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SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION the fourth phase in the system development life cycle (SDLC) the development, installation and

nd testing of system components and delivery of that system into production Client has the primary responsibility to install the accounting system CPA assists in planning and scheduling the activities to be undertaken to achieve the desired results and to provide technical assistance and advice in implementing his recommendations or installing the new system

ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN BY THE CPA: 1. Discussion of the proposed system with the companys personnel 2. Preparation of time schedule for each step in the implementation 3. Provision of technical assistance at the different stages of work 4. Monitoring and reviewing the progress of the installation work 5. Conducting conference with the companys executive about changes in the systems design or problems that may arise during the installation 6. Follow a conversion method

PURPOSES OF SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION: 1. Deployment making the new system available to a prepared set of users. It consists of: executing all steps necessary to educate the consumers on the use of the new system placing the newly developed system into production confirming that all data required at the start of operations is available and accurate validating that business functions that interact with the system are functioning properly 2. Transition positioning on-going support and maintenance of the system within the performing organization. ACTIVITIES IN THE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION PHASE: 1. Conversion and Installation 2. User Training

CONVERSION & INSTALLATION A. CONVERSION Conversion and installation is the process of upgrading or replacing the existing system with the new system. This includes not only the software and procedures of the new system, but also any changes or improvements to the IT infrastructure. The installation of a new system may require new networks and new hardware. FOUR APPROACHES TO SYSTEM CONVERSION: 1. Direct Conversion also refers to Abrupt Cut-Over Conversion/ Cold-Turkey Conversion the old system is discarded and the new system takes over all at once it is essentially turning the old system off and turning the new system on Advantages: least expensive of the different methods the benefits of the new system can be realized without delay

Disadvantage: high risk approach


Current System Install New System New System Direct Conversion Time

2. Parallel Conversion the old system continues to be used at the same time as the new system is introduced. Both systems run in parallel for a predetermined amount of time. People use both systems but increase the amount of time that they use the new system until it is in use the majority of the time. Then the old system is discontinued. This is done to ensure that all major problems in the new system have been solved before the old system is discarded

Advantages: allows for a comparison of the new system to the old minimizes the risks of operational and data-processing failures because the old system continues to function with the new system least risky conversion approach

Disadvantages: duplication of effort associated with running two systems is very costly If the old system is an option, some users will not use the new system and continue to access the old system potential confusion of running two systems at once not practical if the old and new systems are incompatible technically inappropriate when the two systems perform different functions

Current System Install New System New System Time

Parallel Conversion

3. Single-location Conversion also refers to Location/ Pilot/ Modular Conversion middle-of-the-road approach the new system is run in a specific area of the business for a short period of time as a test, then rolled out to the rest of the organization. This approach is where the organization is trying out to use a new system at one location (pilot site) and use this experience in deciding how the entire system should be deployed throughout the organization. After the system proves successful at the pilot site, it is implemented in the rest of the organization, usually using the direct conversion. Pilot site the group that uses the new system first

Advantage: minimizes potential damage and cost. By concentrating on one site or department, you can work out all of the details and potential problems before the new system is introduced to the organization as a whole. Disadvantage: may take a longer period to install the whole system because the pilot is constantly being improved
Current System Install New System New System Location 1

Current System Install New System New System Location 2

Single-location Conversion

4. Phased Conversion Also refers to Gradual/Phased/Staged Conversion a new information system is broken down into smaller functional components that can be brought into operation one at a time, with each one adding more improvements and functionality to the overall system. By the time all the components have been introduced, it is time to install a new system. different parts of the new system are rolled out at different points in time (in phases) similar with single-location but the difference is the new system is installed in functional components Advantages: gradual, incremental, and easier to manage than the other installation approaches

keeps the risk fairly low by spreading the conversion out over time manages the risks and costs more easily in the short term

Disadvantages: a completion point can be difficult to define because it takes place over such a long period of time. May be confusing to users require additional programming and development Not possible if the system cannot be separated easily into logical modules or segments

Current System Install Module 1

Current System without Module 1 Install Module ... New Module 1

Current System without Module 1,

New Module Phased Conversion

B. INSTALLATION Installation may require a system acceptance test plan. System acceptance test - is a final opportunity where end users, management and information system operation decide either to use or reject the system. - a test performed on the final system wherein users conduct verification, validation and audit tests THREE LEVELS OF ACCEPTANCE TESTING: a. Verification testing also refers to alpha testing. This testing runs the system in a simulated environment using simulated data. It is looking for errors and omissions regarding end users and design specifications that were specified in the earlier phase of testing.

b. Validation testing also refers to beta testing. This testing runs the system in a live environment using real data. A number of items tested during this testing such as: c. Audit testing a test performed to ensure that the system is free from any errors and ready to be placed at the real location. Regardless of the conversion strategy adopted, you must still plan and execute the physical installation of the new system. You must include: any new hardware and operating systems that are required by the new system provisions for selecting and purchasing new computers and other related hardware system performance peak workload processing performance human engineering test methods and procedures test backup and recovery testing

The choice of conversion strategy will dictate how you install new hardware. If you are using a direct cutover conversion, all the necessary hardware and software must be in place. If you are using a pilot conversion, only the pilot site will have the needed hardware.

USER TRAINING Converting from old to new system necessitates that the system users be trained and provided with documentation that guide them through the new system. Three Main Groups for Training: Users Managers IT Staff

Training Topics: Use of the system Computer concepts

IS concepts Organizational concepts System management System installation

Training Guidelines: Consider who will be the trainer and trainee Establish measurable objectives Use appropriate training methods Select suitable training site Use understandable training materials

Common Training methods: 1. Course - several people taught at a time 2. Tutorial - one person taught at a time 3. Computer-aided instruction 4. Interactive Training Manuals combination of tutorial and computer-aided instruction 5. Resident expert 6. Software help components 7. External sources, such as vendors

Frequency of Use of Computer Training Methods


5% 12% 10% 7% 5% 10% External 51% Help Components Resident Expert Course Tutorial

Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) like Microsoft Office Assistant, are components of software applications that embed training and information for the user, in the form of tutorials, expert systems, and hyperlink jumps to reference topics. Components of a successful training program (as reported by practitioners): 1. Business process reengineering training and team training prior to project work 2. Extensive documentation 3. Appropriate timing, coordinating between project schedule, trainer availability and trainee availability. 4. Appropriate training forum (classroom, computer-based, one-on-one). 5. Building upon and coordinating with existing training expertise within the institution (staff development offices, professional development centers, IT training programs) 6. Function-specific and broad-view training. 7. Cross-functional training to ensure user understanding of institution-wide processes, new workflows and interdependencies between units in addition to basic system functions. 8. Testing the training as part of a pilot implementation and making adjustments prior to full implementation. 9. An in-house training curriculum to continue the training cycle beyond implementation. The curriculum should be dynamic, mirroring the dynamic nature of the organization, its processes and systems.

Mariano Marcos State University College Of Business Economics and Accountancy Batac City, Ilocos Norte

Systems Implementation

Submitted By: Charmaine Zeny S. Rasos Mark Joseph Respicio BS Accountancy IV

Submitted To: Mrs. Lorelei Corpuz Instructor, Accounting 142

September 2013