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Drying Technology
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Spray Drying and Agglomeration of Instant Bayberry Powder

Zhiqing Gong , Min Zhang , Arun S. Mujumdar & Jincai Sun
a a a b c

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Southern Yangtze (Jiangnan) University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China

Department of Mechanical Engineering & Engineering Science Program, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Haitong Food Group Ltd. Co., Ningbo, Zhejiang, China

Available online: 24 Jun 2011

To cite this article: Zhiqing Gong, Min Zhang, Arun S. Mujumdar & Jincai Sun (2007): Spray Drying and Agglomeration of Instant Bayberry Powder, Drying Technology, 26:1, 116-121 To link to this article:

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Drying Technology, 26: 116121, 2008 Copyright # 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 0737-3937 print/1532-2300 online DOI: 10.1080/07373930701781751

Spray Drying and Agglomeration of Instant Bayberry Powder

Zhiqing Gong,1 Min Zhang,1 Arun S. Mujumdar,2 and Jincai Sun3
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Southern Yangtze (Jiangnan) University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering & Engineering Science Program, National University of Singapore, Singapore 3 Haitong Food Group Ltd. Co., Ningbo, Zhejiang, China

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Optimum technology of spray-dried bayberry powder was studied using D-optimal experimental design. The operating conditions were varied within the following ranges: inlet air temperature 140160C, outlet air temperature 6585C, maltodextrin DE values 12 and 19, and feed concentrations of 717B. The spraydried bayberry powder was analyzed for moisture content and color. Moisture content of spray-dried powder was determined mainly by the inlet and outlet air temperatures, DE value, and the feed concentration. The inlet and outlet temperature had important effects on powder color. Finally, instant bayberry powder for beverages was produced by agglomeration of the spray-dried product. Keywords Agglomeration; Bayberry powder; D-optimal experimental design; Spray drying

INTRODUCTION Bayberries (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), also called arbutus or Chinese tree berry, is a fruit with significant medicinal value for its seeds, roots, and leaves. It has been cultivated for more than 2,000 years in the southern part of China. Bayberry fruits, which contain anthocyanin, phenolic compounds,[1] and flavonoid, are traditionally used to treat gastric intestinal problems, such as diarrhea and gastroenteritis, in China.[2] However, the color instability and turbidity during juice processing and storage have been major processing problems for food technologists for years,[35] because anthocyanin is susceptible to degradation by temperature, light, enzyme,[6] pH, and metal ions. In general, anthocyanin degradation follows first-order kinetics and the degree of anthocyanin degradation increases with water activity.[7] For preservation, spray drying can be used to turn the bayberry juice into powder that has long shelf-life.
Correspondence: Professor Min Zhang, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Lihu Rd 1800, 214122, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China; E-mail:

Spray drying is a rapid dehydration method allowing production of high-quality powders. Water is a strong plasticizer, and the major component responsible for depressing the glass transition temperature of food materials significantly, as water has a very low glass transition temperature of 135C.[8] Glass transition is directly related to the degradation and browning of anthocyanin,[9,10] crystallization, agglomeration, and caking of the powder.[11,12] Many authors have studied spray drying of fruit and vegetable juice powders, such as watermelon[13] and tomato.[14,15] Liu et al.[16] investigated the influence of drying aids maltodextrin on stickiness and quality of product in spray drying bayberry juice. Spray-dried powders often have a small particle size, < 50 mm, with poor handling and reconstitution properties. The reconstitution properties of powder include wettability, sinkability, dispersibility, and solubility. These powders require agglomeration in order to improve their handling and reconstitution properties.[17] Agglomeration is the formation of larger and permanent aggregates by sticking together of particulate materials, such that the original particles are still identifiable.[1820] The granules are held together with bonds formed by the binder used to agglomerate; the binder may be lecithin for milk,[21] water for chocolate powder,[22] maltodextrin for soy milk powder.[23] The objective of this work was to study the effect of spray-drying conditions on bayberry powder moisture content, color, and also the effect of agglomeration on the reconstitution properties of the instantized powder. MATERIALS AND METHODS Raw Material Concentrated bayberry juice was provided by Haitong Group of Zhejiang Province. The maltodextrin (Dridex 12 and 19) was from Roquette Limited, France. The pH of juice was determined with a glass electrode attached to




