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S T U D E N T A C C O M M O D AT I O N

SITE ASSESSMENT

JOSHUA ICHIM . JESS DUFFY . HELEN MAISANO

Table of Contents

Site Context Vehicle & Pedestrian Traffic (access) Infrastructure Usage Materials Site conditions Topography SITE ANALYSIS LOCATION VIEWS AND SIGHTLINES CLIMATIC INFORMATION HISTORIC/HERITAGE CONTRAINTS Historic Analysis Heritage constraints DEMOGRAPHICS Key Statistics BUILT FORM AND CHARACTER STREET FRONTAGE AND FEATURES Existing services Stormwater Drainage Water supply Sewerage Gas Electricity Telecommunication Optus Soil Classification Site classification: Regarding earth works Movement of soil Abnormal moisture conditions Soil bearing capacity

Railway proximity
Noise Health implications Vibration

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REFERENCES

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SITE ASSESSMENT

Site Context
Vehicle & Pedestrian Traffic (access)
The site for the proposed student accommodation building is located at 69 Young street, Frankston and is currently used as a car park for the railway station adjacent. Currently, the car park is difficult to access, stretching for 500 meters yet only having 3 entry/exit points for vehicles, and only 1 pedestrian underpass access way to the station and Frankston CAD. The site is located alongside Fletcher road, which is one of the four main roads surrounding the CAD, and is one of the areas busiest roads. While the site is not located directly off Fletcher road, it may prove a good investment to propose a slip lane or service road to the site from Fletcher road to assist in slowing traffic upon arrival to the site, as well as providing safety to pedestrians and cyclists using the area.

The car parking spaces are difficult to enter and exit particularly during peak commuting times, and one section of the car park is inaccessible from the rest of the car park.Should one wish to access this area they must exit the car park, travel south along fletcher road and re enter the car park from a separate, isolated entry. Whilst foot paths and seating is provided throughout the car park, during peak times the car park proves an unsafe place for pedestrians, with many drivers missing pedestrian crossings and pedestrians being forced to stop and wait for cars to pass. With alternative access to the railway station and Frankston CAD existing only at either and of the car park, the underpass can become exceedingly busy and unpleasant during peak times, and can be daunting during quiet times, as vandals and other unfavourable characters frequent the area. It is crucial whilst siting the building that provisions are made to improve the existing car parking facilities, particularly in either joining or better separating the 2 sections of the existing car park. The design must also reflect the proposal to improve pedestrian access between young street and Fletcher road.

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Infrastructure

As well as being located within the CAD of Frankston, the site is surrounded by substantial commercial infrastructure, including the railway less than 10 meters away, as well as the railway station to the north-west of the site and the bus station both on the east and west of the site. Also being located on a car park, the site is currently located central to a vast amount of transport infrastructure, and may be influenced by factors such as vibration loads (from the railway), excessive noise and traffic. In addition to the transport hub, to the West of the site is the main recreational area of Frankston, with cinemas, substantial retail, restaurants and cafs located just 300 meters from the site, as well as the Kananook creek district and foreshore located 900 meters from the site. The design will be required to encourage safe commuting between the TAFE and the CAD of Frankston, and should make provisions for a new railway corridor overpass to connect Young street and Fletcher road To the south of the site is the civic area of Frankston, including the Frankston arts centre and library, public health centre, Centrelink and safe taxi rank. This district is notable they highest rising area of Frankston (with the exception of the newly restored peninsula by the bay building), with buildings generally reaching 25-30 meters in height. Being situated to the south of Wells road, it should be ensured that the proposal respects this height graduation. To the Eastern side of the site is Fletcher road, Chisholm institute (which the development will be serving) and the Frankston aquatic centre (which is currently under construction). While the proposal will be accommodating for Chisholm students it should be ensured that students have safe means of accessing the new building from the TAFE and vice versa.

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By setting back the site from the main road, we are promoting the idea of a campus boulevard, however additional consideration will be required to ensure the safety of students and other pedestrians from cars, busses and other motor vehicles using Fletcher road.

Usage

While the site is currently being used as the main car park for Frankston railway station, there are plans for extensive development of the whole area, including a multi storey car park which will serve the railway station to the south of the proposal. It is assumed that this facility will also partially accommodate those who use the student accommodation building. To the immediate north of the site is the Wells street/Young street intersection. In accordance with the TAFE to bay structure plan, it should be noted that no development within the view line of Wells street shall sit taller than 12 meters. By restricting the height of the student accommodation building to approximately 20 meters we are providing a means for a continuous height flow between the future developments in view of Wells street, and the higher proposals to the south of the proposal. The TAFE to bay structure plan has outlined that the transit precinct in which the site is positioned should be developed to provide high density residential buildings for the Frankston community, retail and hospitality, public amenities and a method for parking and securing bicycles, as well as improving pedestrian access to Young street and the TAFE from Fletcher road

Materials

It has been outlined in the TAFE to bay structure plan that developments within the transport precinct of Frankston are to be of a high quality architecture with a distinctive robustness which reflects the industry of the area. It is expected at this point that the proposed building will be a reinforced concrete structure with steel reinforcement and extrusions. Glazing will be used to form an intricate design on the faade of the building to maintain the high quality of the design and to provide views to the tenants of the surroundings. The ground floor will sit approximately 1 meter above natural ground level to provide ventilation to the basement car park. The ground floor faade will be predominantly glazing to provide surveillance into and out of the building as well as to provide an inviting and easy to navigate entrance to users.

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The faade, particularly the balconies, will be partially constructed of raw timber to further accentuate the faade of the building and to promote the use of sustainable materials in the construction industry. A green roof, as well as mini gardens on the balconies will be included in the design as a way of improving the air quality of the area and to promote sustainable design.

Site conditions

Due to the close proximity of the rail corridor to the site, it has been found that 1.5 meters below natural ground level has been low level contaminated. This will need to be accommodated during the design of the footing systems. The vast number of industrial areas and high traffic roads surrounding the area result in poor air quality for the area, which is emphasized by the lack of canopy trees within the Frankston CAD. Currently the site is massively exposed to wind from the rail corridor and Fletcher road, and the higher areas of the proposal will be exposed to bay winds. The lack of surrounding buildings and trees leaves the area exposed to year round sun. This may prove an issue during the summer and options are being explored to lessen the negative impacts the sun will have. The building will need to be sufficiently insulated to protect occupants from noise, both from the busy fletcher road and in particular the railway. Accommodation units will be positioned as far as possible from the Western side of the building to prevent the railway from causing a noise issue

Topography

The site for the proposal sits nearly flat with a consistent, very minor slope towards the west of approximately 1 degree. While this is not likely to cause an issue at all for the development, the building may require deeper footings on the west side to accommodate for the 1.5 meter drop off for the rail corridor. Vibration dampeners will be required throughout the buildings footing system. Existing footpaths and car parking will need to be removed for the construction of the building. This will affect the topography of the site, particularly to the east where an established footpath will need to be removed.

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SITE ANALYSIS
LOCATION
The proposed site it located at 69 Young street Frankston and presently the car park works, Frankston Train Station. The site forms part of the Transit Interchange Precinct (Tafe to Bay Structure Plan) and is well located within walking distances to Chisholm Institute of Tafe and Activity Centre. The Frankton CAD is a regional public transport node and interchange with the railway line located towards the eastern edge of the town centre that incorporates Frankston major public transport infrastructure being one of Melbournes most effective and integrated public transport hub.

VIEWS AND SIGHTLINES


The Frankston area is the desire to capitalise on the stunning views of Port Phillip Bay to the west. With the potential views of Melbourne CBD. Due the narrow shape of the site the proposed building has been compromised in maximising the north facade of the building and

CLIMATIC INFORMATION

orientation.

In Frankston City, the suns peak midday elevation in summer is 75* from horizontal and in winter at midday it reaches 28*. Prevailing winds come from the East-west and the majority of summer breezes will come from the west and south-west straight from the bay, along with sustainable breezes from the East and wind can be notably stronger from the west. The cold winter winds come mainly from the north along with some less frequent winds from the west and north-west.

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HISTORIC/HERITAGE CONTRAINTS
Historic Analysis
The basis of this Analysis was extracted from the Frankston Central Activities District Heritage Review, Commissioned by the City of Frankston. It comprises an investigation of Heritage Significance of buildings and features with in the Tafe to the Bay study area. The review is based on the Frankston City Council CAD Heritage Study (Architektonic & Donald Walker) and the Burra Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance. Frankston Town Centre was established in 1854 and developed slowly until 1882 when the railway to Melbourne was opened. It was essentially a small fishing village with anglers living in tents or shacks on or near the foreshore. In accordance to the 1854 survey the only building in the town at the time thought to have been the Cannanuke Inn which today stands as the Bay View Hotel by a local pastoralist John Davey in the early 1840s. The railway line was extended from Mordialloc to Frankston in 1882 providing better access to Frankston, increasing the town centre growth and travellers and by the late 1880s Young Street had emerged as the towns main shopping strip. By 1922 Frankston boomed as a seaside resort through interwar period and the electrification of the train line reducing travelling time from Melbourne to Frankston. In the post-war years the character of Frankston was significantly transformed with the introduction of motor cars, this changed shopping habits and encouraged extensive development in the area.

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The town centre is now dominated by generic modern retail buildings and in most cases, buildings that may have had any historical heritage have been significantly altered over the years which have compromised the historic value and significance.

Heritage constraints
Only two sites in the study area are currently included on the schedule to the heritage overlay of the Frankston Planning Scheme. 1. 2. Plowman Residence, 20 Davey Street (H014) and Frankston Primary School No.1464 (1937-45 wing) (H015)

Potential Local Significance Some landscape features that may have historical significance are: Kananook Creek Bridge Bridge at Beach Street Kananook Creek Bridge Bridge at Davey Street Kananook Creek Bridge Bridge at Playne Street Norfolk Island Pine Street Tree Avenue, near Davey St Norfolk Island Pine [Tree] Civic Centre, Davey Street Beauty Park Park, High Street

Critical elements that should be retained: The Grimwade clock tower The football club and oval gates The water fountain formerly on the corner of Thompson and Wells Street Beauty Park The traditional fishing places and resting places of Bunurong The former railway signal box Old grandstand Norfolk Island Pines in Davey Street
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Significant Precincts or Places: Mechanics Hall Pub Corner Former Avenue of Honour Intersection of Playne Street and Nepean highway Remnant portion of railway station (presumably the signal box) Grandstand and oval precinct 1854 land subdivision/auctions location Highland to the south of Playne Street

The following citations have been identified as Cultural Heritage Significance in accordance with the Frankston CAD Heritage Review. The following have been identified within close proximity to the proposed development site. These include:4. 13. 14. Frankston Railway Signal Box Historic and Architectural significance at a local level. Former Frankston High School (Quality Street. Historic and social significance at a local level. Samual Sherlock Hall (Quality Street That has been recently demolished.

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DEMOGRAPHICS
An examination of who lives in and around the Frankston city is essential to understand the characteristics of the community. The Frankston City 2011 Census results provides current data for the city and surrounding areas. Frankston Regional of Victoria is home to about 126.456 people, with major industry being manufacturing. Its total area is 131km2 making it the 57th largest region by area in Victoria. Major towns include Frankston, Langwarrin and Frankston South.

