IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. 9, NO. 2, MAY 2013
DC/DC and DC/AC Converters Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Energy Management-Ultracapacitors and Fuel Cell
Abdallah Tani, Mamadou Baïlo Camara, Member, IEEE, Brayima Dakyo, Member, IEEE, and Yacine Azzouz
Abstract—This paper presents the ultracapacitors and the fuel cell (FC) connection for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) applications. An original method for the embedded energy management is proposed. This method is used to share the energetic request of the HEV between the ultracapacitors and the FC. The ultracapacitors are linked to dc-bus through the buck-boost converter, and the FC is connected to dc-bus via a boost converter. An asynchronous machine is used like traction motor or generator, and it is connected to dc-bus through an inverter. A dc-motor is used to drive the asynchronous machine during the decelerations and the braking operations. The main contribution of this paper is focused on the embedded energy management based on the new European drive cycle (NEDC), using polynomial control technique. The performances of the proposed control method are evaluated through some simulations and the experimental tests dedicated to HEVs applications. Index Terms—Asynchronous machine, current control method, dc-bus voltage control, dc/dc converters, energy management, fuel cell (FC), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), polynomial control, speed control, ultracapacitors.
Fig. 1. Electric hybrid system conﬁguration.
I. INTRODUCTION HE energy consumption and an increasing of the oil cost in the world followed by a depletion of the fuels are justiﬁable reasons to use the hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) instead of thermal vehicles . The thermal vehicles have high-exhaust emissions, low-fuel efﬁciency, and high operating noise, but they have the autonomy in the use. The HEVs are characterized by a low-exhaust emission, a low-operating noise, and the reasonable energy efﬁciency, but they don’t have the autonomy in the use . Considering the energetic autonomy problem, an association of the fuel cell (FC) and the ultracapacitors is proposed to improve the HEVs energetic performances. This com-
Manuscript received September 20, 2011; revised January 21, 2012, April 09, 2012, July 08, 2012, and September 24, 2012; accepted October 10, 2012. Date of publication October 18, 2012; date of current version January 09, 2013. Paper no. TII-11-544. A. Tani, M. B. Camara, and B. Dakyo are with GREAH Laboratory, University of Havre, 76600 Le Havre, France (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com). Y. Azzouz is with IRSEEM Laboratory—École d’ingénieurs ESIGELEC, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray, France. Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TII.2012.2225632
bination is due to physical characteristics of the FC and the ultracapacitors ( ). Contrary to the batteries, the FCs provide the electric energy, rather than storing it, and they continue to deliver the energy, as long as the hydrogen supply is maintained , . However, the FCs present some well-known technical limitations: they have a low efﬁciency during the low power demand, a high cost per watt, and a slow power transfer during the transient operations. For these reasons, the FCs are not generally used in the HEVs to meet the load demand during the start up, and the transient operations , . Furthermore, an association of the FC and the ultracapacitors enables to solve these problems as proposed in  and . The HEVs equipped with the FC and the ultracapacitors present the following advantages, due to ultracapacitors dynamic behavior : the FC is less solicited during the transient operations. The life time and the size of the FC are improved. The energetic autonomy and the regenerative braking efﬁciency of the HEVs are improved. The studied system is illustrated in Fig. 1, where the hybrid sources (ultracapacitors/FC) are linked to dc-bus through the dc/dc converters. An inverter is used to drive the asynchronous machine during the traction operations. During the deceleration and the braking operations, the previous asynchronous machine is controlled by a dc-motor for the energy recovery by the ultracapacitors. The contribution of this paper is focused on the bidirectional load (motor and generator operations) power sharing between the FC and the ultracapacitors, using the new European drive cycle (NEDC) and the polynomial control technique. The proposed method consists to allocate the average power to the FC and the ﬂuctuating power (due to the acceleration, the deceleration, and the braking operations) to the ultracapacitors. For the hybrid system behavior simulations, the
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The FC emulator is connected to the dc-bus using a boost converter for the dc-bus voltage management. an experimental test bench is carried out in the reduced scale. Dynamic model of the ultracapacitors. and is the cell number in series (3) The thermodynamic potential of the cell and the voltage drop due to the activation of the anode. and discharged with a constant current. a FC emulator. and the electric machines (ac-motor/generator with dc-motor) as a reversible load. ULTRACAPACITORS AND FC MODELING A. the small size. The estimation method of the used parameters is presented in  (1)
Fig. where deﬁnes the sign of the current. The simulation and experimental results obtained for are compared in Fig. The used model of the is presented in Fig. The estimated parameters for the BOOST-CAP3000F module are presented in Table I.
