1

�� ��‫����� �������ﺳ‬
:
p.rangraz@gmail.com

! " #!

1388 $

- . / ! - . / 0$

+, (! )*

2

30 :- . / 0$
3! . / :- . /

4516 3

7!

3

+,
12

+,

7 :- . / 0$

+,
89 # $ 0"

3
;<#
;$

7 :- . /

+,

: :- . / 0$

+,

: :- . /

+,

4 : $

>?@ =01
3

@

: .,

* $#

;. $

(@ E = . !D

G30 9 ) - J* I "

., !

)$C! B ?@ 8. $

/01 H 0* G8. $
. N
M< (

A0/0 $, 5
.
. / = ;@
+@ : >$,, !

;*
#

‫�ﺳ����� ����� �� ���� ����‬

‫‪4‬‬

5 .6 I$ .

T 0 O 6 N R0) (! )* 8$ . I$ . 0U! .O 6 4# . 6 =01 Q P ! IP 0 4516 (! )* S1. W8 V.

. The depolarization process first occurs at the stimulation site. The action potential then travels downstream to the recording site where a penetrating micropipet is used to pick up the intracellular potential with respect to an indifferent reference potential.2 The action potential of the nerve axon in response to electric stimulus.Indifferent electrode Electronic stimulator Micropipet electrode 1m Stimulus 0V Action potential 0 7 20 ms Time Resting potential –70 mV Figure 4.

P Y . . $ 4516 H$J X 4516 H$J = .Diffusion 8 4516 Z .

./! ( $$]* \J 4516 ! @G 0 4< U 9 [ U 7 Y0 3 (3 $ ) $# ! .Drift 9 $ A . 3 U R W1 0U0 3 $ W2 .4 : _ 2 4) .

(Einstein Relationship) $. g :4 " :8 Y b.* . $ `a 10 3A0$) +4) ."! .U 3 U 4 0U0 H f J* d e ! (3A0$) ) ( 0$ 1 `U 27 ) M . d e $ `a 01g `U 300 .

0 8: Z E .(1)j 11 . ( X0E :8$ 9 5 7! H$J : l $9k. $ 5.4 ! 3 : 4516 ! H$J : 4516 3 $ . .

= # 4$2 P .< n . . 9 :8 N7 _ .O 6 $ 9 k . : $ 8$ .4 )2 = p* 3A0$) . mmmm( " )* ! 4) 3 U o0.(2)j 12 : 30 0>@ U H.

Nernst a 13 = p* Nernst a .

! 8 . ! 19 H .Donnan= p* 14 GKCL ! @ p N R0) 30 ! N R0) 30 . 8: 4 I$ . 4/ # . 9 0>@ O 6 8$ . < 7 8: RCL 4# .

=q 15 N R0) ! 4> ! N R0) 4> .

Goldman a 16 .4 7 4 17 a .

W8 = p. A ! (4516 Z P ) g IP g 8$ . 4/ # : V.8$ .! Q P Na+ 8$ . 8 $.t/ 5 I. 0 = p. ! .t/ V. . W8 r. . :s$ A! . g Z ? s$/0 . o 0 .t/ = p* :s$ A! . W8 r. 8: t . 17 IP Cl. 0 = p.t/ $6 V. D G4# . 30 2 : 8$ . g < UQ P 8 30 3 G ! .t/ = p* g V. $6 ! = p. . r. .4 q P t . E t .

b"0* 9 b.4 0U0 .T o 0 $V$/ ` X :=01 O 6 ! 9 v X . ! 0 / g S1. >. / ( R 9 9 0>@ ua .@ =01 ba ua = W8 = p. : : 30 0>@ IJ 9 0U! # 0 )8$ .(1) : =01 = 18 . x>E I * : 8 $ I$ 8 w! : = 9 #! 3 #! R p* p 4 0U0 3 U 3A0$) := 9 ! .(8 P . E x E. /4! B0P = Electrical equivalent ion channel Electrical equivalent membrane . ..4 4 : .<* Z E ! U : G $7 " j. r.! .

. 3 Ub $9k. Nernst r./! O 6 4# .(2) : =01 = 19 A . 4/ # G4 := 9 DC A . 8 $ Electrical equivalent Na-K pump = ./! ./! GO 6 ! A .

=01 O 6 = p 20 .

0 21 d/ 6 gK•EK y gK $ .