a Mettler Toledo pH-meter (model Deita 320-S) and soluble solids (Brix) was measured with a refractometer (WZS-12W), both at room temperature. Experimental Design Based on the literature and the preliminary experiments conducted, the levels were chosen for inlet temperature, x1, outlet temperature, x2, maltodextrin DE value, x3, and bayberry juice concention x4. The values were x1: 140, 150, and 160C; x2: 65, 75, and 85C; x3: 12 and 19DE; x4: 7, 12, and 17B. The experimental design adopted was a D-optimal experimental design for four variables. The experimental design is shown in Table 2, and the complete design included 22 experiments, with six replications of the center point and one replicate for each experimental condition. Spray Drying A Wuxi Changming spray dryer was employed for the spray drying tests. The spray dryer was equipped with a scraped surface drying chamber. Twenty-two different experiments were conducted in duplicate. In all experiments, the feed rate of 30 mL=min and feed temperature of 50C kept constant. Maltodextrin (12 and 19) was added in the weight ratio 1:1 of the dry matter weight of the juice.

TABLE 1 Physicochemical properties of the studied bayberry juice Total soluble solids (Brix) pH Color parameters L a b 18 1.21 3.18 0.04 53.93 0.74 34.38 0.17 2.08 0.02

All the spray-dried powders were collected, weighed, sealed in bottle and stored at 4C in the dark.

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Fluidized Bed Agglomeration Agglomeration was performed in a sprayed fluidized bed granulator and dryer (FLP-3 Fluid-Bed Granulator, ChangZhou Jiafa Co., Changzhou, China). The temperature of the inlet fluidizing air entering the bed was set at 50C. In this study, the water was used as the binder. The product was dried for 30 min at a temperature of 50C.

Analysis of Powder  Moisture: The moisture content measurement was carried out using the AOAC method.[24]

TABLE 2 Factor levels and experimental results generated by mode for RSM analysis from spray drying on bayberry powder Experiment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Tinlet (C) 160 140 140 160 140 160 160 140 150 150 150 160 140 140 160 140 160 160 140 150 150 150 Toutlet (C) 65 85 65 85 65 85 65 85 75 75 75 65 85 65 85 65 85 65 85 75 75 75 DE 12 12 12 12 19 19 19 19 12 12 12 17 12 12 12 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 Concentration (B) 7 7 17 17 7 7 17 17 12 12 12 12 17 7 7 17 17 7 7 12 12 12 Water content (%) 7.05 8.90 8.08 5.79 9.29 7.04 7.97 6.9 5.26 5.31 5.11 7.23 6.78 10.18 6.31 8.73 6.11 6.59 8.9 5.56 5.51 5.61 a 31.53 29.745 28.655 30.275 29.57 28.545 31.24 30.41 29.49 29.38 29.12 30.655 29.535 31.19 29.555 29.44 29.265 27.82 27.82 29.37 29.44 29.46



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Color: The color parameters were determined using a colorimeter (model CR-400, Konika Minolta Sensing, Japan). Bulk density: 2 g of powder was transferred to a 50-mL graduated cylinder. The bulk density was calculated by dividing the mass of the powder by the volume occupied in the cylinder. Wettability: An amount of distilled water (100 mL) at 25 1C was poured into a 250-mL beaker. The powder sample (10 g) was placed around the beaker, and the time was recorded for the powder to become completely wetted. Dispersibility: Distilled water (10 mL), at 25 1C, was poured into a 50-mL beaker. The powder (10 g) was then added to the beaker. The stopwatch was started and the sample was stirred vigorously with a spoon for 15 s, making 25 complete movements back and forth across the whole diameter of the beaker. The reconstituted bayberry juice was poured through a sieve (212 mm). The sieved juice (1 mL) was transferred to a weighed and dried aluminum pan and dried for 4 h in a hot air oven at 105 1C.[25] Particle size: the average particle diameter of the product was measured using a particle size analyzer (Fritsch analyzer).