Many models of the FC can be founded in the literature such as in . and for the charge operations. the high-power density. if the ultracapacitors are in the discharge operations. Ultracapacitors model validation. where is the thermodynamic potential of the cell. and the operations of this one is based on the following electrochemical reaction Electrical Energy+Heat (2)
This model describes the dynamic behavior of the ultracapacitors during the charge and the discharge operations . 2.7 V. 2. The PEMFCs technologies are the best candidate among other FC technologies. This module is charged into maximum voltage of 22 V. due to the low operating temperature. and the cathode are respectively given in (4) and (5). is the voltage drop due to the activation of the anode and the cathode. and the relatively short time start-up . The PEMFC terminal voltage can be deﬁned as expressed in (3). the lightweight. The control of these converters depends on the energy management method between the hybrid sources (ultracapacitors/FC) and the requested or supplied energy by the asynchronous machine. The energy is released whenever the hydrogen reacts chemically with the oxygen of the air . and an equivalent capacitor .
MATLAB–SIMULINK software is used. is the cell temperature in Kelvin. To validate the model of the ultracapacitors. a module of eight cells in series is realized. In this equation. . .: DC/DC AND DC/AC CONVERTERS CONTROL FOR HEVS ENERGY MANAGEMENT-ULTRACAPACITORS AND FC
TABLE I ULTRACAPACITORS MODULE PARAMETERS
B. These models are generally based on the voltage and current analysis which allows to establish the model of the PEMFC. 3. FC Modeling The FCs are the electrochemical devices that directly convert the chemical energy of the Fuel into electricity. the PEMFC model is used. 3. In the case of the proton exchange membrane FCs (PEMFCs). This system includes a module of the ultracapacitors. . . This capacitor includes two components. is the voltage drop due to series resistance. Ultracapacitors Modeling To use the ultracapacitors ( ) as energy storage devices in the hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In these equations. This model includes an internal resistance . To validate the proposed method for the energy management.TANI et al. II. the only byproduct is the water and the heat. presents the voltage drop due to the concentrations. and present the pressures in
. and . it is necessary to associate several cells in series to obtain a high voltage level due to ultracapacitor cell voltage of 2. The analytical model of the module is presented in (1). which are the focus of the most research activities today. The ultracapacitors module is linked to the dc-bus via a buck-boost converter which ensures the energetic exchange between the ultracapacitors and the load. . In this paper. the ﬁrst component varies linearly with the ultracapacitors module voltage. and the second component is a constant capacitor .
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. This parameter can be estimated as presented in (10). semiconductor is switched and is in OFF position. the ultracapacitors module provides energy to the dc-bus. and is the proton’s ﬂow equivalent resistance which is expressed in (9). where is the sign of the current. where presents the membrane’s humidity ratio . is the speciﬁc membrane resistivity for the ﬂow of the hydrated protons in cm. and is the equivalent value of the converter duty cycle . . is the active cell area in . In this equation. the analytical model of the boost converter is presented in (12). 
TABLE II FC PARAMETERS
(4) (5) In (5). DC/DC–DC/AC CONVERTERS AND ELECTRIC MACHINES MODELING A. NO. In buck mode. and are respectively the equivalent (16). The six transistors are in the anti-parallel conﬁguration with six diodes. In this condition. Electric Machines Modeling The analytical model of the asynchronous machine is given in . Buck-Boost Converter Modeling To establish a model of the buck-boost converter illustrated Fig. 4 includes six bidirectional semiconductors (IGBT). is the electron ﬂow resistance which is approximately constant. The analytical model of the inverter must be established from the sequences analysis of the converter’s operation. VOL. where presents the converter duty cycle  (12)
(10) III. The used parameters of the FC model are presented in Table II The dc/ac converter (inverter) presented in Fig. is the thickness of the polymer membrane in centimeters. During the boost operations. 4. These sequences are due to logical signals switching based on the following conventions: is is and is and is (13)
The resulting analytical model is given in (11). and
. it is necessary to analyze the buck and the boost operations. is the FC’s current. In this equation. is a constant parameter extracted in . is the parametric coefﬁcients . where The is the current density in . and are respectively the stator and the rotor resistances. So the ultracapacitors receives the energy from the dc-bus
The resulting analytical model of the inverter is presented in (14) for the voltage. B. MAY 2013
atmosphere of the hydrogen and the oxygen. . respectively. where currents in the stator and the rotor. Boost Converter Modeling By an analogy to the buck-boost converter. and present respectively the boost and the buck converters duty cycles. DC/AC Converter Modeling In this equation.  (7) (8) In (7). This concentration can be calculated using the following equation : (6) and components are given in (7) and (8). 2. and the corresponding current is expressed in (15) (14) (15)
D. is switched and become inOFF position. In this equation. 9. (9) C. is the concentration of the oxygen.
. Polynomial’s Coefﬁcients Estimation Method The degree of . is the internal inductance of the motor. where . The transfer functions of the discrete systems are presented in (20). The polynomial controller improves the disturbance rejection. and is the dc-motor EMF
(19) In this equation. The polynomial controller is an interesting alternative solution to the conventional PI controller. the proposed method takes into account the dynamic characteristics of the ultracapacitors and the FC. where is the internal resistance.: DC/DC AND DC/AC CONVERTERS CONTROL FOR HEVS ENERGY MANAGEMENT-ULTRACAPACITORS AND FC
Fig. The polynomial control technique is also interesting if the reference should not be exceeded. The estimation method of the polynomial’s coefﬁcients is based on the closed-loop analysis as illustrated in Fig. a comparative study of the PI and the polynomial controller is presented in . When the system has a pure delay or presents a dynamic characteristic which changes during operations.TANI et al. and the braking operations) to the ultracapacitors. A. and polynomials are ﬁxed according to the degree of the discrete system transfer functions .
present the pulsations of the ﬂux in the stator and the rotor. respectively. which allows improving the energetic performances and the life time of the sources. 4. . a dc-motor is used to drive the asynchronous machine (MG). The proposed control method compared to others methods enables to allocate the average power to the FC and the ﬂuctuating power (due to the acceleration. In other words. 5 for the current. using the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and the polynomial control technique. and present the dq components of the ﬂux in the stator. HYBRID SYSTEM CONTROL METHOD The originality of this paper is focused on the bidirectional load (motor and generator operations) power sharing between the FC and the ultracapacitors. The polynomial control technique presents a robust algorithm with good performance in the following situations. The analytical model of the dc-motor is given in (19). present
and The equations of the ﬂux are given in (17). the polynomial controller presents the better performances in term of the rapidity and the robustness compared to conventional PI controller. and the dc-bus voltage management. is the rotor ﬂux in direction of axis
IV. In other terms. is the buck converter duty cycle. the deceleration. where is the is the mechanical speed in rad/s (18)
To emulate the HEV behavior during the deceleration and the braking operations. More details about the polynomial control technique can be found in . For more information. where are the inductances in the stator and the rotor. and
is given in (18). is the mutual inductance
The pulsation in the stator number of pair of pole. Hybrid system topology for the embedded energy management. and . and presents the dc-motor terminal voltage.
because. These ones are identiﬁed. VOL. as expressed in (26)
. To obtain a minimal static error with disturbance rejection. .
To control the ultracapacitors current. and the second is the voltage loop (outer loop) as illustrated in Fig. 5. These control laws are presented in (32) for the buck operations. the bidirectional converter control laws obtained from the buck-boost converter modeling are used. is the sampling period. is the converter control frequency
Fig. is the ultracapacitors current smoothing inductance.690
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. 6. In these equations is the dc-bus voltage smoothing capacitor. C. the . the polynomial control method presented in Fig. These coefﬁcients can be obtained using the following desired polynomial. To control the dc-bus voltage. the cascaded control loop is not necessary. and are selected as expressed in (31). NO. the cascaded control loops are necessary: an inner loop for the FC’s current control and the outer loop for the dc-bus voltage ones (29) The FC reference current estimated from electric powers balances between the boost converter input and output is presented in (30) (30) In this equation. is the boost converter output current. where is the system control bandwidth (25)
B. where and estimation method is same to that presented in (27) (31)
(21) The desired polynomial in the closed loop is presented in (22) (22) To reduce the number of the parameters to be identiﬁed. the used method consists to choose and identical. and
(26) The ﬁnal coefﬁcients obtained from the closed loops analysis. using a simple comparison between the desired polynomial and the denominator of the transfer function in closed loop as presented in (23) (23) (24) The resulting coefﬁcients from this comparison are given in (24). where the and depend of the dynamic response of the system in closed loop. and present the dc-bus voltage control loop output signal.
the denominators and the numerators of the transfer functions. Ultracapacitors Current Control Method To control the ultracapacitors current. Polynomial’s coefﬁcients estimation diagrams. 2. In goal to obtain a minimal static error with disturbance rejection. in the case of the FC current and the dc-bus voltage control are respectively expressed in (27) and (28). and in (33) for the boost mode. is the sampling period
(20) The simpliﬁed closed loop transfer function for the ultracapacitor’s current control is expressed as follows:
(28) The dc-bus voltage control law established from (12) is given in (29). 9. The ﬁrst is the current feedback (inner loop). These
. This last one corresponds to estimate instantaneous dc-bus capacitor’s current. 7 is used. is the dc-bus voltage smoothing capacitor. is the current control bandwidth. In this case. the following polynomials correctors: . DC-Bus Voltage Control Method To manage the dc-bus voltage. is the FC’s current smoothing inductance. two control loops are necessary.
. MAY 2013
. the control is focused directly on the ultracapacitors current.
6. 8. (36) is used  (35) (36) The used method for the speed control is illustrated in Fig. and the second is the speed control loop (outer loop). This method is conventionally obtained from the following assumption: and . The ﬁrst is the current feedback (inner loop). The corresponding diagram is illustrated in Fig. and the average power to the FC. The ﬁnal coefﬁcients obtained from the closed loops analysis. For this method. and are selected.
Fig. To estimate the rotor ﬂux in the direction of axis. DC-bus voltage control method. In other words.
expressed in (35). two cascaded control loops are necessary. the used method is based on indirect rotor ﬂux orientation control.TANI et al. 7. 8.: DC/DC AND DC/AC CONVERTERS CONTROL FOR HEVS ENERGY MANAGEMENT-ULTRACAPACITORS AND FC
Fig. the speed and the ﬂux control are respectively expressed in (37). Ultracapacitors current control loop. To obtain a minimal static error with disturbance rejection for the speed control. and (39). This method enables to allocate the dynamic power of the load to ultracapacitors. Speed Control of the Electric Machine To control the asynchronous machine speed. The pulsation in the rotor is estimated as
. 9. Speed control of the asynchronous machine.
D. In these equations. this method takes into account the conventional dynamic behavior of the ultracapacitors and the FC  (34)
Fig. where is the FC rated current. These polynomials correctors are same to that presented in (26). the . 9. (38). Ultracapacitors reference current estimation method.
Fig. in the cases of currents.
control laws are compared to triangular waveform to modulate the PWM signals for the buck and the boost operations  (32) (33) The reference current of the ultracapacitors is estimated using (34).
e. 10. is the friction coefﬁcient (37) (38) (39) The PWM signals are generated by comparing three signals (obtained from the two to three phases park transformation) to a triangular waveform. These parameters are presented in Table III
Fig. MAY 2013
TABLE III PARAMETERS OF THE VEHICLE
Fig. the road is assumed ﬂat. Test Conditions For the hybrid system simulations. 13. is the moment of inertia. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATIONS A. This ﬁgure shows that. The acceleration and the constant speed situations correspond
E. 11. the control strategy presented in Fig. where is the electromagnetic torque (41)
During the deceleration and the braking operations of the HEV. the dynamic equation can be expressed as given in (41). The speed control result obtained from the motor and the generator operations conditions is illustrated in Fig. is the speed control bandwidth. The corresponding load’s current proﬁle obtained from the HEVs behavior simulation is plotted in Fig. 11 presents the control result of the electric machine speed using the NEDC. The resistive torque which must be compensated by the vehicle to move forward is presented in (40). . is the grade of the road in degree. DC-Motor Speed Control To control the dc-motor speed. . Measured speed compared to its reference. 12. V. 10 is used. is the current control bandwidth.
