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**Rongyang Xiao, Gongping Yang*, Yilong Yin, and Lu Yang
**

School of Computer Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, 250101, China ygpsdu@126.com

Abstract. Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric recognition technology, which verifies identities via the vein patterns in the fingers. The vein vessel network is a very important vein pattern for finger vein recognition. Based on this pattern, in the matching stage, the matched pixel ratio (MPR), Hamming distance (HD) and the mismatched ratio are commonly used as the matching algorithms to evaluate the similarity between two finger vein images. But these matching algorithms are calculated pixel by pixel, they are sensitive to the image translation and rotation. In this paper, a novel matching strategy regionbased axis projection (RAP) is proposed for finger vein recognition. We first divide the vein pattern into small regions, then concatenate the projection of the vein distribution curves on the x-axis and y-axis of each region, and finally evaluate the similarity by calculating the projections of the whole vein pattern. Experimental results show that the proposed method can avoid image translation and rotation to some extent and achieve a better performance. Keywords: Finger vein recognition, matching algorithm, region-based axis projection.

1

Introduction

Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to the use of distinctive anatomical and behavioral characteristics or identifiers (e.g., fingerprints, faces, iris, voices, and hand geometries) for automatically recognizing an individual [1,2]. Recently, finger vein recognition was proposed and has been well studied. In [3], the authors prove that each finger has a unique vein pattern that can be used for personal verification. The finger vein recognition has some advantages over other hand-based biometric authentication techniques [4,5]:(1) non-contact: finger vein patterns are not influenced by surface conditions. Non-invasive and contactless data capture ensures both convenience and cleanliness for the users, and it is more acceptable for the users; (2) live body identification: finger vein patterns can only be identified on a live body; (3) high security: finger vein patterns are internal features that are difficult to forge; (4) small device size: as compared to palm vein based verification devices, most finger vein recognition devices are smaller in size.

*

Corresponding author.

J. Yang, F. Fang, and C. Sun (Eds.): IScIDE 2012, LNCS 7751, pp. 364–371, 2013. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

These feature points are used for geometric representation of the vein patterns’ shape. That is two images are seen as the same only if they have the similar model whether it is a dog or a cat. meanwhile. Principal component analysis (PCA)[6]. In [13] the authors propose a mean curvature method. A binary vein pattern (vein vessel . Local binary pattern (LBP) and local derivative pattern (LDP) are two similar format translators. A modified Hausdorff distance algorithm is provided to evaluate the identification ability among all possible relative positions of the vein patterns’ shape. the minutiae features including bifurcation points and ending points are extracted from these vein patterns. subsequently. including Morphological Operation and Maximum Curvature Points in Image Profiles. image preprocessing. In order to better utilize the features from the segmented blood vessel network for recognition. which are indifferent to the really content within the image. the aforementioned matching algorithms (e. the aforementioned methods are applied based on the fixed schema. In [14] the patterns of finger veins are extracted by combining two segmentation methods. [11] extracts the finger vein pattern from the unclear image with line tracking.g. the mismatch ratio is used to quantify the differences of two patterns. In order to diminish the influence by these factors. 2 The Proposed Method A typical finger vein recognition system mainly includes image capturing. then gain a dissimilarity between two patterns by using the mismatched ratio. feature extraction and matching. the mismatch ratio. and they were used as feature extraction method for finger vein in [9]. which starts from various positions. linear discriminant analysis (LDA)[7] and Two dimensional principal component analysis ((2D)2PCA) [8] first are adopted to extract finger vein features and then use backpropagation(BP) network. then use the matched pixel ratio (MPR) to evaluate the similarity between two images. Experimental results show that the RAP method can better utilize the vein vessel network distribution information and avoid image translation and rotation to some extent. A general framework personalized best bit map (PBBM) is proposed to use the best bits only for recognition [10]. In [12]. they all use the Hamming distance to evaluate the similarity between two patterns. we propose a new matching strategy: Region-based Axis Projection (RAP). MRP) are sensitive to the image translation and rotation. Finally. However. Section 4 concludes this paper. we can divide the finger vein extraction methods into two categories: gray distribution-based and vein vessel network-based. These methods neglect the intrinsic distribution information of the vein vessel network and meanwhile increase the interference of the background. Section 3 presents two experiments to verify the proposed method. the distribution information of the vein vessel network is neglected. In the matching stage. About the first kind of methods. ANFIS and support vector machine (SVM) for pattern classification. In the matching stage. which regards the vein image as a geometric shape and finds the valley-like structures with negative mean curvatures.A Novel Matching Strategy for Finger Vein Recognition 365 According to the extracted patterns. Based on LBP. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents two previous commonly used matching algorithms and introduces the definition of the RAP method.

network) is gained after the feature extraction as shown by Fig. A binary finger vein pattern and its store format in a matrix 2. In [13] the matched pixel ratio (MPR) is adopted to measure similarities between the two binary patterns. it is sensitive to the image translation and rotation extremely. an enrolled pattern t is overlapped with the input vein image i. y ) (1) In [14]. Fig. The values of overlapping pixels are compared pixel by pixel. 1. The pairs of pixels. in which the white parts denote the vein vessel network and the black parts are background. Fig. as the patterns to be matched here are binary. y t ( x. Xiao et al. 1 (b) shows that in the store matrix the vein patterns and background are represented by ‘1’ and ‘ 0’. ⊗ is a Boolean exclusive-OR operator between two binary patterns. y i ( x.366 R.1 Related Work In the matching stage. It is represented as follows: S=2 x. y ) ⊗ i ( x. where one is a vein and the other a background pixel are counted. y ) sizeof(t) (2) In Equation (2). y ) ⋅ t ( x. The ratio of the number of mismatched pairs to the total number of vein pixels is defined as the mismatch ratio Rm . y t ( x. . respectively. y ) + x . Such a pair is called a mismatch. y i ( x. Let S denote the MPR between the input binary image i and the template t. which can be expressed in Equation (2): Rm = x. Because the S and Rm are calculated pixel by pixel. 1(a). y ) x.

j ) 1≤ i ≤ L j =1 L (4) In order to diminish the impact of image translation and rotation. we can get a histogram-like distribution graph. respectively. It can be interpreted as a discrete distribution curve projection on the x-axis. Bh and Bv are the statistics of the frequency of ‘1’ in the jth column and ith row. In the same way. Bh (k ) = Bv (k ) = j = ( k -1)*T +1 i =1 i +T L 1≤ k ≤ B(i. and then evaluate the similarity between two binary patterns by histogram intersection or evaluate the dissimilarity by calculating the Euclidean distance. the Bv can be interpreted as a discrete distribution curve projection on the y-axis. We first divide the binary vein pattern into small regions. In which B represents the selected region. Then in each region we describe the distribution information of ‘1’ use Equation (3) and (4) as follows.A Novel Matching Strategy for Finger Vein Recognition 367 2. So the distribution information of ‘1’ (the vein vessel network) can be a useful discriminator for two binary patterns. The modified Equation (3)’ and (4)’ are shown as follows. we add another parameter T (statistic step length) into Equation (3) and (4). 2. Here we select a rectangle which side length L is 20 pixels. If we regard the location of x-axis or y-axis as the independent variable and the corresponding statistic value as the dependent variable. j ) T （ ） L (4)’ In fact. j ) T j +T L L (3)’ i = k -1 *T +1 j =1 1≤ k ≤ B(i. . the binary vein patterns in a store matrix are described with ‘0’ and ‘1’. the Bh is a L-length (or K-length) row vector. Bh ( j ) = B (i. j ) 1 ≤ j ≤ L i =1 L (3) Bv ( i ) = B( i. the shape and the size of each region are determined according to the gathered sample which can be seen as two variable parameters. The procedure of this matching algorithm is illustrated in Fig. in which stores the calculated frequency information of ‘1’. and then calculate the frequency of ‘1’ not column by column (or row by row) but in a step length T. Subsequently we concatenate the x-axis projection and y-axis projection of each region together.2 Region-Based Axis Projection As mentioned above.

we use all the 14 vein images in intra-class matching meanwhile the first 6 vein images in interclass matching. the performance of our proposed method is evaluated by the EER (equal error rate). 4. 3(c) is by the local thresholding method. 3(d) is by the MCP method. maximum curvature points (MCP) method and mean curvature method. After ROI (region of interesting) extraction and size normalization. 3. Xiao et al. EER is the error rate when the FRR (false rejection rate) equals the FAR (false acceptance rate) and which is suited for measuring the overall performance of biometrics systems because the FRR and FAR are treated equally. the size of the region used for feature extraction is reduced to 240×80 which are shown in Fig.368 R. 4 we can see that based on the same extraction algorithm the RAP method achieves a much lower EER than the MPR method. 3(c)~(e) are the binary vein patterns extracted by various methods. This indicates that the RAP method can better gather vein vessel network statistic distribution information and illustrate the differences between the individuals. we use the matched pixel ratio (MPR) and Region-based Axis Projection (RAP) to evaluate the performance of aforementioned three vein extraction methods respectively. From Fig. In the matching stage. Then we extract the finger vein patterns using three methods: local thresholding method. In order to avoid class imbalances. 3(a) and (b). respectively. where each finger contributes 14 finger vein images. Fig. 3(e) is by the mean curvature method. In this paper. . Fig. Fig.340 (6 ×105 ×6 ×106/2) interclass matching in total. there are 9. Consequently. The procedure of proposed Region-based Axis Projection 3 Experimental Results and Analysis We conduct the experiments in the verification mode using our finger vein database which collects 106 fingers. 2. Fig.646 (106×13×14/2) intra-class matching and 200.1 Experiment 1 The original spatial resolution of the finger vein image is 320×240. Fig. The ROC curves are shown in Fig.

