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UNITED STATESDISTRICT COURT


ORLANDODIVISION
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INTERS COPE RECORDS. a California CaseNo.: 19:01c-C~-~'~T'..ofli~\~;JS


general partnership; CAROLINE
RECORDS.INC., aNew York
corporation;CAPITOL RECORDS,
INC.. a Delawarecorporation;
MA VERICK RECORDING
COMPANY. a Californiajoint venture;
WARNER BROS.RECORDSINC., a
Delawarecorporation;LONDON-SIRE
RECORDSINC.. a Delaware .'
corporation;UMG RECORDINGS,
INC.. a Delawarecorporation;SONY
MUSIC ENTERTAINMENT INC.. a
Delawarecorporation;MOTOWN
RECORDCOMPANY. L.P.. a California
limited partnership;ARISTA
RECORDS.INC.. a Delaware
corporation;FONOVISA. INC.. a
California corporation;BMG MUSIC. a
New York generalpartnership;
ATLANTIC RECORDING
CORPORATION.a Delaware
corporation;ELEKTRA
ENTERTAINMENT GROUPINC.. a
Delawarecorporation;PRIORITY
RECORDSLLC. a California limited
liability company;andVIRGIN
RECORDSAMERICA. INC., a
California corporation.
Plaintiffs,
v.
DOES 1 - 25.

Defendants.

DECLARATION
-= PARTE
~ OF JONATHAN
MOTION
-- - WHITEHEAD
FOR LEAVE
-- TO TAKE IN SUPPORT OF
IMMEDIATE PLAINTIFFS'
DISCOVERY EX
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I. JonathanWhitehead,havepersonalknowledgeof the factsstatedbelow and.

underpenaltyof perjury. herebydeclare:

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1. I am Vice PresidentandCounselfor OnlineCopyrightProtectionfor the


RecordingIndustryAssociationof America,Inc. ("RIAA "), whereI havebeenemployedfor

over 6 years. My office is locatedat 1330ConnecticutAvenue,N.W., Washington,DC 20036.

I submitthis declarationin supportof Plaintiffs' Ex ParteMotion for Leaveto TakeImmediate

Discovery.

2. This declarationis basedon my personalknowledge,andif calleduponto

do so, I would be preparedto testify asto its truth andaccuracy.

The RIAA's Role in Protecting Its Member Recording Industry CompaniesFrom

Copyright Infringement
3. The RlAA is a not-for-profittradeassociationwhosememberrecord

companiescreate,manufacture,and/ordistributeapproximatelyninety percentof all legitimate

soundrecordingsproducedandsold in the United States.The RIAA's memberrecord

companiescomprisethe mostvibrant nationalmusicindustryin the world. A critical part of the

RIAA's missionis to assistits membercompaniesin protectingtheir intellectualpropertyin the

United Statesandin fighting againstonline andotherformsof piracy. All of the Plaintiffs in this

actionaremembersof the RIAA.

4. The RIAA investigatesthe unauthorizedreproductionanddistributionof

copyrightedsoundrecordingsonline. As Vice PresidentandCounselfor Online Copyright

Protection,I am responsiblefor formulatingandimplementingonline strategiesfor the RIAA,

including investigationsinto the online infringementof copyrightedsoundrecordingsof all

kinds.

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The Internet and Music Piracy

5. The Internetis a vastcollectionof interconnected


computersandcomputer

networksthat communicatewith eachother. It allowshundredsof millions of peoplearoundthe

world to communicatefreely andeasilyandto exchangeideasandinformation,including

academicresearch,literary works,financialdata,music,movies,graphics,andan unendingand'

ever-changingarrayof otherdata. Unfortunately,the Internetalsohasaffordedopportunitiesfor

the wide-scalepiracy of copyrightedsoundrecordingsandmusicalcompositions.Oncea sound

recordinghasbeentransformedinto anunsecureddigital format,it canbe copiedfurther and

distributedan unlimited numberof timesoverthe Internet,without significantdegradationin

soundquality.
6. Much of the unlawful distributionof copyrightedsoundrecordingsover

the Internetoccursvia "peer-to-peer"("P2P") file copyingnetworksor so-calledonline media

distribution systems.The mostnotoriousexampleof sucha systemis Napster,which hasbeen

enjoinedby a federalcourt. In addition,therearemanyotherP2Pnetworks,includingKaZaA,

iMesh, Grokster,and Gnutella,that continueto operateandto facilitate widespreadcopyright

piracy. The major recordingcompaniesarecurrentlyengagedin litigation againstKaZaA,

Grokster,andiMesh. At any givenmoment,millions of peopleillegally useonline media

distributionssystemsto uploador downloadcopyrightedmaterial.