Key Statistics
Total population 126,456 people 2011 From 2006 to 2011, Frankston Citys population increased by 8,653 people (7.3%). This represents an average annual population change of 1.43% per year over the period. Number of businesses 9,500 Estimated total output in the area $9,009.040 million manufacturing (25.9%), Major contributors are: construction (12.7%), rental, hiring and real estate services (11.3%) Estimated total employment 36,631 jobs health care and social assistance (19.2%) Major employers are: retail trade (16%), manufacturing (10.5%) Unemployment - rate was 6.7%, higher than the Victorian rate of 5.5% (Department of Education, Employment and Work Relations September 2012) Occupation there are more people employed in the trades and technical areas in Frankston City, and fewer employed as professionals and managers compared the Victorian average Education education levels are generally lower in Frankston City than Victorian average (8.9% have a university degree or tertiary education compared to 15.2% in Victoria) Income Family and household median weekly incomes in Frankston City are lower than the Victorian average (Family $1,396 compared $1,460, Household $1,140 compared to $1,216) Personal income is slightly higher at $568 compared to $561.

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Age - Overall, 19.2% of the population was aged between 0 and 15, and 13.7% were aged 65 years and over, compared with 18.5% and 13.1% respectively for Greater Melbourne. Religion - The largest single religion in the Frankston City was Western (Roman) Catholic, with 23.0% of the population or 29,138 people as adherents

BUILT FORM AND CHARACTER

Frankston has valuable natural assets including natural reserves, waterway and coastal areas. Main characteristics are the views between and behind dwellings and buildings, and the skylines with mature trees being part of the streetscape. Frankston commercial area has been extensively redeveloped with streetscapes of mixed dwelling size, style and eras and posses some modern buildings with fairly dry, flat ground with good access to the beach. It retains very little fabric from the late nineteenth century and interwar periods of the development. The form of development in this precinct generally includes tall structures to the northern and southern ends with height limitations to a low point on Wells Street. It is characterised by a generally harsh industrial environment dominated by the rail yards, on grade parking and railway station. The Precinct has limited natural features and is generally exposed due to the open nature of the rail yard, flat topography and lack of vegetation. It has relatively poor pedestrian linkages to adjacent civic, retail and educational centres.

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STREET FRONTAGE AND FEATURES


FLETCHER ROAD KERB AND CHANNEL FOOTPATH AND VEGETATION

kerb and channel appears to be wide with a curved texture and minimal grassland Fletcher Road is a narrow strip with two way traffic. Traffic islands are narrow and have some vegetation.

OVERHEAD POWER LINES

Foot paths appear narrow with little vegetation. The carpark has a garden bed with some vegetation and row of bollards.

LIGHT POLES AND SIGNAGE BUS STOP

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING

The pedestrian crossing is unsafe and are not people Overhead power lines are friendly, have lack of signage and warnings to drivers. adjucent to the street frontage and appear unattractive. Lightpole located on traffic island.

The bus stop is not people friendly and lacks signage.

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Existing services
Stormwater Drainage
Existing site services is a very important aspect when considering excavation work, service locations and depth and cannot be ignored prior to excavation works. Dial before you dig have been enquired with in order to locate the existing services. The Stormwater Drainage service is well out the site boundaries and does not affect excavation works in any way, the drainage pipeline is north-east of the site about 250m away, refer to dial before you dig Stormwater drainage Appendix. The relevant authority for stormwater drainage is Melbourne water and if any works are to be undertaken Melbourne water must be informed and consent should be sought from them prior to excavation works.

east water and similar consent as the water mains supply is required for sewerage service. Any work within the vicinity of a south east water asset must conform to the guidelines specified in the documents protection of South East water sewerage assets. Formal consent form south east water is required where works are planned within one metre of an asset. General conditions are outlines in the document guidelines for proposed works over/ adjacent to water authority assets up to and including 225 diameters.

Gas

Gas services pipeline is located roughly 50m south west of the property boundary refer to dial before you dig Gas Pipeline Appendix. Excavation works undertaken on the site will not interfere with any gas supply pipelines. The relevant distributor for the gas service is APA group and the relevant authority and enforcers of gas pipelines is Energy Safe Victoria. A permit must be obtained from an APA group representative prior to any excavation works and excavation works in the vicinity of a transmission pipeline requires mandatory supervision by an APA group representative.