Tab ble 1 shows the EER of the RAP method and the M MPR method in different rotated databases. From Table 1 we can see the RAP method can overcome translation and rotation r better compared with the MPR method.15 0. .3 False Accept Rate 0.05 0. the rotated deg gree may range from 0° to 3°. For example.5 LocalThreshold+MPR MCP+MPR meancurvature+MPR LocalThreshold+RAP MCP+RAP meancurvature+RAP 0.2 0. . in the simula ated 3°database.45 0.2 Experiment 2 tion This experiment is conduct to show the advantages of the proposed method in rotat w the MPR method. Original image.1 0 0 0. We first construct three simula ated and translation compared with rotated databases based on n the source database with rotating all the samples wit thin different rotated degree ranges r (e.35 0.. no ormalization and vein patterns extracted by various methods 0.25 0. 1° 3° 5°).5 Fig. Then we extract the v vein pattern using the mean cur rvature and take the MPR and the RAP as the match hing algorithm respectively. Besid des. 4.1 0.4 F als e Rejec t Rate 0.3 0.2 0.4 0. the EER keeps stable in small degree rotation database. ROC R curves by different matching algorithms 3.g. 3.A Novel Matching Strategy for Finger Vein Recognition 369 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Fig.

Matching results (EER) with different rotated degree Rotated degree 1° 3° 5° MPR 0. Jain. Table 1. 275–282 (2010) 5. so it is robustness to the image translation and rotation.H. 5423–5427 (2011) 7. Berlin (2006) 2..C.0561 0. Jain..L.61173069 and 61070097. K. et al.: Finger-vein pattern identification using principal component analysis and the neural network technique.. Guan. 1st edn. A.1814 RAP 0.1509 0. Prabhakar.: Finger-vein pattern identification using SVM and neural network technique.J. A...: Human finger vein images are diverse and its patterns are useful for personal identification..1679 0. Ross. Y. Ohyama..: Handbook of Multibiometrics. Appl. Springer. Yang.L. Netw. Sensors 11.. A..: Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition. S.D. Based on the binary vein patterns. Acknowledgments.. H. Liu.. Sensors 12. Kim. Y. 1–7 (2007) 4. Wu. in the matching stage. 14284–14289 (2011) 8. Wu. Z. Xiao et al.. H. The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions. MHF Prepr.: Finger vein recognition with manifold learning. Expert Syst. J. K. Springer. Maio. Jung. 33. S.. 5793–5799 (2009) 6. Wu. Liu. E. D. Maltoni. Ye. X. 1738–1757 (2012) .K. Nandakumar.370 R. Xi. S.A. J. J. Wang.. C.. Expert Systems with Applications 38. T. Li. 12. References 1.. 2319–2333 (2011) 10. Appl. Q.L. Aoki. G.. D. Yin. Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence 24. S.-T.: New finger biometric method using near infrared imaging. T. Expert Systems with Applications 38. J. 417–424 (2011) 9. Berlin (2009) 3.: Driver identification using finger-vein patterns with radon transform and neural network. C. Liu.: Bi-direction weighted (2D)2PCA with eigenvalue normalization one for finger vein recognition.0810 4 Conclusion In this paper we propose a new matching algorithm region-based axis projection (RAP) for finger vein recognition. Comput. F. Wang. D.K.-T. Yanagawa. 36... Liu.. Song. Experimental results show that a better performance is obtained by this method. 2nd edn. Ser. Lee. J.0603 0. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No.. this method can better utilize the vein vessel network distribution information and the divided regions are independence with each other. Yin.: Finger Vein Recognition Based on a Personalized Best Bit Map.

261– 272 (2009) 13. Miyatake. Cui. Sulaiman.R. Patt.: Feature extraction of finger-vein patterns based on repeated line tracking and its application to personal identification.: Finger-vein image recognition combining modified hausdorff distance with minutiae feature matching. Lett. Qin. R. Sci. Am. H...: A finger-vein verification system using mean curvature. Mach. C. Y. A. Choi. Appl. Song. Vis. S.. T. Kim.Z. Kim.. 194–203 (2004) 12. Biomed. 7. Lee.. Hoshyar. L. J.. J.N.B. Sci. 2. H.. 192–200 (2011) .. Miura.H. Yu.. Nagasaka.: Smart access control with finger vein authentication and neural network. 32. H. A.J..N.F. J. T. N.. Kong.. Houshyar. Eng. 15. A. Zhang.C.A Novel Matching Strategy for Finger Vein Recognition 371 11. Recogn. W. 1541–1547 (2011) 14.

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