J* . j .@ I$ .J* .I.(30$ .@ I$ .@ I$ . 4/ # $/! 4/ # j$ 4 . 6 I$ . Y (PNa)8 0 0>@ 4$1 " 7 $$]* 41@ 4.@ I$ . 22 6 I$ .n 4 ! /! 0p2 4/ # I. 9 0 (30$ ) =01 O 6 I.0 $ I. 9 4 : 8 30 / p* I I$ .) 0 4# . 4# . d$ (30$ . ) 7 $/! 4/ # nV ! 0 . N 4 7 ( $$]* d> =01 . 4/ # 4 7 V : . 0 \@ 9 4 . $$]* \@ ! 9 $$]* PK *09 $P * .

Membrane ane potential ((mV) + + Na Na + +++50 ++ ++ + 0 1 + +50 ++ 1 23 2 4 3 Na+ 2 ++ ++ 3 ++ 100 Resting phase Repolarizingphase Undershoot Depolarizing phase Outside cell ++ + +++ 4 Plasma membrane + + + Inside cell K+ K+ t .

24 .

<8 50 Vm [mV] 25 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time [ms] -50 -100 K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ Na+ K+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ Na+ Depolarization Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ K+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ Repolarization Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ Na+ K+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ K+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ K+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ Na+ K+ Na+ K+ K+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ balance Restoring ionic K+ K+ .123 1456789 :4.

0P = .p 9 : . # * 9 =0E 8: $ (relative ( l ti refractory f t period) i d) > N .J* 26 z$: =01 ! 4 .0 9 0U! N . 07 4 . (absolute refractory period) x1a .J* 3 . GI.> ! x1a N . .J* 3 12 .J* .@ I$ . { J* .

27 .

28 .

( $1$ 3! 30 9 ) I.@ I$ . 29 . .

.I.@ I$ . 30 .

. .( 31 $1$ 30 9 ) I.@ I$ .

<# 32 Figure 4. and (c) only sensory nerve components excited (Ss). (b) only motor nerve components excited (Sm). conductor The potential was recorded with (a) both motor and sensory components excited (Sm + Ss).5 Extracellular field potentials (average of 128 responses) were recorded at the surface of an active (1-mm-diameter) frog sciatic nerve in an extensive volume conductor.. Sensory branch Motor branch : :3 $ .

showing interconnections. (b) Block diagram of control system.33 (Feedback) Schematic diagram of a muscle-length control system for a peripheral muscle (biceps) (a) Anatomical diagram of limb system. .

reflex arc = q 34 .

d?@ .9 # .J* 35 a$J d?@ 4 : 4@ .

# B ?@ 3 $ 36 : I$ . .

HReflex j 37 .

p* 8$ D 9 >?@ : .9 # # ! -*) SMU . 3 ! . EMG = $ .Electromyogram(EMG) 38 ( . ?* 3 Q P ! I.4 I$ * . : SMU . / 4$/ p.@ : >$.

utah.edu/ClinicalERG.Electroretinogram 4>Y = $ ! ! 4$/ p. $ > Voltage(mV) age(mV) .med.html .8$ 9 time (ms) Slow-wave http://webvision.

18 The transparent contact lens contains one electrode. J. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons. 3rd ed. (From Webster.) Medical Instrumentation: Application and Design. G. The reference electrode is placed on the right temple. (ed.) . Copyright © 1998 by John Wiley & Sons.Figure 4.

ERG recording electrodes .

/ .Electrooculogram (EOG) 42 $ " I$ .$ > 4> ! $ " ! . GERG 3 0 @ Y I. 9 . ! @ . 0U! 4 Y $ > – .$ 4>Y N7 I$ . 0U! H$J $ 0 .

Ventricular 2 V ti l depolarization 1.Electrocardiogram (ECG) 43 . 0" 3. 0U0 = $ . / 4$/ p.4 3 2. Ventricular repolarization . Atrial depolarization d1" . .

0 4>Y x$.Electroencephalogram (EEG) 44 .<.U G ] . / 4$/ p. . / o0 .@ ! . " ! .

.5 -8 Hz . active concentration •Gama: 30–80 Hz …higher mental activity including perception and consciousness ..5 -12 Hz . sleeping... pathological in aduls (hyperventilation. hypnosis.. in awakeness p pathological g •Theta: 4. drowsiness in children. p g.. ..) •Alfa: 8. relaxation physical / mental •Beta: 12 . wakefulness...30 Hz ..Brain ElectroEncefaloGram Waves: •Delta: < 4 Hz .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful