eleanora,

67, 147 Howard,

Sidney Henry
Sam,
39

Coe,

39 93

Ekklesiasterion Elizabethan

at

Priene,
57

27

Hubbard, Hume,

Vincent,

theatre, 4,
Greek

Epidaurus
Eretria

Theatre,
21

20 Italian Italian

Greek
22

Theatre,

"arenas,"
villa

49 154

Euripides,

theatres, 4, 89,

Experimental

theatre,

Japanese
Forest
42 Park

No-theatres,

63

Theatre,

St.

Louis,

Forest Fountain
97

Theatre,
Theatre

Carmel,
at

73, 119

Kaufmann,
Kirksville

Oskar,

66

Versailles, 70, 158

Open-air
Woods

Theatre,

78

Klampenborg
Klopstock,
Koch,
119 65

Theatre,

Garden Garden Garden


168 Garfield

Terrace
theatre

Theatre,

103

Frederick

plays,

H.,

83

theatres, 4, 11, 87, 153,

Laughton,
Park

Marie

Ware,
101

75

Theatre,
73

42,

145

Leonard,

Martia, 125,
162

Garnett, Goethe, Goodman, Gould,


107

Porter, 65, 97
Kenneth Mrs.

Lighting,
Littmann,

Max, Rudolf,

66 67

Sawyer,

42

Lorenz,
Los 153

Charles

Judson,

Angeles

Greek

Theatre,

43,

Graham,
107

Mrs.

William

Miller,
MacDowell

Pageant,

7, 79
129 77 80

Greek
Greek Greek

drama,
theatre,

2, 13, 21 10, 13, 179 30, 167

Mackaye,
Macomb

Percy, 76, 82,


Nature

Theatre,

theatres, modern, Ben,


128

Madison

open-air theatre,
121

Greet,

Maeterlinck,

INDEX
Mannheim

187
Peterborough
Players' Planning
"

treillage-work
98, 142,
154

tre, thea-

See

Outdoor

Theatre

Marcellus,
Mediaeval
51

Theatre

of, 24,

25

open-air

theatres,
75

135

religious theatre,

11,

Platt, Livingston,
Point

Loma

Greek

Theatre,

36,

Megalopolis
Meriden 119

Greek

Theatre,
theatre, 5,

21

139, 152
Pomona Greek Roman

nature

76,

Theatre,
theatre

41

Pompeii, Plays, 3,
Frederic,
Garden
52 28

at, 32
25 69

Miracle

Pompey's
Potsdam

Theatre,
Nature Theatre

Rome, Theatre,

Mistral, Montecito, 99,


Mt.
107

theatres

at,

Priene, Priene,

at, 20 at, 27

Ekklesiasterion

Tamalpais

Theatre,
51

83

Mystery

Plays, 3,

Ragdale
163

Ring,

100,

142,

148,

Nature
167

theatres,

11,

64,

157,

Real,

Antony,

28 115

Reinhardt,

Max,

Normal

Open-air Theatre,
Passion

77

Religious drama, Rheinsberg,


Garden

3, 51
theatre

at,

Ober-Ammergau
59

tre, Thea-

97

Ripert, Felix,
26 Roman 147 Roman 109

28 26 173 105 164

Odeons,
Olmsted

drama,

Brothers, drama,
Roman
151 Greek

theatres, 23, Theatre,


Hermann,

Open-air Orange,
24, 28,

7, 80,
theatre

Rosemary
5, Rosse,

at,

Oropus,
Outdoor

theatre

at, 20

St.

Louis" 42

Forest

Park

tre, Thea-

Players'
74

Theatre,

terborough, Pe-

St.

Louis

Pageant
122

Theatre,

82"

Scenery, 22, Pageant Pageants, Pageant


167
cars,

54

Seating
Selzach

capacities, 17,
Passion

25 62

116

Play,

theatres,

41,

79,

117,

Shakespeare,
Shaw,

57, 115, 120


100

Howard,

Panathenaic

Stadion,
Odeon

28

Site, 135, 169 Smith,

Pausilypon,

at, 27, 89 Theatre,

Joseph

Lindon,
115

42

Peterborough
5,
79

Pageant

Sophocles, 22, 34,


Stadions,
28

i88

INDEX

Stage
Stevens,
Swan

buildings,
Thomas

17, Wood,
58

150

Villa

Marlia

Garden

Theatre,

42,

82

93,
Villa

155,
of

156

Theatre,

Hadrian,
Garden

89

Villa

Sergardi
156

Theatre,

Tacoma

Stadion,
Greek

48

93,
theatre

Tarrytown,
107

at,

Villa

Serraglio
95,
156

Garden

tre, Thea-

Theatre

of

Hercules,

at

Isola

Vitruvius,

19,

24,

149,

169

Bella,
Tiefurt

96

Water

Theatre,
36, theatres,
37

85

Wachler,

Ernst,
Park

65

Tingley, Treillage-work Triggs,


H.

Katherine,

Warsaw

Theatre,
85

104

98,

154 Water

theatres,

Inigo,

99

Wellesley
85

College

"Tree

Day,"

Valenciennes Vassar

Passion

Play,
Nature tre, Thea-

54

Westerwyck, College
75,
Villa Collodi
155 160 theatre

Treillage-work
at, Edith,
99

Wharton,
Garden

91

Theatre,

92,
Villa

Gori
156

Garden

Theatre,

91,

Yale

Bowl,
W.

48

155,

Yeats,

B.,

74