7. P2Pnetworks,at leastin their mostpopularform, referto computer

systemsor processes
that enableInternetusersto: (1) makefiles (includingaudiorecordings)

storedon a computeravailablefor copyingby otherusers;(2) searchfor files storedon other

users'computers;and(3) transferexactcopiesof files from onecomputerto anothervia the

Internet. P2Pnetworksenableuserswho otherwisewould haveno connectionwith, or

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knowledgeof, eachotherto offer to eachotherfor distributionandcopyingfiles off of their PCs,

to provide a sophisticatedsearchmechanismby which userscanlocatethesefiles for

downloading,andto providea meansof effectingdownloads.

8. The major recordcompaniesgenerallyhavenot authorizedtheir

copyrightedsoundrecordingsto be copiedor distributedin unsecuredformatsby meansofP2P

networks. Thus,the vast majority of the contentthat is copiedanddistributedon P2Pnetworks


is unauthorizedby the copyrightowner- that is, the distributionviolatesthe copyrightlaws.

9. The scopeof online piracy of copyrightedworks cannotbe


underestimated.Retail sales- the principal revenuesourcefor mostrecordcompanies-

declined7% in 2000, 10%in 2001,and 11% in 2002. TheRIAA membercompanieslose

significantrevenueson an annualbasisdueto the millions of unauthorizeddownloadsand

uploadsof well-known recordingsthat aremadeavailableon the Internetby infringerswho, in

virtually all cases,havethe ability to maintaintheir anonymityto all but the InternetService

Provider("ISP") they useto supplythemwith accessto the Internet.

1O. In contrastto the terrible harmto copyrightowners,ISPslikely benefit

from P2Pnetworks. Thosewho would unlawfully uploadanddownloadcopyrightedmusic

often uselargeamountsof bandwidth(becausemusicfiles areso large). The infringersthustend

to subscribeto services,suchasDSL andcablemodems,that arefar moreexpensivethan

ordinarytelephoneservices.Onepublicationrecentlyestimatedthat 50-70percentof the

bandwidthof cablebroadbandnetworkwasbeingusedfor P2Pfile copying. ~ Alan

Brezneck,"ServiceControl Vendorsvie for MSO Business,"CableDatacomNews(March 1t

2003).

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11. The personswho commit infringementsby usingthe P2Pnetworksare,by

and large,anonymousto Plaintiffs. A personwho logson to a P2Pnetworkis freeto useany

alias(or computername)whatsoever,without revealinghis or her true identity to otherusers.

Thus,Plaintiffs canobservethe infringementoccurringon the Internet,but do not know the true

namesor mailing addresses


of thoseindividualswho arecommittingthe infringement.

The RIAA '5 Identification of Copyright Infringers

12. In orderto assistits membersin combatingcopyrightpiracy, the RIAA

conductssearchesof the Internet,aswell asfile-copyingservices,for infringing copiesof sound

recordingswhosecopyrightsareownedby RIAA members.A searchcanbe assimpleas

logging onto a P2Pnetworkandexaminingwhat files arebeingofferedby othersloggedonto the

network. Thesesearchesgenerallyresultin the identificationof specificInternetProtocol("IP")

addresses
from which infringersaremakingunauthorizedcopiesof soundrecordingsavailableto

the public. An IP addressis a uniqueidentifier that,alongwith the dateandtime, specifically

identifiesa particularcomputeror serverusingthe Internet. An IP addressalsoallowsthe RIAA

to usepublicly availabledatabases
to ascertain,in generalterms,the ISPthat providesthe

infringer with accessto the Internet.

13. The RIAA engagesin a painstakingprocessto determinewhethera person

is infringing. That processrelies on humanreview of evidencesupportingthe allegationof

infringement. For eachsuspectedinfringer,the RIAA reviewsa listing of the musicfiles that the

userhasofferedfor uploadby othersfrom his or her computerin orderto determinewhether

they appearto be copyrightedsoundrecordings.The RIAA alsodownloadsa sampleof songs

from eachuserandlistensto themin orderto confirm that they are,indeed,illegal copiesof

soundrecordingswhosecopyrightsareownedby RIAA members.The RIAA alsodownloads

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and storesotherevidence,
suchasmeta~ata
accompanying
eachfile beingdisseminated
that J
demonstrates
that the useris engagedin copyrightinfringement.

14. The RIAA frequentlyhasusedthe subpoenaprocesses


of FederalRule of

Civil Procedure45 andthe Digital Millennium CopyrightAct ("DMCA ") to obtainthe namesof

infringersfrom ISPs. (Individualsonly cangain accessto the Internetafter settingup an account

with, or subscribingto, an ISP.) The RIAA typically hasincludedin their subpoenas


to ISPsan

IP addressand a dateandtime on which the RIAA observeduseof the IP addressin connection

with allegedlyinfringing activity. In someinstances,providingthe IP addressaloneto the ISP

hasbeenenoughto enablethe ISP to identify the infringer. Providingthe dateandtime further

assistssomeISPsin identifying infringers,especiallyISPsthat use"dynamicIP addressing"

suchthat a singlecomputermay be assigneddifferentIP addresses


at differenttimes,including,

for example,eachtime it logs into the Internet.6Onceprovidedwith the IP address,plus the date

andtime of the infringing activity, the infringer'sISP quickly andeasilycanidentify the

computerfrom which the infringementoccurred(andthe nameandaddressof the subscriberthat

controlsthat computer),sometimeswithin a matterof minutes.