Water supply

The water main supply is located roughly 50m west of the property boundary refer to dial before you dig south east water Appendix. Excavation works undertaken on the site will not interfere with any water main supply pipelines. The relevant authority for the water main supply is south east water and any work within the vicinity of a south east water asset must conform with the guidelines specified in the documents protection of South East water supply assets. Formal consent form south east water is required prior to any excavation works where works are planned within one metre of an asset. General conditions are outlines in the document guidelines for proposed works over/ adjacent to water authority assets up to and including 225 diameters.

Electricity

The electricity service is roughly located within 5m of the western boundary of the property; refer to dial before you dig Electricity Appendix. Excavation work undertaken on site can impact the conduit cables underground and careful measures must be taken in order to not interfere with any underground cabling. Measure to be taken can include: visual examination prior to any excavation, particular attention to areas surrounding poles, high voltage switches and substations which is relevant in our case if any undisclosed underground cables are located united energy must be notified immediately as they are the relevant authority . All personnel involved in site excavations nearby to existing cables must receive adequate training and be properly briefed and all excavation must be undertaken in accordance with the electricity safety regulations 2009. Consent

Sewerage

Sewerage services are located roughly 50m to the East of the property boundary refer to dial before you dig - south east water appendix for exact location. Any excavation work within the site boundaries will not interfere with any sewerage service pipeline. The relevant authority for the sewerage services are South

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must be sought from united energy prior to commencement of any excavation works undertaken on the site.

Telecommunication
Vicktrack have some telecommunication cables running along the western perimeter of the property which connect to the substation nearby; refer to dial before you dig Vicktrack Telecommunications Appendix. The relevant authority is Vicktrack Telecommunication and prior to any works undertaken Vicktrack must be notified and informed. Telstra have some telecommunication cables running about 50 m west of the property boundary, refer to dial before you dig Telstra cable Appendix. According to Telstra there are Critical network route in the plot area and prior to any commencement of any excavation works Telstra must be notified.

Optus

Optus have some telecommunication cables running underground about 50m south of the property boundary, refer to dial before you dig Optus cable underground Appendix for exact locations. Optus underground cables do not seem to be within the property boundaries so excavation works will not interfere although if connection to optus cables or excavation nearby to their cables will require written consent from optus.

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Soil Classification
Document soil classification details including the responsible consultants The site is located at 69 young St Frankston on an existing car park servicing Frankston train station.The existing car parks within the site boundaries have been demolished and several boreholes were drilled by hand and mechanical auger in several different locations, the borehole tests shows a log with layer descriptions, depths and if any shear vane strengths and/or bearing strengths were measured.The boreholes revealed a soil profile consisting of the following soils:

Site classification:

The site is classified in accordance with section 2 from AS2870 1996 Residential slabs and footings Construction as a class M (moderately reactive site). This classification was determined after taking into account the soil profile encountered, the geology of the site and the climatic zone of the area.

The classification of the site may chance if the site is subject to earthworks. As a guide, no uncontrolled fill greater than 600mm for sand and 300mm for other material should be placed. The relevant responsible group Geocore should be notified if this occurs and the site should be reassessed and this report 300mm to 500mm of grey/orange FILL (mix of silty sand and silty clay) reviewed and amended. overlying 500mm to 600mm of grey silty sand overlying Orange/grey/red silty CLAY

Regarding earth works

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Movement of soil

The geotechnical engineer (Geocore) has noted in the soil report that a differential movement in the surface soil of 40mm is a possibility because of seasonal movements affecting the soil.

Railway proximity
What are the effect of noise and vibration? Building a structure nearby to a railway station can pose a few problems. Railway stations have trains coming in and out at a couple of minute intervals therefore creating the problem of noise and vibrations. The noise and vibration energy emitted from the trains can affect the nearby residences in multiple ways. These disturbances are discussed further below.