To generate the reference speed lowing equation is used:
for the dc-motor. The used parameters for the hybrid system simulations are given in Tables I–IV.e. and polynobance rejection mials are selected as expressed in the following: (42)
. To obtain a minimal static error with distur. is the vehicle’s speed in . i. Using (40). NO. 9. In this equation. VOL. DC-motor speed control during the deceleration and the braking operations. the dc-bus voltage reference is ﬁxed to 47 V and the used value of the in the simulation and experimental tests is ﬁxed to 5 A. . i. the asynchronous machine is controlled from the inverter as illustrated in Fig. the fol-
(43) The conditions for the dc-motor control are focused on the sign of as presented in the following: DC-motor is no controlled DC-motor is controlled (44)
(40) In this paper. During the acceleration and the constant speed operations. 9.692
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. the dc-motor is controlled from the buck converter so that its speed become higher than . the measured speed is very close to its reference. and is the radius of the wheel in . 2.
is the sampling period. Fig. is the ﬂux control bandwidth.
During this step. Measured current on the load during the simulation and the experimental tests. During this last step.TANI et al. and it presents two steps during the traction operations (asynchronous machine in the motor mode): the ﬁrst operation corresponds to negative current of the due to low current of the load compared to the FC contribution.
TABLE IV USED PARAMETERS FOR THE HYBRID SYSTEM CONTROL
Fig. 16. 12. the experimental and the simulation curves are close to reference voltage regardless of the load’s demand. and its value is small. The third step corresponds to the deceleration operations. The developed experimental test bench includes an ultracapacitors module (18 cells in series with a maximum voltage of 49 V). B. The measured current on the load during the simulation and the experimental tests are plotted in Fig. 15. the second operation corresponds to positive current of the . These electric machines are used as a bidirectional load (motor and generator operations). 14. a buck-boost converter. an inverter. the load’s current presents the negative peaks current (energy recovery operations). The dc-motor is connected to a buck converter. DC-bus voltage control result. a programmable dc-source is used as the FC system with a maximum power of 1 kW (25 V/40 A). Experimental Setup An experimental test bench is carried out to validate the proposed control methods outlined above. 14. The ﬁrst step presents the acceleration operations which are characterized by the load’s current increasing when the HEVs speed increase. the load’s current is constant. Simulation and Experimental Results The dc-bus voltage control result is plotted in Fig. This ﬁgure shows that. The last step is characterized by a null speed which corresponds to zero current of the load.
for the embedded energy management are implemented in two PIC18F4431 microcontrollers.
Fig. the proposed dc-bus voltage control method is satisfactory. The deceleration and the braking operations correspond to generator mode. Speed control result obtained from the motor and the generator operations conditions. This converter is controlled during the deceleration and the braking operations. In other words. This contribution has the same shape as the load’s current. The contribution of the ultracapacitors in the dc-bus is plotted in Fig. Load’s current proﬁle.
to motor operations. The proposed control algorithms
. The used parameters for the hybrid system control are presented in Table IV. 13. During this step. a boost converter. the dc-bus voltage presents some variations around its reference (48 V) as illustrated between the 0 and 1000s of the Fig. 14. 15. C. Fig. and the asynchronous machine coupled to a dc-motor. This current presents four steps.: DC/DC AND DC/AC CONVERTERS CONTROL FOR HEVS ENERGY MANAGEMENT-ULTRACAPACITORS AND FC
Fig. The second step is characterized by the constant speed.
20. 18 presents the measured current on the ultracapacitors.
During this operation the ultracapacitors module contributes to the traction energy supply via the boost converter. 18. MAY 2013
Fig. 16. 15–17. FC terminal voltage. Measured current on the ultracapacitors. The simulation and the experimental results of the FC contribution in the dc-bus are plotted in Fig. Fig. 17.694
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. This voltage presents two situations. the life time and the size of the FC are improved. In other words. the ultracapacitors module recovers the energy from the FC and the load. During the energy recovery operations (asynchronous machine in the generator mode). the simulation and the experimental results present some differences in term of the ﬂuctuations and the average values. and the FC provides the average power.
Fig. This current presents less variation compared to the variations of the load. So.
Fig. The measured current on the FC is plotted in Fig.