15. Since1998,the RIAA andothershaveusedsubpoenas


thousandsof times

to learnthe names,addresses,
telephonenumbers,ande-mail addresses
of infringersfor the

purposeof bringing legal actionsagainstthoseinfringers. During a recentlitigation with

Verizon (an ISP) relatingto the DMCA subpoenaprocess,Verizonconcededthat, asan

alternativeto the DMCA process,Plaintiffs could file" JohnDoe" lawsuitsandissueRule 45

subpoenas
to ISPsto obtainthe true identitiesof infringing subscribers.

6 ISPsownor areassigned
certainblocksor rangesofIP addresses.
An ISPassigns
a particular
IP addressin its block or rangeto a subscriberwhenthat subscribergoes"online."

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The RIAA's Identification of the Infringers in This Case

16. In the ordinarycourseof investigatingonline copyrightinfringement,the

RIAA becameawarethat Defendantswereoffering files for downloadon variousP2Pnetworks.

The user-definedauthorandtitle of the files offeredfor downloadby eachDefendantsuggested

that manywere copyrightedsoundrecordingsbeingdisseminated


without the authorizationof

the copyrightowners. The RIAA downloadedandlistenedto a sampleof the musicfiles being

offeredfor downloadby eachDefendantandwasableto confirm that the files eachDefendant

wasoffering for distributionwere illegal copiesof soundrecordingswhosecopyrightsareowned

by RIAA members.The RlAA alsorecordedthe time anddateat which the infringing activity

wasobservedandthe IP addressassignedto eachdefendantat the time. .5g ComplaintExhibit

A. The RIAA could not, however,determinethe physicallocationof the usersor their identities.

The RIAA could determinethat the DefendantswereusingBright House'sserviceto distribute

and makeavailablefor distributionthe copyrightedfiles.

17. The RIAA alsohascollectedfor eachDefendanta list of the files each

Defendanthasmadeavailablefor distributionto the public. Exhibit 1 to this Declaration

containssuchlists for the first threeDefendantsreferredto in the Complaint. Theselists often

showthousandsof files, manyof which aresoundrecording(MP3) files that areownedby, or

exclusivelylicensedto, Plaintiffs. Becauseof the voluminousnatureof the lists, andin an effort

not to overburdenthe Court with paper;'I havenot attachedto this Declarationthe lists for all

Defendants.Suchlists will be madeavailableto the Courtuponrequest.

The Importance of ExpeditedDiscoveryin This Case

18. Obtainingthe identity of copyrightinfringerson an expeditedbasisis

critical to stoppingthe piracy of RIA A members'copyrightedworks.

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19. First, everyday that copyrightedmaterialis disseminatedwithout the

authorizationof the copyrightowner,the copyrightowneris economicallyharmed. Prompt

identificationof infringersis necessaryin orderfor copyrightownersto takequick actionto stop

unlawful disseminationof their works andminimizetheir economiclosses.

20. Second,infringel,tlentoften occurswith respectto soundrecordingsthat

havenot yet beendistributedpublicly. Suchinfringementinflicts greatharmon the initial

marketfor new works. New recordingsgenerallyearna significantportion of their revenue

whenthey are first released,andcopyrightpiracy duringa recording'spre-releaseor early

releaseperiodthereforedeprivescopyrightownersof an importantopportunityto reapthe

benefitsof their labor.

21. Third, without expediteddiscoveryPlaintiffs haveno way of serving

Defendantswith the complaintandswnmonsin this case.Plaintiffs do not havethe Defendants'

namesor addresses,
nor do they havean e-mailaddressfor Defendants.

22. Fourth,andperhapsmostcritically, serviceprovidershavedifferent

policiespertainingto the lengthof time they preserve"logs" which identify their users. ISPs

keep log files of their user activities for only limited periods of time - sometimes as little as

weeksor evendaysbeforeerasingthe datathey contain. If an ISP doesnot respond

expeditiouslyto a discoveryrequest,the identificationinformationin the ISP's logs may be

erased,making it impossiblefor the ISPto determinethe identity of the infringer andeliminating

the copyrightowner's ability to takeactionto stopthe infringement.

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I declareunderpenaltyof perjury underthe lawsof the United Statesthat the foregoingis

true and correct. .'

Executedon February~, 2004,in .

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