Abnormal moisture conditions

The soil report notes that the site has a possibility of being subject to abnormal moisture conditions. The report states that this abnormal moisture condition is due to the fact that there are some trees nearby the proposed site and also states that any trees from within or around the building envelope should be removed as soon as possible in order to allow the time needed for the subsoils to regain and stabilise its moisture content.

Noise

Soil bearing capacity


As noted in the geotechnical report the majority of the soil is composed of silty sand, this silty sand can be assumed to have a bearing capacity of 100kPa at a depth of about 100mm into the ground. Comment on soil suitability for various footing types and structural systems. The soil classification of the site is noted as being class M according to the geotechnical soil report and the proposed development will have 5 storeys therefore the footing systems will need to be able to support a significant amount of weight. Provisions within the design and construction will need to be addressed in order to allow for appropriate Stability strength. Further Consultation with the structural engineer will need to take place in order achieve appropriate structural adequacy in regards to the footing types and structural systems.

Trains travelling to and from the railway station give off several frequencies that can disturb the nearby habitable residences, including the proposed student accommodation. Trains can give off roughly about 90dB of noise if not blocked or absorbed by anything.

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There is the sound of the train engine which gives off low sound frequencies and then there is also the high sound frequency of the train when braking, this happens because of the friction from the train wheels with the rail tracks. The other high frequency noise that can particularly disturb is the train horn. Other noise sources that should be considered are: ventilation, equipment, fans, compressors, aerodynamic noise when train is at high speed, rumblings and any noise cause by maintenance of the railway lines and or trains. One of the most influential impacts of noise and vibration on the development is the distance from the railway. The noise created from the railways if not reduced can prevent students from being able to fall asleep comfortably which could be devastating for the student who has assignments or exams to worry about, the least of his worries should be the noise from the railway. Students require quiet study areas to be able to study properly and adequately but the noise generated from the nearby station will not provide the quiet environment needed for a student. Table 1 of AS2107 states that bedrooms require a satisfactory dB activity level of 30dB.

ground, which comes out steadily just like a drop of water creates ripples in the water. Similarly vibration in the ground creates ripple movements in the soil possibly causing severe damages to nearby footings and subsequently the structure which is held up by the footing. This is why measures must be taken to either stop these vibrations, or to significantly reduce them so as to protect the footing system of the student accommodation. Vibrations can also cause the building components to vibrate, for example windows can rattle and shake, doors can rattle etc. Documents to consider when designing adjacent to an existing railway line: Noise Impact Assessment on the Avalon Airport Rail Link Draft Government Policy Framework for Passenger Rail Noise Assessing vibration: a technical guideline Development near Rail Corridors and Busy Roads Interim Guideline

How will any excavation works impact on the railway infrastructure? Excavation works undertaken within proximity of the railway lines can pose a danger since the railway lines have a vast pressure bulb resulted from the weight and consequently the force of the train exerted on the foundation. An option to protect excavation work undertaken in proximity of the railway lines can be by using retaining walls in order to prevent any problems from occurring along the railway lines. Although Filling and retaining walls can cause settlement of the ground and stability problems can occur with the fill and wall foundations . Earthworks in the vicinity of the rail way lines can also have implication for the integrity of the transport system and can therefore affect the integrity of its engineered structures. Excavations and other earthworks that are poorly designed and managedcan increase safety risks and cause subsidence and deterioration of adjacent buildings, along with changes in the rock and soil formation. Deep excavations are of particular concern where the on-site soil material which is soil or rock has poor structural properties, or potential structural defects.

Health implications

These are some of the health implications that can have adverse effects on students within the student accommodation: awakening, the noise created by the train can cause repetitive awakening, it can alter sleeping pattern due to the fact that the noise may cause sleep to change from heavier to lighter sleep, reduces the percentage and total time in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, affect slow wave sleep, increase body movement and changes cardio vascular responses.