The statistical analysis indicated that proposed models fitted the experimental data with R2 value 0.9903. The optimum results were obtained at inlet temperature from 150 to 155C, outlet temperature from 70 to 75C, concentration with about 12B, and DE value of 12. For water content, it was observed that inlet temperature, outlet temperature, concentration, and DE value had important effects on water contents (P < 0.05). The linear, quadratic terms, and interaction had highly significant level of p < 0.001. Generally, moisture content was adjusted by controlling inlet air temperature and outlet temperature at a fixed concentration.[26,27] Spray-dried conditions interact with each other. Figures 1 and 2 show the response surfaces and contour plots for water content of powder with inlet temperature and concentration, concentration, and maltodextrin DE value. It was observed that water content of bayberry powder had a lowest point with inlet=outlet temperature of 150=75C and feed concention 12B. At higher inlet

Statistical Analysis Data analyses were determined using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS, version 8.0). Analyses of variance were performed by ANOVA procedure. Mean values were considered significantly different when P 0.05. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Physicochemical Properties of Bayberry Juice Table 1 shows the mean values and standard deviation of the physicochemical properties of the bayberry juice studied in this work. The most important properties were its low pH value and high soluble solids content (18Brix). Similar to other fruit juices, bayberry juice contains sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) and organic acids that contribute to powder stickiness during spray drying. The color of bayberry juice has a bright red color as indicated by the high L and a value. Analysis of Influence of Variables on Bayberry Powder Moisture Content The factor levels and experimental results are shown in Table 2. The moisture content of the powder varied from 5.1 to 10.2%. The linear regression equation is y 5:5106 0:0694x1 0:0013x2 0:0109x4 0:0002x2 1 0:000078x1 0:000056x2 x4 ; R2 0:9903
FIG. 1. Response surface and contour plot of inlet temperature and concentration vs. water content.



TABLE 3 Effect of spray drying condition on bayberry powder color 7B=19DE 7B=12DE 17B=19DE 17B=12DE 140C=65C 140C=85C 160C=85C 160C=65C

30.275a 29.535b 28.655c 29.57d

29.44a 27.82b 27.82b 28.545c

31.83a 29.745b 29.555c 31.53d

31.24a 30.41b 29.265c 31.19d

Values in the same column bearing different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05).

profound effect on water content because different DE values have different glass transition temperatures. Tg of 10DE is 141C, and Tg of 20DE is 160C. Tg between 12 and 19DE is between 141C and 160C.[11] Many authors[29,30] used lower DE maltodextrin to reduce usage of maltodextrin in spray drying.

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FIG. 2. Response surface and contour plot of concentration and DE value vs. water content.

temperature, a hard surface layer might be formed over the powder particle. This could prevent water molecules from diffusing through the particle. Lower concentration with high moisture content is also not easy to dry. Of course, concentration had an important effect on water content. It is necessary to use a higher concentration to improve efficiency. Water content reduced when DE value decreased from 19 to 12. The functional properties of maltodextrin depend on the polymerization degree. Our result is in agreement with other authors,[28] who obtained lower moisture content using maltodextrin 20DE than using 10DE in spray drying of cactus pear juice. Maltodextrin with longer chain molecules has a higher glass transition temperature. The amount of maltodextrin added had an

Analysis of Influence of Variables on Bayberry Powder Color As seen from Table 3, a value of the spray-dried powder decreased when the inlet temperature increased at the same outlet temperature, and there is the same trend when the outlet temperature increased at the same inlet temperature. There were significant differences between the inlet temperature of 140 and 160C, between the outlet temperature of 65C and 85C (P < 0.05). This means that bayberry anthocyanin is very sensitive to short duration (few seconds), high-temperature exposure. Ersus et al.[31] found that higher inlet=outlet air temperatures (inlet air temperatures from 160 to 180C, outlet air temperatures from 107 to 131C) caused greater anthocyanin loss during spray drying. Cai et al.[32] also found that higher inlet=outlet air temperatures caused greater amaranthus betacyanin pigments loss during spray drying. Effect of Agglomeration on Powder Reconstitution The effects of agglomeration on bulk density, angle of repose, particle size, dispersibility, and wettability of the agglomerated bayberry powders are shown in Table 4. It can be seen that the wettability increased markedly from the wetting time of 120 s to a satisfactory value of 15 s after agglomeration. Bulk density decreased from 0.6614 to 0.3875 g=cm3 and particle size increased from 74 to about 200 mm. There is no significant difference on dispersibility, but the angle of repose increased slightly. Size enlargement by agglomeration not only increases the rate of water

TABLE 4 Effect of agglomeration on bayberry powder reconstitution Agglomeration Before After Bulk density (g=cm3) 0.6614 0.3875 Angle of repose () 13 30 Particle size (mm) < 1/474 150250 Dispersibility (%) 9799 9799 Wettability 2 min 15 s


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