2!

1.1 Introduction to Power Processing
Dc-dc conversion: !Change and control voltage magnitude!
Ac-dc rectification: !Possibly control dc voltage, ac current!
Dc-ac inversion: !Produce sinusoid of controllable
magnitude and frequency!
Ac-ac cycloconversion: !Change and control voltage magnitude
and frequency!
Switching
converter
Power
input
Power
output
Control
input
The switching converter is the “brain” of the power system, allowing
conversion of voltage and current levels with high efficiency, plus control!
3!
Control is invariably required
Switching
converter
Power
input
Power
output
Control
input
Controller
Reference
Feedback Feedforward
•  Traditional analog
feedback!
•  Sophisticated control
using inexpensive digital
microcontrollers!
10!
High Efficiency is Essential
•  High efficiency leads to low
power loss within converter
•  Small size and reliable operation
is then feasible
•  A good measure of converter
performance is the ratio of
output power to loss:
=
P
out
P
in
P
loss
= P
in
– P
out
= P
out
1

– 1
P
out
P
loss
=

1 –
Converters generally are loss-
limited, and technologies that
can produce large output power
while incurring small loss result
in small size and low cost

Þ
o
u
t
]
Þ
|
o
s
s

Lmc|ency
Þout]Þ|oss vs emc|ency
Converter
P
in P
out
Large input power Large output power
Small
converter
11!
DT
s
T
s
Resistors Capacitors Magnetics Semiconductor devices
Linear-
mode
+

Switched-mode
Devices available to the circuit designer
12!
DT
s
T
s
Resistors Capacitors Magnetics Semiconductor devices
Linear-
mode
+

Switched-mode
Devices available to the circuit designer
Signal processing: avoid magnetics!
13!
DT
s
T
s
Resistors Capacitors Magnetics Semiconductor devices
Linear-
mode
+

Switched-mode
Devices available to the circuit designer
Power processing: avoid lossy elements!
14!
Power loss in an ideal switch
Switch closed: !v(t) = 0
Switch open: !i(t) = 0
In either event: !p(t) = v(t) i(t) = 0!
Ideal switch consumes zero power!
i
v
+

1
0
15!
A simple dc-dc converter example
Input source: 100V!
Output load: 50V, 10A, 500W!
How can this converter be realized?!
+

+
V
50 V

V
g
100 V
Dc-dc
converter
I
10 A
R
5
16!
Dissipative realization
Resistive voltage divider!
+

R
5
+
V
50 V

V
g
100 V
I
10 A
+ 50 V –
P
loss
= 500 W
P
out
= 500 W P
in
= 1000 W
17!
Dissipative realization
Series pass regulator: transistor operates in
active region!
+

R
5
+
V
50 V

V
g
100 V
I
10 A
+ 50 V –
P
loss
500 W
P
out
= 500 W P
in
1000 W
+

Linear amplifier
and base driver
V
ref
18!
Use of a SPDT switch
+

R
+
v(t)
50 V

1
2
+
v
s
(t)

V
g
100 V
I
10 A
v
s
(t)
V
g
DT
s
(1 – D) T
s
0
t
switch
position:
1 2 1
V
s
= DV
g
19!
The switch changes the dc voltage level
D = switch duty cycle!
!0 ≤ D ≤ 1

T
s
= switching period!
!
f
s
= switching frequency!
= 1 / T
s
DC component of v
s
(t) = average value:!
v
s
(t)
V
g
DT
s
(1 – D) T
s
0
t
switch
position:
1 2 1
V
s
= DV
g
20!
Addition of low pass filter
Addition of (ideally lossless) L-C low-pass filter, for
removal of switching harmonics:!
•  Choose filter cutoff frequency f
0
much smaller than switching
frequency f
s
•  This circuit is known as the “buck converter”!
+

R
+
v(t)

1
2
+
v
s
(t)

V
g
100 V
i(t)
L
C
P
loss
small
P
out
= 500 W P
in
500 W
21!
Addition of control system
for regulation of output voltage
(t)
T
s
dT
s
t
+

+
v

v
g
Switching converter Power
input
Load

+
Compensator
v
ref
Reference
input
Hv
Pulse-width
modulator
v
c
Transistor
gate driver

G
c
(s)
H(s)
v
e
Error
signal
Sensor
gain
i
22!
The boost converter
+

L
C R
+
V

1
2
V
g
D
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
V
5V
g
4V
g
3V
g
2V
g
V
g
0
23!
A single-phase inverter
“H-bridge”!
Modulate switch
duty cycles to
obtain sinusoidal
low-frequency
component!
1
2
+

Load
+ v(t) –
2
1
V
g
v
s
(t)
+ –
t
v
s
(t)

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