Vibration

Trains travelling to and from the station can cause intermittent vibration which can be defined as interrupted periods of constant or recurrent periods of impulsive vibrations. Vibrations are similar to noise because a vibration is a movement in the ground which also releases noise energy but the vibration noise is not the biggest concern. The biggest concern regarding vibration is the movement it creates in the

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Where planning and proper management of excavation works are not evident, a possible worst situation can be that the building will experience structural failure, other minor problems include: slippage, fissures, rock falls, ground movement and slumping. Some methods that can reduce the risk of all these potential hazards is benching or battering. Benching includes the excavating of stepped grades along the excavated trench to reduce the height of the excavation and therefore reduce the risk of falling soil and rock from falling into the trench. Battering includes the flattening of either side walls of the excavation back to an angle where stability is assured. Geotechnical engineers will need to be consulted with in regards to specific details and precautions to be taken when any excavating works are to be undertaken in the vicinity of railway lines and other technical requirements which impact excavation works near railway lines. Once the geotechnical engineer has been consulted with regarding this issue appropriate support systems should be put in place in order to insure the integrity of the excavation works undertaken. In some cases at some stages of construction and excavation, Metro (railway authority) will need to prevent any trains from running on adjacent tracks to the excavation works and/or construction.

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REFERENCES
Colombian M, Zobec M, Kragh M 2002, Environmental design guide 49: Building service systems An integrated design approach to the environmental performance of buildings, Royal Australian Institute of Architects Cox architects and planners 2005, Frankston TAFE to bay structure plan, Department of Planning and Community Development, Frankston, viewed 7th August, 2013 http://www.dpcd.vic.gov.au/planning/plansandpolicies/centralactivitiesareas/ frankston Department of infrastructure 2002, Melbourne 2030: Planning for sustainable growth, Department of Planning and Community Development, Melbourne, viewed 7th August, 2013 http://www.dpcd.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/42772/2030_ complete.pdf Department of planning and community development 2013, Frankston Planning scheme Ordinance, Frankston, viewed 7th August, 2013 planningschemes.dpcd.vic.gov.au/Frankston/home.html Department of Sustainability and Environment 2004, Guidelines for higher density residential development, Victorian Government Department of Sustainability and Environment, East Melbourne, viewed 7th August, 2013 http://www.dpcd.vic.gov.au/planning/urbandesign/guidelines/guidelines-forhigher-density-residential-development-four-or-more-storeys Heritage Victoria 2007, Works and alterations to registered heritage places and objects, Department of planning and community development, Melbourne, viewed 7th August, 2013 http://www.dpcd.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/36667/Work_and_ alterations_1215490908165.pdf NSW Government Department of Planning 2008, Development near rail corridors and busy roads interim guideline, State government of NSW, Canberra, viewed 7th August, 2013 http:// www.planning.nsw.gov.au/ DoP 08_048

Office of building and development 1997, Building procurement: Choosing the best option for your next project, 2nd edition, Melbourne, viewed 7th August, 2013 http://www.buildingcommission.com.au/www/html/840-building-procurement--choosing-the-best-option-for-your-next-project.asp Office of the University Architect 2006, Quality assurance document: review checklist, 3rd edition, University of Notre Dame, Indiana, viewed 7th August 2013 http://www3.nd.edu/~univarch/documents/qualityassurance4.pdf Planisphere 2008, The Frankston project creating an urban design vision for Frankston, Frankston city council, viewed 7th August 2013 http://www.frankston.vic.gov.au/library/scripts/objectifyMedia. aspx?file=pdf/241/93.pdf&.. Rawlinsons 2012, Australian construction handbook, 30th edition, Rawlinsons Publishing, Raworth B 2010, Frankston Central Activities District: Heritage Review, Frankston city council, St Kilda, viewed 7th August, 2013 http://www.frankston.vic.gov.au/library/scripts/objectifyMedia. aspx?file=pdf/240/80.pdf& Royal Australian institute of Architects 2003, Practise note: Preparing a design brief, 2nd edition, RAIA practice services, Canberra Royal Australian institute of Architects 2004, Fee guide and fee related practise notes, 3rd edition, RAIA practise services, Canberra

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