Fig. 2. 19. 21. The terminal voltage of the ultracapacitors is plotted in Fig. The differences related to average value are due to used model for the hybrid system simulation which does not takes into account the losses in the semiconductors and the
. 17. and the measured current on the load are negative. Contribution of the ultracapacitors in the dc-bus. In consequently. The second situation corresponds to ultracapacitors voltage increasing due to low current of the load compared to the FC contribution or energy recovery process (asynchronous machine in the generator operations). 19. 20. This current has the same shape as the current. Ultracapacitors module terminal voltage.
ensures the dynamic components of the load. NO. the ultracapacitors ensures the dynamic components of the load. VOL. and the FC provides the average components. The ﬁrst situation is characterized by the load’s demand which corresponds to ultracapacitors module discharge operations. This contribution is always positive. the contribution of the ultracapacitors . 21 shows the FC terminal voltage which is also constant because the measured current on this last one is constant. Measured current in the dc-bus from the FC. and it presents less variation compared to the load’s current variations. Fig. the ultracapacitors
Fig. which enable to conclude that. To conclude this section. 9. but they are not identical due buck-boost converter conversion ratio.
Fig. Measured current on the FC. The performances of the proposed control are illustrated in Figs.
(c). no. P. Serial no. 22(a) and (b) present. Martin.
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and S. École d’ingénieurs ESIGELEC. he has been working in power electronics and electric vehicle research projects. V. converter fed electrical machines. and P. France. Sep.” IEEE Trans.
Mamadou Baïlo Camara (M’12) was born in Mamou. S.D. and T. and Ph. energy management.” IEEE Trans. no. the M. He is currently an Associate Professor with the IRSEEM Laboratory. France. Inf. vol. Saint-Etienne du Rouvray. Dakar. in 1995. He received the B. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Aix–Marseille III. Le Havre. involving static converter topologies. Annaba. Marseille. degree from University of Le Havre. and the Ph.S.S.Eng.-H. G. and electrical energy management for hybrid vehicle applications.  J. and Habilitation degrees from the University of Le Havre.” . Mar. respectively. no. he has been working in power electronics. ultracapacitors. 536–544. degree in electromechanic engineering from the University of Bejaia. Chae.
.  S. 8. 2010. in 2008. His current interests include power electronics. University of Le Havre. Ind. degrees from Dakar University. H. Ind. respectively.” IEEE Trans. He is a full Professor of Electrical Engineering. Salehfar. respectively.S. vol. in 2000. wind and solar energy systems. 3.  D. Power Electron. Sep. Aug 2012. “Equivalent electric circuit modeling and performance analysis of a PEM fuel cell stack using impedance spectroscopy.IEEE Trans. pp. Jeong. Dhirde. Le Havre. B. He received the B. France. Guinea.S. Bejaia. 58. Holmes. 25. Mann. 9. no. Dale. 10. vol. B. France. “Current regulation strategies for vector-controlled induction motor drives. vol. Oct.. 2012. B. degree in electrical engineering from the Polytechnic Institute of Conakry (IPC). 2012.  M. Jung. Algeria. pp.S. “PEM fuel cell stack model development for real-time simulation applications. Electron. and the Ph. He is currently an Associate Professor with the Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Automatique du Havre Laboratory (GREAH). Song. batteries.696
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. H. in 2003. Energy Convers. no. 27. Guinea. pp. 3. in 1984 and 1987. France. dc distribution system and hybrid electric vehicle research projects. NO. 2011. “Digital current sharing method for parallel interleaved DC-DC converters using input ripple voltage. involving converter topologies. 2. 778–786. pp. MAY 2013
Yacine Azzouz was born in Ferkane.” IEEE Trans. analytical model. P. FC ultracapacitors. Gualous. and batteries dedicated to transport applications. Ind. Conakry. in 1974. University of Le Havre. He received the B. and Dr. VOL.
Brayima Dakyo (M’06) received the B. and the M. Algeria. M. in 1988 and 1997. “Polynomial control method of DC/DC converters for DC-bus voltage and currents management—Battery and supercapacitors. degree from the National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse. 59. and H. N. no. in 1990. D. Since 2009.D. in 2009. France. and Head of the GREAH Laboratory. Toulouse.S. Enjeti. and H.. S. Electron.
Abdallah Tani was born in Algeria in July 1984. Dakyo. vol. Han. Park. degree from the Institute of Annaba. Belfort. France.D.. Camara. G. and system design with storage. degrees from the University of Franche–Comté. 4217–4231. Since 2004. in 2004 and 2007. M. 1914–1928. and the M.. Parker. 3. Y. Algeria..S. McGrath. 9. Senegal. Ahmed.